WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy makers working

  1. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Policy Makers, Information and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Pieter J.; van Asselt, Marjolein B. A.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews explored the information needs of seven Dutch policymakers dealing with global sustainability. They sought information on cultural perspectives and linkages. Information gathering emphasized filtering to find specific information. Most used an application-oriented working style that, combined with policy-driven information seeking, was…

  3. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  4. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  5. Women as decision and policy makers. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this news brief is on the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project promoted in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines. The project emphasizes women's involvement as policy makers and evaluators. The aim is to involve women at all project levels as part of an effort to correct gender imbalances. Programs are being directed toward sustainability. Women are placed in positions at each level of the tiered system of steering committees, which range from local village committees to central committees. Men may still retain the top positions, but women are given decision making power at the highest levels of policy and program development and implementation. The Asia region is challenged by quality of care issues related to reproductive health services. Program expansion is proceeding into rural areas with outreach services and fee charging. Projects are community-based, which means mobilization of community people. The community approach is suitable to an Asian culture that does not adhere to strict rules of privacy. Women's groups are eager to discuss sensitive issues such as contraception and to offer personal experiences and solutions to problems. Mass meetings and individual counseling sessions are available. IEC materials are available to the Asian FP/MCH program from JOICFP. Some of these materials promote the concept of the Asian community spirit as a building block of development. The Asian approach is an alternative to Western models and may be valid for other regions.

  6. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  7. International benchmaking: Supplying the information for product efficiency policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, H.P.; Jeffcott, S.; Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of effective product efficiency policy, the critical element for policy makers is comprehensive, independent information. However, easily accessible, reliable information on the energy performance of products and policies is often scarce within a particular market, and rarer still

  8. Stakeholder involvement: views from a policy maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 powers and responsibilities were devolved from the UK government to the new devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This paper deals with the issue of radioactive waste management in the Scottish context as, following devolution, responsibility for radioactive waste management in Scotland is a devolved responsibility of the Scottish Parliament. The founding principles of the Scottish Parliament are: Openness and participation, Accountability, Power sharing, Equal opportunities. The government of Scotland is known as the Scottish Executive and has 22 Ministers covering a wide range of devolved responsibilities including: wider environmental matters, health, socioeconomic, skills and education. The Scottish Ministers also have specific responsibility in legislation regarding the governance of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Scotland also has its own agencies to deliver his government policies, such as the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and enterprise and skills delivery bodies. There is a high level of interest in nuclear and radioactive waste issues in Scotland as Scotland has both civil nuclear and defense sites around the country which generate radioactive waste. Alongside this is its close proximity to the largest nuclear site in the UK: Sellafield

  9. Evidence-Informed Health Policies in Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Comparing Views of Policy Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N.; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Dimassi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct comparative analysis about the views and practices of policy makers and researchers on the use of health systems evidence in policy making in selected Eastern Mediterranean countries. We analysed data from two self-reported surveys, one targeted at policy makers and the other at researchers. Results show a…

  10. Green roofs : a resource manual for municipal policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, G.; Currie, B.A.; Doshi, H.; Wieditz, I. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    As knowledge of the environmental benefits of green roofs and technology improves, green roofs are quickly gaining acceptance in North America. European jurisdictions have been using green roof technology for stormwater management, to reduce energy use in buildings and to increase amenity space. By reviewing the reasons that municipalities throughout the world have set green roof policies and programs, policy makers can more easily determine which policies suit their needs. This manual provided an overview of international and Canadian green roof policies and programs. It presented information on 12 jurisdictions that demonstrated leadership in green roof policy development. The manual also presented information on an additional 13 jurisdictions with less-developed green roof policies. Activities that were discussed for each of these jurisdictions included: description of jurisdiction; key motivators; green roof policy; process to establish policy; effectiveness; lessons learned; future predictions; and applicability to Canada of international jurisdictions. The manual also provided general information on green roofs such as a definition of green roofs and green roof terminology. Key motivators for green roofs include stormwater runoff control; reduction in urban heat-island effect; reduction in building energy consumption; and air pollution control. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  12. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  13. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  14. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  16. Getting from Here to There: The Roles of Policy Makers and Principals in Increasing Science Teacher Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Gerard, Libby; Bowyer, Jane

    2010-04-01

    In this study we investigate how federal and state policy makers, and school principals are working to improve science teacher quality. Interviews, focused discussions, and policy documents serve as the primary data source. Findings suggest that both policy makers and principals prioritize increasing incentives for teachers entering the science teaching profession, providing professional development for new teachers, and using students’ data to evaluate and improve instruction. Differences between the two leadership groups emerged in terms of the grain size and practicality of their concerns. Our findings indicate that the complexity of educational challenges to improve science teacher quality call for the co-construction of policy by multiple constituent groups including school principals, federal and state policy makers, and science education researchers.

  17. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  18. It's All in the Lens: Differences in Views on Obesity Prevention between Advocates and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ellen; Nguyen, Leah; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C.; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intervention strategies to reduce obesity include policy and environmental changes that are designed to provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors. Policy changes at the state level are one way to influence access, social norms, and opportunities for better nutrition and increased physical activity among the population. Methods: Ten states were selected for a broad variance in obesity rates and number of enacted obesity prevention policies during the years of 2006–2009. Within the selected states, a purely qualitative study of attitudes of childhood obesity policy using semistructured telephone interviews was conducted. Interviews were conducted with state policy makers who serve on public health committees. A set of six states that had more than eight childhood obesity policies enacted were selected for subsequent qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of well-established advocates. Results: Policy makers in states where there was more childhood obesity policy action believed in the evidence behind obesity policy proposals. Policy makers also varied in the perception of obesity as a constituent priority. The major differences between advocates and policy makers included a disconnect in information dissemination, opposition, and effectiveness of these policies. Conclusions: The findings from this study show differences in perceptions among policy makers in states with a greater number of obesity prevention bills enacted. There are differences among policy makers and advocates regarding the role and effectiveness of state policy on obesity prevention. This presents an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to improve communication and translation of evidence to policy makers, particularly in states with low legislation. PMID:22799551

  19. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty. MNCH policy ... search, lack of actionable messages in research reports, and limited ... of research evidence is but one factor influencing all stag- es of what ... However, in order to design an effective capacity en-.

  20. Evidence for Agile Policy Makers: The Contribution of Transformative Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of evidence-based policy making (EBPM) are typically concerned with the impact of particular interventions. This implicit ontology of the policy world, as disaggregated into a variety of independent interventions, has been challenged by Pawson (2006), in terms of the contingencies that activate, inhibit or reshape the impact of any…

  1. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  2. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  3. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  4. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  5. The utilization of research evidence in Health Workforce Policies: the perspectives of Portuguese and Brazilian National Policy-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Hortale, Virginia; Oliveira, Ana Paula Cavalcante de; Dal Poz, Mario; Portela, Gustavo; Dussault, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    The production of knowledge on Human Resources for Health (HRH) issues has increased exponentially since 2000 but integration of the research in the policy-making process is often lagging. We looked at how research on HRH contributes or not to inform policy decisions and interventions affecting the health workforce in Portugal and Brazil. We designed a comparative case study of semi-structured interviews with present and past national decision-makers, policy advisors and researchers. Issues explored included the existence of a national HRH policy and the use, or non-use, of research evidence by policy makers and reasons to do so. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymized and analysed thematically. Policy-makers in Brazil recognize a greater use of evidence in the process of defining HRH policy when compared to Portugal's. But the existence of formal instruments to support policy development is not sufficient to ensure that policies are informed by evidence. In both countries the importance of the use of evidence in the formulation of policies was recognized by policy-makers. However, the influence of other factors, such as political pressures from various lobby groups and from the media and the policy short timeframe which requires rapid responses, is predominant.

  6. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Communication among scientists, decision makers and society: Developing policy-relevant global climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabo, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Defining the research most relevant to policy is not simply a technical task that can be answered by scientists. Decision makers need and value information differently than curiosity-driven scientists. In order to link science more effectively to policy, the two communities must gain a greater mutual understanding. Decision makers must define their needs so that scientists can determine how, and by when, research can address these needs. This vital dialogue between communities typically has been more ad hoc than systematic. The complexity and urgency of the global climate change issue necessitate ongoing communication between scientists and decision makers on the information needed for policy development and what research can provide The results of relevant science policy dialogues are discussed herein. Effective communication between researchers and decision makers is a crucial ingredient for successfully addressing society's pressing environmental concerns. The increase in policy makers' demands for research that is relevant to solving societal issues highlights the communication gap between the technical and policy communities. The gap, largely caused by lack of mutual understanding, results in flawed and inadequate communication that hinders decision making and confuses the public. This paper examines the cause of this communication gap and describes the significance of recent efforts to develop more fruitful science-policy dialogues on the issue of global climate change. First, the post-Cold War shift in government priorities for research funding is described; then the underlying relationship between science and policy is explored to identify key sources of ongoing mis-communication. The paper then explains the importance of defining policy-relevant science questions that research can address. Finally, three projects are described involving the elicitation of decision makers' information needs in The United States, The Netherlands, and internationally

  8. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J; Mot, Esther S; Wammes, Joost J G; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2016-08-17

    , given the demographic- and fiscal circumstances, and the complexities of LTC systems. It also shows the usefulness to learn from policy design and implementation of LTC policy in other countries, within and outside the EU. Researchers can contribute by studying conditions, under which the strategies explored might deliver solutions for policy-makers. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  10. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  11. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  12. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  13. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  14. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Bruning, Nealia S

    2010-05-26

    Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the EBDM/EBPM process can be

  15. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  16. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  17. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  18. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  19. Key Policy Makers' Awareness of Tobacco Taxation Effectiveness through a Sensitization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Lando, Harry A; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of 5 of the 6 WHO MPOWER program in Iran is satisfactory; the only notable shortcoming is the lack of tobacco taxation increases. This study was designed to increase key policy makers' awareness of tobacco taxation effectiveness through a sensitization program in Iran. This analytical and semi-experimental study in 2014 included 110 tobacco control key policy makers, who were trained and received educational materials on the importance of tobacco taxation. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed before and three months after intervention. Data were analyzed using mean (SD), t-Test and analysis of variance. The mean (SD) scores at pre- and post-test were 2.7 ± 3 and 8.8 ± 1 out of 10, respectively. Paired t-tests demonstrated a significant difference in the pre- post-test knowledge scores. Increasing knowledge and promoting favorable attitudes of policy makers can lead to greater attention which could in turn change tobacco taxation policies.

  20. Understanding frailty: a qualitative study of European healthcare policy-makers' approaches to frailty screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyther, Holly; Shaw, Rachel; Jaime Dauden, Eva-Amparo; D'Avanzo, Barbara; Kurpas, Donata; Bujnowska-Fedak, Maria; Kujawa, Tomasz; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Holland, Carol

    2018-01-13

    To elicit European healthcare policy-makers' views, understanding and attitudes about the implementation of frailty screening and management strategies and responses to stakeholders' views. Thematic analysis of semistructured qualitative interviews. European healthcare policy departments. Seven European healthcare policy-makers representing the European Union (n=2), UK (n=2), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1) and Poland (n=1). Participants were sourced through professional networks and the European Commission Authentication Service website and were required to be in an active healthcare policy or decision-making role. Seven themes were identified. Our findings reveal a 'knowledge gap', around frailty and awareness of the malleability of frailty, which has resulted in restricted ownership of frailty by specialists. Policy-makers emphasised the need to recognise frailty as a clinical syndrome but stressed that it should be managed via an integrated and interdisciplinary response to chronicity and ageing. That is, through social co-production. This would require a culture shift in care with redeployment of existing resources to deliver frailty management and intervention services. Policy-makers proposed barriers to a culture shift, indicating a need to be innovative with solutions to empower older adults to optimise their health and well-being, while still fully engaging in the social environment. The cultural acceptance of an integrated care system theme described the complexities of institutional change management, as well as cultural issues relating to working democratically, while in signposting adult care , the need for a personal navigator to help older adults to access appropriate services was proposed. Policy-makers also believed that screening for frailty could be an effective tool for frailty management. There is potential for frailty to be managed in a more integrated and person-centred manner, overcoming the challenges associated with niche ownership within the

  1. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  2. Open Education and OER - A guide and call to action for policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Deepwell, Maren; Weller, Martin; Campbell, Lorna; Wilson, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Executive Summary ALT has produced this call to action to highlight to education policy makers and professionals how Open Education and OER can expand inclusive and equitable access to education and lifelong learning, widen participation, and create new opportunities for the next generation of teachers and learners, preparing them to become fully engaged digital citizens. Open Education can also promote knowledge transfer while enhancing quality and sustainability, supporting social inclu...

  3. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.

  4. The Maker Movement, the Promise of Higher Education, and the Future of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, Aubrey

    The 21st century will be the site of numerous changes in education systems in response to a rapidly evolving technological environment where existing skill sets and career structures may cease to exist or, at the very least, change dramatically. Likewise, the nature of work will also change to become more automated and more technologically intensive across all sectors, from food service to scientific research. Simply having technical expertise or the ability to process and retain facts will in no way guarantee success in higher education or a satisfying career. Instead, the future will value those educated in a way that encourages collaboration with technology, critical thinking, creativity, clear communication skills, and strong lifelong learning strategies. These changes pose a challenge for higher education's promise of employability and success post-graduation. Addressing how to prepare students for a technologically uncertain future is challenging. One possible model for education to prepare students for the future of work can be found within the Maker Movement. However, it is not fully understood what parts of this movement are most meaningful to implement in education more broadly, and higher education in particular. Through the qualitative analysis of nearly 160 interviews of adult makers, young makers and young makers' parents, this dissertation unpacks how makers are learning, what they are learning, and how these qualities are applicable to education goals and the future of work in the 21st century. This research demonstrates that makers are learning valuable skills to prepare them for the future of work in the 21st century. Makers are learning communication skills, technical skills in fabrication and design, and developing lifelong learning strategies that will help prepare them for life in an increasingly technologically integrated future. This work discusses what aspects of the Maker Movement are most important for integration into higher education.

  5. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  6. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  7. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari

    2010-10-01

    Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.

  9. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  10. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  11. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  12. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  13. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  14. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI, now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked

  15. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  16. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mosca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The sustainability of long-term care (LTC is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1 public- and private funding; (2 informal care and externalities; and (3 the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State

  17. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  18. The mass balance of production and consumption: Supporting policy-makers for aquatic food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A. S.; Ferreira, J. G.; Vale, C.; Johansen, J.

    2017-03-01

    the world, well above both Malaysia and South Korea (each with 58 kg ind-1 y-1). The corrected data show that Portugal had the highest consumption rate in the world until the mid-1970's, when it was overtaken by Iceland for reasons discussed herein. The lack of detailed per-species consumption data, as well as the grouping of species by commodities, hinders a more detailed seafood consumption analysis, required by policy makers and stakeholders to effectively develop management measures to reduce illegal fishing or bycatch, and to correctly formulate strategic options for development of aquaculture and fisheries, necessary for ensuring food security over the next decades.

  19. Engaging policy-makers, heath system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Ghassemi, Marco; Diaz, Sanober; Pham, Ba'; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2018-02-12

    It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016. We included any type of study describing strategies, barriers and facilitators, or assessing the impact of engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Frequency and thematic analyses were conducted. After screening 8395 titles and abstracts followed by 394 full-texts, 84 unique documents and 7 companion reports fulfilled our eligibility criteria. All 84 documents were published in the last 10 years, and half were prepared in North America. The most common type of knowledge synthesis with knowledge user engagement was a systematic review (36%). The knowledge synthesis most commonly addressed an issue at the level of national healthcare system (48%) and focused on health services delivery (17%) in high-income countries (86%). Policy-makers were the most common (64%) knowledge users, followed by healthcare professionals (49%) and government agencies as well as patients and caregivers (34%). Knowledge users were engaged in conceptualization and design (49%), literature search and data collection (52%), data synthesis and interpretation (71%), and knowledge dissemination and application (44%). Knowledge users were most commonly engaged as key informants through meetings and workshops as well as surveys, focus groups, and interviews either in-person or by telephone and emails

  20. As CMS makes another policy change, policy makers distinguish between different forms of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    As observation care continues to draw fire from critics who charge that the designation ends up costing hospitals money while also sticking patients with exorbitant fees, the medical directors of dedicated observation units counter that the kind of care delivered by their specialized units actually saves money and gets patients out of the hospital sooner. They note that the problem is that only about one-third of hospitals actually have dedicated observation units, so patients placed on observation typically wind up in inpatient beds, where they may only be evaluated once a day. CMS has just released a new policy rule on observation that should help patients avoid excessive charges, but many experts would like to see the agency take steps to incentivize the kind of quality care that is delivered in dedicated units. The new CMS rule for 2014 caps observation stays at 48 hours. Patients who remain in the hospital beyond this point become inpatients, as long as they meet inpatient criteria. Proponents of observation care contend that the average length-of-stay in a dedicated observation unit is just 15 hours--typically much shorter than the LOS of patients who are placed on observation in inpatient beds. Care in a dedicated observation unit is generally driven by protocol in an emergency medicine environment where there is continuous rounding. Discharges can occur at any time of the day or night. Experts note that observation patients account for the largest portion of both misdiagnoses and malpractice lawsuits stemming from emergency settings.

  1. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  2. Spatial Knowledge Infrastructures - Creating Value for Policy Makers and Benefits the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.

  3. To bail out or not to bail out systemically relevant financial institutions: The incentives of policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marc Fuhrer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has shown that many financial institutions may be systemically relevant. Their bankruptcy would cause significant costs for the overall economy. However, a clear definition of systemic risks still does not exist. Thus, the decision, whether an institution is, or is not systemically relevant is in the end made by policy makers. This paper takes a closer look at the incentives available to policy makers and their influence on the bailout decision. In the model presented here it is possible to show, that too many financial institutions get bailed out, when assuming that policy makers tend to be more risk-averse than socially optimal. The costs due to this misallocation of resources can be significant.

  4. Changing the hearts and minds of policy makers: an exploratory study associated with the West Virginia Walks campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Kevin M; Reger-Nash, Bill; Bauman, Adrian; Bias, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To pilot test whether West Virginia Walks changed local policy makers' awareness of walking-related issues. A quasi-experimental design with preintervention and postintervention mail surveys. Morgantown, WV (intervention community), and Huntington, WV (comparison community). One hundred thirty-three and 134 public officials in Morgantown and 120 and 116 public officials in Huntington at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. An 8-week mass media social ecological campaign designed to encourage moderate-intensity walking among insufficiently active persons aged 40 to 65 years. Policy makers listed three problems they believed needed to be addressed in their community. They then rated the severity of several problems that many communities face using a Likert scale, with 1 representing "not a problem" and 5 representing "an extremely important problem." Independent sample t-tests were used to examine differences in mean responses at baseline and at follow-up. Statistically significant increases in the perceived importance of walking-related issues were observed among policy makers in Morgantown but not in the comparison community. Integrated communitywide health promotion campaigns designed to influence the public can also affect the perceptions of policy makers. Future research should examine this linkage and determine whether resource allocation and policy changes follow such interventions.

  5. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  6. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  7. Health seeking behaviour and health service utilization in Pakistan: challenging the policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar T; Hatcher, Juanita

    2005-03-01

    There is a growing literature on health seeking behaviours and the determinants of health services utilization especially in the context of developing countries. However, very few focused studies have been seen in Pakistan in this regard. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the situation in developing countries and relates the similar factors responsible for shaping up of a health seeking behaviour and health service utilization in Pakistan. The factors determining the health behaviours may be seen in various contexts: physical, socio-economic, cultural and political. Therefore, the utilization of a health care system, public or private, formal or non-formal, may depend on socio-demographic factors, social structures, level of education, cultural beliefs and practices, gender discrimination, status of women, economic and political systems environmental conditions, and the disease pattern and health care system itself. Policy makers need to understand the drivers of health seeking behaviour of the population in an increasingly pluralistic health care system. Also a more concerted effort is required for designing behavioural health promotion campaigns through inter-sectoral collaboration focusing more on disadvantaged segments of the population.

  8. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  9. Children's Participation in Decision-Making in the Philippines: Understanding the Attitudes of Policy-Makers and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the ideas about children's participation in decision-making held by government officials and non-government representatives engaged in promoting children's participation in the Philippines. It suggests that the ideas that policy-makers and service deliverers hold about children's participation are heterogeneous, diverse and…

  10. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  11. Patron Time-Use May Be an Effective Metric for Presenting Library Value to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test a metric for library use, that could be comparable to metrics used by competing government departments, for ease of understanding by policy makers. Design – Four types of data were collected and used: Time-diaries, exit surveys, gate counts, and circulation statistics. Setting – A large public library in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects – Time-diary subjects were 445 patrons checking out materials; exit survey subjects were 185 patrons leaving the library. Methods – A paper-based time diary, prototypes of which were tested, was given to patrons who checked out library materials during a one-week period. These patrons were charged with recording the use of the checked-out items during the entire three-week loan period. From this information, the average number of hours spent with various types of loaned material (print and audio/DVD was calculated. The average number of hours spent per item type was then applied to the circulation statistics for those items, across a month, to get a total of hours spent using all circulated material during that month. During the same one-week period of time-diary distribution, exit surveys were conducted by library staff with patrons leaving the library, asking them how long they had spent in the library during their current visit. The average number of minutes per visit was calculated and then applied to the gate count for the month, to get a total number of minutes/hours spent “resident” in the library that month. Adding the totals, a grand total of patron time-use hours was calculated. A monetary value was applied per hour, using the results of a contingent valuation study from Missoula, Montana (Dalenberg et al., 2004, in order to convert hours of library benefit into a dollar figure. Main Results – There was a 24% response rate for the time diaries (106/445. The diary entries yielded an average of 3.5 hours of time-use per print item, and 1.9 hours per DVD. The range for

  12. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  13. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  14. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Incidence and host determinants of work-related rhinoconjunctivitis in apprentice pastry-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautrin, D; Ghezzo, H; Infante-Rivard, C; Malo, J-L

    2002-10-01

    The authors recently assessed the incidence and determinants of immunologic sensitization to flour in apprentice pastry-makers. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence of work-related rhinoconjunctivitis (RC) symptoms and their determinants. For this 188/230 entrants (81.7%) were evaluated before starting exposure to flour, and again 10.8 and 16.8 months after. Questionnaires and skin prick testing to common and work-related allergens were administered at each visit. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was assessed at baseline in all subjects and in a subgroup at follow-up. Thirty subjects (16.1%) reported new work-related RC symptoms (13.1 per 100 person-years); in three subjects (1.6%), these were accompanied by incident skin prick test reactivity to flour-derived allergens. Skin prick test reactivity to grass pollens (OR = 3.0, 95% CI, 1.3-6.7) and to pets (OR = 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1-5.9), persistent rhinitis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI, 1.1-8.4), seasonal RC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), RC on contact with pets (OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.03-5.0) and skin prick test reactivity to wheat flour (OR = 10.5, 95% CI, 2.3-46.8), assessed at baseline, were significantly associated with the incidence of work-related RC symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded significant OR of skin prick test reactivity to wheat flour at baseline (OR = 7.1, 95% CI, 1.7-35.1) and persistent rhinitis (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.01-9.6) for the incidence of work-related RC symptoms. Increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness at follow-up was more frequent, although not significantly, in subjects positive to skin prick test to flour on entry and reporting new work-related symptoms (3/5), than in other subjects (4/17). The incidence of work-related RC symptoms among apprentice pastry-makers was high (16.1% 30/186), while a minority (3/30) also developed skin prick test reactivity to flour. Skin prick test reactivity to wheat flour and persistent allergic rhinitis on starting exposure to

  16. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  17. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  18. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  19. Development of an interactive interface to raise awareness of public, policy makers, and practitioners about natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    used for undergraduate and graduate students training. In addition, the system capabilities allow creating information resources to raise public awareness about climate change, its causes and consequences, which is a necessary step for the subsequent adaptation to these changes. "Climate" allows climatologists, specialists in related fields, decision-makers, stakeholders and the public use a variety of geographically distributed spatially-referenced data, resources and processing services via a web-browser. Currently, an interactive System User Manual for decision-makers is developed. It contains not only the information needed to use the system and perform practical tasks, but also the basic concepts explained in detail. The knowledge necessary for understanding the causes and possible consequences of the processes is given. The results of implementation of practical tasks are available not only in the form of color surface maps, but also on the Internet and in the form of layers for most GIS. Thus these layers can be used in usual desktop GIS which is a common software for most of decision-makers. Thus, this manual helps to prepare qualified users, which in the future will be able to determine the policy of the region to adapt to climate change impacts and hazards. The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant № 16-19-10257.

