WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy makers reported

  1. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  2. Engaging with Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  3. Finding facts for policy makers. IPCC's Special Reports and the Third Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, R.; Verbeek, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an international body of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) that publishes authoritative reports on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of climate change and climate policy. The knowledge contained in the IPCC reports forms the basis for the development of global climate policy by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The three volumes of the Third Assessment Report will be published early in 2001, shortly after Cop6 (Sixth Convention of Parties, The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000). This broadly supported summary of scientific insights will be important for the further substantiation of climate policy

  4. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  5. The Belgian Health System Performance Report 2012: snapshot of results and recommendations to policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, France; Renard, Françoise; Jonckheer, Pascale; Van den Heede, Koen; Desomer, Anja; Van de Voorde, Carine; Walckiers, Denise; Dubois, Cécile; Camberlin, Cécile; Vlayen, Joan; Van Oyen, Herman; Léonard, Christian; Meeus, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Following the commitments of the Tallinn Charter, Belgium publishes the second report on the performance of its health system. A set of 74 measurable indicators is analysed, and results are interpreted following the five dimensions of the conceptual framework: accessibility, quality of care, efficiency, sustainability and equity. All domains of care are covered (preventive, curative, long-term and end-of-life care), as well as health status and health promotion. For all indicators, national/regional values are presented with their evolution over time. Benchmarking to results of other EU-15 countries is also systematic. The policy recommendations represent the most important output of the report. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  7. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment

  8. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Key findings. A Record Breaking Year for Renewable Energy: New Installations, Policy Targets, Investment and Jobs. Mainstreaming renewables: guidance for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Brown, Adam; Di Domenico, Stefanie E.; Kielmanowicz, Daniele; Williamson, Laura E.; Jawahar, Rashmi; Appavou, Fabiani; Musolino, Evan; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy C.; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Skeen, Jonathan; Epp, Baerbel; Anna Leidreiter; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Sovacool, Benjamin; Saraph, Aarth; Mastny, Lisa; Martinot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    2015 was an extraordinary year for renewable energy. Renewables are now cost competitive with fossil fuels in many markets and are established around the world as mainstream sources of energy. Cities, communities and companies are leading the rapidly expanding '100% renewable' movement. Distributed renewable energy is advancing rapidly to close the energy access gap. The REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) provides an annual look at the tremendous advances in renewable energy markets, policy frameworks and industries globally. Each report uses formal and informal data to provide the most up-to-date information available. Reliable, timely and regularly updated data on renewables energy are essential as they are used for establishing baselines for decision makers; for demonstrating the increasing role that renewables play in the energy sector; and illustrating that the renewable energy transition is a reality. This year's GSR marks 11 years of REN21 reporting. Over the past decade the GSR has expanded in scope and depth with its thematic and regional coverage and the refinement of data collection. The GSR is the product of systematic data collection resulting in thousands of data points, the use of hundreds of documents, and personal communication with experts from around the world. It benefits from a multi-stakeholder community of over 700 experts. Country information for 148 countries were received and used as basis for GSR2016 preparation. The country data received is featured in the REN21 Renewables Interactive Map (www.ren21.net/map)

  9. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  10. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  11. Stakeholder involvement: views from a policy maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 powers and responsibilities were devolved from the UK government to the new devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This paper deals with the issue of radioactive waste management in the Scottish context as, following devolution, responsibility for radioactive waste management in Scotland is a devolved responsibility of the Scottish Parliament. The founding principles of the Scottish Parliament are: Openness and participation, Accountability, Power sharing, Equal opportunities. The government of Scotland is known as the Scottish Executive and has 22 Ministers covering a wide range of devolved responsibilities including: wider environmental matters, health, socioeconomic, skills and education. The Scottish Ministers also have specific responsibility in legislation regarding the governance of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Scotland also has its own agencies to deliver his government policies, such as the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and enterprise and skills delivery bodies. There is a high level of interest in nuclear and radioactive waste issues in Scotland as Scotland has both civil nuclear and defense sites around the country which generate radioactive waste. Alongside this is its close proximity to the largest nuclear site in the UK: Sellafield

  12. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organiza- ... Conclusion: There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed poli- ..... designing of research methodology; writing of ...

  14. Do policy-makers find commissioned rapid reviews useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby

    2018-02-26

    Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes

  15. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  16. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  17. CDC’s Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population is a valuable tool for researchers and policy makers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Haynes, Bridgette M.H.; Rybak, Michael E.; Pirkle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC’s National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the population’s nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003–2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutpoint-based prevalence data during 2003–2006, and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (≥60 y) compared to younger (20–39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (≥6 y) were not at risk for deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (A, B-6, B-12, C, D, E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. About 90% of women (12–49 y) were not at risk for iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk for deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20–39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy. PMID:23596164

  18. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  19. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  20. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  1. The bioeconomy, the challenge of the century for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim

    2018-01-25

    During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today. Above energy security and food and water security lurks climate change. Some events of 2015 have politically legitimised climate change and its mitigation, and 2016 saw the world finally sworn to action. The bioeconomy holds some of the answers to the economic challenges thrown up by mitigating climate change while maintaining growth and societal wellbeing. For bioeconomy policy makers, the future is complex and multi-faceted. The issues start in regions and extend to global reach. It is hard to quantify what is going to be the most difficult of challenges. However, one of the visions for the bioeconomy, that of distributed manufacturing in small- and medium-scale integrated biorefineries flies in the face of the current reality of massive fossil fuel and petrochemical economies of scale, married to gargantuan fossil fuel consumption subsidies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Emergency Management: A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Printing Office, 2011), 46. 92 artificial intelligence into unmanned operations continues to advance, future research should include an examination of...is unlimited UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: A GUIDE FOR POLICY MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS by Darren E. Price March 2016...DATE March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

  3. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  4. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: rapport de synthese. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment.

  5. It's All in the Lens: Differences in Views on Obesity Prevention between Advocates and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ellen; Nguyen, Leah; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C.; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intervention strategies to reduce obesity include policy and environmental changes that are designed to provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors. Policy changes at the state level are one way to influence access, social norms, and opportunities for better nutrition and increased physical activity among the population. Methods: Ten states were selected for a broad variance in obesity rates and number of enacted obesity prevention policies during the years of 2006–2009. Within the selected states, a purely qualitative study of attitudes of childhood obesity policy using semistructured telephone interviews was conducted. Interviews were conducted with state policy makers who serve on public health committees. A set of six states that had more than eight childhood obesity policies enacted were selected for subsequent qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of well-established advocates. Results: Policy makers in states where there was more childhood obesity policy action believed in the evidence behind obesity policy proposals. Policy makers also varied in the perception of obesity as a constituent priority. The major differences between advocates and policy makers included a disconnect in information dissemination, opposition, and effectiveness of these policies. Conclusions: The findings from this study show differences in perceptions among policy makers in states with a greater number of obesity prevention bills enacted. There are differences among policy makers and advocates regarding the role and effectiveness of state policy on obesity prevention. This presents an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to improve communication and translation of evidence to policy makers, particularly in states with low legislation. PMID:22799551

  6. Evidence for Agile Policy Makers: The Contribution of Transformative Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of evidence-based policy making (EBPM) are typically concerned with the impact of particular interventions. This implicit ontology of the policy world, as disaggregated into a variety of independent interventions, has been challenged by Pawson (2006), in terms of the contingencies that activate, inhibit or reshape the impact of any…

  7. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  8. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  9. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  10. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  11. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Globalization, Wages and the Quality of Jobs : Lessons for Policy Makers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This note summarizes the results and describes the policy implications of the recently published book globalization, wages, and the quality of jobs that evaluates some of the effects of trade and foreign investment on workers. This book contains a framework for analysis, a literature review, and five country studies that provide the foundation for three main lessons for policy makers that ...

  13. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  14. Sustainable development - the challange for Irish economic policy-makers

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Daniel A.

    1993-01-01

    The Barrington prize lecture 1992/1993 Sustainable development has become a key phrase during the last decade in development and environmental literature. Governments and international bodies have adopted the goal of sustainable development with surprising alacrity since the concept was brought to prominence in the early 1980s by the World Conservation Strategy. The concept became enshrined by the influential 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development...

  15. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Jillian C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the

  17. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and

  18. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  19. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  20. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  1. EDUsummIT : A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, K.-W.; Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Gibson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in

  2. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L. M.; Berentzen, C. A.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  3. Policy-maker attitudes to the ageing of the HIV cohort in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we ... Conclusions: HIV among older adults remains a low priority among policy-makers in Botswana but is at least now on the agenda.

  4. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  5. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  6. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  7. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.

  8. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  9. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  10. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari

    2010-10-01

    Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.

  12. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  13. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  14. Sustainable energy catalogue - for European decision-makers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram, S.; Jacobsen, Soeren

    2006-10-15

    The Green paper - A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006 states that Europe has a rising dependency on imported energy reserves, which are concentrated in a few countries. The Rising gas and oil prices along with demands on lower emissions of CO2 adds pressure on the need for a new energy future for Europe. EU has since 1990 planned to become world leader in the renewable energy field. Therefore the EU member states have agreed that by 2010 21% of the consumed electricity and 5,75% of the consumed gasoline and diesel should originate from renewable energy sources. If the EU countries are to reach their goals, a commitment on several levels to develop and install energy from sustainable energy sources is needed. The purpose of this catalogue is to offer planners and decision-makers in EU states an inspirational tool to be used during local or regional transition towards sustainable energy technologies. The catalogue can also be used by everyone else who needs an overview of the sustainable energy technologies and their current development level and future potential, among others educational use is relevant. The catalogue provides an introduction to the following technologies that are already or are estimated to become central to a development with renewable energy in EU: Technologies for wind energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy, solar energy, hydropower and fuel cells. The catalogue also includes a section about energy systems, which also includes a part about technologies for efficient use of energy. The catalogue could have included a few other technologies as e.g. heating pumps, but due to the size of the catalogue a priority was necessary. The catalogue does not claim to give all answers or to be complete regarding all details about the individual technologies; even so it offers information, which cannot easily be looked up on the Internet. In the back of the catalogue, under 'References and links' there

  15. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  16. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  17. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  18. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  19. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  20. [Social participation in health: user community leaders, managers and policy makers in Colombia. A qualitative view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Gallego, María Eugenia; Vázquez Navarrete, María Luisa; Zapata Bermúdez, Yolanda; Hernán García, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Health sector reforms taking place in Colombia during the Nineties included policies to promote social participation in the health system, which is considered essential to its functioning. The aim of this article is to analyse the meaning and the significance of participation in health for the different social actors involved in implementing policies in Colombia. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was carried out using focal groups (FG) and semi-structured individual interviews (I) of the different social actors: 210 users (FG), 40 community leaders (FG), 3 policy makers (E) and 36 healthcare professionals (E). A carried out analysis was content up of the contents. The study area corresponded to the municipalities of Tulua and Palmira in Colombia. The concept of participation was interpreted differently depending on the actor studied: for users and leaders the concept referred to contributing ideas, presence in social spaces, solidarity and frequently, and use of the health services. Healthcare professionals considered the activities carried out by institutions together with the community as social participation, the use of services and affiliation to the health system. Policy markers considered participation to concern evaluation and control of the health services by the community, to improve its quality. The different concepts of participation reveal dif ferences between the content of the policy and how it is understood and interpreted by the different social actors in their interaction with the health services. These different perspectives must be taken into account to develop a link between society and the health services.