  20. Marginal Propensity to Consume in Hungary: The long-term versus Short-term Challenges to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Write

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses Hungarian quarterly data from the International Monetary Fund to estimate a distributed lag model whose coefficients allow derivation of the short-run and long-run marginal propensities to consume.  MPCs are main factors determining the consumption, investment, government spending, and export and import multipliers of the economy.  Hungary's economy has stagnated and its policy makers are exploring new ways to manage its economy.  Our model reveals that the numerical value of Hungarian short-run marginal propensity to consume (MPC is 0.4081181655 and the long-run MPC is 0.9458619.  These results are consistent with the corresponding figures in emerging and advanced economies.  These derived MPCs suggest that Hungarian economic policy makers should use fiscal instruments to bring these macroeconomic variables back to their long-term trend effectively

  1. The domestic supply outlook, how the producing industry is reacting, and the challenge to regulators and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses three main topics which include an overview of the nation's natural gas reserves; a discussion of the challenges the natural gas industry faces in extracting these reserves in the realm of regulations and cost-effective extraction; and a discussion on how the industry, regulators, and policy makers can work together to extract these reserves in an economic manner while effectively operating within existing regulations. The paper also promotes methods to update and change regulations when necessary as a result of technological change or advancement. The results of the reserve study have shown that there are over 2,000 trillion cubic feet of natural gas still available in the US and Canada, not including undiscovered or additional extraction brought about by new technology. The paper goes on to discuss the historical wellhead pricing of natural gas and what these new reserve figures mean to future natural gas costs. The paper then discusses the adequacy of current distribution systems to meet an increasing demand for natural gas. Finally the paper discusses the need for more deregulation of the gas industry to make it more competitive and keep the development of these resources alive in this country. The author presents information on the decline of exploration and development in this country as a result of increased regulation

  2. CURRICULUM POLICY MAKERS PERCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS BASED ON SOLO TAXONOMY IN SECONDARY LEVEL SCHOOLS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    P. H. Kusumawathie; Norhisham Mohamad; Ferdous Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual awareness of curriculum policy makers on curriculum development process based on SOLO Taxonomy curriculum approach in secondary level schools. Further, the study explored the relationship between the curriculum development inputs and the SOLO based curriculum development process. The curriculum development inputs are teacher effectiveness, school community, school environment and technology availability. Method: Data was collecte...

  3. Perceptions of Oncologists, Healthcare Policy Makers, Patients and the General Population on the Value of Pharmaceutical Treatments in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, José A; Lizan, Luís; Comellas, Marta; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Dilla, Tatiana

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the main factors explaining the relative weight of the different attributes that determine the value of oncologic treatments from the different perspectives of healthcare policy makers (HCPM), oncologists, patients and the general population in Spain. Structured interviews were conducted to assess: (1) the importance of the attributes on treatment choice when comparing a new cancer drug with a standard cancer treatment; (2) the importance of survival, quality of life (QoL), costs and innovation in cancer; and (3) the most worrying side effects related to cancer drugs. A total of 188 individuals participated in the study. For all participants, when choosing treatments, the best rated characteristics were greater efficacy, greater safety, treatment adaptation to patients' individual requirements and the rapid reincorporation of patients to their daily activities. There were important differences among participants in their opinion about survival, QoL and cost. In general, oncologists, patients, and the general population gave greater value to gains in QoL than healthcare policy makers. Compared to other participants healthcare policy makers gave greater importance to the economic impact related to oncology treatments. Gains in QoL, survival, safety, cost and innovation are perceived differently by different groups of stakeholders. It is recommended to consider the perspective of different stakeholders in the assessment of a new cancer drugs to obtain more informed decisions when deciding on the most appropriate treatment to use. Eli Lilly & Co, Madrid (Spain).

  4. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  5. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  6. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  7. The value of vaccination: results of an Italian survey among Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cadeddu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:

    Background: In the Italian context, evolving toward the abandonment of compulsory vaccination, the
    maintenance of adequate levels of coverage appears as essential. The promotion of a good vaccination
    knowledge, supported by strong scientific evidence, and the collaboration of all the involved stakeholders,
    appears hence fundamental. The aim of this survey was to understand why vaccination is not appreciated
    for its real value by different stakeholders.
    Methods: In collaboration with other Italian Universities and Health Districts, in Summer 2011 we submitted
    a survey of 17 questions to a convenience sample of Italian Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General
    Population. The main questions analyzed the importance of vaccination for health, actions to attain vaccination
    value and consequences of a free choice policy.
    Results: Of the 173 stakeholders interviewed, 78% of Medical Doctors, 82% Policy Makers and 46%
    General Population believe that vaccination is important for health. The most important actions suggested
    for strengthening vaccination were information about its efficacy and safety and studies on its impact on
    Public Health, according to most of General Population and of Medical Doctors and Policy Makers, respectively.
    According to 60.4% Medical Doctors, 72.8% Policy Makers and 56.3% General Population the abolition
    of compulsory vaccination would lead to a reduction of vaccinees in all the Italian regions.
    Conclusions: Our study confirms the need for a thorough “education in vaccination”. Among stakeholders
    there are still doubts that hinder the decision process about vaccination policies and programmes. On
    the other hand, a call for an “Alliance” for promoting and implementing vaccination to its full potential
    would be favoured, as

  8. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  9. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  10. Finding facts for policy makers. IPCC's Special Reports and the Third Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, R.; Verbeek, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an international body of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) that publishes authoritative reports on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of climate change and climate policy. The knowledge contained in the IPCC reports forms the basis for the development of global climate policy by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The three volumes of the Third Assessment Report will be published early in 2001, shortly after Cop6 (Sixth Convention of Parties, The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000). This broadly supported summary of scientific insights will be important for the further substantiation of climate policy

  11. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  12. Policy-maker attitudes to the ageing of the HIV cohort in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The roll out of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, as in many countries ... planning, strategies and policies that govern social, physical and medical intervention ... Respondents also noted the lack of defined geriatric care within the ...

  13. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  14. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  15. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  17. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  18. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  19. What Do Policy Makers Think of Educational Research & Evaluation? Or Do They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-six congressional staff members dealing with educational legislation were surveyed concerning their sources of information and the relative importance and value of educational inquiry in various stages of the policy process. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations regarding improvement of the process were made. (MH)

  20. Europe's energy transition. The big five recommendations to guide and inspire EU policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The energy transition is more than a shift from one energy system (finite resources) to another (more renewable and low energy-based). Our century's challenge is to radically reduce our energy use. The local level is where the new energy paradigm is happening. Ambitious policies at European level are crucial to speed up the movement

  1. Issues affecting therapist workforce and service delivery in the disability sector in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia: perspectives of policy-makers, managers and senior therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Craig; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The disability sector encompasses a broad range of conditions and needs, including children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, people with acquired disabilities, and irreversible physical injuries. Allied health professionals (therapists), in the disability sector, work within government and funded or charitable non-government agencies, schools, communities, and private practice. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study of therapist workforce and service delivery in the disability sector in rural and remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The aim was to investigate issues of importance to policy-makers, managers and therapists providing services to people with disabilities in rural and remote areas. The project gathered information via semi-structured interviews with individuals and small groups. Head office and regional office policy-makers, along with managers and senior therapists in western NSW were invited to participate. Participants included 12 policy-makers, 28 managers and 10 senior therapists from NSW government agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) involved in providing services and support to people with disabilities in the region. Information was synthesised prior to using constant comparative analysis within and across data sets to identify issues. Five broad themes resonated across participants' roles, locations and service settings: (1) challenges to implementing policy in rural and remote NSW; (2) the impact of geographic distribution of workforce and clients; (3) workforce issues - recruitment, support, workloads, retention; (4) equity and access issues for rural clients; and (5) the important role of the NGO sector in rural service delivery and support. Although commitment to providing best practice services was universal, policy-related information transfer between organisations and employees was inconsistent. Participants raised some workforce and service delivery issues that are similar to

  2. Transfer Pricing and Developing Economies : A Handbook for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Joel; Fox, Randall; Loeprick, Jan; Mohindra, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen unprecedented public scrutiny over the tax practices of Multinational Enterprise (MNE) groups. Tax policy and administration concerning international transactions, aggressive tax planning, and tax avoidance have become an issue of extensive national and international debate in developed and developing countries alike. Within this context, transfer pricing, historically a subject of limited specialist interest, has attained name recognition amongst a broader global audie...

  3. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  4. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Sarah; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  6. A review of cyberbullying legislation in Qatar: Considerations for policy makers and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; El Asam, Aiman; Morsi, Hisham; Khattab, Azhar

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide problem affecting mental health, education, safety and general well-being for individuals across the globe. Despite the widespread availability of the Internet, research into prevalence rates of cyberbullying in Qatar is lacking and legislating for the crime has been slow to develop. Recently there have been some positive initiatives in the country such as a Cybercrime Prevention Law, the development of a National ICT Strategy, and a website detailing safe practice guidelines for Internet usage. However, the implementation and usage of these initiatives are still limited and there is a lack of awareness of cyberbullying in Qatar. As a result, the risk factors and consequences among school-aged children are unknown. The current paper presents an evaluation of the legislative and public policy solutions to cyberbullying available in Qatar, and outlines the critical challenges that could potentially face educators in shaping best practice guidelines for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  8. Restructuring health services in Canada: challenges for policy makers, planners and managers in the eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, A

    1985-11-01

    Is downsizing the latest jargon word applied to rationalization, a new concept or a different manifestation of a long term trend in health services management? At present, Canada is struggling to implement feasible reductions of expansionary pressures in the health care system. While provincial governments tend to see the issue as one of controlling chronic excess demand, federal government is still concerned to ensure free access to care on an equitable basis. Thus the problems of downsizing can be expressed by the provinces in terms of an ideological struggle with an unfeeling central government which does not understand their problems; although all know they are really about the feasibility of continuing to provide a service to meet demand. The present economic recession enables provincial governments to appeal to their voters for supporting a new way. Earlier, the appeal was to consumers to become involved in health service organization management and this policy succeeded, to a degree, where there were fluorishing grass roots communities; albeit that the service continued to be driven by professionals. Now the appeal is to taxpayers for their strong support in cost cutting. This has been more successful. Provincial governments are now permitted to 'touch the untouchables', that is to downsize the medical profession and previously sacrosanct health care institutions. They also are exploring the feasibility of introducing a two-tier system which would provide basic care for everyone and extra care for those able to pay, thus side-stepping federal conditions. By reorganizing support in this way, provincial governments have extended the range of policy choices, and two types of planning, the rational and the political, have now become combined into strategic management activity.

  9. Round Six Of Partners Investing In Nursing's Future: Implications For The Health Sector, Policy Makers, And Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E

    2015-07-01

    In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Health financing in Africa: overview of a dialogue among high level policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Luis Gomes; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Ki-Zerbo, Georges

    2011-06-13

    Even though Africa has the highest disease burden compared with other regions, it has the lowest per capita spending on health. In 2007, 27 (51%) out the 53 countries spent less than US$50 per person on health. Almost 30% of the total health expenditure came from governments, 50% from private sources (of which 71% was from out-of-pocket payments by households) and 20% from donors. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the African Union Side Event on Health Financing in the African continent. Methods employed in the session included presentations, panel discussion and open public discussion with ministers of health and finance from the African continent. The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was attributed to lack of clear vision and plan for health financing; lack of national health accounts and other evidence to guide development and implementation of national health financing policies and strategies; low investments in sectors that address social determinants of health; predominance of out-of-pocket spending; underdeveloped prepaid health financing mechanisms; large informal sectors vis-à-vis small formal sectors; and unpredictability and non-alignment of majority of donor funds with national health priorities.Countries need to develop and adopt a comprehensive national health policy and a costed strategic plan; a comprehensive evidence-based health financing strategy; allocate at least 15% of the national budget to health development; use GFATM and PEPFAR funds for health systems strengthening; strengthen intersectoral collaboration to address health determinants; advocate among donors to implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and its Accra Agenda for Action; ensure universal access to health services for pregnant women, lactating mothers and children aged under five years; strengthen financial management capacities; and develop prepaid health financing systems, especially health insurance to complement tax

  11. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO 2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  12. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment

  13. Working Parents' Use of Work-Life Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. den Dulk (Laura); A. Peper (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their

  14. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  15. THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF PROVIDING SOUND SCIENTIFIC ADVICE TO POLICY MAKERS IN GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Pearson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an idea of the scope of professional activity of scientists working in the field of biosafety in terms of providing timely and effective advice for politicians and diplomats in the government. It should be acknowledged that politicians and diplomats are also involved in a varying degree with biosafety issues such as toxicological and biological weapons, formulated in the relevant Convention: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However taking into account their professional interests, they mightn’t have appropriate information on relevant events in these and other activities. The value of these activities of qualified scientists knowing the latest information in the field of biosafety is difficult to overestimate, as they have the possibility to analyze any situation on the range of relevant activities and use their knowledge to make informed proposals which could be acceptable for their co-worker scientists in other areas of biological science. For highly qualified scientists such activities appeared to be effective, it is a vital aspect of their professional activity, because such scientists are able to provide scientific advice, analyze and summarize relevant scientific aspects on a specific topic of interest for politicians and diplomats. Such an analysis should include identification of key elements that are relevant to a given scientific problem and should be formulated so as the consequences of the various elements of the Convention were clearly appreciated and understood by politicians and diplomats. In other words, the rele vant scientific aspects should be analyzed, summarized and presented in the context of the Convention, together with suggestions on what steps in this direction should be taken by politicians and diplomats.

  16. Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haby Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

  17. Working Parents' use of work-life policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dulk, Laura den; Peper, Bram

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their experienced work-life balance. We collected survey data in three Dutch financial sector organizations: one public sector organization and two private firms. All three differ considerably regarding their organizatio...

  18. The Maker Movement, the Promise of Higher Education, and the Future of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, Aubrey

    2017-01-01

    The 21st century will be the site of numerous changes in education systems in response to a rapidly evolving technological environment where existing skill sets and career structures may cease to exist or, at the very least, change dramatically. Likewise, the nature of work will also change to become more automated and more technologically…

  19. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  20. Working with Decision Makers to Improve Energy-Water System Resiliency in the Lower Hudson River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, J. D.; Schoonen, M. A.; Pullen, J.; González, J. E.; Saleh, F.; Bhatt, V.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of the 180 million people living in the eastern U.S. reside in coastal watershed or shoreline counties. The population density of these areas continues to increase, driving an increase in energy-water (EW) system demand and expansion of critical infrastructure. Along with population, these areas are also being stressed by environmental and technology stresses, including climate change. We have been working with decision makers in the Lower Hudson River Basin (LHRB) to develop the tools and data needed to better understand and improve the resiliency of LHRB EW systems facing these kinds of stresses. The LHRB represents: 1) a coastal environment subject to sea level rise that is among the fastest in the East; 2) one of the steepest gradients in population density in the US, with Manhattan the most densely populated coastal county in the nation; 3) a EWN infrastructure serving the largest metropolitan area in the US and the financial center of the world; 4) a history of environmental impacts, ranging from heatwaves, hurricanes to localized storms, that can be used to hindcast; and 5) a wealth of historic and real-time data, extensive monitoring facilities and existing specific sector models that can be leveraged. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned working with the LHRB decision makers.

  1. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  2. The Pedagogy of Education Policy Formulation: Working from Policy Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Richard; Marope, Mmantsetsa

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a "pedagogical" approach to education policy formulation in developing countries. This constitutes a process that shows promise in promoting the "ownership" necessary for sustainable policies and programs, especially when they rely on external financing. Based on case studies from 26 countries focused on "what works," the…

  3. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Keynejad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed

  4. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Justine Grønbaek

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for thinking about the ghostly, thus arguing that policy can be understood as a landscape of intersecting and colliding temporalities from which arouse curious workings of barely-there forces, spooky energies and vibrating saturations of affective ambivalences. I present an empirical study of a policy agenda of…

  5. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-12-01

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. Towards a Policy Framework for Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    International Labour Organization (ILO) standards for decent work promote social justice and humane working conditions. These standards can contribute to sustainable development, macroeconomic security, and fairer distribution of benefits from growth. The ILO is working for policy integration and promotion of international labor standards as a…

  7. Educational Quasi-Market in Chile: The Discourse of Policy Makers Cuasi mercado educacional en Chile: el discurso de los tomadores de decisión.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Almonacid

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean educational system is characterized by the functioning of a cuasi (free market, in which increasing degrees of administrative, financial and curricular decentralization take place within a context where two constitutional rights are in conflict: the right to (free education and the freedom of teaching. This conflict arose from the design and implementation of said decentralization policy due to its negative effects in the processes of social inclusion of children and youngsters. In order to understand why those two constitutional rights are in conflict, it must be taken into account that such decentralization policy was designed by the military regime (1973-1990 as one of several neoliberal policies implemented in many different fields of the Chilean society, and that said policy has been kept in effect by the subsequent administrations of the “Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia” (Coalition of Parties for Democracy (since 1990 to present in a so called “transition process to democracy.” This research paper is intended to understand how the process of educational decentralization was conceived and how the system is in effect up to the present, as well as to understand the effects it has had on the process of social exclusion. To do that, the views of selected policy makers who have had active participation in this process are analyzed. First, there is a reference to the way the Chilean educational system works, and then the opinions of several educational policy makers about the processes of educational decentralization and social exclusion are analyzed. El sistema educacional chileno se caracteriza por el funcionamiento de un cuasi mercado en donde existen crecientes grados de descentralización administrativa, financiera y curricular, coexistiendo dos principios en tensión: el derecho a la educación y la libertad de enseñanza. Esta tensión se encuentra presente desde el diseño de esta política educativa

  8. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  9. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc

  10. Electro dermal activity as maker of psychophysiology and work stressed variations; L`attivita` elettrodermica come maker di variazioni psicofisiologiche e stress da lavoro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` Ezio Clementel` , Bologna, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Arduini, R [Azienda USL, Citta` di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Palomba, D [Padova Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale; Tuozzi, G [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipartimento di Psicologia

    1996-10-01

    In this report an approach is described on the use of work psychophysiology in stress research. Such a contribution may have its main impact on the organizational factors and on the identification and prevention of stress related diseases. Physiological parameters such a heart rate, muscular activity, peripheral temperature and electrodermal activity are investigated in a combined laboratory-field framework, in order to quantify changes in functions mostly regulated by autonomic nervous system and verify whether they can be caused by negative influence of environmental organizational or psycho social factors. In particular, the authors present the electrodermal activity as an interesting index related to clinical and emotional aspects and very significant for the experimental data recorded in a research on bus-drivers stress carried out at the Occupational Medicine Service, ENEA, Bologna.

  11. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  12. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  13. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Key findings. A Record Breaking Year for Renewable Energy: New Installations, Policy Targets, Investment and Jobs. Mainstreaming renewables: guidance for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Brown, Adam; Di Domenico, Stefanie E.; Kielmanowicz, Daniele; Williamson, Laura E.; Jawahar, Rashmi; Appavou, Fabiani; Musolino, Evan; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy C.; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Skeen, Jonathan; Epp, Baerbel; Anna Leidreiter; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Sovacool, Benjamin; Saraph, Aarth; Mastny, Lisa; Martinot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    2015 was an extraordinary year for renewable energy. Renewables are now cost competitive with fossil fuels in many markets and are established around the world as mainstream sources of energy. Cities, communities and companies are leading the rapidly expanding '100% renewable' movement. Distributed renewable energy is advancing rapidly to close the energy access gap. The REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) provides an annual look at the tremendous advances in renewable energy markets, policy frameworks and industries globally. Each report uses formal and informal data to provide the most up-to-date information available. Reliable, timely and regularly updated data on renewables energy are essential as they are used for establishing baselines for decision makers; for demonstrating the increasing role that renewables play in the energy sector; and illustrating that the renewable energy transition is a reality. This year's GSR marks 11 years of REN21 reporting. Over the past decade the GSR has expanded in scope and depth with its thematic and regional coverage and the refinement of data collection. The GSR is the product of systematic data collection resulting in thousands of data points, the use of hundreds of documents, and personal communication with experts from around the world. It benefits from a multi-stakeholder community of over 700 experts. Country information for 148 countries were received and used as basis for GSR2016 preparation. The country data received is featured in the REN21 Renewables Interactive Map (www.ren21.net/map)

  14. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-09-01

    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  15. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  16. Policy work as a reform project

    OpenAIRE

    Hal K. Colebatch

    2008-01-01

    One aspect of the modernization of liberal government in the late 20th century was an increased attention to policy, both as a concept for interrogating government, and as the basis for organizing work within government, leading to the development of ‘policy analysis’ as a decision tool. This paper reviews the development of specialised forms of ‘policy work’ in liberal western political systems in order to establish what can be learned by other sorts of polity, and in particular, the tran...

  17. "We noticed that suddenly the country has become full of MRI". Policy makers' views on diffusion and use of health technologies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishelman Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Uncontrolled proliferation of health technologies (HT is one contributor to the increasing pressure on health systems to adopt new technologies. With limited resources, policy-makers encounter difficulties in fulfilling their responsibility to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this study is to explore how policy-makers' reason about the diffusion and utilization of health technologies in Iran using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and interferon beta as tracers. Method This qualitative exploration complements quantitative data generated in a research project investigating the diffusion and utilization of MRI and interferon beta in Iran. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 informants in different positions and levels of authority in the Ministry of Health (MOH, University of Medical Sciences, Health Insurance Organizations, and Parliament. The data was analysed using the framework approach. Findings Although policy-makers appeared to be positive to health technology assessment (HTA, the processes of policy-making described by the interviewees did not seem to be based on a full understanding of this (discipline. Several obstacles to applying knowledge about HT and HTA were described. The current official plan for MRI adoption and diffusion in the country was said not to be followed, and no such plan was described for interferon beta. Instead, market forces such as advertising, and physician and consumer demand, appear to have strong influence on HT diffusion and use. Dual practice may have increased the induced demand and also reduced the supervision of the private sector by the MOH. Conclusion Management instability and lack of coordination in the MOH were found to be important obstacles to accumulation of knowledge and experience which, in turn, could have led to suboptimal managerial and policy-making processes. Furthermore marketing should be controlled in order to avoid

  18. Nuclear Belief Systems and Individual Policy-Makers: Duncan Sandys, Unmanned Weaponry, and the Impossibility of Defence

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the influence that Duncan Sandys' experiences of the Second World War had on his policy preferences, and policy-making, in relation to British defence policy during his years in government. This is a significant period in British nuclear policy which began with thermonuclear weaponry being placed ostentatiously at the centre of British defence planning in the 1957 Defence White Paper, and ended with the British acquiring the latest American nuclear weapon techn...