  1. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A

    2018-02-01

    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  3. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  4. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  5. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  6. Involving decision-makers in the transformation of results into urban sustainability policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Feleki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mind mapping tools are used to stimulate thinking about sustainability and define its significance for urban planning. Such tools are based on keywords that are identified and structured through dialogue-based procedures. The approach can be used also for switching between highlighting sectorial aspects, such as territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and cross-sectorial aspects, such as sustainable mobility and energy efficiency. This paper emphasizes a structured dialogue with desicion-makers at national, regional and local levels, aimed at identifying what decision-makers really need to decide and the key barriers to the implementation of existing urban sustainability tools. This study was organized in four discrete steps. Initially, what EU urban sustainability projects can deliver (studies, methodologies, tools, policies, etc. was identified. The deliverables were evaluated against certain criteria and categorized into cross-cutting aspects (territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and sectorial aspects (sustainable mobility, energy efficiency. The structured dialogue was implemented in parallel with the evaluation of the deliverables in order to match them with decision-makers’ needs, priorities and expectations. The ultimate goal was to develop and make available an operational Decision Support System (DSS for public Authorities and urban planners, which combines their needs, priorities and expectations (structured dialogue results with existing deliverables, developed within the framework of EU projects that up to now have had a low transferability and applicability rate.

  7. Policy-makers' views on impact of specialist and advanced practitioner roles in Ireland: the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cecily; Murphy, Kathy; Higgins, Agnes; Cooney, Adeline

    2014-05-01

    To ascertain and explore the views held by key healthcare policy-makers on the impact of clinical specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles. Specialist and advanced practice roles are common world-wide and were introduced in Ireland in 2000. After experiencing these roles for a decade, the views of healthcare policy-makers were sought as part of a national evaluation. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Following ethical approval, 12 policy-makers were interviewed in 2010, using a six-part interview schedule. Policy-makers believed that specialist and advanced practice roles resulted in better continuity of care, improved patient/client outcomes and a more holistic approach. These clinicians were also said to be leading guideline development, new initiatives in care, education of staff, audit and policy development. They lacked administrative support and research time. Budget cuts and a government-applied recruitment moratorium were said to hamper the development of specialist/advanced practice roles. Healthcare policy-makers believe that specialists and advanced practitioners contribute to higher quality patient/client care, particularly at a strategic level. These roles could make an important contribution to future health service developments, particularly in relation to chronic-disease management and community care, where more advanced practitioner posts are required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  9. Round Six Of Partners Investing In Nursing's Future: Implications For The Health Sector, Policy Makers, And Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E

    2015-07-01

    In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  11. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Semrau, Maya; Toynbee, Mark; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Lund, Crick; Gureje, Oye; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Courtin, Emilie; Abdulmalik, Jibril O; Alem, Atalay; Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-10-21

    Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches.

  12. Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Keynejad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed

  13. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.

  14. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-05-02

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.

  15. Spatial Knowledge Infrastructures - Creating Value for Policy Makers and Benefits the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.

  16. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  17. The Role of Policy Makers and Institutions in the Energy Sector: The Case of Energy Infrastructure Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Edomah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and documentary evidences from published literature, this study reveals three essential areas where the policy-making processes (and therefore policy makers intervene in the provision of energy infrastructure. These are: (1 granting access to historical data; (2 regulations; and (3 permitting/issuance of licenses. This study also reveals three major unintended consequences of the policy decision processes and institutions in the governance of energy infrastructure provisions in Nigeria, which are: (1 government financing corruption in the energy sector; (2 economic delusion; and (3 uncontrolled growth in energy demand driven more by export and not local internal demand.

  18. Priorities of Municipal Policy Makers in Relation to Physical Activity and the Built Environment: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Anatchkova, Milena; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly; Maddock, Jay; Clausen, Kristian E; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-01-01

    To examine policy makers' public policy priorities related to physical activity and the built environment, identify classes of policy makers based on priorities using latent class analysis, and assess factors associated with class membership. Cross-sectional survey data from municipal officials in 94 cities and towns across 6 US states were analyzed. Participants (N = 423) were elected or appointed municipal officials spanning public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, and city management. Participants rated the importance of 11 policy areas (public health, physical activity, obesity, economic development, livability, climate change, air quality, natural resource conservation, traffic congestion, traffic safety, and needs of vulnerable populations) in their daily job responsibilities. Latent class analysis was used to determine response patterns and identify distinct classes based on officials' priorities. Logistic regression models assessed participant characteristics associated with class membership. Four classes of officials based on policy priorities emerged: (1) economic development and livability; (2) economic development and traffic concerns; (3) public health; and (4) general (all policy areas rated as highly important). Compared with class 4, officials in classes 1 and 3 were more likely to have a graduate degree, officials in class 2 were less likely to be in a public health job/department, and officials in class 3 were more likely to be in a public health job/department. Findings can guide public health professionals in framing discussions with policy makers to maximize physical activity potential of public policy initiatives, particularly economic development.

  19. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  20. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  1. Disorganized attachment in infancy : a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Sroufe, L. Alan; Dozier, Mary; Hesse, Erik; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Solomon, Judith; Schuengel, Carlo; Fearon, Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Steele, Howard; Cassidy, Jude; Carlson, Elizabeth; Madigan, Sheri; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Foster, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Gribneau, Naomi; Spangler, Gottfried; Ward, Mary J.; True, Mary; Spieker, Susan; Reijman, Sophie; Reisz, Samantha; Tharner, Anne; Nkara, Frances; Goldwyn, Ruth; Sroufe, June; Pederson, David; Pederson, Deanne; Weigand, Robert; Siegel, Daniel; Dazzi, Nino; Bernard, Kristin; Fonagy, Peter; Waters, Everett; Toth, Sheree; Cicchetti, Dante; Zeanah, Charles H.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Main, Mary; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2017-01-01

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the

  2. Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granqvist, P. (Pehr); Sroufe, L.A. (L. Alan); Dozier, M. (Mary); Hesse, E. (Erik); Steele, M. (Miriam); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); Solomon, J. (Judith); C. Schuengel (Carlo); Fearon, P. (Pasco); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); Steele, H. (Howard); Cassidy, J. (Jude); Carlson, E. (Elizabeth); Madigan, S. (Sheri); Jacobvitz, D. (Deborah); Foster, S. (Sarah); Behrens, K. (Kazuko); Rifkin-Graboi, A. (Anne); Gribneau, N. (Naomi); Spangler, G. (Gottfried); Ward, M.J. (Mary J); True, M. (Mary); Spieker, S. (Susan); Reijman, S. (Sophie); Reisz, S. (Samantha); A. Tharner (Anne); Nkara, F. (Frances); Goldwyn, R. (Ruth); Sroufe, J. (June); Pederson, D. (David); Pederson, D. (Deanne); Weigand, R. (Robert); Siegel, D. (Daniel); Dazzi, N. (Nino); Bernard, K. (Kristin); P. Fonagy (Peter); Waters, E. (Everett); Toth, S. (Sheree); Cicchetti, D. (Dante); Zeanah, C.H. (Charles H); Lyons-Ruth, K. (Karlen); Main, M. (Mary); Duschinsky, R. (Robbie)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDisorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of

  3. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  4. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  5. Patron Time-Use May Be an Effective Metric for Presenting Library Value to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Glusker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test a metric for library use, that could be comparable to metrics used by competing government departments, for ease of understanding by policy makers. Design – Four types of data were collected and used: Time-diaries, exit surveys, gate counts, and circulation statistics. Setting – A large public library in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects – Time-diary subjects were 445 patrons checking out materials; exit survey subjects were 185 patrons leaving the library. Methods – A paper-based time diary, prototypes of which were tested, was given to patrons who checked out library materials during a one-week period. These patrons were charged with recording the use of the checked-out items during the entire three-week loan period. From this information, the average number of hours spent with various types of loaned material (print and audio/DVD was calculated. The average number of hours spent per item type was then applied to the circulation statistics for those items, across a month, to get a total of hours spent using all circulated material during that month. During the same one-week period of time-diary distribution, exit surveys were conducted by library staff with patrons leaving the library, asking them how long they had spent in the library during their current visit. The average number of minutes per visit was calculated and then applied to the gate count for the month, to get a total number of minutes/hours spent “resident” in the library that month. Adding the totals, a grand total of patron time-use hours was calculated. A monetary value was applied per hour, using the results of a contingent valuation study from Missoula, Montana (Dalenberg et al., 2004, in order to convert hours of library benefit into a dollar figure. Main Results – There was a 24% response rate for the time diaries (106/445. The diary entries yielded an average of 3.5 hours of time-use per print item, and 1.9 hours per DVD. The range for

  6. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  7. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  8. Prostitution Policy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Emerek, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented.......The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented....

  9. Marginal Propensity to Consume in Hungary: The long-term versus Short-term Challenges to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Write

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses Hungarian quarterly data from the International Monetary Fund to estimate a distributed lag model whose coefficients allow derivation of the short-run and long-run marginal propensities to consume.  MPCs are main factors determining the consumption, investment, government spending, and export and import multipliers of the economy.  Hungary's economy has stagnated and its policy makers are exploring new ways to manage its economy.  Our model reveals that the numerical value of Hungarian short-run marginal propensity to consume (MPC is 0.4081181655 and the long-run MPC is 0.9458619.  These results are consistent with the corresponding figures in emerging and advanced economies.  These derived MPCs suggest that Hungarian economic policy makers should use fiscal instruments to bring these macroeconomic variables back to their long-term trend effectively

  10. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  12. Development of an interactive interface to raise awareness of public, policy makers, and practitioners about natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordova, Yulia; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Due to a global climate change the following consequences are predicted: rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and polar ice, changes in precipitation, changes in the hydrological regime, impact on ecosystems, agriculture and forestry. In Russia's vast territory these effects will be most dramatic. According to Hydrometeorological Center of Russian Federation report there is an increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events, as well as in their damage to ecosystems and infrastructure. In the framework of adaptation to climate change and mitigation of its consequences it is necessary to promote and support activities aimed at reducing possible risks. Adaptation methods include among others improving seasonal weather forecasts, systems of early warning and systems of management of risks. But there is a problem of insufficient awareness among decision-makers, as well a lack of scientific background. Those responsible for making decisions, stakeholders and the public do not have the skills and knowledge to work with the accumulated climate data to development an adaptation and sustainable development strategy. The goal is to provide these groups with tools, skills, thematic information for understanding climate processes occurring in the region. We believe that the preparation of both the persons responsible for decision-making, and the future specialist in environmental sciences shouldn't be realized artificial learning environment, but on the basis of actual operating computational and information systems used in climate research. Such kind of a system was developed by a team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS. The information-computational Web GIS "Climate" (http://climate.climate.scert.ru) provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is

  13. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  14. Beyond spinal manipulation: should Medicare expand coverage for chiropractic services? A review and commentary on the challenges for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M; Goertz, Christine M; Lurie, Jon D; Stason, William B

    2013-12-01

    documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians.

  15. Beyond spinal manipulation: should Medicare expand coverage for chiropractic services? A review and commentary on the challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M.; Goertz, Christine M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Stason, William B.

    2013-01-01

    efforts to improve claims and documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. Conclusions The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians. PMID:25067927

  16. Literacy and Life Skills Education for Vulnerable Youth: What Policy Makers Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…

  17. Technology assessment in Australia : the case for a formal agency to improve advice to policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, A. Wendy; Vanclay, Frank M.; Salisbury, Janet G.; Aslin, Heather J.

    The pace and reach of technological change has led to calls for better technology policy and governance to improve social outcomes. Technology assessment can provide information and processes to improve technology policy. Having conducted a review of international best practice, we established a set

  18. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  19. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  20. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  2. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  4. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  5. Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-Standard Decision-Makers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel

    2005-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...

  6. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  7. Indigenous Policy Conference Summary Report: Beyond Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lorefice

    2017-10-01

    improving the consultation and engagement process with Indigenous communities. This report summarizes both the presentations and the major themes explored at the conference. The purpose is to capture the ideas and debates emerging from the conference, and provide an overview of the day for interested policy-makers and the public. The report begins with an outline of the agenda, before summarizing each of the panel sessions and the keynote speaker’s presentation. The concluding section provides a discussion of the key themes emerging from the conference and next steps for policy-makers and researchers. Three students enrolled in the SPP’s Master of Public Policy program took detailed notes throughout the day. The authors thank them for their thoroughness. The student notes and the authors’ notes were used to inform this report.

  8. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Sarah; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  9. A review of cyberbullying legislation in Qatar: Considerations for policy makers and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; El Asam, Aiman; Morsi, Hisham; Khattab, Azhar

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide problem affecting mental health, education, safety and general well-being for individuals across the globe. Despite the widespread availability of the Internet, research into prevalence rates of cyberbullying in Qatar is lacking and legislating for the crime has been slow to develop. Recently there have been some positive initiatives in the country such as a Cybercrime Prevention Law, the development of a National ICT Strategy, and a website detailing safe practice guidelines for Internet usage. However, the implementation and usage of these initiatives are still limited and there is a lack of awareness of cyberbullying in Qatar. As a result, the risk factors and consequences among school-aged children are unknown. The current paper presents an evaluation of the legislative and public policy solutions to cyberbullying available in Qatar, and outlines the critical challenges that could potentially face educators in shaping best practice guidelines for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  11. Monitoring and Predicting Railway Noise and its Large-Scale Impact on the Environment; a Tool for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The social pressure to decrease noise nuisance caused by rail transport lines is growing rapidly. The solutions realized by the railway companies are often only effective locally and are specified without taking note of future European transport flows. In order to evolve their new policy the Dutch Railway company (NS) is developing a special purpose Geographical Information System. By means of this system it is possible to calculate the acoustic consequences of different future plans on a national or international scale. The input parameters of the system are the number of trains to be expected on the different lines, train speeds, train types, the noise nuisance law concerned, and the amount of sound reduction on specific trains and tracks. The acoustic consequences are quantified either as costs for noise barriers and sound-insulating measures in houses or as the area or number of people living within one specific equal noise level contour. The system gives policy-makers insight into the effects of certain sound reduction measures, of changes in the noise nuisance law and future transport flows. Results of studies show that the system can be a useful aid when making choices between investing in certain acoustic measures to be taken at the source or taking measures along the propagation path. In addition the system is useful as a monitoring system. Thus it is possible to quantify the effects of policy implementation and independent developments.

  12. Master plan for renewable energies + Summary for policy makers + Presentation to the Council of Ministers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Julien; Bitot, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    This document reports a study which aimed at determining a master plan which would allow a mix with 50 per cent of renewable energies for electricity production to be reached by 2020 in the specific case of French Polynesia. It proposes a comprehensive analysis of of the present energetic situation in Tahiti and in eleven islands of the French Polynesia. After a presentation of the social and economic context, the report proposes a diagnosis of energy and electricity consumption in Polynesia, an analysis of electricity demand and of its possible evolutions (scenarios), and an analysis of the present production (fossil thermal, hydroelectric, photovoltaic, and wind energy, quality and requirements for an island grid). It reports the analysis the potential of development of renewable energies (hydroelectricity, photovoltaic, other solar production, wind, biomass, marine renewable energies, seawater air conditioning), and the analysis of the supply-demand balance in the different scenarios for Tahiti and the other islands. Short term perspectives are discussed, and an overview of installed renewable powers is provided. A second document proposes a summary of this study under the form of a Power Point presentation illustrated by many graphs

  13. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indig...

  14. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  15. Towards a Green Economy. Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. A Synthesis for Policy Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Earth Summit, nations are again on the Road to Rio, but in a world very different and very changed from that of 1992. Then we were just glimpsing some of the challenges emerging across the planet from climate change and the loss of species to desertification and land degradation. Today many of those seemingly far off concerns are becoming a reality with sobering implications for not only achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goals, but challenging the very opportunity for close to seven billion people - rising to nine billion by 2050 - to be able to thrive, let alone survive. Rio 1992 did not fail the world - far from it. It provided the vision and important pieces of the multilateral machinery to achieve a sustainable future. But this will only be possible if the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development are given equal footing with the economic one: where the often invisible engines of sustainability, from forests to freshwaters, are also given equal if not greater weight in development and economic planning. Towards a Green Economy is among UNEP's key contributions to the Rio+20 process and the overall goal of addressing poverty and delivering a sustainable 21st century. The report makes a compelling economic and social case for investing two per cent of global GDP in greening ten central sectors of the economy in order to shift development and unleash public and private capital flows onto a low-carbon, resource-efficient path. Such a transition can catalyse economic activity of at least a comparable size to business as usual, but with a reduced risk of the crises and shocks increasingly inherent in the existing model. New ideas are by their very nature disruptive, but far less disruptive than a world running low on drinking water and productive land, set against the backdrop of climate change, extreme weather events and rising natural resource scarcities. A green economy does not favour one political perspective

  16. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ‘Forging change’? Collaboration between policy makers, academics, and civil society stakeholders at the ECI Day 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hatton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘ECI Day 2016: Forging Change’ conference brought together policy makers, academics and civil society representatives to discuss how to maximise the effectiveness of the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI, the EU’s only mechanism of participatory democracy, within its existing rules. Since 2012 these annual conferences have brought together a significant number of interested parties to evaluate the performance of the ECI and look to its future. Through a series of workshops and plenary sessions during ECI Day 2016, participants from diverse backgrounds interacted to produce a number of conclusions that will hopefully be used to inform the future development of the ECI tool. This review focuses on how the representatives of the EU’s institutions, academics and civil society representatives collaborated to create a productive environment and reach a clear conclusion to the proceedings. This was a strength of the conference that will hopefully contribute to ‘forging change’ for the ECI, though resistance to reform from one key stakeholder remains an obstacle.

  19. Towards an adaptation action plan : climate change and health in the Toronto-Niagara region : summary for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Morton, I.; Maarouf, A.

    2002-10-01

    The current science regarding climate change and its potential health effects was assessed in an effort to provide information to decision-makers dealing with health infrastructure in the Toronto-Niagara region. This report also presents an assessment of how the health care system can adapt to handle the increased demand for services resulting from the projected negative human health effects of climate change. The first part of the report presents some background information on climate change and health issues and demonstrates how the current health care infrastructure cannot deal effectively with the full range of health effects that may occur in heavily populated areas such as the Toronto-Niagara region. The second part of the report summarizes the scientific knowledge about the expected impacts of climate change and associated health effects, such as heat stress, extreme weather events, poor air quality, vector-borne diseases, food and water-borne diseases, and increased exposure to ultra-violet radiation. It was noted that children and the elderly are most vulnerable. The final part of the report outlines an adaptation action plan to improve the health care infrastructure through public education and communication, surveillance and monitoring, ecosystem intervention, infrastructure development, technical engineering, and medical intervention. 100 refs., 1 fig

  20. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  1. "Actual results may vary" : a behavioral review of eco-\\0xADdriving for policy makers : a white paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This research provides energy and environment policy : makers with an up-to-date summary of eco-driving : research. Our review of an extensive database of ecodriving : studies reveals the fuel and emissions reduction : outcomes achieved to date and t...

  2. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  3. “What is the Spirit of this Gathering?” Indigenous Sport Policy-Makers and Self-Determination in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden P. Te Hiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indigenous sport policy-makers’ approaches to the promotion of Indigenous self-determination. Furthermore, the relational nature of Indigenous policy-makers’ identities was also central to their pursuit of self-determination. The promotion of family and community type relationships with government representatives could be used as an outcome of policy-making, in addition to traditional policy directives.

  4. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ''a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end

  5. The Decision-Makers Forum on a new Paradigm for Nuclear Energy, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, Chester George

    1998-09-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, "a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies." Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  6. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-09-14

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ``a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  7. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  8. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc

  9. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  10. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-09-01

    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  11. THE BESIEGED FORTRESS: MAKING SENSE OF RUSSIA’S ANNEXATION OF CRIMEA AND WHAT IT MEANS TO U.S. POLICY MAKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    Ukraine. Additionally, I provide five lessons learned from the Russian invasion, followed by four recommendations for U.S. policy makers regarding...Lessons Learned from Crimea and a Prediction of Putin’s Future Behavior 1. Putin views himself as a contemporary Peter the Great, and his grand...approval -ratings. 28 “Vladimir Putin’s Unshakeable Popularity” Levada Center, Economist, 4 February 2016, http://www.economist.com/ blogs /grapicdetail

  12. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; ?hman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourse...

  13. Prospective analysis of energy security: A practical life-cycle approach focused on renewable power generation and oriented towards policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO 2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.

  14. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  15. Policy Report for NEMS Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, M.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    This policy report discusses aspects of health, safety, environment and pollution related to small scale gold mining, the social and economic sustainability of the mining activities, and the role of Environmental Management Systems in reaching better results in these terrains. Specifically it will

  16. "We noticed that suddenly the country has become full of MRI". Policy makers' views on diffusion and use of health technologies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishelman Carol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Uncontrolled proliferation of health technologies (HT is one contributor to the increasing pressure on health systems to adopt new technologies. With limited resources, policy-makers encounter difficulties in fulfilling their responsibility to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this study is to explore how policy-makers' reason about the diffusion and utilization of health technologies in Iran using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and interferon beta as tracers. Method This qualitative exploration complements quantitative data generated in a research project investigating the diffusion and utilization of MRI and interferon beta in Iran. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 informants in different positions and levels of authority in the Ministry of Health (MOH, University of Medical Sciences, Health Insurance Organizations, and Parliament. The data was analysed using the framework approach. Findings Although policy-makers appeared to be positive to health technology assessment (HTA, the processes of policy-making described by the interviewees did not seem to be based on a full understanding of this (discipline. Several obstacles to applying knowledge about HT and HTA were described. The current official plan for MRI adoption and diffusion in the country was said not to be followed, and no such plan was described for interferon beta. Instead, market forces such as advertising, and physician and consumer demand, appear to have strong influence on HT diffusion and use. Dual practice may have increased the induced demand and also reduced the supervision of the private sector by the MOH. Conclusion Management instability and lack of coordination in the MOH were found to be important obstacles to accumulation of knowledge and experience which, in turn, could have led to suboptimal managerial and policy-making processes. Furthermore marketing should be controlled in order to avoid

  17. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen

  18. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive

  19. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; Ohman, Ann

    2010-06-07

    Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to

  20. Report of a Policy Forum: Weather, Climate, and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-07-01

    The report of a policy forum on Weather, Climate, and Energy presents findings and recommendations that, if implemented, could position the energy sector, the providers of weather and climate science and services, and energy consumers to mange more cooperatively and effectively the production, distribution, and consumption of electrical power and fossil fuels. Recent U.S. experience with a series of energy shortages encouraged the AMS Atmospheric Policy Program to join with the University of Oklahoma in the development of a forum to address the issues connected with responding to those shortages. Nearly 100 representatives from the public, private, and academic portions of the energy production sector, the meteorological community, political and corporate leaders, weather risk management analysts, and policy makers met on October 16-17, 2001 to discuss these policy issues.