  19. Gaining Momentum: How Media Influences Public Opinion To Push Civil-Military Decision Makers Into Formulating Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    1 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING MOMENTUM: HOW MEDIA INFLUENCES PUBLIC OPINION TO PUSH CIVIL-MILITARY DECISION MAKERS INTO...engagements from the past, evidence suggest the media or press does have an influence over public opinion, especially during times of war and humanitarian...changes and that leaders must take into consideration that public opinion and the media may provide a large amount of influence over how the nation

  20. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  1. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Requejo, Jennifer H; Pope, Ian; Daelmans, Bernadette; Murray, Susan F

    2014-08-15

    The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers' interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to

  2. Characteristics and use of urban health indicator tools by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Helen; Glonti, Ketevan; Rutter, Harry; Zimmermann, Nicole; Wilkinson, Paul; Davies, Michael

    2017-01-13

    There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers. Although many UHI tools have been specifically developed to inform policy, there is poor understanding of how they are used. This study aims to identify the nature and characteristics of UHI tools and their use by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers. Health and social sciences databases (ASSIA, Campbell Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science Core Collection) will be searched for studies using UHI tools alongside hand-searching of key journals and citation searches of included studies. Advanced searches of practitioner websites and Google will also be used to find grey literature. Search results will be screened for UHI tools, and for studies which report on or evaluate the use of such tools. Data about UHI tools will be extracted to compile a census and taxonomy of existing tools based on their specific characteristics and purpose. In addition, qualitative and quantitative studies about the use of these tools will be appraised using quality appraisal tools produced by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and synthesised in order to gain insight into the perceptions, value and use of UHI tools in the municipal built environment policy and decision-making process. This review is not registered with PROSPERO. This systematic review focuses specifically on UHI tools that assess the physical environment's impact on health (such as transport, housing, air quality and greenspace

  3. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive

  4. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  5. Conceptualizing Policy Work as Activity and Field of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kohoutek; Martin Nekola; Vilém Novotný

    2013-01-01

    The area of policy work and policy workers within government bureaucracies is encompassing a large field of activities and research. This article aims to provide a synthesised perspective on policy work in relating theoretical and empirical accounts of policy workers, identifying points of convergence and linking them to essential assumptions on research in policy work. We conceptualize policy work as activity within government bureaucracies from three interrelated perspectives: the professio...

  6. “Have policy makers erred?” Implications of mother tongue education for preprimary schooling in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentanda, Medadi Erisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Uganda language-in-education policy is silent about pre-primary schooling. This level of education is largely in the hands of private individuals who, because of wide-spread misconceptions about learning and acquiring English in Uganda (as in many other African countries, instruct pre-primary school learners in English. This article demonstrates how this omission in language-in-education policy is creating competition between rural government and private schools regarding the teaching of English and the development of initial literacy. The absence of an official language policy for pre-primary schooling has also dichotomised the implementation of mother tongue education in rural areas. The policy allows rural primary schools to use mother tongue as language of learning and teaching in the first three school grades. However, whereas private schools instruct through English only, government schools to a large extent adhere to the policy, albeit with undesirable consequences. The practical implications of lack of a language-in-education policy for and minimal government involvement in pre-primary schooling are discussed in this article.

  7. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers.

  8. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  9. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  10. Public Acceptance on Nuclear Power: A Strategic Need to Shift to 5Ps (Politicians, Policy Makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Acceptance on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)

  11. Making health system performance measurement useful to policy makers: aligning strategies, measurement and local health system accountability in ontario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking

  12. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  13. Towards an adaptation action plan : climate change and health in the Toronto-Niagara region : summary for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Morton, I.; Maarouf, A.

    2002-10-01

    The current science regarding climate change and its potential health effects was assessed in an effort to provide information to decision-makers dealing with health infrastructure in the Toronto-Niagara region. This report also presents an assessment of how the health care system can adapt to handle the increased demand for services resulting from the projected negative human health effects of climate change. The first part of the report presents some background information on climate change and health issues and demonstrates how the current health care infrastructure cannot deal effectively with the full range of health effects that may occur in heavily populated areas such as the Toronto-Niagara region. The second part of the report summarizes the scientific knowledge about the expected impacts of climate change and associated health effects, such as heat stress, extreme weather events, poor air quality, vector-borne diseases, food and water-borne diseases, and increased exposure to ultra-violet radiation. It was noted that children and the elderly are most vulnerable. The final part of the report outlines an adaptation action plan to improve the health care infrastructure through public education and communication, surveillance and monitoring, ecosystem intervention, infrastructure development, technical engineering, and medical intervention. 100 refs., 1 fig

  14. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The (Mis)understanding of Scientific Uncertainty? How Experts View Policy-Makers, the Media and Publics

    OpenAIRE

    Landstrom, Catharina; Hauxwell-Baldwin, Richard; Lorenzoni, Irene; Rogers-Hayden, Tee

    2015-01-01

    Frequent claims that publics ‘misunderstand’ science ignore the contested definition of scientific uncertainty itself. Scientific uncertainty means different things in the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities, while public controversies show that these interpretations of scientific uncertainty have different implications for policy and decision-making. This prompts analysis of the ways that experts view scientific uncertainty and how they characterise the (mis)understandings o...

  16. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimentation at the interface of science and policy : a multi-case analysis of how policy experiments influence political decision-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadgen, Belinda; Huitema, Dave

    2017-01-01

    For decades now, scholars have grappled with questions about how knowledge producers can enhance the influence of their knowledge on users and improve policy making. However, little attention has been paid to how policy experiments, a flexible and ex ante method of policy appraisal, obtain influence

  18. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  19. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-12-06

    The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.

  2. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2011-07-01

    communicating these approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions.

  3. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  4. The policy work of piloting: Mobilising and managing conflict and ambiguity in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Simon; Checkland, Kath; Hodgson, Damian; McBride, Anne; Elvey, Rebecca; Parkin, Stephen; Rothwell, Katy; Pierides, Dean

    2017-04-01

    In spite of their widespread use in policy making in the UK and elsewhere, there is a relatively sparse literature specifically devoted to policy pilots. Recent research on policy piloting has focused on the role of pilots in making policy work in accordance with national agendas. Taking this as a point of departure, the present paper develops the notion of pilots doing policy work. It does this by situating piloting within established theories of policy formulation and implementation, and illustrating using an empirical case. Our case is drawn from a qualitative policy ethnography of a local government pilot programme aiming to extend access to healthcare services. Our case explores the collective entrepreneurship of regional policy makers together with local pilot volunteers. We argue that pilots work to mobilise and manage the ambiguity and conflict associated with particular policy goals, and in their structure and design, shape action towards particular outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the generative but managed role which piloting affords to local implementers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure ethics: does HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

    2014-07-01

    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Games policy makers and providers play: introducing case-mix-based payment to hospital chronic care units in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    Case-mix-based payment was developed for hospital chronic care units in Japan to replace the flat per diem rate and encourage the admission of patients with higher medical acuity and was part of a policy initiative to make the tariff more evidence based. However, although the criteria for grouping patients were developed from a statistical analysis of resource use, the tariff was subsequently set below costs, particularly for the groups with the lowest medical acuity, both because of the prime minister's decision to decrease total health expenditures and because of the health ministry's decision to target the reductions on chronic care units. Providers quickly adapted to the new payment system mainly by reclassifying their patients to higher medical acuity groups. Some hospitals reported high prevalence rates of urinary tract infections and pressure ulcers. The government responded by issuing directives to providers to calculate the prevalence rates and document the care that has been mandated for the patients at risk. However, in order to monitor compliance and to evaluate whether the patient is being billed for the appropriate case-mix group, the government must invest in developing a comprehensive patient-level database and in training staff for making on-site inspections.

  7. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  8. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T; Bashmakov, I; Bernstein, L; Bogner, J; Bosch, P; Dave, R; Davidson, O; Fisher, B; Grubb, M; Gupta, S; Halsnaes, K; Heij, B; Kahn Ribeiro, S; Kobayashi, S; Levine, M; Martino, D; Masera Cerutti, O; Metz, B; Meyer, L; Nabuurs, G J; Najam, A; Nakicenovic, N; Holger Rogner, H; Roy, J; Sathaye, J; Schock, R; Shukla, P; Sims, R; Smith, P; Swart, R; Tirpak, D; Urge-Vorsatz, D; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  9. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Households' financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household's health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households' financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health.

  10. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: Evidence for decision and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Alberto; Arredondo, Armando; Gordillo-Tobar, Amparo; Segovia, Johanna; Qiang, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    . Diabetes represented a major economic burden to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015. The estimates presented here are key information for decision-making that can be used in the formulation of policies and programs to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources for diabetes prevention in the 29 countries of LAC.

  11. Knowledge Translation to Advance the Nurse Practitioner Role in British Columbia: Researchers and decision-makers conduct policy-relevant research to guide legislative and regulatory development and the design of a nurse practitioner education program.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Marjorie; Regan, Sandra; Davidson, Heather; Schreiber, Rita; Crickmore, Jane; Moss, Lesley; Pinelli, Janet; Pauly, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    This project brought together a team of researchers and decision-makers to conduct policy-relevant research to support the introduction of advanced nursing practice roles in British Columbia. All team members, including decision-makers, were actively involved in the conceptualization, design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the study. This level of engagement, coupled with ongoing knowledge translation (KT) activities, led to the implementation by stakeholders of a majority of...

  12. The unsustainable Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Makers is the latest novel of the American science fiction writer, blogger and Silicon Valley intellectual Cory Doctorow. Set in the 2010s, the novel describes the possible impact of the present trend towards the migration of modes of production and organization that have emerged online into the sphere of material production. Called New Work, this movement is indebted to a new maker culture that attracts people into a kind of neo-artisan, high tech mode of production. The question is: can a corporate-funded New Work movement be sustainable? Doctorow seems to suggest that a capitalist economy of abundance is unsustainable because it tends to restrict the reach of its value flows to a privileged managerial elite.

  13. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-10-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  14. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  15. Work-life balance and family friendly policies

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Chapman; Natalie Skinner

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference), and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation). The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; worki...

  16. Working Programme 2010. Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Dutch Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy (KiM) provides analyses of mobility that influence the policy. As a separate institute within the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water management, the KiM conducts strategic outlooks and policy analyses. KiM establishes working programs annually. [nl

  17. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  18. Perspectives for the Development of a Working Life Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge; Hasle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity.......A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity....

  19. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2016-01-01

    present an empirical study of a policy agenda of introducing an assessment culture and improving the management of the Danish public school. I explore how all the routines and habits deemed outdated and sought annihilated by a new policy paradigm continue to haunt head teachers as seething presence...... of lurking resistance towards the policy aims as well as insidious doubts. Thinking about the ghostly contributes to studies of education policy by locating the reality of power in the mundane everyday doings and experiences of educational practitioners and insisting on the very tangled way people sense...... and intuit the complexities of contemporary forms of power....

  20. Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cynthia; Kennedy, Leslie W; Sherley, Alison

    2008-02-01

    Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown. One of the central concerns surrounding counter-terrorism interventions today, given the attention and money spent on them, is whether such interventions are effective. To explore this issue, we conducted a general review of terrorism literature as well as a Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism strategies. In this article, we summarize some of our findings from these works. Overall, we found an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies and conclude that counter-terrorism policy is not evidence-based. The findings of this review emphasise the need for government leaders, policy makers, researchers, and funding agencies to include and insist on evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs in their agendas.

  1. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  2. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO 2 e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.

  3. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO_2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  5. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  6. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars; Thiel, Sandra; Steijn, Bram; Bekkers, Victor

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have to implement. In this paper, our goal is to study the distinctiveness (or similarity) of work alienation and policy alienation. Furthermore, we examine a number of effects of work and pol...

  7. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Breilh, Jaime; Beltran, Efrain; Parra, Jorge; Solis, Fernanda; Yassi, Annalee; Rojas, Alejandro; Orrego, Elena; Henry, Bonnie; Bowie, William R; Pearce, Laurie; Gaibor, Juan; Velasquez, Patricio; Concepcion, Miriam; Parkes, Margot

    2011-11-08

    The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: "Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?" To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master's theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master's and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Strengthening capabilities for producing and applying knowledge through direct engagement with affected populations and

  8. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bonnie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and

  9. Work-life policies for Canadian medical faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Aaron; Gartke, Kathleen; MacLaren, Monika

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to catalogue and examine the following work-life flexibility policies at all 17 Canadian medical schools: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of the probationary period for family responsibilities, part-time faculty appointments, job sharing, and child care. The seven work-life policies of Canadian medical schools were researched using a consistent and systematic method. This method involved an initial web search for policy information, followed by e-mail and telephone contact. The flexibility of the policies was scored 0 (least flexible) to 3 (most flexible). The majority of policies were easily accessible online. Work-life policies were scored out of 3, and average policy scores ranged from 0.47 for job sharing to 2.47 for part-time/work reduction. Across schools, total scores ranged from 7 to 16 out of 21. Variation in scores was noted for parenting leave and child care, whereas minimal variation was noted for other policies. Canadian medical schools are committed to helping medical faculty achieve work-life balance, but improvements can be made in the policies offered at all schools. Improving the quality of work flexibility policies will enhance working conditions and job satisfaction for faculty. This could potentially reduce Canada's loss of talented young academicians.

  10. The Mexican hydro-meteorological disasters and climate network (redesclim) as model on outreach decision makers on disaster public policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Rodriguez-Estevez, J. M., Sr.; Romo-Aguilar, M. D. L.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Salinas-Prieto, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Pérez-Campuzano, E.

    2017-12-01

    REDESCLIM was designed and develop in 2011 due to a public call from The Science and Technology Mexican Council (CONACYT); CONACYT lead the activities for its organization and development among the academic community. REDESCLIM was created to enhance the capacity of response to hydro-meteorological disasters and climate events through an integrative effort of researchers, technologists, entrepreneurs, politicians and society. Brief summary of our objectives: 1) Understand the causes of disasters, to reduce risks to society and ecosystems 2) Support research and interdisciplinary assessment of the physical processes in natural and social phenomena to improve understanding of causes and impacts 3) Strengths collaboration with academic, government, private and other interdisciplinary networks from Mexico and other countries 4) Build human capacity and promote the development of skills 5) Recommend strategies for climate hazard prevention, mitigation and response, especially for hazard with the greatest impacts in Mexico, such as hurricanes, floods, drought, wild fires and other extremes events. We provide a continues communication channel on members research results to provide scientific information that could be used for different proposes, specificaly for decision makers who are dealing with ecological and hydro meteorological problems that can result in disasters, and provide a services menu based on the members scientific projects, publications, teaching courses, in order to impact public policy as final result. http://www.redesclim.org.mx. So far we have some basic results: Fiver national meetings (participants from 35 countries around the world), 7 Workshops and seminars (virtual and in-person), Climatic data platforms ( http://clicom.mex.cicese.mx, http://clicom-mex.cicese.mx/malla, http://atlasclimatico.unam.mx/REDESCLIM2/ ), climate change scenarios for the general public at http://escenarios.inecc.gob.mx, 14 seed projects, one model to hurricane simulation

  11. The energy policy relevance of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report on the macro-economics of mitigating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Richard A.; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2016-01-01

    Research which attempted to determine the macroeconomic importance of mitigating climate change through 2100 was presented primarily in Chapter 6 of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report. Some of the findings of this chapter were then summarized in the Summary for Policy Makers (SPMs) of both the Synthesis Report, and the WGIII report. Unfortunately, these SPMs omitted key aspects of what the overall macroeconomic results for the costs and benefits of mitigating climate change actually did and did not include, how they were produced, and a careful assessment of their uncertainty and scientific validity. Yet, many of the major omissions were acknowledged deep in the text of Chapter 6, but were not revealed to the public. We conclude, therefore, that neither of these SPMs was useful for energy policy makers and energy managers, and they were misleading due to their many key omissions. Finally, we recommend several improvements that can be made to integrated assessment modeling methodologies so that the macroeconomic analysis of mitigating climate change resulting from the use of such models can be more relevant and useful to energy policy makers in the future, and can be communicated to them better. - Highlights: •The 2014 IPCC Working Group III Report has major omissions in its economic analysis. •Many well-known benefits of mitigation are not included in its economic results. •The Summary for Policy Makers is not very useful for energy policy decision makers. •The upcoming Sixth IPCC WGIII analysis should be structured quite differently.

  12. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  13. Policy Awareness, Financial Hardship, and Work Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Drapela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with disabilities often report difficulty interacting with health care professionals. Addressing this challenge requires greater understanding of factors that exacerbate the odds of negative interactions between health care providers and patients with disabilities. Drawing on the qualitative research describing the features of such incidents, we use logistic regression to explore two dimensions of this dynamic: negative experiences with health care providers (e.g., doctors, specialists and negative experiences with health insurance carriers (e.g., for profit or non-profit health insurance organizations. Using a non-probability sample of American families who have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, we find that negative experiences with health care providers are associated with the family’s income level, as well as changes in parental labor force participation. The odds of a negative interaction with the insurance carrier are intensified when the family experiences financial difficulties and when they have a negative experience with the health care provider. Finally, families who are aware of laws and policies regarding ASD also report increased odds of negative experiences with their insurance carrier but not their health care provider. Policy implications of our findings are discussed.

  14. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care. PMID:26340498

  15. Work-life balance and family friendly policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Chapman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Australian and international research on work-life interaction. We review the work-life policies and practices that are likely to have the greatest impact on work-life outcomes, specifically reducing the negative impact of work on other life domains (work-life interference, and enhancing the positive effect (work-life facilitation. The review addresses four policy areas common in work-life studies of the general workforce: employee-centered flexible work practices; working hours (e.g. access to part-time work; paid and unpaid leave (e.g. parental leave; and access to childcare. It then considers the work-life literature related to two specific industries – the Australian public sector, and health and social services – to identify work-life issues and practices specific to each industry. We then conclude with a general discussion of challenges associated with the policy-practice gap, focusing particularly on work intensification and the role of organisational culture as the catalyst for policy uptake and effectiveness.

  16. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  17. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy

  18. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have

  19. Linking Working Capital Policy Towards Financial Performance of Small Medium Enterprise (SME in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Mohamad Nor Edi Azhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that working capital management (WCM is vital to businesses of any size that operated in developed and emerging countries, WCM is of particular importance to the small business firms operating in emerging markets. The importance of WCM to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs stems from the limited financial resources available and heavily reliance of SMEs on WCM as a main source of finance. This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the effects of working capital investment policy on firm’s financial performance for a sample of 103 small and medium-sized firms listed with the SME Corporation of Malaysia. Data for the period from 2008 to 2013 are analysed to examine if investment policy improves firms’ return on total asset. By using correlation and pooled ordinary least square regression, the result provides a significant relationship between the level of aggressiveness of investment policy and SME’s financial performance. The findings of this study not only contribute to the scant WCM literature in Malaysia but throw light on the importance of efficient WCM to the policy makers and regulators in motivating and encouraging relevant parties to pay more attention on working capital through improving investors’ awareness and improving transparency.

  20. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  1. New policies help faculty members balance work, rest of life

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech has joined a cadre of leading universities with progressive work/life policies that provide flexibility for faculty members and graduate students to address special family and personal issues without jeopardizing their professional progress.

  2. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  3. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  4. Policies to support women’s paid work

    OpenAIRE

    Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in paid work is generally difficult for women in developing countries. Many women work unpaid in family businesses or on farms, are engaged in low-income self-employment activities, or work in low-paid wage employment. In some countries, vocational training or grants for starting a business have been effective policy tools for supporting women’s paid work. Mostly lacking, however, are job and business training programs that take into account how mothers’ employment affects child welf...

  5. Flexible employment policies and working conditions: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Miedema, E.; Goudswaard, A.; Kraan, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has commissioned a research project to analyse the impact of flexible employment policies and human resources management on working conditions at the corporate level. Research institutes of seven countries participate in

  6. Enacting Policy: The Capacity of School Leaders to Support Early Career Teachers through Policy Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Anna M.; Morrison, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Early career teachers often feel overwhelmed by the complex, intense and unpredictable nature of their work. Recently, policy initiatives have been introduced to provide new teachers with extra release-time from face-to-face classroom teaching duties to assist them in their transition to the workforce. This paper reports on a critical policy study…

  7. [The influence of the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies on the patient from the point of view of policy-makers in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Shani, Segev; Shvarts, Shifra

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between doctors and pharmaceutical companies is an integral part of the health system in Israel and the whole world. The mutual need for such a relationship requires us, as a society, to examine its influence on the individual and the system as a whole. This research examines the relationship from the points of view of the relevant parties within the health system and outside the health system (decision-makers). The authors used in-depth interviews and qualitative research methods in order to examine and understand the various positions of decision-makers. The position of the decision-makers, regarding all the aspects of this relationship, expresses their wishes and depends on their point of view. The impact of the relationship between the doctors and the pharmaceutical companies was examined with regard to the prescription behavior of the doctor. All the government representatives, all the physicians' representatives and those of the health funds, believe that the physicians' prescription behavior is impacted by the relationship. There are those who perceive this to be a negative trend and some doctors believe it to be a positive trend. With regard to possible harm to the patient, the parties believe that the relationship does not harm the patient, whereas most of the government representatives identify harm to the patients, both on the economic and health levels. The authors believe that the "influence" which exists or could exist on the part of the pharmaceutical companies is the main stumbling block in this relationship, which is expressed in the decision-makers' perspective.

  8. Managing work-life policies : disruption versus dependency arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulk, Laura den; Ruijter, Judith de

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape managerial attitudes towards the utilization of work-life policies? The influence of disruptiveness (Powell and Mainiero 1999) and dependency (Klein, Berman and Dickson 2000) arguments on managerial attitudes is examined using a vignette design. In this study, managers in four

  9. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  10. WORK-LIFE BALANCE POLICIES IN JORDANIAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Abubaker; Christopher Bagley

    2016-01-01

    No published work is available on work-life balance (WLB) programs in Jordan. Drawing on the methodology of Critical Realism, interviews with ten senior managers, and case studies in two large telecommunication companies were undertaken. WLB practices had both similarities and differences from those in developed countries. WLB policy and practice was constructed within three main areas: social and cultural practices; financial practices; leave arrangements. In comparison with developed countr...

  11. Improving tsunami resiliency: California's Tsunami Policy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Charles R.; Johnson, Laurie; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandiño, V.; Takahashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group to facilitate development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The Tsunami Policy Working Group brings together government and industry specialists from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering. The group is acting on findings from two parallel efforts: The USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario project, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from an M 9.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands Subduction Zone striking California’s coastline, and the State’s Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. The unique dual-track approach provides a comprehensive assessment of vulnerability and risk within which the policy group can identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments, and provide advice that will assist development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard risk communication products to improve community resiliency.

  12. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  13. Work in corporate sustainability policies: the contribution of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, I; Brunoro, C M; Sznelwar, L I

    2014-01-01

    By introducing policies for sustainability and social responsibility, companies declare their interest in caring for all stakeholders, including workers. To analyze how and which themes related to work practices and to workers are approached in the discourse of corporations are considered sustainable and socially responsible. Based on ergonomic principles, more elements are brought into this discussion, viewed from a strategic perspective for the development of corporations and society. Data collected from 20 corporations considered more sustainable according to an assessment made by the Corporate Knights organization. Multiple-case study, based on the analysis of secondary sources content (websites and reports). Analysis of websites and reports by their content, and their classification according to the aspects present in the thematic of work practices and of human rights elaborated by standard ISO 26000. Corporations show that the worker is one of the stakeholders to be considered in their sustainability and social responsibility policies. However, it's not possible using this method to obtain effective evidences related to actual programs performed by companies in order to demonstrate the real importance of workers in sustainable polices. The discipline of ergonomics could be active in improving the implementation of corporate social responsibility policies, especially by emphasizing the social dimension of these policies.

  14. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  15. Policy and identity change in youth social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    _ Summary: This article analyses – by drawing on ideology critical and psychoanalytical concepts from Slavoj Zizek and Glynos et al. – how political, social and fantasmatic logics interplay and form social workers’ professional identities within two youth social work institutions that operate...... within different social policy paradigms: a socialinterventionist paradigm in 2002 and a neoliberal paradigm in 2010. _ Findings: The article shows how the current neoliberalisation of public policy permeates social work practices through fantasmatic narratives that create professional identities to heal...... discrepancies in and conceal the political dimension of everyday life. In one institution, within a welfare state-based ideology a compensating-including social professional identity is created in response to the young people’s alleged deficiencies; in the other institution, within a neoliberal ideology...

  16. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna

    2013-01-22

    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  17. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  18. Work and pregnancy. Review of the literature and policy discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, W

    1986-08-01

    An increasing proportion of obstetric patients are working women. This widens the world of concern for the obstetrician, who must now become familiar with the consequences of workplace exposures and conditions for both maternal and fetal health. This review briefly explores interactions between chemical and physical hazards on the job and the physiologic changes of pregnancy in order to propose ways in which the obstetrician can intervene on behalf of the individual patient, as well as on the public level. Through discussion of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, job transfer and modification, disability, breastfeeding, etc., emphasis is placed on the social and policy factors that affect reproductive outcome for the working pregnant woman.

  19. Street Children and The Work Ethic: New Policy for an Old Moral, Nairobi (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Kenyan policy-makers use the language of children's rights to legitimize, within the new global political order, an old colonial concern about controlling the urban marginal population. The local business community's worries about the safety of Nairobi's streets stand paramount, while the growing financial and political leverage of NGOs…

  20. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stuiver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.

  1. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  2. 23 CFR 630.1006 - Work zone safety and mobility policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work zone safety and mobility policy. 630.1006 Section... policy. Each State shall implement a policy for the systematic consideration and management of work zone impacts on all Federal-aid highway projects. This policy shall address work zone impacts throughout the...

  3. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eAngus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.

  4. Water Footprint of Milk Produced and Processed in South Africa: Implications for Policy-Makers and Stakeholders along the Dairy Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Owusu-Sekyere

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current water scarcity situation in South Africa is a threat to sustainable development. The present paper has assessed the water footprint of milk produced and processed in South Africa using the procedures outlined in the water footprint assessment manual. The results show that 1352 m3 of water is required to produce one tonne of milk with 4% fat and 3.3% protein in South Africa. The water used in producing feed for lactating cows alone accounts for 86.35% of the total water footprint of milk. The water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows is about 85% higher than that of non-lactating cows. Green water footprint accounts for more than 86% of the total water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows. Green and blue water footprints are the highest contributors to the total water footprint milk production in South Africa. Water used for feed production for both lactating and non-lactating cows accounts for about 99% of the total water footprint of milk production in South Africa. Particular attention should be given to feed crops with low water footprints and high contribution to dry matter to provide balanced ration with low water footprint. Water users, managers and livestock producers should pay attention to green and blue water consumption activities along the milk value chain and design strategies to minimize them. Corn, sorghum and lucerne production under irrigation in the greater Orange River basin is sustainable, whereas oats production for silage in the same catchment area is not sustainable. Our findings provide the rationale for dairy producers and water users in the dairy industry to get an understanding of the degree of sustainability of their input and output combinations, production choices, and policy interventions, in terms of water use.

  5. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn K.D. Sartorius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  8. Why We Need to Have Broad-Based Societal Discussions of the Governance of Geoengineering, at national and international levels, starting with scientists and increasingly with policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.

    2017-12-01

    . Geoengineering has planet-wide consequences and must therefore be discussed within intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. The research community has been addressing many of these issues, but the global policy community and the public largely have not. It's time to do so.

  9. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: rapport de synthese. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment.

  10. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: rapport de synthese. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment.

  11. High performance work systems: the gap between policy and practice in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy; Stanton, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    service organisations reported high levels of strategic HRM, the human resource and other managers reported a distinct lack of HPWS from their perspectives. The authors discuss why health care organisations may have difficulty in achieving HPWS. Leaders in health care organisations should focus on ensuring human resource management systems, structures and processes that support HPWS. Policy makers need to consider HPWS as a necessary component of health system reform. There is a strong need to reorient organisational human resource management policies and procedures in public health care organisations towards high performing work systems.

  12. WORK-LIFE BALANCE POLICIES IN JORDANIAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abubaker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No published work is available on work-life balance (WLB programs in Jordan. Drawing on the methodology of Critical Realism, interviews with ten senior managers, and case studies in two large telecommunication companies were undertaken. WLB practices had both similarities and differences from those in developed countries. WLB policy and practice was constructed within three main areas: social and cultural practices; financial practices; leave arrangements. In comparison with developed countries, social practices such as praying time, Hajj leave and Ramadan concessions reflected the culture and religion of Jordan as an Arabic, Islamic country. Flexible practices, such as compressed working and paternity leave did not exist. The absence of these practices was also linked to social and cultural factors, as well to levels of current economic development. However, part-time working was developed primarily to benefit employers, rather than employees, in contrast to most developed countries.Employers’ reasons for adopting WLB practices were the level of competition in the labour market, government regulations, social and culture norms of society, pressures from women in the workforce, and pressure from labour unions. Financial practices were linked to the competitive market, reflecting the need to retain well-qualified staff. Financial benefits including subsidized childcare, paid study leave, and family health insurance, were reported to have the strongest positive impact on organisational morale and staff retention.

  13. Política de autogestión hospitalaria en Chile: percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones Hospital self-management policy in Chile: perceptions of decision-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Méndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones respecto de la etapa de implementación de la política de autogestión hospitalaria en dos hospitales de alta complejidad del sur de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a tomadores de decisiones de los hospitales Regional de la ciudad de Valdivia y San José de la ciudad de Osorno, durante el período de agosto de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. Se seleccionó una muestra por conveniencia de 26 tomadores de decisiones. Las 26 entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas en forma literal. El análisis de la información se hizo utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en su aproximación inductiva. RESULTADOS: Para los entrevistados, la conceptualización de la autogestión está determinada por la autonomía para la toma de decisiones respecto de la asignación de recursos y el financiamiento de la provisión de servicios de salud en las instituciones hospitalarias. También manifestaron que para mejorar la etapa de implementación se deben incluir políticas de recursos humanos y de financiamiento de la función de provisión de servicios de salud. A las debilidades, por su parte, las relacionaron con la ausencia de capacidades organizacionales y competencias gerenciales de los equipos de salud para la implementación de los cambios. CONCLUSIONES: La política de autogestión hospitalaria es conceptualizada desde la autonomía financiera, y su implementación está determinada por las brechas de capacidad que persisten en el diseño de la política.OBJECTIVE: To learn the perceptions of decision-makers concerning the imple­men­t­ation stage of a hospital self-management policy in two highly complex hospitals in southern Chile. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study based on semi-structured in-depth interviews of decision-makers at the Regional Hospital of Valdivia

  14. Using internet technology to inform researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders about sustainable land management in drylands: experience from a large interdisciplinary and international project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeson, N.; van den Elsen, E.; Brandt, J.; Quaranta, G.; Salvia, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years the advent of the internet has made it much easier to share the results of scientific research with a wider range of audiences. Where once there were only scientific journals and books, it is now possible to deliver messages and dissemination products instantly, by email or other media, to huge circulation lists; thereby also addressing non-scientific audiences. Most scientific projects now host a website, but until recently few have exploited the communication possibilities to maximum advantage. DESIRE has been a large interdisciplinary and international project working to mitigate desertification by selecting and trialling sustainable land management practices with stakeholders. Therefore it has been very important to use a general project website, and a separate Harmonised Information System, to ensure that partners and stakeholders are able to understand the sustainable options and learn from one another. The project website has included many useful features, such as general project and partner information, a schedule of future meetings, and repositories of publicly (and project only) downloadable documents. Lessons have been learned about communication preferences between groups with different interests. For example, an on-line forum seemed a good way of allowing project partners to have their say on various topics. However it was not well-used and it was concluded that partners preferred to communicate just by email, a medium that they access most days for many uses. Whereas the project website focuses on the latest news, the Harmonised Information System has been used to document the history of the project, stage by stage, filling in each section as results became available. Information can be accessed from the perspective of both the research aims and each study site. Interactive tools and drop-down menus are among the features that are used to make the information as attractive and as accessible as possible. Although English is the

  15. Education policies, school organization and the work of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licínio C. Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Big changes in the state´s role in public education policies have occurred throughoutthe last decades by the action of transnational and supranational entities. An increasing process of subordination of education to economic imperatives in late capitalism and to entrepreneurial theories of school organization and leadership hasfollowed. Some dimensions of what is called by the author the managerialist canonand the hyper-bureaucratization of schools are analyzed with reference to international tendencies and also to the most recent Portuguese reform of the management system of state schools. Possible impacts of the political and organization changes introduced are suggested for future research, mainly concerning the working process of teachers and the tendencies towards competitiveness, deprofessionalization, subordination and alienation.

  16. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  17. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures, and/or guidance for the systematic consideration and management of work zone impacts, to be...

  18. The effects of work alienation and policy alienation on behavior of public employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPublic employees are confronted with various pressures, such as increased work demands and the need to implement controversial policies. This study uses work alienation and policy alienation models to analyze work and policy pressures. Based on a survey of 790 respondents, it was firstly

  19. The Effects of Work Alienation and Policy Alienation on Behavior of Public Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.; Thiel, S. van; Steijn, B.

    2015-01-01

    Public employees are confronted with various pressures, such as increased work demands and the need to implement controversial policies. This study uses work alienation and policy alienation models to analyze work and policy pressures. Based on a survey of 790 respondents, it was first found that

  20. The effects of work alienation and policy alienation on behavior of public employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; van Thiel, S.; Steijn, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Public employees are confronted with various pressures, such as increased work demands and the need to implement controversial policies. This study uses work alienation and policy alienation models to analyze work and policy pressures. Based on a survey of 790 respondents, it was firstly found that

  1. Nursing work directions in Australia: does evidence drive the policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael; Duffield, Christine; Aisbett, Chris; Diers, Donna; Stasa, Helen

    2012-01-01

    A significant body of research has shown a relationship between nurse staffing (in particular, skill-mix: the proportion of Registered Nurses [RNs]) and both morbidity and mortality. This relationship is typically investigated by measuring the incidence of Nursing Sensitive Outcomes (NSOs) under different skill-mix levels. Yet whilst the evidence suggests that richer skill-mix is associated with a lower incidence of NSOs, recent Australian policy reforms have proposed the replacement of Registered Nurses with less qualified staff. The present study sought to examine the relationship between staffing, skill-mix, and incidence of NSOs at two hospitals in one Australian state. The study sought to determine the rate of occurrence of several NSOs, the relationship of skill-mix to that rate, and the number of patients affected per annum. It was found that the current rate of NSOs across wards ranged from 0.17% to 1.05%, and that there was an inverse relationship between the proportion of hours worked by RNs and NSO rates: an increase of 10% in the proportion of hours worked by RNs was linked to a decrease in NSO rates by between 11% and 45%. It was estimated that increasing the RN staffing percentage by 10% would mean 160 fewer adverse outcomes for patients per year across these two hospitals. Importantly, increases in nursing hours overall (without increases in skill-mix) had no significant effect on patient outcomes. These findings challenge current policy recommendations, which propose increasing the number of unregistered staff without increasing skill-mix.

  2. Policy and practice of work ability: a negotiation of responsibility in organizing return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seing, Ida; Ståhl, Christian; Nordenfelt, Lennart; Bülow, Pia; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2012-12-01

    In welfare policy and practical work it is unclear what the concept of work ability involves and assessments may be different among involved actors, partly due to a lack of theoretical research in relation to regulations and practice. Based on theoretical and legal aspects of work ability the aim of the study is to analyze stakeholders' perspectives on work ability in local practice by studying multi-stakeholder meetings. The material comprises nine digitally recorded multi-stakeholder meetings. Apart from the sick-listed individual, representatives from the public Social Insurance Agency, health care, employers, public employment service and the union participated in the meeting. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three perspectives on work ability were identified: a medical perspective, a workplace perspective and a regulatory perspective. The meetings developed into negotiations of responsibility concerning workplace adjustments, rehabilitation efforts and financial support. Medical assessments served as objective expert statements to legitimize stakeholders' perspectives on work ability and return to work. Although the formal goal of the status meeting was to facilitate stakeholder collaboration, the results demonstrates an unequal distribution of power among cooperating actors where the employers had the "trump card" due to their possibilities to offer workplace adjustments. The employer perspective often determined whether or not persons could return to work and if they had work ability.

  3. User participation in a Municipal Acute Ward in Norway: dilemmas in the interface between policy ideals and work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Anne-Kari; Tveiten, Sidsel; Werner, Anne

    2017-08-23

    User participation has become an increasingly important principle in health care over the last few decades. Healthcare professionals are expected to involve patients in treatment decisions. Clear guidance as to what this should entail for professionals in clinical work is not accounted for in legislation. In this study, we explore how healthcare professionals in a Municipal Acute Ward perceived, experienced and performed user participation. The ward represents a new short-time service model for emergency assistance in Norway. We focused on the challenges the professionals faced in clinical work and how they dealt with these. Data were drawn from qualitative interviews with 11 healthcare professionals and from 10 observations in relation to previsits and physician's rounds in the ward. Transcripts of interviews and observations were analysed using a method for systematic text condensation. In the analysis, we applied Lipsky's perspective on dilemmas of street-level bureaucrats. The results show that that the professionals perceived user participation as an important and natural part of their work. They experienced difficulties related to collaboration with patients, caregivers, and professionals in other services, and with framework conditions that caused conflicting expectations, responsibility, and priorities. The professionals seemed to take a pragmatic approach to user participation, managing it within narrow perspectives. Our study indicates that the participants dealt with the dilemmas at the cost of user participation. The results demonstrate that there is a gap between the outlined health policy and the professionals' opportunities to fulfil this policy in clinical work regarding user participation. The policy decision-makers should recognise the balancing work required of healthcare professionals to deal with difficulties in clinical work. The knowledge that professionals possess as performers of services and the need for valuing in policy processes should

  4. Understanding Mali: Lessons for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Maliennes. Une Histoire En Trompe-L’œil,” Note de l’Ifri (2010), 11.. The case of the OCRS is further developed in the colonial legacy section. 74...Une Histoire En Trompe-L’œil,” 12. 18 Grémont, “Touaregs Et Arabes Dans Les Forces Armées Coloniales Et Maliennes. Une Histoire En Trompe-L’œil...Les Forces Armées Coloniales Et Maliennes. Une Histoire En Trompe-L’œil.” Note de l’Ifri (2010): 110 Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena. “Corruption

  5. How Do Organizational Policies and Practices Affect Return to Work and Work Role Functioning Following a Musculoskeletal Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amick, Benjamin C; Lee, Hyunmi; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Katz, Jeffrey N; Brouwer, Sandra; Franche, Renée-Louise; Bültmann, Ute

    Purpose Organizational-level policies and practices that promote safety leadership and practices, disability management and ergonomic policies and practices are considered key contextual determinants of return to work. Our objective was to examine the role of worker-reported organizational policies

  6. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...... as processes is utilised to stabilise a belief that undoing organisational structures and categories offer an almost limitless resource for a simultaneous improvement of performance and reduction of expenses....

  7. Globalizing Policy Sociology in Education: Working with Bourdieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Rawolle, Shaun; Taylor, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses Bourdieu to develop theorizing about policy processes in education and to extend the policy cycle approach in a time of globalization. Use is made of Bourdieu's concept of social field and the argument is sustained that in the context of globalization the field of educational policy has reduced autonomy, with enhanced cross-field…

  8. A Critical Assessment of Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Clive; Drewery, Sian

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors consider how effective social work has been in terms of evidence-based policies and practice. They consider the role that "evidence" plays in policy making both in the wider context and, in particular, in relation to social work. The authors argue that there are numerous voices in the policy-making process and evidence only plays a minor role in terms of policy development and practice in social work.

  9. The Reddy maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, Doron; Paldor, Nathan; Gorder, Stephen Van

    2002-09-01

    alterations bring the outflow closer and closer to the critical condition and it is, therefore, argued that all outflows ultimately reach the critical point (unless diffusion and mixing destroy them prior to that stage). It is suggested that Reddies (i.e., isolated lenses containing Red Sea water) are formed by the above processes. Namely, we propose that the "Reddy maker" is a combination of three processes, the natural reduction in the bottom slope which the outflow senses as it approaches the bottom of the ocean, the entrainment-induced increase in the outflow's thickness, and the entrainment-induced decrease in the outflow's density. An animation of the eddy generation process can be viewed at http://doronnof.net/features.html#video (click on "Reddy maker video").

  10. Advocating for Ethnographic Work in Early Childhood Federal Policy: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2011-01-01

    Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…

  11. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  12. "The Work Must Go On": The Role of Employee and Managerial Communication in the Use of Work-Life Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hoeven, Claartje L; Miller, Vernon D; Peper, Bram; den Dulk, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The Netherlands is characterized by extensive national work-life regulations relative to the United States. Yet, Dutch employees do not always take advantage of existing work-life policies. Individual and focus group interviews with employees and managers in three (public and private) Dutch organizations identified how employee and managerial communication contributed to acquired rules concerning work-life policies and the interpretation of allocative and authoritative resources for policy enactment. Analyses revealed differences in employees' and managers' resistance to policy, the binds and dilemmas experienced, and the coordination of agreements and actions to complete workloads. There are also differences between public and private contexts in the enactment of national and organizational policies, revealing how national (e.g., gender) and organizational (e.g., concertive control) mechanisms play out in employee and managerial communication that determine the use of work-life policies.

  13. The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan

    2012-06-01

    investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. The aim of the report is to provide the background for policy-makers and investors who want to incorporate the concept of 'true costs' into the discussion of electricity generation. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price. Whatever the state of the data and methods, the process of the analysis and stakeholder discussion can be just as important as the final results in providing guidance to decision-makers. Consideration of the true costs should be a component of decision-making for all energy investment worldwide. (authors)

  14. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 29 CFR 783.37 - Enforcement policy for non-seaman's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy for non-seaman's work. 783.37 Section... policy for non-seaman's work. In the enforcement of the Act, an employee will be regarded as “employed as... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  16. 29 CFR 786.1 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work... OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Carriers by Air § 786.1 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...

  17. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...] Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... (FEMA) is accepting comments on RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery Directorate policies are up to date, incorporate...

  18. 29 CFR 786.200 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Taxicab Operators § 786.200 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...

  19. Social Policy in Social Work PhD Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Gal, John; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2018-01-01

    While there has been a long-standing concern about the role of policy within social work education and social work practice, most of the emphasis has been on social work education at the BSW and MSW levels. This article examines policy education at the PhD level. It first explores how policy is taught in social work PhD programs in the United…

  20. Are sustainable tourism policies and strategies working in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...

  1. Monetary Policy at Work: Lessons from the FOMC Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) transcripts to reveal how the Federal Reserve shapes monetary policy. Analysis of the documents shows the Committee examining a wide variety of indicators and approaches in an attempt to determine the appropriate time for a policy change. Inflationary pressures were a preeminent concern. (MJP)

  2. Working Downstream: A Beginning EL Teacher Negotiating Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid; Appelgate, Mollie H.

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes how a beginning teacher struggled to meet her students' needs in an ESL classroom. Her struggle demonstrated the interrelated nature of policy and practice: Policy effects in her school isolated her and made her feel solely responsible for the achievement of her newly arrived English-learning (EL) students. Her case…

  3. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Dumit, Nuhad; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Maalouf, Salwa

    2011-02-01

    development were key work environment challenges contributing to the attrition on nurses from Lebanese hospitals. Although some of the issues identified are country specific, others would certainly be relevant to other countries in the EMR. Addressing these challenges would require a strong and coordinated action from governments, professional bodies, policy makers and health managers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Art of Influencing Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegmueller, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Influencing educational decision makers requires creating ongoing relationships, keeping everyone informed, and developing persuasive skills. Persuasion requires preparation, refinement, hard work, and a sound understanding of the people being lobbied. Lobbying must be factual and relevant to the audience. The article looks at influence from the…

  5. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  6. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  7. The economics of Language Policy: An Introduction to Evaluation Work

    OpenAIRE

    Grin, François; Vaillancourt, François

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents some of the main empirical methods used by economists who since the 1970s have contributed to the elaboration of language policies. This specific focus is the result of the theme of this book; it is more restrictive than discussions on the economics of language of the economics of language policy evaluation. Furthermore, this leads us to emphasize practice-oriented research using quantitative data, in which economists have addressed questions such as: "How much does it c...

  8. Opening the black box of ethics policy work: evaluating a covert practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea; Drolet, Katherine; Bryanton, Kim; Caron, Carole; Cupido, Cynthia; Flaherty, Barb; Fung, Sylvia; McCall, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) and ethicists generally describe themselves as engaged in four domains of practice: case consultation, research, education, and policy work. Despite the increasing attention to quality indicators, practice standards, and evaluation methods for the other domains, comparatively little is known or published about the policy work of HECs or ethicists. This article attempts to open the "black box" of this health care ethics practice by providing two detailed case examples of ethics policy reviews. We also describe the development and application of an evaluation strategy to assess the quality of ethics policy review work, and to enable continuous improvement of ethics policy review processes. Given the potential for policy work to impact entire patient populations and organizational systems, it is imperative that HECs and ethicists develop clearer roles, responsibilities, procedural standards, and evaluation methods to ensure the delivery of consistent, relevant, and high-quality ethics policy reviews.

  9. Makers of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollingdale, S. H

    1989-01-01

    Fascinating and highly readable, this book recounts the history of mathematics as revealed in the lives and writings of the most distinguished practitioners of the art: Archimedes, Descartes, Fermat, Pascal, Newton, Leibniz, Euler, Gauss, Hamilton, Einstein, and many more. Author Stuart Hollingdale introduces and explains the roles of these gifted and often colorful figures in the development of mathematics as well as the ways in which their work relates to mathematics as a whole.Although the emphasis in this absorbing survey is primarily biographical, Hollingdale also discusses major historic

  10. Social relations based on sex/gender and sexual division of work in the brazilian post office: female participation, professional hierarchy and management policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Gomes Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to analyze how social relations based on sex/gender and gender images have influenced the inclusion and participation of women in the operational area of the Brazilian Post and Telegraph Company (ECT. We seek to answer the following questions: How do the social relations based on sex and gender images influence the inclusion and participation of women in the state company? What is the image of women’s work in the company and how this image affects the career advancement? In what manner the union demands and the work management policies positions themselves in relation to gender issues? It is found that the workforce in ECT is mostly male and that the social relations based on sex presents a gender image among the employees, makers of labor management policies and trade unionists which associate the company work activities to men, reinforcing unequal sex/gender relations in this environment.

  11. Education Policy Implementation: A Literature Review and Proposed Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Romane; Pont, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This literature review focuses on education policy implementation, its definition, processes and determinants. It aims to clarify what implementing policies involve in complex education systems to support policy work, building on the literature and country examples. An introduction delves into the reasons behind the need to update the concept of…

  12. 29 CFR 786.150 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Employers Subject to Part 1 of Interstate Commerce Act § 786.150 Enforcement policy...

  13. 29 CFR 786.100 - Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Switchboard Operator Exemption § 786.100 Enforcement policy concerning performance of...

  14. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  15. Family care work: a policy-relevant research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; DePasquale, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    This article addresses the need for policy-relevant research agendas on family care in transaction with formal care and public as well as organisational norms and policies in light of the crisis in caregiving for older adults. We propose a combined institutional and life-course theoretical approach, suggesting seven ways of organising scholarly enquiry to promote understanding of the changing nature of family care in the 21st century, inform policymakers' efforts at supporting family caregivers and improve caregivers' and care recipients' quality of life. These include: (1) moving beyond snapshots of individuals; (2) conducting comparative cross-cultural and crosscohort analyses; (3) documenting social heterogeneity, vulnerability and inequality; (4) capturing individuals' and families' adaptive strategies and cycles of control during the caregiving process; (5) investigating policy innovations and natural experiments; (6) assessing third parties as mediating institutions between regulatory environments and caregiving families; and (7) attending to the subjective meanings of care.