  1. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants' attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient's quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less likely to pay more for therapeutic

  2. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  3. Perspectives of policy-makers and stakeholders about health care waste management in community-based care in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangulu, Lydia; Akintola, Olagoke

    2017-04-19

    In South Africa, a new primary health care (PHC) re-engineering initiative aims to scale up the provision of community-based care (CBC). A central element in this initiative is the use of outreach teams comprising nurses and community health workers to provide care to the largely poor and marginalised communities across the country. The provision of care will inevitably lead to an increase in the amount of health care waste (HCW) generated in homes and suggests the need to pay more attention to the HCW that emanates from homes where there is care of a patient. CBC in South Africa is guided by the home-based care policy. However, this policy does not deal with issues about how HCW should be managed in CBC. This study sought to explore health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC in South Africa from the policy-makers' and stakeholders' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 policy-makers and 21 stakeholders working in 29 communities in Durban, South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English; were guided by an interview guide with open-ended questions. Data was analysed thematically. The Durban Solid waste (DSW) unit of the eThekwini municipality is responsible for overseeing all waste management programmes in communities. Lack of segregation of waste and illegal dumping of waste were the main barriers to proper management practices of HCW at household level while at the municipal level, corrupt tender processes and inadequate funding for waste management programmes were identified as the main barriers. In order to address these issues, all the policy-makers and stakeholders have taken steps to collaborate and develop education awareness programmes. They also liaise with various government offices to provide resources aimed at waste management programmes. HCW is generated in CBC and it is poorly managed and treated as domestic waste. With the rollout of the new primary health care model, there is a greater need to consider HCWM in CBC. There

  4. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  5. Public Acceptance on Nuclear Power: A Strategic Need to Shift to 5Ps (Politicians, Policy Makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Acceptance on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)

  6. Victims, soldiers, peace-makers and caretakers: the neoliberal constitution of women in the EU’s security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlenhoff, H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Feminist scholars praise and criticize the UNSC Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security for its considerations of women and gender in conflicts. Poststructuralist feminists show how gender is constructed in the UN’s security policies and how these constructions reproduce gendered dichotomies

  7. Europe's energy transition. The big five recommendations to guide and inspire EU policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The energy transition is more than a shift from one energy system (finite resources) to another (more renewable and low energy-based). Our century's challenge is to radically reduce our energy use. The local level is where the new energy paradigm is happening. Ambitious policies at European level are crucial to speed up the movement

  8. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of the primary care physician in the Israeli health care system as a 'gatekeeper'--the viewpoint of health care policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabenkin, H; Gross, R

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the attitudes of policy makers in the health care system in Israel to a change in the role of primary care physicians (PCP) and to ascertain the conditions under which they would be ready to adopt the model of PCP as gatekeeper. The study design was qualitative, with analyses of in-depth structured interviews of 20 policy makers from the Ministry of Health, the Sick Funds' central administrations and the Israel Medical Association (IMA) central office. The majority of the respondents claim that they want highly trained PCPs (family physicians, pediatricians and internals) to play a central role in the health care system. They should be co-ordinators, highly accessible and should be able to weigh cost considerations. However, only about half of the respondents support a full gatekeeper model and most of them think that the gatekeeper concept has a negative connotation. They also feel that it would be difficult to implement regulations regarding primary care. The barriers to implementation of the gatekeeper model, as cited by the respondents include loss of faith in PCPs by the general population, dearth of PCPs with adequate training, low stature, lack of availability on a 24-h basis, resistance by specialists, strong competition between the sick funds including promises of direct access to specialists, the medical care habits of the general population many of whom do not settle for only one opinion, and a declared anti-gatekeeper policy by one of the sick funds. Ways to overcome these obstacles include implementation of fundholding clinics, patient education on the importance of having a personal physician, appropriate marketing by family medicine and primary care advocates, and continued training in primary care. Israeli health care policy makers have an ambivalent attitude to strengthening the role of primary care. In theory, they profess support for placing primary care physicians in a central role in the health care system

  10. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  11. Recognition of Mangrove Ecosystem Services by the Community and Policy Makers in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Darquea, Jodie J

    2016-01-01

    In 2000 Ecuador created the “Agreements of Sustainable Use and Custody of Mangroves” management for the local communities, helping to stop deforestation of mangroves caused by shrimp farming. With this program, the Ecuadorian government offers economic incentives to support community–based management without taking into consideration the essential role of ecosystem services. This policy fails to encourage the capacity of the communities to grow through monitoring of ecosystem services. This p...

  12. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  14. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-12-06

    The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.

  16. Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-03-11

    This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people's organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development.

  17. H1-B visa program reform: Analysis of a problem facing policy decision makers on foreign labor practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immigration of foreign workers is a topic of utmost importance for the United States economy. To some extent, it should be considered as a matter of national priority. Over the past years, the number of foreign students that pursue a graduate degree at United States universities has increased, and keeps rising every year. The majority of these newly made doctorate students stay in the USA, in order to pursue specialty occupations. This paper will address issues regarding foreign immigration policies, and will contain a proposal to implement a system that can effectively and selectively deal with the increasing number of both foreign students and foreign workers who apply for work visas.

  18. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy

  20. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2011-07-01

    communicating these approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions.

  1. Exposure ethics: does HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

    2014-07-01

    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  3. Cross-sectional study of characteristics of clinical registries in Australia: a resource for clinicians and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Emdadul Hoque, Dewan; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Lorgelly, Paula; McNeil, John J; Evans, Sue M

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the attributes of Australian clinical quality registries (CQR). Survey of 40 CQRs between September 2015 and April 2016. CQR lead investigators/project managers. None. Registry organization, geographical coverage, data quality, management, characteristics, output and outcomes. Of those who responded (34/40; 85.0%), 12 (34.3%) were binational (Australia and New Zealand); 22 (64.7%) were Australian-only registries; and 13 (38.2%) had national coverage. CQRs covered critical care, infection control, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic diseases, procedures and devices, and transplants. Overall, 24/34 CQRs (70.6%) were public sector funded. In total, 14 (41.2%) scored >75% on a composite score developed to assess data quality. Overall, 29/34 (85.3%) produced an annual multi-centred report; only 15/34 (44.1%) produced provider-specific reports. Mortality/survival and quality of life were collected by 82.4 and 32.4% of CQRs, respectively. Most CQRs displayed data in bar/column charts (28/34, 82.4%) and funnel plots (17/34, 50%). Most CQRs adopted an opt-out consent process (n = 17/31; 54.8%). Linear regression indicated that longer duration of CQR was associated with higher data quality (>20 vs 0-5 years coefficient = 4.76, 95% CI: 0.26, 9.26). Opt-in consent was associated with lower data quality (no active consent vs opt-in approval method, coefficient = -5.22, 95% CI: -8.71, -1.72). Six CQRs self-reported having undertaken an economic evaluation of their registry. CQRs varied in geographical coverage; stage of development, approach to recruitment; method and frequency of reporting their output; and data quality assurance. An accreditation system for CQRs would likely assist in recognizing high-quality registries.

  4. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  5. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO 2 e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.

  6. Should we use a direct regulation to implement the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England? A qualitative study among prison key policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N

    2017-08-31

    The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  8. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bonnie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and

  9. The development of the model for recognition of prior learning for nurses in South Africa: development of RPL guidelines by the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, T

    2005-11-01

    The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) was established to address the compartmentalization of education and training, the absence of norms and standards and the need for international recognition. According to the South African Qualifications Authority (1996),this framework was aimed at developing a comprehensive qualifications structure and an integrated approach to education and training in the country (NCHE, 1996:46). Educational institutions, including those for nursing, were challenged with a view to rethink the whole culture of teaching and learning and was counted as knowledge. The major principle of the NQF was the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), which had to be persued across all sectors (Musker, 1998: 8). RPL was seen as a means to widen access into learning programs for those who had been historically denied this. The challenge for educational institutions was how to ensure that RPL systems once implemented did not compromise academic standards. Research into methodologies to implement the NF in the absence of mechanisms was then essential. The purpose of the study was to develop and test a RPL model for nurses in South Africa. The study adopted a multi phase decisions-oriented evaluation research design. Stuffelbeam's educational evaluation model was used to guide data collection and analysis. The research questions were incorporated under the different phases of evaluation. The model was development at six levels: level one was at the policy makers level; level two was at the stakeholders; levels three to six were at institutional level where three institutions participated at pilot site for the RPL model development. These levels are presented as tiers in the figure 1. This article present the results of the model development at the first two levels, which according to Stuffelbeam's model is the context evaluation for boundary setting. Part two will present the model development at institutional level, involving the input and process

  10. The Mexican hydro-meteorological disasters and climate network (redesclim) as model on outreach decision makers on disaster public policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Rodriguez-Estevez, J. M., Sr.; Romo-Aguilar, M. D. L.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Salinas-Prieto, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Pérez-Campuzano, E.

    2017-12-01

    REDESCLIM was designed and develop in 2011 due to a public call from The Science and Technology Mexican Council (CONACYT); CONACYT lead the activities for its organization and development among the academic community. REDESCLIM was created to enhance the capacity of response to hydro-meteorological disasters and climate events through an integrative effort of researchers, technologists, entrepreneurs, politicians and society. Brief summary of our objectives: 1) Understand the causes of disasters, to reduce risks to society and ecosystems 2) Support research and interdisciplinary assessment of the physical processes in natural and social phenomena to improve understanding of causes and impacts 3) Strengths collaboration with academic, government, private and other interdisciplinary networks from Mexico and other countries 4) Build human capacity and promote the development of skills 5) Recommend strategies for climate hazard prevention, mitigation and response, especially for hazard with the greatest impacts in Mexico, such as hurricanes, floods, drought, wild fires and other extremes events. We provide a continues communication channel on members research results to provide scientific information that could be used for different proposes, specificaly for decision makers who are dealing with ecological and hydro meteorological problems that can result in disasters, and provide a services menu based on the members scientific projects, publications, teaching courses, in order to impact public policy as final result. http://www.redesclim.org.mx. So far we have some basic results: Fiver national meetings (participants from 35 countries around the world), 7 Workshops and seminars (virtual and in-person), Climatic data platforms ( http://clicom.mex.cicese.mx, http://clicom-mex.cicese.mx/malla, http://atlasclimatico.unam.mx/REDESCLIM2/ ), climate change scenarios for the general public at http://escenarios.inecc.gob.mx, 14 seed projects, one model to hurricane simulation

  11. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  12. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  13. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  14. The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan

    2012-06-01

    investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. The aim of the report is to provide the background for policy-makers and investors who want to incorporate the concept of 'true costs' into the discussion of electricity generation. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price. Whatever the state of the data and methods, the process of the analysis and stakeholder discussion can be just as important as the final results in providing guidance to decision-makers. Consideration of the true costs should be a component of decision-making for all energy investment worldwide. (authors)

  15. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  16. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: Will decision makers get quality information? A critical review of published Korean economic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.-S. Lee (Kun-Sei); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); S.-I. Lee (Sang-Il); H.-W. Koo (Hye-Won)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInterest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health

  17. IEA countries energy policy. Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Energy Agency is interested by the energy policy of its 23 members countries. This book sums up the evolution of energy policy in 1991 and 1992, sticking particularly to energy proposal and demand, to energy efficiency, to interaction between energy and environment, to the energy technology and to research and development activities. The 23 countries are examined regularly. The elaborate examinations refer to the energy policy of each member country to dictate the common orientation of their policy. Ministers meetings of IEA take place regularly. The latest took place in PARIS on the fourth of June 1993 where the ministers confirmed that there were essential elements of the energy policy and that they recommended to all countries to take that in account in the formulation of their strategies. Beyond the examinations by country, this book contains a whole report which throws into relief the main new acts which were happened in the IEA members countries and a glimpse on the evolution of the energy situation in the no members countries. It gives specific data and informations on the governmental budgets allocated to research and development energy activities. 6 annexes, 12 graphs., 5 tabs

  18. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eAngus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.

  19. Case report 495: Oesteochondroma-like femoral lesions due to chronic professional stress in a Swiss cheese-maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballmer, P.E.; Bessler, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The case is presented of a 78-year-old man who was under treatment for carcinoma of the prostate with skeletal metastasis. As an incidental finding, clinically and radiologically, bony proturbances were observed to involve the right femoral shaft, reminescent of solitary cartilaginous exostoses. This was particularly true of the osseous overgrowth arising from the anterior aspect in the middle third of the right femur. A thick apposition of periosteal new bone was observed. However, a true cartilaginous cap was not present in either lesion excluding a solitary cartilagenous exostosis. A diagnosis of chronic stress was made, associated with the patient's occupation for 34 years as a cheese-maker, resulting in the bony alterations in the right femoral shaft. The history of lifting of cheeses with a weight of up to 120 kg from the shelf to the right thigh of the patient and from there to a table for washing, presumably had caused microfractures and subperiosteal hematomas on the surface of the femur. The mechanism of injury was discussed in detail and the subject of stress injuries incurred by such individuals as professional dancers was considered. The literature was reviewed. (orig.)

  20. FileMaker Pro 9

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q

  1. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  2. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2004-01-01

    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...

  3. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2005-01-01

    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...

  4. Enhancing the contribution of research to health care policy-making: a case study of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Marks, Lisanne K; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health care policy-making. Our aim was to identify ways to achieve that. We used contribution mapping as a theoretical framework that recognizes alignment of research as crucial to managing contributions to policy-making. To investigate which areas need alignment efforts by researchers and/or policy-makers, we interviewed National Institute researchers and policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and assessed the process for developing the 2010 Report. We identified six areas where alignment is specifically relevant for enhancing the contributions of future versions of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report: well-balanced information for different ministerial directorates; backstage work; double role actors; reports of other knowledge institutes; data collection/generation and presentation forms. The contribution of health care performance reporting to policy-making is complex and requires continuous alignment efforts between researchers and policy-makers. These efforts should form an inseparable part of health care performance reporting and although this demands considerable resources, it is worth considering since it may pay back in better contributions to policy-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  6. Image Makers: Reporters or Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzello, Marion C.

    To explore how news sources are used by media to create a social image of women during key suffrage events of 1858, 1920, and 1970, the front page stories of the "New York Times" were reviewed for 1 week prior to and 1 week following each of these events: May 14, 1858, the Eighth National Women's Rights Convention in New York City;…

  7. The unsustainable Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Makers is the latest novel of the American science fiction writer, blogger and Silicon Valley intellectual Cory Doctorow. Set in the 2010s, the novel describes the possible impact of the present trend towards the migration of modes of production and organization that have emerged online into the sphere of material production. Called New Work, this movement is indebted to a new maker culture that attracts people into a kind of neo-artisan, high tech mode of production. The question is: can a corporate-funded New Work movement be sustainable? Doctorow seems to suggest that a capitalist economy of abundance is unsustainable because it tends to restrict the reach of its value flows to a privileged managerial elite.

  8. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stuiver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.

  9. Structural Volatility in Mexico: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys Mexico`s economic weaknesses and provides related policy recommendations. Current problems include weak international financial links and external conditions, a recurrent credit crunch and financial underdevelopment problem, with particularly fragile banks, a weak fiscal situation, due to extreme vulnerability to internal and external shocks, and a latent monetary policy credibility problem. The paper`s policy recommendations include improving external financial links, redu...

  10. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 236

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...

  11. The Permanent Secretary as Policy-Maker, Shaper, Taker, Sharer, and Resister in Education--Reflections on Sir James Hamilton as a Centralising Outsider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Given that elevation to permanent secretary is widely recognised as the apotheosis of a career in the Whitehall bureaucracy, it is remarkable that so few have been the subject of sustained biographical research and that this key role remains largely un-theorised. As such, this paper reports on aspects of a longitudinal study which set out to…

  12. Interstate 80 freight corridor analysis : current freight traffic, trends and projections in special consideration of Wyoming policy-makers in planning, engineering, highway safety and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    "This report is the result of a two-part study intended to provide input to WYDOTs long-term planning process for the I-80 facility. The first phase of the study involved an on-the-ground freight survey of over 2,000 truckers traveling eastbound a...

  13. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn K.D. Sartorius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  14. Water Footprint of Milk Produced and Processed in South Africa: Implications for Policy-Makers and Stakeholders along the Dairy Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Owusu-Sekyere

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current water scarcity situation in South Africa is a threat to sustainable development. The present paper has assessed the water footprint of milk produced and processed in South Africa using the procedures outlined in the water footprint assessment manual. The results show that 1352 m3 of water is required to produce one tonne of milk with 4% fat and 3.3% protein in South Africa. The water used in producing feed for lactating cows alone accounts for 86.35% of the total water footprint of milk. The water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows is about 85% higher than that of non-lactating cows. Green water footprint accounts for more than 86% of the total water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows. Green and blue water footprints are the highest contributors to the total water footprint milk production in South Africa. Water used for feed production for both lactating and non-lactating cows accounts for about 99% of the total water footprint of milk production in South Africa. Particular attention should be given to feed crops with low water footprints and high contribution to dry matter to provide balanced ration with low water footprint. Water users, managers and livestock producers should pay attention to green and blue water consumption activities along the milk value chain and design strategies to minimize them. Corn, sorghum and lucerne production under irrigation in the greater Orange River basin is sustainable, whereas oats production for silage in the same catchment area is not sustainable. Our findings provide the rationale for dairy producers and water users in the dairy industry to get an understanding of the degree of sustainability of their input and output combinations, production choices, and policy interventions, in terms of water use.

  15. Strategic Intelligence Observations from the Pre-Vietnam and Pre-9/11 Periods for the Intelligence Professional and the Policy-Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    the drawing board.” It came back optimistic.106 6/11/63 Buddhist ‘demonstration’ in So Vietnam, with monk Thich Quang Duc self- immolation. Receives...Vietnamese sponsored insurgency. This in part was caused by sensational media coverage of monks lighting themselves on fire in protest to President...The compartmentalization observation from the 9/11 Report was that the FBI and other domestic agencies did not have routine access to foreign

  16. Why We Need to Have Broad-Based Societal Discussions of the Governance of Geoengineering, at national and international levels, starting with scientists and increasingly with policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.

    2017-12-01

    . Geoengineering has planet-wide consequences and must therefore be discussed within intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. The research community has been addressing many of these issues, but the global policy community and the public largely have not. It's time to do so.

  17. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  18. 7 CFR 932.50 - Report of marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of marketing policy. 932.50 Section 932.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.50 Report of marketing policy. At least 14 days prior to the start of...

  19. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  20. Política de autogestión hospitalaria en Chile: percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones Hospital self-management policy in Chile: perceptions of decision-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Méndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones respecto de la etapa de implementación de la política de autogestión hospitalaria en dos hospitales de alta complejidad del sur de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a tomadores de decisiones de los hospitales Regional de la ciudad de Valdivia y San José de la ciudad de Osorno, durante el período de agosto de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. Se seleccionó una muestra por conveniencia de 26 tomadores de decisiones. Las 26 entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas en forma literal. El análisis de la información se hizo utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en su aproximación inductiva. RESULTADOS: Para los entrevistados, la conceptualización de la autogestión está determinada por la autonomía para la toma de decisiones respecto de la asignación de recursos y el financiamiento de la provisión de servicios de salud en las instituciones hospitalarias. También manifestaron que para mejorar la etapa de implementación se deben incluir políticas de recursos humanos y de financiamiento de la función de provisión de servicios de salud. A las debilidades, por su parte, las relacionaron con la ausencia de capacidades organizacionales y competencias gerenciales de los equipos de salud para la implementación de los cambios. CONCLUSIONES: La política de autogestión hospitalaria es conceptualizada desde la autonomía financiera, y su implementación está determinada por las brechas de capacidad que persisten en el diseño de la política.OBJECTIVE: To learn the perceptions of decision-makers concerning the imple­men­t­ation stage of a hospital self-management policy in two highly complex hospitals in southern Chile. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study based on semi-structured in-depth interviews of decision-makers at the Regional Hospital of Valdivia

  1. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  2. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  3. Indigenous Youth as Language Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…

  4. Understanding Mali: Lessons for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Staff College to attend the USAF Air Command and Staff College. After earning distinguished graduate honors at Air Command and Staff College in 2013, he...submission to the infidel , which was intolerable to any good Muslim,” they resisted the Europeans with added fervor and tenacity.10 The resistance...inclination, Islam did not tolerate French colonization because believers viewed the French as infidels who were taking over dâr al-islâm (territory of

  5. Report of the Siting Policy Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    In August 1978, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission directed the staff to develop a general policy statement on nuclear power reactor siting. A Task Force was formed for that purpose and has prepared a statement of current NRC policy and practice and has recommended a number of changes to current policy. Recommendations were made to accomplish the following goals: (1) To strengthen siting as a factor in defense in depth by establishing requirements for site approval that are independent of plant design consideration. The present policy of permitting plant design features to compensate for unfavorable site characteristics has resulted in improved designs but has tended to deemphasize site isolation. (2) To take into consideration in siting the risk associated with accidents beyond the design basis (Class 9) by establishing population density and distribution criteria. Plant design improvements have reduced the probability and consequences of design basis accidents, but there remains the residual risk from accidents not considered in the design basis. Although this risk cannot be completely reduced to zero, it can be significantly reduced by selective siting. (3) To require that sites selected will minimize the risk from energy generation. The selected sites should be among the best available in the region where new generating capacity is needed. Siting requirements should be stringent enough to limit the residual risk of reactor operation but not so stringent as to eliminate the nuclear option from large regions of the country. This is because energy generation from any source has its associated risk, with risks from some energy sources being greater than that of the nuclear option

  6. The use of evidence in public governmental reports on health policy: an analysis of 17 Norwegian official reports (NOU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innvaer, Simon

    2009-09-28

    Governments increasingly require policy documents to be evidence-based. This paper analyses the use of scientific evidence in such documents by reviewing reports from government-appointed committees in Norway to assess the committees' handling of questions of effect. This study uses the 'Index of Scientific Quality' (ISQ) to analyse all Norwegian official reports (NOUs) that were: (1) published by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services during 1994-1998 (N = 20); and (2) concerned with questions of effect either because these were included in the mandate or as a result of the committee's interpretation of the mandate. The ISQ is based on scientific criteria common in all research concerning questions of effect. The primary outcome measure is an ISQ score on a five-point scale. Three reports were excluded because their mandates, or the committees' interpretations of them, did not address questions of effect. For the remaining 17 NOUs in our study, overall ISQ scores were low for systematic literature search and for explicit validation of research. Two reports had an average score of three or higher, while scores for five other reports were not far behind. How committees assessed the relevant factors was often unclear. The reports' evaluations of health evidence in relation to questions of effect lacked transparency and, overall, showed little use of systematic processes. A systematic, explicit and transparent approach, following the standards laid down in the ISQ, may help generate the evidence-based decision-making that Norway, the UK, the EU and the WHO desire and seek. However, policy-makers may find the ISQ criteria for assessing the scientific quality of a report too narrow to adequately inform policy-making.