  16. Work-life balance policies: challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Caroline; Koekemoer, Frieda Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Helping employees to balance their work and family lives is a business imperative. Work–life balance policies (like flexitime) aim to support employees to do so. However, implementing these policies is problematic. Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy. Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This r...

  17. Practice to Policy: Clinical psychologists' experiences of macro-level work

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, N.

    2017-01-01

    Many clinical psychologists are venturing beyond their traditional therapeutic roles to undertake macro-level work, engaging with social change, policy and public health. However, no research has systematically examined clinical psychologists’ roles in policy work and the implications for the profession. Part 1 of the thesis is a literature review of one area of macro-level policy aimed at improving the social determinants of mental health. It reviews nine intervention studies of housing impr...

  18. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Harding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  19. Conflict between Work and Family: An Investigation of Four Policy Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppanner, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Welfare states enact a range of policies aimed at reducing work-family conflict. While welfare state policies have been assessed at the macro-level and work-family conflict at the individual-level, few studies have simultaneously addressed these relationships in a cross-national multi-level model. This study addresses this void by assessing the…

  20. Flexible working policies and environments in UK Local Authorities: current practice

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn

    2001-01-01

    The research surveys the uptake of 'modern' or flexible working practices in UK Local Authorities, especially as it impacts on property and office accommodation.\\ud Nearly all permit flexible starting and finishing times for as many employees as is practical while forms of accredited hours working for at least some appropriate employees are policy in a majority. Flexible practices with property and ICT implications, working from home without a dedicated work station, formal policies, 'hot' de...

  1. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement : Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work

  2. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers’ Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Wind, A. de; Burdorf, A.; Geuskens, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work

  3. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  4. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  5. Flexibility in faculty work-life policies at medical schools in the Big Ten conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Julie L; Wiehe, Sarah E; Palmer-Smith, Victoria; Dankoski, Mary E

    2011-05-01

    Women lag behind men in several key academic indicators, such as advancement, retention, and securing leadership positions. Although reasons for these disparities are multifactorial, policies that do not support work-life integration contribute to the problem. The objective of this descriptive study was to compare the faculty work-life policies among medical schools in the Big Ten conference. Each institution's website was accessed in order to assess its work-life policies in the following areas: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of probationary period, part-time appointments, part-time benefits (specifically health insurance), child care options, and lactation policy. Institutions were sent requests to validate the online data and supply additional information if needed. Each institution received an overall score and subscale scores for family leave policies and part-time issues. Data were verified by the human resources office at 8 of the 10 schools. Work-life policies varied among Big Ten schools, with total scores between 9.25 and 13.5 (possible score: 0-21; higher scores indicate greater flexibility). Subscores were not consistently high or low within schools. Comparing the flexibility of faculty work-life policies in relation to other schools will help raise awareness of these issues and promote more progressive policies among less progressive schools. Ultimately, flexible policies will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty.

  6. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  7. Leaders' mental health at work: Empirical, methodological, and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika

    2017-07-01

    While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  9. Integrated Assessment of the Policy of Working Capital Management in Housing and Utilities Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrovich Poluyanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the management of current assets in the enterprises of various industries in economic literature. We discuss theoretical, methodological and applied issues concerning the formation and improvement of the working capital management policy in utility companies, which require further study. The authors propose to assess the policy of working capital management in these enterprises by means of the integrated approach based on the system of reasoned indicators defining the type of working capital management policy. It includes indicators characterizing the policy of working capital management, management of the liquidity of working capital and the policy of financing sources management. The indicators which define the type of the policy of working capital management have been chosen as the most influential for each vector of the improvement of management policy. The range of values is set taking into account the current market conditions for the housing and utilities companies based on theoretical standard values adapted to modern situation. The paper proposes to use an integrated indicator for the evaluation of the policy of working capital management in housing and utilities enterprises. We have substantiated the technique of the integrated assessment of the policy of working capital management in housing and utilities companies. As an example of the application of this indicator, we defined the type of the policy of working capital management in Rostovvodokanal Company. The initial data for the calculation of integrated indicators are the official data on the structure of the balance and financial results of Rostovvodokanal Company during the period from 2012 to 2016. At the Rostovvodokanal Company, it is necessary to bring the type of the policy of working capital management and sources of its financing closer to moderate or conservative type. The authors have substantiated the optimal type of policy of

  10. Fathers and work-life balance in France and the UK:Policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Abigail; Milner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the role of organizations in mediating the impact of national work-life balance (WLB) policy on employees, in particular fathers. Design/methodology/approach – It presents existing research about WLB policy implementation in organizations as well as the findings of empirical work in insurance and social work in France and the UK (questionnaire survey, case study analysis, interviews with national and sector-level trade union officials). Findings – These indicat...

  11. FileMaker Pro 9

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q

  12. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  13. The Association between Education and Work Stress: Does the Policy Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. Methods We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies (‘Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’ and the ‘English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) ‘protective’ policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) ‘integrative’ policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Results Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced ‘integrative’ policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Conclusions Our results point to

  14. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  15. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  16. Family Policy, Women's Access to Paid Work and Decommodification

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Alexander Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I present a new analytical approach to the study of women's employment. Using data on 18 OECD countries from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), I model cross-national variation in "the gap" between women's orientations toward work and family and their employment trajectories over the life course. The existence of a gap at the individual level indicates that a woman followed an employment trajectory that is inconsistent with her work-family orientations--for e...

  17. Implementation of the EU-policy framework WFD and GWD in Europe - Activities of CIS Working Group Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grath, Johannes; Ward, Rob; Hall, Anna

    2013-04-01

    At the European level, the basic elements for groundwater management and protection are laid down in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) and the Groundwater Daughter Directive (2006/118/EC). EU Member States, Norway and the European Commission (EC) have jointly developed a common strategy for supporting the implementation of the WFD. The main aim of this Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) is to ensure the coherent and harmonious implementation of the directives through the clarification of a number of methodological questions enabling a common understanding to be reached on the technical and scientific implications of the WFD (European Communities, 2008). Groundwater specific issues are dealt with in Working Group C Groundwater. Members of the working group are experts nominated by Member states, Norway, Switzerland and Accession Countries (from administrative bodies, research institutes, …) and representatives from relevant stakeholders and NGOs. Working Group C Groundwater has produced numerous guidance documents and technical reports that have been endorsed by EU Water Directors to support and enable Member States to implement the directives. All the documents are published by the EC. Access is available via the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/groundwater/activities.htm Having addressed implementations issues during the 1st river basin planning cycle, WG C Groundwater is currently focussing on the following issues: groundwater dependent ecosystems, and climate change and groundwater. In the future, the outcome and recommendations of the "Blueprint" - to safeguard Europe's water resources - which was recently published by the EC will be of utmost importance in setting the agenda for the group. Most likely this will include water pricing, water demand management and water abstraction. Complementory to the particular working groups, a Science Policy Interface (SPI) activity has been established. Its purpose is

  18. Teachers' Work, Food Policies, and Gender in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.; McEntarfer, Heather Killelea

    2014-01-01

    Few studies explore teachers' involvement in school feeding, questioning gendered implications within a feminine and feminized profession. Ethnographic data from one public high school in Metropolitan Buenos Aires suggest that teachers' efforts to address student hunger added new work roles: food advocates/activists, food managers, and service…

  19. Comparing Different European Income Tax Policies Making Work Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); J.M. Julsing

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRaising the participation at the lower end of the labour market abstract is hindered by the high burden of taxation. Therefore, recently, in some European countries serious efforts have been made to make work pay. In this paper an overview of these current efforts is given. With the

  20. Work-life policies for faculty at the top ten medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Mirar N; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Cappola, Anne R; Sonnad, Seema S

    2008-10-01

    There exists a growing consensus that career flexibility is critical to recruiting and retaining talented faculty, especially women faculty. This study was designed to determine both accessibility and content of work-life policies for faculty at leading medical schools in the United States. The sample includes the top ten medical schools in the United States published by U.S. News and World Report in August 2006. We followed a standardized protocol to collect seven work-life policies at each school: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of the probationary period for family responsibilities, part-time faculty appointments, job sharing, and child care. A review of information provided on school websites was followed by e-mail or phone contact if needed. A rating system of 0-3 (low to high flexibility) developed by the authors was applied to these policies. Rating reflected flexibility and existing opinions in published literature. Policies were often difficult to access. Individual scores ranged from 7 to 15 out of a possible 21 points. Extension of the probationary period received the highest cumulative score across schools, and job sharing received the lowest cumulative score. For each policy, there were important differences among schools. Work-life policies showed considerable variation across schools. Policy information is difficult to access, often requiring multiple sources. Institutions that develop flexible work-life policies that are widely promoted, implemented, monitored, and reassessed are likely at an advantage in attracting and retaining faculty while advancing institutional excellence.

  1. Movements, Countermovements and Policy Adoption: The Case of Right-to-Work Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Research on social movements and public policy has expanded tremendously in recent years, yet little of this work considers the role of movement opponents in the political process or how the movement-countermovement dynamic is influential in contests over policy. This historical study begins to fill this void by analyzing the contestation between…

  2. Extending Theorisations of the Global Teacher: Care Work, Gender, and Street-Level Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with teachers' negotiation of global transitions premised on improving educational opportunity with implications for professionalism. The study blends sociology of gender, work, and organisations and gender policy analysis to theorise teachers' policy negotiations. I explore how 20 Argentine teachers mediate 3 programmes'…

  3. Financial Aid Research: The Nexus of Academic, Practitioner, and Policy Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Academic research often does not find its way into the policy arena because of the nature of the work. Policymakers often find journal articles and academic books too long, difficult to understand, and lacking in policy-relevant ideas and recommendations. This article provides suggestions to academic and other researchers on how to make their…

  4. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a

  5. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the policy paper presented is to recommend the actions deemed necessary to assure that future US and other non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate to meet future energy demand. Taken together, the recommended decisions and actions form a nuclear fuels supply policy for the United States Government and for the private sector, and new areas of responsibility for the appropriate international organizations in which the US participates. The principal conclusions and recommendations are that the US and the other industrialized non-Communist countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends upon the security of supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another. The substitutability and efficient use of energy resources are enhanced by accelerating the supply and use of electricity

  6. Work-Life: Policy and Practice Impacting LG Faculty and Staff in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Sunny L.; Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The work-life policies and benefits practices of public universities and the extent to which lesbian and gay (LG) faculty, staff and families receive different work-life benefits than their heterosexual married counterparts are examined. The analysis was conducted by searching university work-life benefits websites. Major benefits for domestic…

  7. Workplace Policies and Mental Health among Working-Class, New Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul

    2016-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to...

  8. AdvanceVT Work/Life Policies : Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    AdvanceVT

    2010-01-01

    AdvanceVT’s 2008 Faculty Work/Life Survey showed that 59% of tenured and tenure-track faculty members at Virginia Tech believe it is difficult to have a personal life and earn tenure and 48% feel that their family responsibilities have slowed their career advancement. Female faculty members indicated that they have considered leaving the university in order to obtain better career opportunities for their spouse or partner (43%), as well as to achieve a better personal/professional balance (50...

  9. Gender Mainstreaming and Work-Family Reconciliation. An Analysis of Family Policies in Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Crușmac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender Mainstreaming (GM was introduced by the European Union (EU in 1997, as a strategy to achieve gender equality in all policy areas. Yet, European countries greatly diverge in their progress of implementation. We investigate the role GM played in Romanian and German policies aimed at achieving work-family reconciliation, using concepts from feminist policy analysis. Our analysis shows that pre-existing policies and discourse, the economic situation, as well as the relationship with the EU have shaped and impeded the implementation process of GM in both countries. While Germany slowly moves towards more egalitarian policies, GM as label and strategy did not succeed. In Romania, GM has only impacted work and family reconciliation indirectly through EU legislation.

  10. Policy on manager involvement in work re-integration: managers' experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2014-01-01

    In Canada and other countries, sickness absence among workers is a significant concern. Local return-to-work policies developed by both management and workers' representatives are preferred to tackle the problem. This article examines how managers perceive this local bipartite agreed upon return-to-work policy, wherein a social constructivist view on the policy process is taken. In-depth interviews were held with 10 managers on their experiences with execution of this policy in a Canadian healthcare organization. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative analyses were completed to gain deep insight into the managers' perspectives. Results show that the managers viewed themselves as a linchpin between the workplace and the worker. They did not feel heard by the other stakeholders, wrestled with worker's limitations, struggled getting plans adjusted and became overextended to meet return-to-work objectives. The study shows that the managers felt unable to meet the responsibilities the policy demanded and got less involved in the return-to-work process than this policy intended. RTW policy needs to balance on the one hand, flexibility to safeguard active involvement of managers and, on the other hand, strictness regarding taking responsibility by stakeholders, particularly the health care and re-integration professionals.

  11. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  12. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  13. Module 4: Work-Family Policy in the United States. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Shulkin, Sandee; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Public policy affects the experiences of workers and their families, both directly and indirectly. For example, employment-focused statutes such as the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Employment Retirement and Income Security Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act establish frameworks for…

  14. Trouble makers : Laura Poitras and the problem of dissent

    OpenAIRE

    Danchev, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review article considers three works by the distinguished documentary film-maker Laura Poitras: My country, my country (2006); The oath (2010); and the recently released Citizenfour (2014), focusing on the whistle-blower Edward Snowden. Poitras describes these works as a trilogy about American power after 9/11, but they are also about disobedience and resistance, or the problem of dissent. The article argues for the significance (and the virtue) of Poitras's project, as film maker and tr...

  15. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  16. Work-Life balance: towards an agenda for policy learning between Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Lore

    2002-01-01

    This survey analyses the political context, the legislative frameworks and the policy developments in an area that is now widely termed 'work-life balance' in both the United Kingdom and Germany. It also looks at the theoretical notions of time in relation to work and family life and gives examples of research in the public, private and voluntary sector.

  17. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Policy Paper recommends the actions deemed necessary to assure that future U.S. and non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate, considering the following: estimates of modest growth in overall energy demand, electrical energy demand, and nuclear electrical energy demand in the U.S. and abroad, predicated upon the continuing trends involving conservation of energy, increased use of electricity, and moderate economic growth (Chap. I); possibilities for the development and use of all domestic resources providing energy alternatives to imported oil and gas, consonant with current environmental, health, and safety concerns (Chap. II); assessment of the traditional energy sources which provide current alternatives to nuclear energy (Chap. II); evaluation of realistic expectations for additional future energy supplies from prospective technologies: enhanced recovery from traditional sources and development and use of oil shales and synthetic fuels from coal, fusion and solar energy (Chap. II); an accounting of established nuclear technology in use today, in particular the light water reactor, used for generating electricity (Chap. III); an estimate of future nuclear technology, in particular the prospective fast breeder (Chap. IV); current and projected nuclear fuel demand and supply in the U.S. and abroad (Chaps. V and VI); the constraints encountered today in meeting nuclear fuels demand (Chap. VII); and the major unresolved issues and options in nuclear fuels supply and use (Chap. VIII). The principal conclusions and recommendations (Chap. IX) are that the U.S. and other industrialized countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends on the secure supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another

  18. Flexible Work: The Impact of a New Policy on Employees' Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heidi M; Brown, Wendy J; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Burton, Nicola W

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess change in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in office-based employees after the implementation of a flexible work policy that allowed working at home. A total of 24 employees (62% female; 40 ± 10 years) completed an online questionnaire 4 weeks pre- and 6 weeks post-implementation of the policy. Changes in PA and SB were assessed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. There were no changes in PA after the introduction of the flexible work policy (Z = -0.29, P > 0.05). Sitting time increased on days the employees worked at home (Z = -2.02, P > 0.05) and on days they worked at the office (Z = -4.16, P > 0.001). A flexible work policy may have had a negative impact on sedentary behavior in this workplace. Future work is needed to explore the potential impact on workplace sitting time.

  19. Licensing Surrogate Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2017-06-01

    As medical technology continues to improve, more people will live longer lives with multiple chronic illnesses with increasing cumulative debilitation, including cognitive dysfunction. Combined with the aging of society in most developed countries, an ever-growing number of patients will require surrogate decision-makers. While advance care planning by patients still capable of expressing their preferences about medical interventions and end-of-life care can improve the quality and accuracy of surrogate decisions, this is often not the case, not infrequently leading to demands for ineffective, inappropriate and prolonged interventions. In 1980 LaFollette called for the licensing of prospective parents, basing his argument on the harm they can do to vulnerable people (children). In this paper, I apply his arguments to surrogate decision-makers for cognitively incapacitated patients, rhetorically suggesting that we require potential surrogates to qualify for this position by demonstrating their ability to make reasonable and rational decisions for others. I employ this theoretical approach to argue that the loose criteria by which we authorize surrogates' generally unchallenged power should be reconsidered.

  20. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.

  1. FileMaker Pro 11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on, friendly guide shows you how to harness FileMaker's power to make your information work for you. With a few mouse clicks, the FileMaker Pro 11 database helps you create and print corporate reports, manage a mailing list, or run your entire business. FileMaker Pro 11: The Missing Manual helps you get started, build your database, and produce results, whether you're running a business, pursuing a hobby, or planning your retirement. It's a thorough, accessible guide for new, non-technical users, as well as those with more experience. Start up: Get your first database up and runnin

  2. Searching for Substance: Externalization, Politicization and the Work of Canadian Policy Consultants 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of policy advisory systems and the capacity and influence of individual system actors has been a subject of much interest in recent years, especially vis-à-vis observed trends towards the twin themes of politicization and externalization of policy advice. Studies to date for the most part have focused only on the capacity of highly visible advisory system actors such as professional policy analysts in government or those in the NGO and business sectors. This study examines the role of the ‘shadow’ or ‘invisible’ actors employed by governments on temporary contracts as managerial or other kinds of policy consultants to undertake activities related to policy development and evaluation processes. The study reports on the findings of a 2012-2013 survey of such consultants in Canada and presents data on relevant aspects of their background, training, perceptions and capabilities compared to permanent policy analysts employed fulltime by governments. It finds most consultants to be better qualified than their permanent counterparts and to primarily engage, like the latter, in process-related policy work. This answers some questions about the roles and relationships of these members of the advisory system but raises other questions about where the ‘substance’ of policies originates.

  3. The Effect of Work-family Balance Policy on Childbirth and Women's Work

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuochi, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of Japan's 2005 work-family legislation?the Act on Advancement of Measures to Support Raising Next-Generation Children? on childbirth and women's job continuity. This Act requires firms to support their employees in bearing and rearing children. In particular, it helps working women to continue their careers, thereby reducing the opportunity cost of having children and boosting childbirth. Although the Act requires large firms to support their employees in this ...

  4. Policy implications of the purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances among China’s urban residents: Do subsidies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Dongxue

    2017-01-01

    Incentive policies are always used to sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products by many countries or regions. So the effectiveness of such subsidies has been of much concern to scholars. This research focused on whether, or not, subsidy policies have guided people's intentions and behaviours. We investigated 436 urban residents from 22 provinces in China, covering the seven major geographic regions, and made an empirical analysis of the factors influencing Chinese urban residents’ purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances based on the structural equation model. On theoretical aspect, we developed the theory of planned behaviour. Our results show that the variable “POLICY” is insignificant which indicates that policy environment and media propaganda in China do not have significant effect on Chinese residents’ willingness to pay for energy-efficient appliances. While, the residents’ environmental awareness, past purchasing experiences, social relationships, age, and level of education all exert a significant influence on Chinese residents’ purchasing intentions. Finally, based on the above research results, the corresponding policy suggestions which mainly focus on the time of subsidy, the object of subsidy and the method of subsidy are offered for policy makers. - Highlights: • We researched people’s behaviour combined with a policy implementation background. • We found that the subsidy policy didn’t change people’s purchase intentions. • Past purchasing experiences significantly influence consumers’ purchase intentions. • We proposed policy advices about the time, types and methods of incentive policies.

  5. Work stress and depressive symptoms in older employees: impact of national labour and social policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-11-21

    Maintaining health and work ability among older employees is a primary target of national labour and social policies (NLSP) in Europe. Depression makes a significant contribution to early retirement, and chronic work-related stress is associated with elevated risks of depression. We test this latter association among older employees and explore to what extent indicators of distinct NLSP modify the association between work stress and depressive symptoms. We choose six indicators, classified in three categories: (1) investment in active labour market policies, (2) employment protection, (3) level of distributive justice. We use data from three longitudinal ageing studies (SHARE, HRS, ELSA) including 5650 men and women in 13 countries. Information on work stress (effort-reward imbalance, low work control) and depressive symptoms (CES-D, EURO-D) was obtained. Six NLSP indicators were selected from OECD databases. Associations of work stress (2004) with depressive symptoms (2006) and their modification by policy indicators were analysed using logistic multilevel models. Risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up is higher among those experiencing effort-reward imbalance (OR: 1.55 95% CI 1.27-1.89) and low control (OR: 1.46 95% CI 1.19-1.79) at work. Interaction terms indicate a modifying effect of a majority of protective NLSP indicators on the strength of associations of effort - reward imbalance with depressive symptoms. Work stress is associated with elevated risk of prospective depressive symptoms among older employees from 13 European countries. Protective labour and social policies modify the strength of these associations. If further supported findings may have important policy implications.

  6. The effect of work-life balance policies on women employees turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang Hui-Yu; Noriaki Mamiko Takeuchi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationship between work-life balance policies and three outcomes of interest to employers and employees: the job tenure of women employees, turnover rate of women employees and retention rate of new women graduates. In the cross sectional analysis, we find that firms with work-life balance policies such as the full amount of maternity pay practice and flextime system are positively associated with the job tenure of women employees. We also find that the full am...

  7. Health System Decision Makers' Feedback on Summaries and Tools Supporting the Use of Systematic Reviews: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E.; Lavis, John N.; Wilson, Michael G.; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Haynes, R. Brian; Ouimet, Mathieu; Raina, Parminder; Gruen, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Health system managers and policy makers need timely access to high quality, policy-relevant systematic reviews. Our objectives were to obtain managers' and policy makers' feedback about user-friendly summaries of systematic reviews and about tools related to supporting or assessing their use. Our interviews identified that participants prefer key…

  8. Working Capital Management Policies and Returns of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Anokye M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effects aggressive/conservative current asset investment and financing policies have on firms′ return for six manufacturing firms listed at Ghana Stock Exchange for a period of 2000-2013. Data were obtained from the annual reports of the firms and the Ghana Stock Exchange. The study adopted longitudinal explanatory non-experimental research design applied to dynamic panel ARDL framework in analyzing the data. The results revealed that the current asset investment and financing policies have highly significant positive effects on returns to equity holders in the long-run. The empirical evidence suggests that conservative current asset investment policies increase firms return while conservative financing policies yields negative returns. The study therefore would enable finance managers to be able to fashion out the appropriate working capital management policies. A firm pursuing conservative current asset investment policy should balance it with aggressive current asset financing policy in order to enhance profitability and create value for their investors.

  9. A Mysterious European Threesome: Work-care Regimes, Policies and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália Torres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Arguing that European family lives are affected by many societal factors, this article discusses the interplay between three sets of phenomena: the management of work and care responsibilities, workcarepolicies and regimes, and gender order within the family context. Based on discussions about orientations to work and care, we compare European countries and analyze regularities and singularities among them. Identifying and assessing the interplay between structural, institutional and cultural determinants of orientations we try to explain country diversity mobilizing data from the European Social Survey (rounds 2002, 2004 and 2006 and data from Eurobarometer 2003.The paper is organized around three analytical axes. First, we nalyze how work and family orientations are perceived by the Europeans. Secondly, we assess different European political policies regarding work and care arrangements, the outcome being a proposal for a workcare political typology. And finally we discuss the connectionsbetween those policies and the production or reproduction of gender order within the family. We conclude that in countries with more egalitarian gender values and policies targeted at workcarearrangements, individuals experience less workfamily conflict. Conversely, in countries with more traditional gender values and restricted or disadvantaged policies we found more familyworkconflict. But institutional constraints don’t act alone: orientations to work and care differ according to age, education, family forms and employment status.