  7. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Report on e-Commerce - The Policy Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In the light of the emerging global importance of e-commerce to economic development this report sets out a policy framework for government and the development agencies to ensure that Ireland can exploit the opportunities of e-commerce

  9. Policy on Public Reporting of Regulatory Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) has published reports on all its regulatory decisions made since July 1, 2013, irrespective of the provider category in which a provider is registered or the particular circumstances of a provider, with the exception of decisions relating to an application for initial registration from an…

  10. Public Policy and the Frail Elderly: A Staff Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorethea, Ed.

    This Federal Council on Aging report contains recommendations for a national policy regarding services for the frail elderly and describes the principles on which the recommendations are based. Recommended core services are discussed and characteristics and statistics relating to the frail elderly are identified. The report describes existing…

  11. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  12. Contributions of knowledge products to health policy: a case study on the Public Health Status and Forecasts Report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Kok, Maarten O; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-12-01

    The Dutch Public Health Status and Forecasts report (PHSF Report) integrates research data and identifies future trends affecting public health in the Netherlands. To investigate how PHSF contributions to health policy can be enhanced, we analysed the development process whereby the PHSF Report for 2010 was produced (PHSF-2010). To collect data, a case study approach was used along the lines of Contribution Mapping including analysis of documents from the PHSF-2010 process and interviews with actors involved. All interviews were recorded and transcribed ad verbatim and coded using an inductive code list. The PHSF-2010 process included activities aimed at alignment between researchers and policy-makers, such as informal meetings. However, we identified three issues that are easily overlooked in knowledge development, but provide suggestions for enhancing contributions: awareness of divergent; continuously changing actor scenarios; vertical alignment within organizations involved and careful timing of draft products to create early adopters. To enhance the contributions made by an established public health report, such as the PHSF Report, it is insufficient to raise the awareness of potential users. The knowledge product must be geared to policy-makers' needs and must be introduced into the scenarios of actors who may be less familiar. The demand for knowledge product adaptations has to be considered. This requires continuous alignment efforts in all directions: horizontal and vertical, external and internal. The findings of this study may be useful to researchers who aim to enhance the contributions of their knowledge products to health policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Fueling our future : strategic energy policy opportunities for Canada : outcomes report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, G.; Poisson, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's economic future is closely linked to its energy future. This report relates outcomes from a conference aimed at understanding the issues and challenges facing the energy sector. The goal of the conference was to promote a dialogue on a national approach to meeting Canada's energy needs. Participants at the conference agreed that ensuring a sustainable energy supply was an overarching challenge. Both unconventional and traditional sources of energy will be needed for supply and export in the future. The development of new sources of both conventional and unconventional energy was a priority. Investments in technological advancement held the key to future development. A consensus emerged that increased energy efficiency is necessary along with strong, articulate energy policies. Market-based decision-making should work in combination with the public sector. The complex regulatory approval process is seen as a serious challenge to Canada's energy future and collaboration is crucial to the success of Canada's energy strategy, with provincial, territorial and federal commitment. Environmental considerations are a significant component, with increased attention paid to issues of climate change in the face of increased demand. Discrepancies in policy and the legally binding Kyoto Protocol were discussed with reference to regulations, policy and tax incentives. A zero-emission future was suggested. Frameworks and policy guidelines are seen as necessary for future advancement, as well as high-level political commitment. It was concluded that more discussion between industry, environmental Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), senior policy makers and advisors is necessary to address energy issues and begin moving forward. Conference agendas, participant lists, biographies and presentation notes were also included

  14. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  15. Developing a decision support system to link health technology assessment (HTA) reports to the health system policies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Jadidfard, Mohammad-Pooyan

    2017-05-01

    The recent increase of 'Health Technology Assessment' (HTA)-related activities in Iran has necessitated the clarification of policy-making process based on the HTA reports. This study aimed to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) in order to adopt evidence-informed policies regarding health technologies in Iran. The study can be classified as Health Policy and Systems Research. A core panel of seven experts conducted two separate reviews of relevant literature for: 1- Determining the potential technology-related policies. 2- Listing the criteria influencing those policy decisions. The policies and criteria were separately discussed and subsequently rated for appropriateness and necessity during two expert meetings in 2013. In the next step, The 'Discrete Choice Experiment' (DCE) method was employed to develop the DSS for the final technology-related policies. Accordingly, the core panel members independently rated the appropriateness of each policy for 30 virtual technologies based on the random values assigned to all the criteria for each technology. The obtained data for each policy were separately analysed using stepwise regression model, resulting in a minimal set of independent and statistically significant criteria contributing in the experts' judgments about the appropriateness of that policy. The obtained regression coefficients were used as the relative weights of the different levels of the final criteria of any policy statement, shaping the decision support scoring tool for each policy. The study has outlined 64 policy decisions under 7 macro policy areas concerning a health technology. Also, 34 criteria used for making those policy decisions have been organized within a portfolio. DCE, using stepwise regression, resulted in 64 scoring tools shaping the DSS for all HTA-related policies. Both the results and methodology of the study may serve as a guide for policy makers (researchers), particularly in low and middle income countries, in developing

  16. Deliverable 1.2: Report on ENP Policy Concerning its Objectives and Policy Measures over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borell, M.; Boschma, R.A.; Monastiriotis, V.; Wesselink, E.

    2012-01-01

    This report consists of two working papers, which subsequently offer an overview of the history, structure and institutional instruments of the ENP and the policies that have been implemented due to the ENP, and a review of the political and political economy literature on the ENP. Together these

  17. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and water source heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Follow-up contacts were made with several project states, and state meetings and workshops were held in nine project states. Two state-specific documents were prepared during this reporting period, for Nevada and Wyoming.

  18. Gender and communication policy in Asia. Special report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, H

    1997-01-01

    This report was prepared as background information for a regional conference of the World Association for Christian Communication. It provides information on gender issues related to communication structures in Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. For each country, a brief description of the policy environment is followed by: 1) a summary of pertinent legislation, policies, and self-regulation efforts; and 2) a discussion of the role of existing mass media councils and monitoring organizations.

  19. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams) will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”). Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data). Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research. PMID:22928979

  20. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmeyer Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.

  1. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...... portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design...

  2. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  3. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  4. Smart unconventional monetary (SUMO) policies: giving impetus to green investment. Climate Report no. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, Camille; Morel, Romain

    2014-07-01

    Today, given the amount of investment needed to reach a 2-degree emissions reduction target and the tight budgetary constraints of governments worldwide, public spending alone will not be sufficient alone. Therefore, there is a double need to not only shift private financial flows from 'brown' sectors to 'green' sectors, but also to leverage new sources of financing. Addressing the second challenge, this study reviews three families of proposed funding mechanisms based on unconventional monetary policies targeting 'green' or 'climate' investments. These 'Smart Unconventional Monetary' (or SUMO) policies include: (i) the use of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) issued by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), (ii) green quantitative easing and (iii) the issuance of Carbon Certificates. Proponents of these mechanisms assert that they have a strong potential to provide substantial low-cost financing for green projects and reduce the risks linked to green investments for private investors. Furthermore, they could have further macro-economic co-benefits in specific circumstances. For example, implemented jointly with appropriate 'demand-side' mechanisms, a SUMO policy mechanism, even if short-term, could help trigger investment, bank lending and growth in Europe and pave the way for a longer-term green policies' framework. Nevertheless, this analysis has identified that the implementation of such mechanisms has a number of challenges to overcome. The first challenge is to convince policy makers that these mechanisms, even if they resort to unconventional monetary policies, will not lead to inflation. The second challenge is the difficulty to reach multilateral agreements in the short run, because of geopolitical and institutional barriers. The third challenge is the necessity to involve the private sector. Furthermore, to facilitate their contribution to low-carbon investment, this analysis suggests that

  5. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  6. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  7. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Zanzibar. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Sebtuu; Mohammed, Khadija Ali

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five areas of…

  8. The Credibility of Policy Reporting Across Learning Disciplines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, S.; Youtie, J.; Solomon, G.; Porter, A.

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a credibility map argues that everyone has a distinctive map that dictates the preference given to different types and sources of information. When seeking to influence other academic fields, scholars will likely turn to scientific and technical information though other types, such as policy reports, may also be relevant. We draw on the credibility mapping concept to understand how a major policy report is taken up by the target academic community. The report, How People Learn, was published by the US National Academies in 2000, to expose the education community (mainly educational researchers but also knowledge-seeking practitioners) to major cognitive science research findings of relevance to learning. We applied several search strings to measure the take up of this report in the target community. We used Google Scholar to evince that that How People Learn was cited in nearly 15,000 publications, these citations grew particularly steeply from 2000 to 2008, and most were in education-related journal papers. We performed a similar analysis using the Web of Science, which showed that most of the citations were substantial as opposed to perfunctory. (Author)

  9. The impact of national policies on animal disease reporting within selected Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2018-04-20

    A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented. The findings from the literature review indicated that there is very little policy to support work in surveillance and disease reporting within national government structures of the countries studied. This increases the potential for disease transmission and the introduction of exotic diseases as the efficiency of disease reporting is low. The findings from the SWOT analysis of the reporting structures indicated that there were commonalities across the countries studied, i.e. reporting structures were long with multiple legs that were not functioning properly and this was worsened when positions were vacant in the reporting structure. The hierarchical nature of the reporting structure also reduced reporting efficiency as reports took a longer time to reach decision makers at the top of the structure. High officer turnover and the shortage of veterinarians in the countries studied also affected the efficiency of disease reporting as most in-county officials were inexperienced and could not recognise disease signs and there were no veterinarians to supervise them. Existing reporting structures need to be reviewed to remove duplication and shorten the chain. However, this could override existing command structures and would need to be documented and awareness created with the officers involved. There also needs to be more collaboration

  10. Travelling Policies and Contextual Considerations: On Threshold Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam; Kondakci, Yasar; Emil, Serap

    2018-01-01

    Educational policy borrowing has become rather common in our globalised world. However, the literature lacks contextual criteria that may be employed by researchers and policy makers to assess the correspondence of a particular policy to the local context of a borrowing system. Based on a secondary analysis of documents and research reports, this…

  11. African Researchers and Decision-Makers: Building Synergy for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... For the International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) and its partners, the link between research and policy is of paramount importance in their goal to improve social, economic, and environmental conditions in developing countries. Collaboration between researchers and decision-makers, ...

  12. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  13. Global change research: Science and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  14. FileMaker Pro 11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on, friendly guide shows you how to harness FileMaker's power to make your information work for you. With a few mouse clicks, the FileMaker Pro 11 database helps you create and print corporate reports, manage a mailing list, or run your entire business. FileMaker Pro 11: The Missing Manual helps you get started, build your database, and produce results, whether you're running a business, pursuing a hobby, or planning your retirement. It's a thorough, accessible guide for new, non-technical users, as well as those with more experience. Start up: Get your first database up and runnin

  15. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing.

  16. One-by-one or all-at-once? Self-reporting policies and dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rilke, R.M.; Schurr, A.; Barkan, R.; Shalvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Organizational monitoring relies frequently on self-reports (e.g., work hours, progress reports, travel expenses). A "one-by-one" policy requires employees to submit a series of reports (e.g., daily or itemized reports). An "all-at-once" policy requires an overall report (e.g., an annual or an

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  18. 2007 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Synthesis Report 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Crone, Melissa; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents an update of a 2006 report from NCEO tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2006 (based on 2005 data). In this analysis, policies from all 50 states, plus…

  19. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...... Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetically modified food, transport policy in the Copenhagen area with a focus on the Metro, and local waste management...

  20. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  1. Pengembangan Software Game Menggunakan RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Beny

    2010-01-01

    Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137

  2. Interim report of the task force on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Task Force was established by the Premier of British Columbia in August 2001 to draft an energy policy framework for the province. Based on best practices worldwide, and keeping in mind the specific energy needs of British Columbia, this framework aims at fostering energy development in British Columbia, in accordance with exemplary environmental practices. This interim report comprises the preliminary findings of the Task Force, and public input is sought before the final report is finalized and presented to government. The energy sector of British Columbia comprises hydroelectric power, oil, gas and coal resources. In addition, green energy and alternative energy technologies are being developed, such as wind, solar, and wave power, and hydrogen fuel cells. Industry and individual consumers are well served by the highly developed transmission and distribution systems for energy. Several strategic directions were identified by the Task Force for inclusion in the energy policy of British Columbia, to meet its full potential. They are: growth to ensure safe, reliable energy and take advantage of economic opportunities; diversification; competitiveness; industry restructuring and expansion; environmental imperative; government leadership; and community and First Nations' involvement. Some changes are also required for the continuing success of the energy sector in British Columbia: a move to fully competitive markets in the electricity system, the development of natural gas storage capacity in the Lower Mainland, additional considerations for coal use, and the development of alternative energy sources. It is expected that private capital and more energy supply will result from a fully competitive energy market, which in turn would lower energy costs. Jobs and income would increase as a result of the growth in the sector. Diversification makes good economic and environmental sense. tabs., figs

  3. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, August 1-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1979-11-01

    The NCSL geothermal policy project continued with initiating geothermal studies in new project states and furthering policy development in existing states. Activities of the project staff are reviewed. (MHR)

  4. How well are the links between education and other sustainable development goals covered in UN flagship reports? A contribution to the study of the science-policy interface on education in the UN system

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Vladimirova; David Le Blanc

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will succeed the Millennium Development Goals as reference goals for international development for the period 2015-2030. Education was identified as a standalone goal (SDG4). Epistemic communities have documented a number of links between education and other SDG areas, and policy makers have long recognized many of them. Based on an exhaustive content analysis of 40 global reports, this paper examines how well such links are represented i...

  5. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  6. What do decision makers learn from public forums on climate-related hazards and resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2017-12-01

    Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.

  7. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Harding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  8. Parliamentarians involvement on reproductive health and development policy in Vietnam -- report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    More than 80 participants attended the National Seminar on Population, Reproductive Health and Development Policy of Viet Nam in the New Millennium, held on June 12-13, 2000, in Hanoi. The objectives of the seminar were to 1) review policy on population, reproductive health (RH) and development policy; 2) make some recommendations for amendment; and 3) issue new policy and strategy on these fields. The following recommendations sent to Parliament, Prime Minister, and some related Ministers include the approval of the new strategy on population and the new strategy on RH of Vietnam and the approval of the Policy on Spontaneous Migration. It also called for the integration of population variable in the socioeconomic strategy; more resources for population and RH program support for disadvantaged regions; approval of related ordinances; more resources for Poverty Reduction, Population, RH and Development and prohibition of some services for sex diagnosis and selection; and organization of the consultative meeting on Communication between Researchers and Policy makers on Population, RH and Development issues. Outcomes of the seminar are summarized.

  9. The Career Education Policy Project (CEPP): Connecting Educators, Policymakers, and the Public. Annual Evaluation Report. Final Report, July 1, 1975-June 30, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Jane

    To inform and interconnect educational practitioners, knowledge-makers, policymakers, and the consuming public around the issues and potential of career education, the Career Education Policy Project (CEEP) collaborated with several existing programs to expose out-of-town leaders of the career education movement to the federal policymaking…

  10. EU energy policies towards the 21st century: a business intelligence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Paul K.

    1998-06-01

    This report discusses the EU energy policy, and examines the single market, the internal electricity and gas markets, and the single market with respect to coal, oil and biofuel. The environmental policy, the control of air quality, climate change policies, security of supplies, and economic and social cohesion are addressed. Nuclear issues, research and demonstration programmes, EU enlargement, and international affairs are discussed. (UK)

  11. Nuclear power: the decision makers speak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.L.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1980, the authors surveyed selected scientific experts, decision-makers in financial and regulatory communities and Congress, and directors of major activist groups for national environmental organizations. Questions concerned policy preferences for and general attitudes toward nuclear energy, problems, energy resources, and considerations important to most influential groups in nuclear development. The survey revealed, surprisingly, that most regulators, congressional leaders, outside experts, and financiers are as united in their support of nuclear energy development as are industry executives, Three Mile Island notwithstanding. The antinuclear perspective is represented almost entirely by the heads of activist groups and a few scattered allies in Congress, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. A relatively few dissenters have played a major role in blocking nuclear development. Implications for the regulatory process from these survey results are that cost-benefit analyses and empirical findings on nuclear power issues will not convince activists and their followers; it appears that they have acquired a kind of veto over nuclear development. Through actively political behavior in the contest for nuclear energy's future, and through sympathetic media, activists have won the American public to their side. 7 tables

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of European air quality policies and measures. Final report on Task 3.3. Survey to access successes and failures of the EU Air Quality Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of Task 3.3 of the title project was to survey the views of European policy makers and other stakeholders directly involved in air quality policy development and implementation on the successes and failures of the present European air quality policies. The survey also included several decisionmakers from the USA, Japan and Switzerland to learn about these countries' experiences with specific air quality policies. A list of approximately 90 people to be surveyed during the project was developed. The list included representatives from the European Commission, the European Parliament, national-level representatives from the Member States, including those designated by the CAFE Steering Group, along with representatives of local authorities, NGOs, industry and academia. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. The questionnaire consists of four major parts. Part 1 includes questions about the impact of EU legislation on air quality. Part 2 is designed to learn about stakeholder opinions on the adequacy of Community-level measures with respect to air quality protection. Part 3 asks for opinions about various measures used in Community-level legislation on air quality as well as ideas for new or modified measures that could be effective in achieving better air quality in the EU. Part 4 includes questions about stakeholder involvement and transparency and was designed to assist with the implementation of Task 3.4 (on public participation and transparency) of the project. The analysis of responses for this part of the questionnaire is presented in the parallel Report for Task 3.4. The final version of the questionnaire used to interview European stakeholders is attached as Appendix II. For the decision-makers from the USA, Switzerland, and Japan a separate questionnaire was developed, and is attached as Appendix III. In all, the team received 49 responses from the 90 enquiries.

  13. An exploration of the theoretical concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs at the Swedish public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-12-01

    In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources.

  14. Agricultural pricing policy in Kenya : scope and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the findings of available studies and reports thought to be of relevance to policy makers. A discussion of the institutional framework, of criteria used in price-setting procedures, and of scope and objectives of the agricultural pricing policies is folowed by an examination of what these

  15. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme 'International instruments for climate change policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van Beek, P.; Folmer, H.; Zhang, Z.X.; Blok, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Worrell, E.; Gupta, J.; Junne, G.; Van der Wurff, R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects implemented in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change are organised in several themes and sub-themes. Within the theme on Sustainable Solutions five projects are grouped under the heading International Instruments for Climate Change Policy. These five projects deal primarily with issues concerning the position of developing countries in the debate on limiting global CO2-emissions. They cover a broad spectrum of topics: international negotiation strategies, tropical deforestation, industrial energy conservation, national energy scenarios, emission guidelines. This contribution presents an overview of the objectives, methodologies and results of the projects and includes a critical evaluation of the potential relevance of the work for policy makers. 1 tab., 36 refs

  16. Report of the written responses on National Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    A Public Notice appeared in the March 2, 1977 edition of The Federal Register inviting the American people to comment on and make recommendations for the President's National Energy Policy. The Notice, signed by James R. Schlesinger, sought comment on eight broad areas of policy; but it also encouraged citizens to address the issues that most concerned them and to do so in their own style. The eight broad areas of energy policy are: conservation, imported energy, supply development, environment, Federal regulation, intergovernmental relations, citizen participation, and hardships. By April 1, 27,898 letters, telegrams, packages, mailgrams, and position papers had been received, 18,721 of these from the general public. Every letter was carefully read and reviewed. The policy issues mentioned in the Public Notice are listed with tables and brief descriptions of the responses. The tables also indicate consensus or the lack of it. (ERA citation 04:036682)

  17. Support Mechanisms for Evidence-Based Policy-Making in Education. Eurydice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiheläinen, Jari Matti; Böhm, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    The report describes the mechanisms and practices that support evidence-based policy-making in the education sector in Europe. It comparatively looks at institutions and practices in evidence-based policy-making, as well as the accessibility, and mediation, of evidence. The report presents more detailed information on each individual country, with…

  18. Reviews of the Norwegian climate policy - a synthesis of four international reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjoernaes, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin

    2011-07-01

    The report is a synthesis of four reviews on the Norwegian climate policy: 1. Environmental performance review of Norway, OECD 2011 2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, Norway, IEA 2011 3. Economic Survey of Norway, OECD 2010 4. Report on the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Norway.(auth)

  19. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  20. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy

  1. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  2. Making Leaders: Leadership Characteristics of Makers and Engineers in the Maker Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplinger, James; Lande, Micah; Jordan, Shawn; Camarena, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the emergence of leadership characteristics within a new organizational community of individuals: the Maker community. The Maker community is a group of individuals that classify themselves as "Makers" and have become innovators and entrepreneurs through the creation of technological gadgets, artistic projects, and…

  3. Report from a forum on US heart allocation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashigawa, J A; Johnson, M; Rogers, J; Vega, J D; Colvin-Adams, M; Edwards, L; Meyer, D; Luu, M; Reinsmoen, N; Dipchand, A I; Feldman, D; Kormos, R; Mancini, D; Webber, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the latest revision in US heart allocation policy (2006), the landscape and volume of transplant waitlists have changed considerably. Advances in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) prolong survival, but Status 1A mortality remains high. Several patient subgroups may be disadvantaged by current listing criteria and geographical disparity remains in waitlist time. This forum on US heart allocation policy was organized to discuss these issues and highlight concepts for consideration in the policy development process. A 25-question survey on heart allocation policy was conducted. Among attendees/respondents were 84 participants with clinical/published experience in heart transplant representing 51 US transplant centers, and OPTN/UNOS and SRTR representatives. The survey results and forum discussions demonstrated very strong interest in change to a further-tiered system, accounting for disadvantaged subgroups and lowering use of exceptions. However, a heart allocation score is not yet viable due to the long-term viability of variables (used in the score) in an ever-developing field. There is strong interest in more refined prioritization of patients with MCS complications, highly sensitized patients and those with severe arrhythmias or restrictive physiology. There is also strong interest in distribution by geographic boundaries modified according to population. Differences of opinion exist between small and large centers.