  10. Ethics policies and ethics work in cross-national genetic research and data sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.

    2017-01-01

    of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines...

  11. Beyond engagement in working with children in eight Nairobi slums to address safety, security, and housing: Digital tools for policy and community dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Chege, Fatuma; Maina, Lucy; Rothman, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the ways in which researchers working in the area of health and social research and using participatory visual methods might extend the reach of participant-generated creations such as photos and drawings to engage community leaders and policy-makers. Framed as going 'beyond engagement', the article explores the idea of the production of researcher-led digital dialogue tools, focusing on one example, based on a series of visual arts-based workshops with children from eight slums in Nairobi addressing issues of safety, security, and well-being in relation to housing. The authors conclude that there is a need for researchers to embark upon the use of visual tools to expand the life and use of visual productions, and in particular to ensure meaningful participation of communities in social change.

  12. Policies for school-to-work transitions in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    2018-01-01

    All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....

  13. Policies of school-to-work transitions and VET in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish...... and Finnish policies for supporting young people’s edu¬ca¬¬tional and school-to-work transitions, with a particular focus on NEETs and dropouts. The comparison is exploratory and aims to illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of each system in reducing dropout rates and promoting smooth transitions. We draw...... and migrant youth, the political discourse is marked more by ideas of employability and vulnerability than of personal development and citizenship....

  14. Policy to Foster Civility and Support a Healthy Academic Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Ritter, Katy

    2018-06-01

    Incivility in academic workplaces can have detrimental effects on individuals, teams, departments, and the campus community at large. Alternately, healthy academic workplaces generate heightened levels of employee satisfaction, engagement, and morale. This article describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive, legally defensible policy related to workplace civility and the establishment of a healthy academic work environment. A detailed policy exemplar is included to provide a structure for fostering a healthy academic work environment, a fair, consistent, confidential procedure for defining and addressing workplace incivility, a mechanism for reporting and subsequent investigation of uncivil acts if indicated, and ways to foster civility and respectful workplace behavior. The authors detail a step-by-step procedure and an incremental approach to address workplace incivility and reward policy adherence. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(6):325-331.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    This case study uses a feminist framework to examine the 7-year process by which the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (1978-1985) became law and the reasons for reenergized implementation in the 1990s. We analyze the legislative discourse for rationale in support of and opposition to this policy, connect findings to current flexible work…

  16. School-to-Work Transition in Arizona: Does Public Policy Ignore Social Equality for Rural Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Public policy implications for Arizona of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act are explored, specifically with regard to rural areas. It is argued that should additional resources become available to the state, population-based allocations to rural areas are likely to be insufficient for meaningful educational and economic-development reform. (SLD)

  17. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public

  18. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  19. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  20. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.; Gier, E. de; Smulders, P.; Draaisma, D.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative inventory of regulations, policies and practices in The Netherlands, Sweden, UK, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work stress was carried out. In each country data were collected by means of interviews with key informants and through exploring relevant documents and

  1. Part-Time Working by Students: Is It a Policy Issue, and for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Patton, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from interviews with representatives of national and state organisations that have a policy interest in student-working in Australia. The interviewees included representatives from employer bodies and trade unions as well as government organisations. The data are used to discuss these stakeholders' perceptions of the main…

  2. Work and Family Directions in the US and Australia: A Policy Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; Rosanna Scutella; Amy Varner

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative glimpse of work/family issues in Australia and the US. It begins with a summary of an emerging vision of ideal policies and practices for work and family. The paper then provides historical background for the recent emergence of a 'care gap' in both countries, focusing on key commonalities and differences. The current status of the gap and the related 'default solution' to the gap are then outlined. Key commonalities here include an increasing diversity of fa...

  3. EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRAȘCU DANUȚ DUMITRU

    2012-12-01

    distributed to managers of educational institutions respectively partners with the school Romanian Technical College Matthias Hd. Following the research conducted, the results have shown that due to political differences between countries in European schools are not governed by the same principles regarding the type of autonomy and its extension. In some countries, schools have been granted considerable freedoms, such as in Belgium and the Netherlands. At the other extreme, Spain and France, the transfer of responsibilities was limited. In order to ensure that the information in this study is an accurate representation, questionnaires were distributed to several schools in the countries surveyed. Processed data are related to school year 2010-2011. The data obtained from research can help in better understanding partly the diverse nature of school autonomy policies and models in their takeover by the makers of Romanian school units. The implications of work on management school education are to link the level of autonomy granted and the intensity of monitoring procedures put on the bodies at the school and the staff involved. This study examines the correlation that exists between the degree of autonomy delegated power and the responsibility of school measures that were implemented. The added value of the work lies in the fact that the study focused on several sides of the school management process from the authorities in charge of appointing school managers to autonomy in terms of managerial strategy. Keywords:makers,school autonomy,management body,complete autonomy,school management Cod JEL.:I

  4. Making the CMS payment policy for healthcare-associated infections work: organizational factors that matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy; Hartmann, Christine W; Soerensen, Christina; Wroe, Peter; Dutta-Linn, Maya; Lee, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are among the most common adverse events in hospitals, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them are significant. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a new financial policy that no longer provides payment to hospitals for services related to certain infections not present on admission and deemed preventable. At present, little is known about how this policy is being implemented in hospital settings. One key goal of the policy is for it to serve as a quality improvement driver within hospitals, providing the rationale and motivation for hospitals to engage in greater infection-related surveillance and prevention activities. This article examines the role organizational factors, such as leadership and culture, play in the effectiveness of the CMS policy as a quality improvement (QI) driver within hospital settings. Between late 2009 and early 2010, interviews were conducted with 36 infection preventionists working at a national sample of 36 hospitals. We found preliminary evidence that hospital executive behavior, a proactive infection control (IC) culture, and clinical staff engagement played a favorable role in enhancing the recognition, acceptance, and significance of the CMS policy as a QI driver within hospitals. We also found several other contextual factors that may impede the degree to which the above factors facilitate links between the CMS policy and hospital QI activities.

  5. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  6. Rethinking work and family policy: the making and taking of parental leave in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M; Litwin, A S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.

  7. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Kent Anger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective policy implementation is essential for a healthy workplace. The Ryan-Kossek 2008 model for work-life policy adoption suggests that supervisors as gatekeepers between employer and employee need to know how to support and communicate benefit regulations. This article describes a workplace intervention on a national employee benefit, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention on supervisor knowledge, awareness, and experience with FMLA. Methods The intervention consisted of computer-based training (CBT) and a survey measuring awareness and experience with FMLA. The training was administered to 793 county government supervisors in the state of Oregon, USA. Results More than 35% of supervisors reported no previous training on FMLA and the training pre-test revealed a lack of knowledge regarding benefit coverage and employer responsibilities. The CBT achieved: (1) a significant learning effect and large effect size of d = 2.0, (2) a positive reaction to the training and its design, and (3) evidence of increased knowledge and awareness regarding FMLA. Conclusion CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA. PMID:24106648

  8. The National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria: the working mother and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worugji, I N E; Etuk, S J

    2005-08-01

    In this article, we examine the National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria, the extent to which the law guarantees and protects the maternity rights of the working mother, and the interplay between the law and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Our aim is to make people aware of this interplay to lead to some positive efforts to sanitize the workplace and shield women from some of the practices against them in employment relations in Nigeria as well as encourage exclusive breastfeeding by employed mothers.We conclude that the provisions of the law in this regard are not in accord with the contemporary international standards for the protection of pregnancy and maternity. It does not guarantee and protect the freedom of the nursing mother to exclusively breastfeed the child for at least the 6 months as propagated by Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Moreover, there is no enabling law to back up the National Policy Initiative as it affects employer and employee relations. We, therefore, suggest a legal framework for effective implementation of the National Breastfeeding Policy for women in dependent labour relations. It is hoped that such laws will not only limit some of the practices against women in employment but also will encourage and promote exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by employed mothers.

  9. How important are work-family support policies? A meta-analytic investigation of their effects on employee outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Marcus M; Casper, Wendy J; Yang, Tae Seok

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines relationships between work-family support policies, which are policies that provide support for dependent care responsibilities, and employee outcomes by developing a conceptual model detailing the psychological mechanisms through which policy availability and use relate to work attitudes. Bivariate results indicated that availability and use of work-family support policies had modest positive relationships with job satisfaction, affective commitment, and intentions to stay. Further, tests of differences in effect sizes showed that policy availability was more strongly related to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and intentions to stay than was policy use. Subsequent meta-analytic structural equation modeling results indicated that policy availability and use had modest effects on work attitudes, which were partially mediated by family-supportive organization perceptions and work-to-family conflict, respectively. Additionally, number of policies and sample characteristics (percent women, percent married-cohabiting, percent with dependents) moderated the effects of policy availability and use on outcomes. Implications of these findings and directions for future research on work-family support policies are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. What do decision makers learn from public forums on climate-related hazards and resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2017-12-01

    Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.

  11. Mexican Americans are Less Likely to Return to Work Following Stroke: Clinical and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2016-08-01

    Greater poststroke disability and U.S. employment policies may disadvantage minority stroke survivors from returning to work. We explored ethnic differences in return to work among Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) working at the time of their stroke. Stroke patients were identified from the population-based BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) study from August 2011 to December 2013. Employment status was obtained at baseline and 90-day interviews. Sequential logistic regression models were built to assess ethnic differences in return to work after accounting for the following: (1) age (working at the time of their stroke, of which 125 (63%) completed the 90-day outcome interview. Forty-nine (40%) stroke survivors returned to work by 90 days. MAs were less likely to return to work (OR = .45, 95% CI .22-.94) than NHWs. The ethnic difference became nonsignificant after adjusting for NIHSS (OR = .59, 95% CI .24-1.44) and further attenuated after adjusting for education (OR = .85, 95% CI .32- 2.22). The majority of stroke survivors did not return to work within 90 days of their stroke. MA stroke survivors were less likely to return to work after stroke than NHW stroke survivors which was due to their greater neurological deficits and lower educational attainment compared with that of NHW stroke survivors. Future work should focus on clinical and policy efforts to reduce ethnic disparities in return to work. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace Policies and Mental Health among Working-Class, New Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Halpern, Hillary Paul

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them. Results revealed, however, that, when available, schedule flexibility was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less anxiety for new mothers. Greater child care supports predicted fewer depressive symptoms for fathers. In terms of crossover effects, longer maternal leave predicted declines in fathers' anxiety across the first year. Results are discussed with attention to how certain workplace policies may serve to alleviate new parents' lack of time and resources (minimize scarcity of resources) and, in turn, predict better mental health during the sensitive period of new parenthood.

  13. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  14. Nuclear power: the decision makers speak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.L.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1980, the authors surveyed selected scientific experts, decision-makers in financial and regulatory communities and Congress, and directors of major activist groups for national environmental organizations. Questions concerned policy preferences for and general attitudes toward nuclear energy, problems, energy resources, and considerations important to most influential groups in nuclear development. The survey revealed, surprisingly, that most regulators, congressional leaders, outside experts, and financiers are as united in their support of nuclear energy development as are industry executives, Three Mile Island notwithstanding. The antinuclear perspective is represented almost entirely by the heads of activist groups and a few scattered allies in Congress, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. A relatively few dissenters have played a major role in blocking nuclear development. Implications for the regulatory process from these survey results are that cost-benefit analyses and empirical findings on nuclear power issues will not convince activists and their followers; it appears that they have acquired a kind of veto over nuclear development. Through actively political behavior in the contest for nuclear energy's future, and through sympathetic media, activists have won the American public to their side. 7 tables

  15. Statins: antimicrobial resistance breakers or makers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey H.T. Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The repurposing of non-antibiotic drugs as adjuvant antibiotics may help break antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Statins are commonly prescribed worldwide to lower cholesterol. They also possess qualities of AMR “breakers”, namely direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics, and ability to stimulate the host immune system. However, statins’ role as AMR breakers may be limited. Their current extensive use for cardiovascular protection might result in selective pressures for resistance, ironically causing statins to be AMR “makers” instead. This review examines statins’ potential as AMR breakers, probable AMR makers, and identifies knowledge gaps in a statin-bacteria-human-environment continuum. The most suitable statin for repurposing is identified, and a mechanism of antibacterial action is postulated based on structure-activity relationship analysis. Methods A literature search using keywords “statin” or “statins” combined with “minimum inhibitory concentration” (MIC was performed in six databases on 7th April 2017. After screening 793 abstracts, 16 relevant studies were identified. Unrelated studies on drug interactions; antifungal or antiviral properties of statins; and antibacterial properties of mevastatin, cerivastatin, antibiotics, or natural products were excluded. Studies involving only statins currently registered for human use were included. Results Against Gram-positive bacteria, simvastatin generally exerted the greatest antibacterial activity (lowest MIC compared to atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. Against Gram-negative bacteria, atorvastatin generally exhibited similar or slightly better activity compared to simvastatin, but both were more potent than rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Discussion Statins may serve as AMR breakers by working synergistically with existing topical antibiotics, attenuating virulence factors, boosting human immunity, or aiding in wound healing. It

  16. Policy Brief - Precarious versus protected care work in the European Union: finding the right balance

    OpenAIRE

    Knijn Trudie; Oomkens Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted during the project, this policy brief addresses care work for elderly people in European Union countries in the context ofthe right to free movement of labour. Despite a range of guidelines and directives in the past decades, the European Union still faces the intersectional problem of an ageing population, gender inequality, and lack of rights for caregivers, the latter being mainly women and – in some countries – increasingly migrant women. The risks of olde...

  17. CAPITAL INDUSTRY PRACTICE AND AGGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE WORKING CAPITAL POLICIES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiu Oyesola Salawu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates fifteen diverse industrial groups over an extended period to establish the relationship between aggressive and conservative working capital practices. Data were sourced from the annual reports of the companies and the publications of Nigerian Stock Exchange. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the data collected. Results strongly show that firms in differing industries have significantly different current asset management policies. Additionally, the relative...

  18. Social policies and families in stress: Gender and educational differences in work-family conflict from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Grunow, D.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family

  19. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  20. Work, Gender and Public Policies: A Women's Experience Study on Polo Naval of Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Socoowski de Anello e Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is the product of reflections from the dissertation project on gender and employment. The aim of this study is to examine in what way the occupation of jobs generated in the Polo Naval of Rio Grande-RS by women. For to understand this hiring dynamics, the starting point is the conceptualization of the categories work and gender in social and legal perspectives to arrive in the discussion of public policies guided by these categories. The following will be describe the scenario that will give factual support for empirical research with the partial discussion of the data already collected.

  1. The Maker and The Made

    OpenAIRE

    Braddock-Clarke, S

    2012-01-01

    Marg: A Magazine of the Arts is an arts and culture magazine well renowned for the high quality of its textual and graphic content. The imagery that I created for this article was featured on the magazine’s front cover. I contributed a photographic essay on the textile practitioner, Susie Vickery. Vickery and I spoke at length for my photographic essay to engage and contextualise her work. Vickery divides her time between the UK and India and has worked on NGO projects with local crafts- and ...

  2. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  3. Organ donation as transition work: Policy discourse and clinical practice in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T; Avezaat, Cees J J; Ijzermans, Jan N; Friele, Roland D; Bal, Roland A

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of patients become eligible for organ transplants. In the Netherlands, at the level of policy discourse, growing waiting lists are often referred to as a persistent "shortage" of organs, producing a "public health crisis." In this way, organ donation is presented as an ethical, social, and medical necessity. Likewise, policy discourse offers a range of seemingly unambiguous solutions: improving logistical infrastructure at the level of hospitals, developing organizational and legal protocols, as well as public information campaigns. Instead of taking these problem and solution definitions as given, we critically examine the relationship between policy discourse and clinical practice. Based on a historical review, first, we trace the key moments of transformation where organ donation became naturalized in Dutch policy discourse, particularly in its altruistic connotation. Second, based on in-depth interviews with medical professionals, we show how those involved in organ donation continue to struggle with the controversial nature of their clinical practice. More specifically, we highlight their use of different forms of knowledge that underlie clinicians' "transition work": from losing a patient to "gaining" a donor. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Toward Cultural Policy Studies on Mobility: Reflections on a Study of the Hong Kong Working Holiday Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policy is predominantly, and practically, considered the sum of a government’s activities with respect to the arts, humanities and heritage. Thus, cultural policy encompasses a much broader range of activities than was traditionally associated with an arts policy. Critical cultural policy studies, then, sees a distinction between ‘explicit’ cultural policies that are manifestly labelled as ‘cultural’, and ‘implicit’ cultural policies that are not labelled as such, but that work to shape cultural experiences. This article considers this explicit/implicit cultural policy distinction through John Urry’s idea of ‘social as mobility’, suggesting that some public policies regarding mobility (such as immigration, international trade and labour policy have led to specific cultural consequences and therefore qualify as implicit cultural policy. Using Hong Kong’s working holiday scheme as a case study, this article explores how an economic policy on temporary immigrant labour involves a deliberate cultural agenda as well as ‘unintentional’ cultural consequences and problematises the fact that cultural policy studies are largely framed by the idea of ‘social as society’.

  5. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  6. The Role of Knowledge Brokers in International Ocean Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, H.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of the 'boundary' between science and policy has been used as a tool to separate and protect the credibility of both parties - the scientist and the policy maker. While this separation is important, it also results in frustration by both sides, a reduction in efficiency and ultimately establishes policy that has the potential to be more effective. Many now agree that the process of knowledge generation and transmission to decision makers, and eventually into effective policy, should not be a one-way, linear push of information, but a multi-party dialogue in which decision makers, scientists and intermediaries work together to increase the effectiveness of the scientific information for the policy process. These intermediaries, or knowledge brokers, are described as persons or organizations that actively facilitate the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge. This work discusses the reasons for the boundary between science and policy and the inherent challenges in bridging the boundary. It examines the role and activities of knowledge brokers and illuminates the process by which scientific and technical knowledge is translated from knowledge generators (i.e. scientists) to knowledge users (i.e. policy makers) in international environmental governance. The study then considers the role of knowledge brokers in practice, through a case study of the ongoing effort to establish marine protected areas in the high seas. Specifically, this study examines who the knowledge brokers are working on this topic, their activities, and what lessons their experiences hold for the effective translation of scientific information to policy makers in other international issues. The study concludes that 1) knowledge brokers and boundary organizations are an essential part of the effective translation of scientific knowledge to policy makers in international environmental governance and 2) both knowledge generators and knowledge users would benefit by recognizing the role of

  7. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  8. Maintenance overtime policies in reliability theory models with random working cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new concept of replacement in maintenance and reliability theory. Replacement overtime, where replacement occurs at the first completion of a working cycle over a planned time, is a new research topic in maintenance theory and also serves to provide a fresh optimization technique in reliability engineering. In comparing replacement overtime with standard and random replacement techniques theoretically and numerically, 'Maintenance Overtime Policies in Reliability Theory' highlights the key benefits to be gained by adopting this new approach and shows how they can be applied to inspection policies, parallel systems and cumulative damage models. Utilizing the latest research in replacement overtime by internationally recognized experts, readers are introduced to new topics and methods, and learn how to practically apply this knowledge to actual reliability models. This book will serve as an essential guide to a new subject of study for graduate students and researchers and also provides a...

  9. Policy Implementation of Working Procedures of Information and Documentation Officer at Cimahi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Intan Permatasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since one year after the enactment of Public Information Disclosure Rights Number 14 of 2008 in April 2010, all government in Indonesia shall establish Information and Documentation Officer (PPID and all supporting instruments. Cimahi itself had made Cimahi Mayor Regulation No. 4 of 2011 on the Working Procedures and Documentation Information Management Officer at Cimahi in response to the main policy. However, despite being implemented for 3 years, implementation of this policy is not in accordance with UU KIP sought to assess and analyse the factors that cause these obstacles by using the theory of Charles O. Jones who focuses on organizational aspects, aspects of the interpretation and application of aspects of using qualitative research methods.

  10. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  11. Work load and management in the delivery room: changing the direction of healthcare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfregola, Gianfranco; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Granese, Roberta; Sfregola, Pamela; Lopinto, Angela; Triolo, Onofrio

    2017-02-01

    Nurse staffing, increased workload and unstable nursing unit environments are linked to negative patient outcomes including falls and medication errors on medical/surgical units. Considering this evidence, the aim of our study was to overview midwives' workload and work setting. We created a questionnaire and performed an online survey. We obtained information about the type and level of hospital, workload, the use of standardised procedures, reporting of sentinel and 'near-miss' events. We reported a severe understaffing in midwives' work settings and important underuse of standard protocols according to the international guidelines, especially in the South of Italy. Based on our results, we strongly suggest a change of direction of healthcare policy, oriented to increase the number of employed midwives, in order to let them fulfil their duties according to the international guidelines (especially one-to-one care). On the other hand, we encourage the adoption of standardised protocols in each work setting.

  12. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  13. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  14. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  15. Working environment interventions – Bridging the gap between policy instruments and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    2014-01-01

    is paid to why and how public and private organisations subsequently are to improve their working environment. This paper suggests a model which can bridge this gap. It is based on a combination of theories about basic policy instruments (regulation, incentives and information) with realistic analysis...... focusing on mechanisms and context, and finally institutional theory proposing coercive, normative and mimetic mechanisms as explanations for organisational behaviour. The model is applied to an intervention aimed at reduction of the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among bricklayers in Denmark. Our...

  16. Work-related trauma, PTSD, and workers compensation legislation: Implications for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Edward A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-09-01

    The current review examines work-related traumatic events, with particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a potential mental health outcome. Despite considerable empirical knowledge about trauma and PTSD, a gap exists with respect to laws undergirding Workers Compensation (WC) insurance coverage for work-related mental health injuries. In this article, state and federal WC statutes are examined with an eye toward coverage of PTSD following work-related trauma. Examples of differences between states, as well as state-specific idiosyncratic facets of WC laws, are discussed. Federal WC programs are also examined. Two policy issues are highlighted: (a) lack of parity between WC coverage for work-related physical versus mental health injuries and (b) lack of reliance on psychological science in scripting legislation and determining WC benefits. The cost of untreated PTSD following work-related trauma is examined, focusing on costs to the individual, the employer, and society at large. The authors provide 3 recommendations designed to address discrepancies related to compensable psychological injuries following work-related trauma exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  18. The message is the message-maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  19. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  20. How to form on food and nutritional security for decision makers of communities and cooperative on Cuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Margarita Torres Rivero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to support a training strategy for policy decision makers and managers of local projects Integrated in Alimentary and Nutritional Security (SAN in communities and cooperative, sustained on a pedagogical approach, based on the relationship between the components of the SAN, the government official's functions (FG and the administration of local projects integrated as way of performance of this subject. The objective of the strategy is to achieve that decision makers of Pinar del Rio province, can appropriate the knowledge, abilities and values for facilitating their integral preparation related with the SAN, and can negotiate the existent potentialities in communities and cooperative, develop local projects in SAN that supplement the emanated politics from state upper level, then the strategy allows a pertinent acting that impacts in the town that is an inevitable necessity for Cuba and specifically for this province, which is the most vulnerable province to environmental changes that so much influences in SAN.

  1. Work-Family Balance and Job Satisfaction: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies on Attitudes of Federal Government Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzstein, Alan L.; Ting, Yuan; Saltzstein, Grace Hall

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 1991 survey data on federal employees indicates that a variety of presumably family-friendly policies were used to varying degrees. Use of policies and employee perceptions of organizational understanding of family demands had very difference effects on work-family balance and job satisfaction. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  2. Grammar of Difference? the Dutch Colonial State, Labour Policies, and Social Norms on Work and Gender, c.1800-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van Elise

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates developments in labour policies and social norms on gender and work from a colonial perspective. It aims to analyse the extent to which state policies and societal norms influenced gendered labour relations in the Netherlands and its colony, the Netherlands Indies

  3. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11......-14 years old) interactions with three maker technologies used to work through design processes in school maker settings. Our findings are beneficial on three factors for designers, researchers and teachers involved in work within maker contexts. (1) reflections on form properties of maker technologies, (2....... Researchers can use the expanded design language to analyze maker technologies in the context of school maker settings. Finally, teachers can make better decisions on how and when to use different maker technologies when school children work through design processes....

  4. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  5. Crisis and Work: An Analysis of Emergency Labour Market Policies in Portugal, Spain and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Martins Barroso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the main reforms introduced in the Portuguese, Spanish and Greek labour-markets since the beginning of the crisis. Based in a documental and statistical analysis, the study takes in consideration the similar institutional, historical and geographic characteristics of these countries, but also their particularities. Results show that the emergency policies tend to resemble and to concentrate on dismissals, contracts, working time, salaries, collective bargaining and working conditions in the public sector. Nonetheless, the pre-crisis structural variations between these countries, together with the different effects that the crisis had in each one of them, help to understand possible differences in terms of results, giving a new contribution to the questioning of the internal homogeneity of the Mediterranean model.

  6. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  7. Managing the Risky Humanity of Academic Workers: Risk and Reciprocity in University Work-Life Balance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2015-01-01

    University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…

  8. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  9. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Jillian C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.

  10. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.

  11. Research a 'revolution' for academics and policy makers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Barbara Fraser

    esos hallazgos al frente del nuevo Ministerio de Desarrollo e Inclusión Social de ... se basa en los resultados del programa Dinámicas Territoriales Rurales, ... para estimular los mercados y brindar servicios tales como salud y educación.

  12. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Mudgal, S.; Turbé, A.; Toni, de A.; Lavelle, P.; Benito, P.; Ruiz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Human societies rely on the vast diversity of benefits provided by nature, such as food, fibres, construction materials, clean water, clean air and climate regulation. All the elements required for these ecosystem services depend on soil, and soil biodiversity is the driving force behind their

  13. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  14. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  15. Energy policy: the stakes of a global overview. Synthesis of the afternoon works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.

    1999-10-01

    This document is a report of the debates that took place at the French national assembly in October 1999 concerning the French energy policy and more particularly the new electricity and gas directives, the energy choices, the development of renewable energies, the building of the future EPR European Pressurized water reactor, the development of more efficient transportation systems, the reduction of air pollution and the fight against the greenhouse effect, and the mastery of energy consumptions. This synthesis of the afternoon works reports on the point of views exchanged during the last round table of the day about the stakes of the opening of the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization of the electricity and natural gas markets). (J.S.)

  16. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-07-15

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  17. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-01-01

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  18. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  19. Makification: Towards a Framework for Leveraging the Maker Movement in Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Jones, W. Monty; Smith, Shaunna; Calandra, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Maker culture is part of a burgeoning movement in which individuals leverage modern digital technologies to produce and share physical artifacts with a broader community. Certain components of the maker movement, if properly leveraged, hold promise for transforming formal education in a variety of contexts. The authors here work towards a…

  20. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  1. Causes and Consequences of the Utilization of Work-Life Policies by Professionals: Unconditional Supervisor Support Required

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, A.; Dikkers, J.S.E.; van Engen, M.L.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kaiser, S.; Ringlstetter, M.; Pina e Cunha, M.; Eikhof, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The European workplace has changed. Employees increasingly ask for organizational policies that allow them to combine their work and their private lives (Lewis et al., 2009). In the Netherlands it is estimated that no less than 40% of employees face troubles in combining their work and private lives

  2. Module 3: Workplace Policy, Practice and Culture--Employer and Employee Perspectives. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The contents of this module have been prepared to address some of challenges associated with teaching about work-family issues from a human resource management and employment perspective. The goals of this module are: (1) To develop an understanding that work-family policies are part of a human resource management system and the employment…

  3. Job Satisfaction: A Study of the Relationship between Right-to-Work Policy and Public School Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between state unionization policy and teacher job satisfaction in the K-12 public school environment in the states of Florida and New York (i.e., a right-to-work state and a non-right-to-work state). Data were collected via electronic survey to analyze personal demographics, human capital,…

  4. Science Under Attack Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  5. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Lawrence (Case Western Reserve University)

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  6. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  7. A Seat at the Table: How the Work of Teaching Impacts Teachers as Policy Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Annalee G.; Fox Barocas, Sadie; Chávez-Moreno, Laura C.; Feldman, Rachel; Canela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Policy reflects and shapes society's beliefs about schools, teachers, children, learning, and society, as well as the power structures embedded in our communities and decision-making processes. Although teachers may be central to the "implementation" of education policy, they are marginal to the "design" of policy agendas and…

  8. Change Makers: The Struggle for Consumer Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    "Video Documentary Project: A Brief History" (Nelson, Clark) describes "Change Makers: The Struggle for Consumer Rights," a documentary that tells stories of ordinary people who participated in the struggle to obtain fairness in the marketplace. "An Appraisal" (Mayer) offers a review of the film. (JOW)

  9. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  10. Working Together: Building Successful Policy and Program Partnerships for Immigrant Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els de Graauw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supporting and investing in the integration of immigrants and their children is critically important to US society. Successful integration contributes to the nation’s economic vitality, its civic and political health, and its cultural diversity. But although the United States has a good track record on immigrant integration, outcomes could be better. A national, coherent immigrant integration policy infrastructure is needed. This infrastructure can build on long-standing partnerships between civil society and US public institutions. Such partnerships, advanced under Republican- and Democratic-led administrations, were initially established to facilitate European immigrants’ integration in large American cities, and later extended to help refugees fleeing religious persecution and war. In the twenty-first century, we must expand this foundation by drawing on the growing activism by cities and states, new civil society initiatives, and public-private partnerships that span the country. A robust national integration policy infrastructure must be vertically integrated to include different levels of government and horizontally applied across public and private sector actors and different types of immigrant destinations. The resultant policy should leverage public-private partnerships, drawing on the energy, ideas, and work of community-based nonprofit organizations as well as the leadership and support of philanthropy, business, education, faith-based, and other institutions. A new coordinating office to facilitate interagency cooperation is needed in the executive branch; the mandate and programs of the Office of Refugee Resettlement need to be secured and where possible expanded; the outreach and coordinating role of the Office of Citizenship needs to be extended, including through a more robust grant program to community-based organizations; and Congress needs to develop legislation and appropriate funding for a comprehensive integration

  11. International perspectives on work-family policies: lessons from the world's most competitive economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American businesses. In this article, Alison Earle, Zitha Mokomane, and Jody Heymann explore whether paid leave and other work-family policies that support children's development exist in countries that are economically competitive and have low unemployment rates. Their data show that the answer is yes. Using indicators of competitiveness gathered by the World Economic Forum, the authors identify fifteen countries, including the United States, that have been among the top twenty countries in competitiveness rankings for at least eight of ten years. To this group they add China and India, both rising competitors in the global economy. They find that every one of these countries, except the United States, guarantees some form of paid leave for new mothers as well as annual leave. And all but Switzerland and the United States guarantee paid leave for new fathers. The authors perform a similar exercise to identify thirteen advanced countries with consistently low unemployment rates, again including the United States. The majority of these countries provide paid leave for new mothers, paid leave for new fathers, paid leave to care for children's health care needs, breast-feeding breaks, paid vacation leave, and a weekly day of rest. Of these, the United States guarantees only breast-feeding breaks (part of the recently passed health care legislation). The authors' global examination of the most competitive economies as well as the economies with low unemployment rates makes clear that ensuring that all parents are available to care for their children's healthy development does not preclude a country from being highly competitive

  12. Analysis of the Uniform Accident And Sickness Policy Provision Law: lessons for social work practice, policy, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a state statute that allows insurance companies in 26 states to deny claims for accidents and injuries incurred by persons under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Serious repercussions can result for patients and health care professionals as states enforce this law. To examine differences within the laws that might facilitate amendments or reduce insurance companies' ability to deny claims, a content analysis was carried out of each state's UPPL law. Results showed no meaningful differences between each state's laws. These results indicate patients and health professionals share similar risk related to the UPPL regardless of state.

  13. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress prevention and improving well-being at work in Sweden, Great-Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out a comparative survey of regulations, policies and practices in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work

  14. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Helen; Hitch, Danielle; Watchorn, Valerie; Ang, Susan

    2015-07-15

    Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.

  15. The Grand Challenges Discourse: Transforming Identity Work in Science and Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewey, David

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of "grand challenges" as part of a shift in how scientists and policymakers frame and communicate their respective agendas. The history of the grand challenges discourse helps to understand how identity work in science and science policy has been transformed in recent decades. Furthermore, the question is raised whether this discourse is only an indicator, or also a factor in this transformation. Building on conceptual history and historical semantics, the two parts of the article reconstruct two discursive shifts. First, the observation that in scientific communication references to "problems" are increasingly substituted by references to "challenges" indicates a broader cultural trend of how attitudes towards what is problematic have shifted in the last decades. Second, as the grand challenges discourse is rooted in the sphere of sports and competition, it introduces a specific new set of societal values and practices into the spheres of science and technology. The article concludes that this process can be characterized as the sportification of science, which contributes to self-mobilization and, ultimately, to self-optimization of the participating scientists, engineers, and policymakers.

  16. Engaging Consumer Voices in Health Care Policy: Lessons for Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kristi Lohmeier; Saunders, A

    2016-02-01

    Community health centers provide comprehensive public health care in some of the most disadvantaged communities in the United States. To ensure that health centers meet the needs of their consumers, they uniquely engage them in their organizational decision-making and policy-development processes by requiring that their boards of directors encompass a 51 percent consumer majority. To understand the quality of board members' experiences, a critical ethnography was conducted using Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation and the socioecological model as a framework. The analysis identified multiple influences on the quality of participation among consumer members. Findings also confirm other research that has found that knowledge of the economic, political, and cultural factors surrounding the context of the individual health center is important to understanding meaningful participation. The experience is important to understand given the shift driven by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 in health care, which emphasizes a patient-entered model of care. Social work practitioners and others in the public health arena interested in empowering consumers to have a role in the provision of services need to understand the impact of each of these areas'and the experience of this unique sample of health center board members.

  17. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Laharnar

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.

  18. Alcohol drinking behaviors and alcohol management policies under outsourcing work conditions: A qualitative study of construction workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-02-01

    Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do flexible work policies improve parents' health? A natural experiment based on the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Panico, Lidia

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence of the impact of policies to promote work-family balance on family health. Exploiting the introduction of the UK Flexible Working Act (2003), we examined whether a policy that grants parents the right to request flexible work influences their health and well-being. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we focus on 6424 mothers employed in 2001-2002, when the cohort child was 9 months old, until their child's seventh birthday. We used a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach to compare changes in outcomes before and after the policy among mothers most likely to benefit and mothers unlikely to benefit from the policy. Flexible working increased in a small group of mothers (n=548) whose employer did not offer work flexibility before the reform (treatment group). By contrast, among mothers whose employer already offered flexible work before the reform (control group, n=5810), there was little change or a slight decline in flexible working. DiD estimates suggest that the policy was associated with an increase in flexible working (37.5 percentage points, 95% CI 32.9 to 41.6), but it had no impact on self-rated health (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI -4.4 to 1.1), long-term illness (-1.87 percentage points, 95% CI -4.3 to 0.5) or life satisfaction scores (β=0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.16). The Flexible Working Act increased flexible working only among a small group of mothers who had not yet the right to request work flexibility, but it had no impact on their health and well-being. Policies promoting work flexibility may require stronger incentives for both parents and employers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Strengthening capacity to apply health research evidence in policy making: experience from four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Sarah; K Aulakh, Bhupinder; Jadeja, Nidhee; Jimenez, Michelle; Buse, Kent; Anwar, Iqbal; Barge, Sandhya; Odubanjo, M Oladoyin; Shukla, Abhay; Ghaffar, Abdul; Whitworth, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of evidence in policy making means strengthening capacity on both the supply and demand sides of evidence production. However, little experience of strengthening the capacity of policy makers in low- and middle- income countries has been published to date. We describe the experiences of five projects (in Bangladesh, Gambia, India and Nigeria), where collaborative teams of researchers and policy makers/policy influencers worked to strengthen policy maker capacity to increase the use of evidence in policy. Activities were focused on three (interlinked) levels of capacity building: individual, organizational and, occasionally, institutional. Interventions included increasing access to research/data, promoting frequent interactions between researchers and members of the policy communities, and increasing the receptivity towards research/data in policy making or policy-implementing organizations. Teams were successful in building the capacity of individuals to access, understand and use evidence/data. Strengthening organizational capacity generally involved support to infrastructure (e.g. through information technology resources) and was also deemed to be successful. There was less appetite to address the need to strengthen institutional capacity—although this was acknowledged to be fundamental to promoting sustainable use of evidence, it was also recognized as requiring resources, legitimacy and regulatory support from policy makers. Evaluation across the three spheres of capacity building was made more challenging by the lack of agreed upon evaluation frameworks. In this article, we propose a new framework for assessing the impact of capacity strengthening activities to promote the use of evidence/data in policy making. Our evaluation concluded that strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations is an important but likely insufficient step in ensuring the use of evidence/data in policy-cycles. Sustainability of evidence

  1. Heterogeneous fundamentalists and market maker inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a heterogeneous agents model of asset price and inventory with a market maker who considers the excess demand of two groups of agents that employ the same trading rule (i.e. fundamentalists) with different beliefs on the fundamental value. The dynamics of our model is driven by a bi-dimensional discrete non-linear map. We show that the market maker has a destabilizing role when she actively manages the inventory. Moreover, inventory share and the distance between agents’ beliefs strongly influence the results: market instability and periodic, or even, chaotic price fluctuations can be generated. Finally, we show through simulations that endogenous fluctuations of the fractions of agents may trigger instability for a larger set of parameters.

  2. Nordsøen Movie Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Tag på ekspedition under havets overflade med Nordsøen Movie Maker, hvor din tur i Nordsøen Oceanarium får et helt nyt virtuelt lag. Rejs ud til de syv destinationer og hold øje med de unikke ‘moviespots‘ i nærheden af akvarierne. Her kan du med Nordsøen Movie Maker filme og dokumentere dine...... oplevelser med legesyge sæler, susende hvirvelstrømme og gigantiske klumpfisk. Nordsøen Movie Maker giver filmen et ekstra virtuelt lag, og via augmented reality bliver der tilføjet seje og morsomme, animerede specialeffekter. 1) Download app’en 2) Find et moviespot ved ekspeditionsposterne i Nordsøen...... Oceanarium. Kig efter klaptræet. 3) Vælg den rigtige post i app’en og start med at filme dit filmklip Downloader du app’en før dit besøg, er du allerede klar til at starte ekspeditionen i det øjeblik, du træder ind i Oceanariets tusmørke, hvor de første moviespots er gemt. God fornøjelse med ekspeditionen...

  3. Capacity development for food policy analysis: What works best? Adding evidence from IFPRI's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents major results of a meta-assessment of experience of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) with different kinds of capacity strengthening (CS) activities for food policy analysis. Collaborative research, on-the-job-training, and ID support for building data

  4. Social Media Policy in Social Work Education: A Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Hannah E.; Drisko, James

    2016-01-01

    Although social media use has grown dramatically, program policies have not kept pace. Some programs now state that student social media activities have led to professional conduct reviews and may violate ethical standards. This article reviews current social media policies and conceptualizes their key elements. A review of current social media…

  5. Performing Compliance: The Work of Local Policy Workers during the Implementation of National Health Promotion Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmelmann, Camila Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how the local policy workers front-staged some…

  6. Changes to policies for work and retirement in EU15 nations (1995–2005: an exploration of policy packages for the 50-plus cohor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Hamblin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available “Active ageing” policies have been presented as a potential panacea for the conflict between generations many argue will result from demographic ageing. Indeed, as part of a new intergenerational contract, older individuals (here defined as those aged 50-64 are expected to re-engage with, and remain in, the labour market longer. However, this implies all individuals experience the same policy mix. This study uses micro-level data to address changes to work and retirement policies for older individuals from 1995 to 2005, and the resultant alterations to the degree of choice in terms of labour market participation different sub-groups within this age cohort had. The data demonstrate that the policy shift towards “active ageing” is not universally applied to all older individuals as some retain the ability to early exit from the labour market. Thus the notion of a single intergenerational contract is overly simplistic and neglects a great deal of intragenerational difference.

  7. Pengaruh Career Development Opportunities, Support Work-life Policies Dan Reward Terhadap Komitmen Afektif Karyawan Di Artotel Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Wicaksono, Satria; Bieantri, Hasry Azalea

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari career development opportunities, support work-life policies danreward terhadap komitmen afektif karyawan Artotel Surabaya serta mengetahui variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap komitmen afektif karyawan Artotel Surabaya. Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan adalah kuantitatif dengan analisa kausal. Kuesioner disebarkan kepada 42 anggota sampel untuk diteliti dengan melakukan survei. Hasil dari penelitian membuktikan bahwa variabel career...

  8. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  9. Insights into Attempts at Using Action Research in a Collaborative Work in a Policy Review Exercise in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony Tsatsing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I embrace the thinking that writing on one's experiences in the use of qualitative educational research strategies and principles could potentially contribute to furthering knowledge in the field. In adopting an action research framework to guide collaborative work in a policy review exercise in Botswana, I found that collaborative…

  10. Work-Family Conflict and the Perception of Departmental and Institutional Work-Family Policies in Collegiate Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Employees throughout the United States struggle to balance their work and family commitments, in part because the workforce makeup has changed significantly over the last half century. The evolving family structure also has contributed to this struggle. This research seeks to build on previous work-family literature by incorporating the six…

  11. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. Workplace policies and practices promoting physical activity across England: What is commonly used and what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily Caitlin Lily; Musson, Hayley; Adams, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many adults fail to achieve sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this paper is to understand how workplaces most effectively promote physical activity for the benefit of public health. Data were collected via two online surveys. First, 3,360 adults employed at 308 workplaces across England self-reported their MVPA, activity status at work and frequency of journeys made through active commuting. From this sample, 588 participants reported on the policies and practices used in their workplace to promote physical activity. Factor and cluster analysis identified common practice. Regression models examined the association between the workplace factors and engagement in physical activity behaviours. Five factors emerged: targeting active travel, availability of information about physical activity outside the workplace, facilities and onsite opportunities, sedentary behaviour, and information about physical activity within the workplace. Further, five clusters were identified to illustrate how the factors are typically being utilised by workplaces across England. Commonly used practices related to promoting active travel, reducing sedentary behaviour and the provision of information but these practices were not associated with meeting MVPA guidelines. The provision of facilities and onsite exercise classes was associated with the most positive physical activity behaviour outcomes; however, these structures were rarely evident in workplaces. Previous research has identified a number of efficacious actions for promoting physical activity in the workplace, however, research investigating which of these are likely to be acceptable to worksites is limited. The present study is the first to combine these two important aspects. Five common profiles of promoting physical activity in worksites across England were identified and related to physical activity outcomes. Guidance is given to workplace managers to enable them to maximise the resources

  13. Policy on professional support in return-to-work: Occupational health professionals' experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2015-01-01

    In Canada and other countries, sickness-based absences among workers is an economic and sociological problem. Return-to-work (RTW) policy developed by both employer and worker' representatives (that is, bipartite policy) is preferred to tackle this problem. The intent was to examine how this bipartite agreed-upon RTW policy works from the perspective of occupational health professionals (those who deliver RTW services to workers with temporary or permanent disabilities) in a public healthcare organization in Canada. In-depth interviews were held with 9 occupational health professionals and transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, social constructivist, analysis was completed. The occupational health professionals experienced four main problems: 1) timing and content of physicians' medical advice cannot be trusted as a basis for RTW plans; 2) legal status of the plans and thus needing workers' consent and managers' approval can create tension, conflict and delays; 3) limited input and thus little fruitful inference in transdisciplinary meetings at the workplace; and yet 4) the professionals can be called to account for plans. Bipartite representation in developing RTW policy does not entirely delete bottlenecks in executing the policy. Occupational health professionals should be offered more influence and their professionalism needs to be enhanced.

  14. Working in mental health: practice and policy in a changing environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Peter; Sandford, Tom; Johnston, Claire, MSc RGN

    2012-01-01

    ... are all changing the landscape. Written by a team of experienced authors, and drawing on their expertise in policy, clinical leadership as well as user perspectives, this textbook explains how mental health services and their staff...

  15. Using Internet-Based Videos as Pedagogical Tools in the Social Work Policy Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabeth Leukefeld

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Students often feel disconnected from their introductory social welfare policy courses. Therefore, it is important that instructors employ engaging pedagogical methods in the classroom. A review of the literature reveals that a host of methods have been utilized to attempt to interest students in policy courses, but there is no mention of using internet-based videos in the social welfare policy classroom. This article describes how to select and use appropriate internet-based videos from websites such as YouTube and SnagFilms, to effectively engage students in social welfare policy courses. Four rules are offered for choosing videos based on emotional impact, brevity, and relevance to course topics. The selected videos should elicit students’ passions and stimulate critical thinking when used in concert with instructor-generated discussion questions, writing assignments, and small group dialogue. Examples of the process of choosing videos, discussion questions, and student reactions to the use of videos are provided.

  16. How do monetary policy tools work? An investigation on monetary transmission mechanism in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Ali Yadollahzadeh Tabari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Monetary transmission mechanism includes some channels in which monetary policy influences on macroeconomic variables such as the output and inflation. In this study, the effect of monetary policy tools including interest rate, exchange rate and money supply on the variables of monetary policy targets including inflation and output is examined through VECM methodology over the period 1989:2-2007:2. Our findings show that in long-term, monetary supply is the most important variable influencing the price followed by the variables of output and exchange rate, respectively. Exogenous-being of interest rate indicates that this channel is underdeveloped and there is no monetary policy rule like Taylor rule in Iran's economy.

  17. Working in mental health: practice and policy in a changing environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Peter; Sandford, Tom; Johnston, Claire, MSc RGN

    2012-01-01

    .... A more influential service user movement, a range of new community-based mental healthcare programmes delivered by an increasing plurality of providers and new mental health policy and legislation...

  18. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  19. European Economic Policies at Work : the costs of Price Stability and Budget Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Altavilla

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the policy framework adopted by the EMU participating countries might create recessive tendencies. First, we check the existence of a deflationary bias by separately analysing monetary and fiscal policy. The analysis of monetary policy focuses on a backward- and a forward-looking monetary rule. The reaction functions are estimated to capture the criteria that a centralized monetary authority should use in setting short-term interest rate. Second, a comparative analysis is made of the ability of different central banks to stabilize output and inflation. Precisely, we compare the strategy followed by the European Central Bank, the Deutsche Bundesbank and the US Federal Reserve. Then, a measure of fiscal bias is retrieved by estimating the impact that a change in the primary surplus to GDP ratio has on the real economy. Finally, we search for a quantitative assessment of the recessive propensity of the European economic policies by estimating an overall policy bias. The results suggest the EU institutional set-up might create and/or amplify the recessive tendencies. The policy constraints the EMU members face were dreamt when the Community was struggling with an inflationary legacy. The danger nowadays is not inflation but rather its opposite, deflation. As a consequence, the EU institutions need to be at least partially reformed

  20. Monitoring Values and Practices of Oak Woodland Decision Makers on the Urban Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Concern over oak woodlands has shifted away from ranch management towards residential areas. This shift has been accompanied by the involvement of decision makers who previously had little involvement with rangeland policies and practices. A survey of three recent Cooperative Extension workshops illustrates a number of important patterns regarding interest and...

  1. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  2. Immigration policies of the government of Quebec in the context of Canadian multicultural policies. Contextual Notes for a social work ethnic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Raya Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The English-speaking Canada and the rebellious Frenchspeaking «province» of Quebec are going through a broad and deep identity crisis that dates back to the 19th century, but intensified in the new age of globalization. A country created by immigration, it is still a country of immigration and one of the most multiethnic countries in the world. Multiculturalism is the model of political management that belongs to this diversity and the ideology that legitimates it —a Canadian inventio— at the same time that it recognizes, ignores and eludes the internal conflict —the Canada-Quebec conflict— that implicitly determines the differentiated migratory policies of both political communities. On its part, Quebequian multiculturalism («interculturalism» shows two different models (pro-assimilation and pro differentiation. These tensions, ambiguities, and diversity of models shape the current Canadian and Quebequian debate about citizenship, which conditions and functions as a frame of reference for social work (professional social intervention with immigrants, very developed both in theory and in practice in this American country, and that is aware of the political challenges offered by multiculturalism in Ottawa and Quebec. The study and evaluation of this dynamic reality can be extremely useful in Europe, both North and South, for working out public policies and organizing social work in a multiethnic environment.

  3. Eli Hecksher as a Portrait Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Carlson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eli Heckscher was not only author of extensive investigations into economic history. He was also skillful in depicting phenomena in small format in encyclopædias, journals and newspapers. This article presents Heckscher as portrait maker of economic scholars. In these portraits—what he emphasized, what he praised, what he criticized—one can discern the stance of the portrait maker himself. Overall, his portraits are permeated by admiration of sharp theoretical analyses and massive economic historical investigations. He admires the founding fathers of political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, stresses continuity in the development of economic thought, praises humble innovators like David Davidson, Knut Wicksell and Alfred Marshall and denounces (what he perceives as pretentious innovators like Gustav Cassel and John Maynard Keynes. He is critical towards economists who attempt to break out of the classical and neoclassical tradition, especially representatives of the German historical school, and what he judges to be a new type of mercantilism, represented by Bertil Ohlin and Keynes. At the same time he appreciates voluminous and solid investigations into economic history, even if performed without theoretical beacons, by scholars like William Cunningham, William Ashley, John Clapham, Marc Bloch, Richard Ehrenberg and Werner Sombart.

  4. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".

  5. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  6. Parenthood and Happiness: Effects of Work-Family Reconciliation Policies in 22 OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Simon, Robin W; Andersson, Matthew A

    2016-11-01

    The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U.S. showing the largest disadvantage of parenthood. We also find that more generous family policies, particularly paid time off and childcare subsidies, are associated with smaller disparities in happiness between parents and non-parents. Moreover, the policies that augment parental happiness do not reduce the happiness of nonparents. Our results shed light on macro-level causes of emotional processes, with important implications for public policy.

  7. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Can pro-marriage policies work? An analysis of marginal marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.

  9. Strategies for Working with Asian Americans in Mental Health: Community Members' Policy Perspectives and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.

  10. PENGARUH WORK LIFE POLICIES, WORK LIFE CONFLICT, JOB STRESS, DAN LONELINESS TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTIONS PADA SEBUAH UNIVERSITAS SWASTA DI KOTA BATAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hielvita Ludiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover intention has been an important issue in any organization; management has long recognized that low turnover intention of employees is helpful for consequently obtaining high organizational performance and avoiding the potential costs related to recruiting and training new employees. This study aims to examine the impact of work life policies, work life conflict, job stress dan loneliness on turnover intentions at a private university in Batam. A total of 101 completed responses were collected in the survey. The sampling method in this research is done with the approach of non-probability sampling with the convinience sampling. The data analysis technique used was the technique of multiple regression analyisis. The findings of this research showed that work life policies and job stress have negative and significant impact on turnover intentions. Work life conflict and loneliness have positive and significant impact on turnover intentions. The managerial implications of this research have several limitations such as taking only one university and some faculties of full time lecturer which become the object of research. Moreover, researcher was not able to spend a lot of time at the organisation for collecting the data from the respondents. This research suggest that further investigation needs to be expanded by taking some of the objects that are similar research at the education industry or other industries, and by increasing the sample size to improve the results of consistency.

  11. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Macias, José Brambila

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating and a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Within...... with policy-makers. This work led to a list of 129 policy interventions (of which 121 in Europe). For each policy type, a critical review of the available evidence basis on its effectiveness is provided. The review has emphasised the need for a more systematic and accurate evaluation of government......-level interventions, and a stronger focus on actual behavioural change rather than on attitude change or intentions only. The amount of evidence is very heterogeneous across policy types and often incomplete...

  12. Alternative Work Patterns: Implications for Worklife Education and Training. Worker Education and Training Policies Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jane

    This monograph explores the major categories of alternative work patterns, e.g., flexitime, permanent part-time employment, job sharing, the compressed work week, and reduced work time. Advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed, and new insight is offered into an unexplored dimension of the major types of alternative work patterns:…

  13. Activism within Music Education: Working towards Inclusion and Policy Change in the Finnish Music School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, Tuulikki; Schmidt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how interactions between policy, institutions and individuals that reinforce inclusive music education can be framed from an activist standpoint. Resonaari, one among many music schools in Finland, provides an illustrative case of rather uncommonly inclusive practices among students with special educational needs. By exploring…

  14. Working around Childbirth: Comparative and Empirical Perspectives on Parental Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Cites research that supports a U.S. parental leave policy that includes job protection and wage replacement during childbirth. Issues dealt with in the literature include current U.S. child welfare legislation, international parental leave legislation, job continuity, reduced stress on the child welfare system, and prejudice against young mothers.…

  15. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  16. International Perspectives on Work-Family Policies: Lessons from the World's Most Competitive Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American…

  17. Social Work and the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; Davis, King

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a statute existing in 26 states that permits health insurance companies to deny payment for claims made by individuals who have sustained injuries as a result of drug or alcohol use. This law presents a series of complicated clinical and ethical dilemmas for social workers and other…

  18. Policies to Create and Destroy Human Capital in Europe. NBER Working Paper No. 15742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Jacobs, Bas

    2010-01-01

    Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the…

  19. Credit policy and its impact in the work of Kosovo businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Lemane Haziri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit policy in Kosovo is a result and a reflection of the general development of macroeconomic policy. In the post-war Kosovo economic trends were negative. Therefore, in order to come to recovery and promotion of economic development, Kosovo needs investments. Surely credits represent one of financial resources through which material factors are provided for opening of new jobs that will be expressed in the decreasing of unemployment and increasing of the national production. Kosovo, as a part of Euro area, cannot make monetary policy, but it may make credit policy. Currently, out of the banking system of Kosovo is over 1.4 million Euros of financial means, and for this sum the credit potential is reduced, as a very important factor for business and the economy of Kosovo in general. Credits in Kosovo are characterized by high interest rates and short time of their return, so the purpose of this paper is to show how much the credits have been in the function of the development of businesses in Kosovo.

  20. Sexual Harassment Solutions at Work. Profiles of Successful Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Colleen

    This publication profiles the successful efforts of eight organizations to develop programs and policies to prevent sexual harassment in their workplaces. The profiles highlight a facet of each organization's efforts. An introduction offers a blueprint for action. The first profile is a look at US West and the key elements for developing and…

  1. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  2. Classroom-Up Policy Change: Early Reading and Math Assessments at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Amber; Habib, Samir; Piper, Benjamin; Ralaingita, Wendi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the Early Grade Reading and Mathematics Assessments (EGRA and EGMA), which are locally tailored, timely assessments designed to directly inform policy and instruction for learning improvement, particularly for countries on the lower end of the income spectrum. The history of the design and implementation of…

  3. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  4. Organ donation as transition work: policy discourse and clinical practice in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, K.T.; Avezaat, C.J.J.; Friele, R.D.; IJzermans, J.N.; Bal, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of patients become eligible for organ transplants. In the Netherlands, at the level of policy discourse, growing waiting lists are often referred to as a persistent “shortage” of organs, producing a “public health crisis.” In this way, organ donation is presented as an ethical,

  5. The Effect of Incentive Return-to-Work Policies on Single-Parent Families: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.

  6. Quantum decision-maker theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2000-07-01

    A quantum device simulating the human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing the evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from the mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distribution. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledge- base stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed. An example exhibiting self-organization is computed using quantum computer simulation. Force on force and mutual aircraft engagements using the quantum decision maker dynamics are considered.

  7. Trends in family labour, hired labour and contract work on French and Swiss crop farms: The role of agricultural policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure; Mann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the trends in on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, and to assess the factors driving their evolution in France and in Switzerland during 1990-2007. A particular attention is given to agricultural policies, namely the level and type of support. Results indicate that crop area payments discourage the different labour demands in both countries, while environment and investment payments favour contract and hir...

  8. Sun Safety at Work Canada: a multiple case-study protocol to develop sun safety and heat protection programs and policies for outdoor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desre M; Tenkate, Thomas; Strahlendorf, Peter; Kushner, Rivka; Gardner, Audrey; Holness, D Linn

    2015-07-10

    CAREX Canada has identified solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) as the second most prominent carcinogenic exposure in Canada, and over 75 % of Canadian outdoor workers fall within the highest exposure category. Heat stress also presents an important public health issue, particularly for outdoor workers. The most serious form of heat stress is heat stroke, which can cause irreversible damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. Although the need for sun and heat protection has been identified, there is no Canada-wide heat and sun safety program for outdoor workers. Further, no prevention programs have addressed both skin cancer prevention and heat stress in an integrated approach. The aim of this partnered study is to evaluate whether a multi-implementation, multi-evaluation approach can help develop sustainable workplace-specific programs, policies, and procedures to increase the use of UV safety and heat protection. This 2-year study is a theory-driven, multi-site, non-randomized study design with a cross-case analysis of 13 workplaces across four provinces in Canada. The first phase of the study includes the development of workplace-specific programs with the support of the intensive engagement of knowledge brokers. There will be a three-points-in-time evaluation with process and impact components involving the occupational health and safety (OHS) director, management, and workers with the goal of measuring changes in workplace policies, procedures, and practices. It will use mixed methods involving semi-structured key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys, site observations, and UV dosimetry assessment. Using the findings from phase I, in phase 2, a web-based, interactive, intervention planning tool for workplaces will be developed, as will the intensive engagement of intermediaries such as industry decision-makers to link to policymakers about the importance of heat and sun safety for outdoor workers. Solar UV and heat are both health and safety hazards

  9. Nurses and Lifelong Learning: Creating "Makers and Shapers" or "Users and Choosers"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Diane; Bruce, Anne

    2016-04-01

    How have the meaning and goals of lifelong learning for nurses shifted under neoliberal political policy? This article critically scrutinizes the political undercurrents of lifelong learning. While the original intent of lifelong learning was to foster intellectual, critical, social, and political citizen engagement (creating "makers and shapers" of social policy), instrumental learning-learning to meet practical economic ends-has taken priority and is instead creating marketable workers (creating "users and choosers"). International educational neoliberal policy reform has altered the very nature of education. Under pervasive neoliberal political influence, lifelong learning has become distorted as the goals of learning have shifted towards creating marketable workers who are expected, while unsupported, to engage in learning to ensure ongoing employability in an open market. By examining new understandings of lifelong learning, nurses can make informed choices as to whether they aspire to be a "user and chooser" or "maker and shaper" of lifelong learning in their workplaces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Maria W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. “Joining domains” implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions. This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. Method An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations. The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. Conclusion We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers’ involvement to establish mutually supportive networks.

  11. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Maria W; De Leeuw, Evelyne; Hoeijmakers, Marjan; De Vries, Nanne K

    2012-10-17

    Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. "Joining domains" implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions.This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records) and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations). The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers' involvement to establish mutually supportive networks.

  12. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  13. An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.

  14. Trajectories to reconcile sharing and commercialization in the maker movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, David; Zirngibl, M.; Sbeih, J.; Devoldere, B.

    2017-01-01

    Maker technologies, including collaborative digital fabrication tools like 3-D printers, enable entrepreneurial opportunities and new business models. To date, relatively few highly successful maker startups have emerged, possibly due to the dominant mindset of the makers being one of cooperation

  15. Increasing part-time working hours in the Netherlands. Identifying policy recommendations through Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Fokkinga, B.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 73% of women and 19% of men working part-time,the Netherlands is known as the champion of part-time work. In order to increase especially the working hours of women with small part-time jobs (less than 20 hours per week) the Dutch government installed a thinktank of employers, employees

  16. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  17. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. The ecology of work and health: Research and policy directions for the promotion of employee health

    OpenAIRE

    Stokols, D; Pelletier, KR; Fielding, JE

    1996-01-01

    This article identifies new research and policy directions for the field of worksite health in the context of the changing American workplace. These directions are viewed from an ecological perspective on worksite health and are organized around three major themes: (1) the joint influence of physical and social environmental factors on occupational health, (2) the effects of nonoccupational settings (e.g., households, the health care system) on employee well-being and the implications of rece...

  19. Working to improve the management of sarcoma patients across Europe: a policy checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Bernd; Lecointe-Artzner, Estelle; Wait, Suzanne; Boldon, Shannon; Wilson, Roger; Gronchi, Alessandro; Valverde, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Dumont, Sarah; Drove, Nora; Kanli, Athanasia; Wartenberg, Markus

    2018-04-16

    The Sarcoma Policy Checklist was created by a multidisciplinary expert group to provide policymakers with priority areas to improve care for sarcoma patients. This paper draws on this research, by looking more closely at how France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom are addressing each of these priority areas. It aims to highlight key gaps in research, policy and practice, as well as ongoing initiatives that may impact the future care of sarcoma patients in different European countries. A pragmatic review of the published and web-based literature was undertaken. Telephone interviews were conducted in each country with clinical and patient experts to substantiate findings. Research findings were discussed within the expert group and developed into five core policy recommendations. The five identified priority areas were: the development of designated and accredited centres of reference; more professional training; multidisciplinary care; greater incentives for research and innovation; and more rapid access to effective treatments. Most of the countries studied have ongoing initiatives addressing many of these priorities; however, many are in early stages of development, or require additional funding and resources. Gaps in access to quality care are particularly concerning in many of Europe's lower-resourced countries. Equitable access to information, clinical trials, innovative treatments and quality specialist care should be available to all sarcoma patients. Achieving this across Europe will require close collaboration between all stakeholders at both the national and European level.

  20. A conceptual model of physician work intensity: guidance for evaluating policies and practices to improve health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Ronnie D; Matthews, Gerald; Yi, Michael S

    2012-08-01

    Physician work intensity, although a major factor in determining the payment for medical services, may potentially affect patient health outcomes including quality of care and patient safety, and has implications for the redesign of medical practice to improve health care delivery. However, to date, there has been minimal research regarding the relationship between physician work intensity and either patient outcomes or the organization and management of medical practices. A theoretical model on physician work intensity will provide useful guidance to such inquiries. To describe an initial conceptual model to facilitate further investigations of physician work intensity. A conceptual model of physician work intensity is described using as its theoretical base human performance science relating to work intensity. For each of the theoretical components, we present relevant empirical evidence derived from a review of the current literature. The proposed model specifies that the level of work intensity experienced by a physician is a consequence of the physician performing the set of tasks (ie, demands) relating to a medical service. It is conceptualized that each medical service has an inherent level of intensity that is experienced by a physician as a function of factors relating to the physician, patient, and medical practice environment. The proposed conceptual model provides guidance to researchers as to the factors to consider in studies of how physician work intensity impacts patient health outcomes and how work intensity may be affected by proposed policies and approaches to health care delivery.

  1. Training Conservation Practitioners to be Better Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science, at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1 properly formulating the decision problem; (2 specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3 selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  2. TableMaker: An Excel Macro for Publication-Quality Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hlavac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces TableMaker, a Microsoft Excel macro that produces publicationquality tables and includes them as new sheets in workbooks. The macro provides an intuitive graphical user interface that allows for the full customization of all table features. It also allows users to save and load table templates, and thus allows layouts to be both reproducible and transferable. It is distributed in a single computer file. As such, the macro is easy to share, as well as accessible to even beginning and casual users of Excel. Since it allows for the quick creation of reproducible and fully customizable tables, TableMaker can be very useful to academics, policy-makers and businesses by making the presentation and formatting of results faster and more efficient.

  3. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  4. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tove Håpnes; Bente Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equ...

  5. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  6. Developing Ethical Guidelines for Creating Social Media Technology Policy in Social Work Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Shane R. Brady; David A. McLeod; Jimmy A. Young

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss social media technology in the context of social work education. While social media technology is prevalent in social work education, most discourse about ethical use of social media in the classroom has taken a prescriptive and overly cautious approach that neglects the context dependent nature that social work educators teach in as well as the overwhelmingly positive potential of social media technology in the classroom. This paper utilizes social constructivist theo...

  7. When policy meets physiology: the challenge of reducing resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Landrigan, Christopher P; Barger, Laura K; Czeisler, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding optimal work hours for physicians and surgeons in training. In a series of studies, we assessed the effect of extended work hours on resident sleep and health as well as patient safety. In a validated nationwide survey, we found that residents who had worked 24 hours or longer were 2.3 times more likely to have a motor vehicle crash following that shift than when they worked hours, and that the monthly risk of a crash increased by 16.2% after each extended duration shift. We also found in a randomized trial that interns working a traditional on-call schedule slept 5.8 hours less per week, had twice as many attentional failures on duty overnight, and made 36% more serious medical errors and nearly six times more serious diagnostic errors than when working on a schedule that limited continuous duty to 16 hours. While numerous opinions have been published opposing reductions in extended work hours due to concerns regarding continuity of patient care, reduced educational opportunities, and traditionally-defined professionalism, there are remarkably few objective data in support of continuing to schedule medical trainees to work shifts > 24 hours. An evidence-based approach is needed to minimize the well-documented risk that current work hour practices confer on resident health and patient safety while optimizing education and continuity of care.

  8. Walking the Torque: Proposed Work Plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Electric motor-driven system is the largest single energy end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. This paper sets out an ambitious but achievable target with the global work plan to improve the energy efficiency of electric motor-driven system by 10% to 15% based on the finding of working paper ''Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems (Waide et al., 2011)''. If governments commit to the proposed work plan immediately and maintain resourcing levels, this could be achieved by 2030 and it would be equivalent to reducing total global electricity use by around 5%. The proposed work plan of this paper is to align regulatory settings within a globally applicable scheme. The IEA believes this target can only be achieved through global co-operation leading to aligned national policy settings that countries can unlock the economies of scale that will result from using more energy efficient EMDS.

  9. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  10. Sustainable data policy for a data production facility: a work in (continual) progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Texas High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography Facility (UTCT) has been producing volumetric data and data products of geological and other scientific specimens and engineering materials for over 20 years. Data volumes, both in terms of the size of individual data sets and overall facility production, have progressively grown and fluctuated near the upper boundary of what can be managed by contemporary workstations and lab-scale servers and network infrastructure, making data policy a preoccupation for our entire history. Although all projects have been archived since our first day of operation, policies on which data to keep (raw, reconstructed after corrections, processed) have varied, and been periodically revisited in consideration of the cost of curation and the likelihood of revisiting and reprocessing data when better techniques become available, such as improved artifact corrections or iterative tomographic reconstruction. Advances in instrumentation regularly make old data obsolete and more advantageous to reacquire, but the simple act of getting a sample to a scanning facility is a practical barrier that cannot be overlooked. In our experience, the main times that raw data have been revisited using improved processing to improve image quality were predictable, high-impact charismatic projects (e.g., Archaeopteryx, A. Afarensis "Lucy"). These cases actually provided the impetus for development of the new techniques (ring and beam hardening artifact reduction), which were subsequently incorporated into our data processing pipeline going forward but were rarely if ever retroactively applied to earlier data sets. The only other times raw data have been reprocessed were when reconstruction parameters were inappropriate, due to unnoticed sample features or human error, which are usually recognized fairly quickly. The optimal data retention policy thus remains an open question, although erring on the side of caution remains the default

  11. Environmental policy implications of working from home: Modelling the impacts of land-use, infrastructure and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Miao; Andrew Kelly, J.; Peter Clinch, J.; King, Fearghal

    2012-01-01

    Working from home is generally perceived as an effective means of reducing energy use and associated pollution from commuter transport. In order to consider the merits of mechanisms and policies to support a change in behaviour that results in greater take-up of home working, this paper applies energy consumption per commute calculations and a logit model using a case study of Ireland. In marked contrast with larger countries, the energy consumption per commute is relatively low in Ireland. Nonetheless, the analysis indicates that, on average, at least an average net saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved where an individual converts to working from home, after deducting the home energy consumption associated with home working. We find that land use patterns, public transport networks, internet infrastructure, commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics can serve to influence rates of home working. Encouraging the higher and lower professional categories and those in the service sectors to work from home should be the highest priority in terms of energy and emissions reductions. Increased coverage of internet services and railway coverage will support higher rates of home working. Increased dispersion of residential, commercial and industrial areas serves to encourage greater home working. - Highlights: ► An average net energy saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved by an individual changing to working from home. ► Land use patterns, public transport and internet infrastructure influence rates of home working. ► Commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics influence the take-up of home working. ► Encouraging home-working by higher and lower professionals and the service sectors is the priority.

  12. Is family-friendly policy (FFP) working in the private sector of South Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), I investigated the impact of family-friendly policies (FFPs) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the private sector of South Korea. Paid leave, childcare leave, and support for housing are positively related to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Sick leave is positively related to organizational commitment. However, subsidized family event cost is a marginally significant predictor of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the relationships between subsidized childcare cost and employee attitudes were not supported. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development...... in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates...

  14. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  15. Having the rug pulled from under your feet: one project's experience of the US policy reversal on sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busza, Joanna

    2006-07-01

    After the election of President George W Bush in 2000, US government policy toward sexual and reproductive health changed dramatically. In May 2003, the Global AIDS Act was passed and prohibits allocation of US government funds to organizations that 'promote or advocate' legalization and practice of prostitution and sex trafficking. There are few documented examples of early impacts of this policy reversal on USAID-funded programmes already working with sex worker communities. This paper offers an anecdotal account of one programme in Cambodia that found itself caught in the ideological cross-fire of US politics, and describes consequent negative effects on the project's ability to offer appropriate and effective HIV prevention services to vulnerable migrant sex workers.

  16. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes.

  17. "Tele"working in Higher Education: What Managers Should Know "before" Developing Teleworking Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Kristin Albright

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, changes in the workplace within higher education has led to the notion of teleworking: the opportunity for employees to complete work in a remote location. This article will review the various concepts of teleworking, as well as the pros, cons, and implications for the work environment within higher education.

  18. Economic incentives as a policy tool to promote safety and health at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila

    2010-06-01

    Incentives are regarded as a promising policy tool for promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). This article discusses the potential of different kinds of incentives in light of economic theory and evidence from research. When incentives are used as a policy tool, it implies the existance of an institution that has both the interest and the power to apply incentives to stakeholders, usually to employers. Governments can subsidize employers' investments in OSH with subsidies and tax structures. These incentives are successful only if the demand for OSH responds to the change in the price of OSH investments and if the suppliers of OSH are able to increase their production smoothly. Otherwise, the subsidy will only lead to higher prices for OSH goods. Both public and private insurance companies can differentiate insurance premiums according to claim behavior in the past (experience rating). There is evidence that this can effectively lower the frequency of claims, but not the severity of cases. This papers concludes that incentives do not directly lead to improvement. When incentives are introduced, their objective(s) should be clear and the end result (ie what the incentive aims to promote) should be known to be effective in achieving healthy and safe workplaces.

  19. New Measures of Teachers' Work Hours and Implications for Wage Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have good data on teachers' annual salaries but a hazy understanding of teachers' hours of work. This makes it difficult to calculate an accurate hourly wage and leads policy makers to default to anecdote rather than fact when debating teacher pay. Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that teachers work an average of…

  20. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.