  4. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Test Beam Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, R.; Anderson, D.; Childress, S.

    1989-01-01

    This document was developed at the request of the Physics Advisory Committee of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to review the general subject of test beams with the purpose of establishing general policy and guidelines for consideration of future test beam requests. The recommendations stated here should be subject to periodic review, since the Laboratory position must change as needs and available resources change

  5. 77 FR 14349 - Availability of Report: California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... concentrated or directed freshwater flows can directly and indirectly destroy eelgrass habitats. The importance... conserve, protect, and manage living marine resources and the habitats that sustain them. Eelgrass is a... provides, as well as its importance to managed species under the MSA. NMFS developed this policy to...

  6. The Vermont transportation energy report : Vermont Clean Cities Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The mission of the Vermont Clean Cities Coalition (VCCC) is to reduce the states reliance on : fossil fuels for transportation. This annual report provides policy makers with relevant and : timely data on the status of fuel consumption, vehicle pu...

  7. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  10. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include

  11. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  12. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  13. 5 CFR 2634.901 - Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.901 Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting. (a) The confidential financial reporting system set forth in this subpart is designed to complement... confidential basis, additional information from persons who are already subject to the public reporting...

  14. FileMaker 85 Integrating the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Susan

    2006-01-01

    FileMaker Pro, famed for power and ease of use, has added a suite of new features that can seriously boost your database productivity. This tutorial helps you take full advantage of the fresh stuff. It focuses on FileMaker's terrific new tool for integrating the Web with your databases: the Web Viewer. Step-by-step instructions help you create a Web Viewer from one of FileMaker's templates or a totally custom version of your own. But the tutorial doesn't stop there. It goes on to cover Object Naming, including FileMaker's rules for Object Names and how to use them in scripts; new scripts; ne

  15. Nordsøen Movie Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Tag på ekspedition under havets overflade med Nordsøen Movie Maker, hvor din tur i Nordsøen Oceanarium får et helt nyt virtuelt lag. Rejs ud til de syv destinationer og hold øje med de unikke ‘moviespots‘ i nærheden af akvarierne. Her kan du med Nordsøen Movie Maker filme og dokumentere dine...... oplevelser med legesyge sæler, susende hvirvelstrømme og gigantiske klumpfisk. Nordsøen Movie Maker giver filmen et ekstra virtuelt lag, og via augmented reality bliver der tilføjet seje og morsomme, animerede specialeffekter. 1) Download app’en 2) Find et moviespot ved ekspeditionsposterne i Nordsøen......! Nordsøen Movie Maker er udviklet i et samarbejde mellem Nordsøen Oceanarium, Aalborg Universitet - Center for Interaktive Digitale Medier samt Huge Lawn - Miracle Apps....

  16. Monetary policy report to the Congress, February 27, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2002-01-01

    Last year was a difficult one for the economy of the United States. The slowdown in the growth of economic activity that had become apparent in late 2000 intensified in the first half of 2001, as businesses slashed investment spending and declines in manufacturing output steepened. Foreign economies also slowed, further reducing the demand for U.S. production. The aggressive actions by the Federal Reserve to ease the stance of monetary policy in the first half of the year provided support to ...

  17. 2009 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Synthesis Report 83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Braam, Maureen; Scullin, Sarah; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2008 (based on 2007 data). In addition, current state accommodations policies…

  18. 2005 State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Synthesis Report 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lail, Kathryn E.; Eisenbraun, Kristin D.; Kato, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2005 (based on 2003 data). The current analysis of states' 2005 participation…

  19. 24 CFR 990.310 - Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose-General policy on financial... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Financial Management Systems, Monitoring, and Reporting § 990.310 Purpose—General policy on financial management...

  20. Ask These Key Questions When You Review Child Abuse Reporting Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joy J.

    1988-01-01

    Urges policymakers to examine and update their school system's child abuse reporting policy. Such policies must be adequate to help endangered children, protect their right to privacy, and avoid overprotection. Advises on ways to protect staff against unnecessary accusations and develop inservice training programs discussing child abuse, state…

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  2. Oregon School and District Report Card Policy and Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The school and district report cards were created by the 1999 Oregon Legislature. The legislation requires that the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) produce and issue a report card to all public schools and districts in the state. The report cards are designed to: (1) Communicate the many good things occurring in Oregon's public schools; (2)…

  3. Who Cares about APA Policy and Does it Have an Impact? 2006 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    What constitutes American Psychological Association (APA) policy? How does it affect the everyday and professional lives of APA members? How personally aware are psychologists of APA policies? In this report, the APA explores these questions and provide some intriguing findings on the fate of policies developed through the APA's complicated and…

  4. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, March 1-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, T.D.

    1980-06-01

    Efforts continued to initiate geothermal and groundwater heat pump study activities in newly selected project states and to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Minnesota and South Carolina have agreed to a groundwater heat pump study, and Maryland and Virginia have agreed to a follow-up geothermal study in 1980. Follow-up contacts were made with several other existing project states and state meetings and workshops were held in eleven project states. Two generic documents were prepared, the Geothermal Guidebook and the Guidebook to Groundwater Heat Pumps, in addition to several state-specific documents.

  5. Renaissance of nuclear power challenge for policy makers and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslav, I.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power industry being cost intensive, must be considered as a high-tech employer of highly qualified man power. Similar challenge is faced by manufacturers: the part of supply chain. Nuclear power plant is very complex equipment as far as technology and science is involved. Nuclear power can be the option for bigger share of balanced national or global energy mix, to meet growing demand for power, with stability of supply and reducing CO 2 emissions till the year 2050. Hence, there is need to treat nuclear power as a long-term program, with which all its positive features will be a stronger alternative to conventional fossil power plants as well as all renewables. (author)

  6. Research a 'revolution' for academics and policy makers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Barbara Fraser

    Los hallazgos de la investigación sobre el crecimiento económico, la reducción de la pobreza y la igualdad están inspirando cambios de las políticas públicas en Perú. Al mismo tiempo que otros latinoamericanos responsables de políticas conocen los resultados, académicos están revisando sus teorías sobre el ...

  7. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Mudgal, S.; Turbé, A.; Toni, de A.; Lavelle, P.; Benito, P.; Ruiz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Human societies rely on the vast diversity of benefits provided by nature, such as food, fibres, construction materials, clean water, clean air and climate regulation. All the elements required for these ecosystem services depend on soil, and soil biodiversity is the driving force behind their

  8. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (N...

  9. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  10. Mobile Learning Research: The Focus for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning has moved in the last decade from being a small, scattered research interest to being viewed by many international agencies as a way of delivering their humanitarian missions to the developing contexts of the global South. This paper explores and documents fundamental concepts and concerns that characterize or perhaps jeopardise…

  11. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  12. Le TIC nella scuola: dieci raccomandazioni per i policy maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basandosi sulle evidenze relative al rapporto tra tecnologia e apprendimento e sul recente rapporto OCSE riguardante il Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale, l’autore riflette sui criteri che devono orientare le politiche innovative, ispirati a sostenibilità, ottimizzazione dell’impatto educativo, sottolineando anche la necessità di finalizzare meglio l’impiego delle tecnologie verso specifici obiettivi. Viene ricordato come storicamente si tenda a sovrastimare l’effetto positivo delle tecnologie sull’apprendimento; la ricerca ha invece rilevato i limiti della loro efficacia (da ricercare in determinate aree e la rilevanza del rischio del sovraccarico cognitivo che la loro introduzione può comportare. Si propongono alcuni suggerimenti per i decisori scolastici rispondendo alle due domande “Quali criteri per la politica tecnologica?”, “In che modo usare le tecnologie per apprendere a scuola?”.

  13. The change-makers of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Sue; Mhatre, Sharmila; Schryer-Roy, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-12

    West Africa was the focus of global attention during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, when systemic health system weaknesses compounded a serious emergency and complicated response efforts. Following the crisis, calls were made to strengthen health systems, but investments to date have fallen short of delivering the support needed to build strong health systems able to prevent and manage future outbreaks.In part, this reality serves to highlight the shortcomings of the solutions being repeatedly prioritised by external funders and experts, solutions that often fail to consider the wealth of West African evidence and actors actively working to strengthen the leadership and health systems needed to drive and sustainably improve national health outcomes. Unfortunately, this knowledge and experience are rarely heard in the global arena.This journal supplement is a contribution, although small, to changing this practice by putting the perspectives, experiences and knowledge of West Africans on the table. It presents findings from a series of research and capacity development projects in West Africa funded by the International Development Research Centre's Maternal and Child Health programme (formerly Governance for Equity in Health Systems).The evidence presented here centres around two key themes. First, the theme that context matters. The evidence shows how context can change the shape of externally imposed interventions or policies resulting in unintended outcomes. At the same time, it highlights evidence showing how innovative local actors are developing their own approaches, usually low-cost and embedded in the context, to bring about change. Second, the collection of articles discusses the critical need to overcome the existing fragmentation of expertise, knowledge and actors, and to build strong working relationships amongst all actors so they can effectively work together to identify priority issues that can realistically be addressed given the available

  14. Report on dissemination, monitoring and research into policy repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chereches, Razvan; Rus, Diana; Aro, Arja R.

    This report covers the dissemination activities of the project REPOPA months 2 to 60 (November 2011 to September 2016). This is the second major report of the dissemination work package (WP6) submitted to the European Commission (EC), which was aimed to provide the detailed results for disseminat...

  15. Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The aim of Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report is to advance surgical knowledge and practice by promoting the reporting of innovative and reproducible surgical techniques and illustrative surgical cases on various surgical disciplines. The journal encourages authoritative synthesis of current ...

  16. Federal Expenditures on Children: What Budget Policy Means for Children's Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 29, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Heather

    2015-01-01

    How do children fare in the federal budget? Investments in children's health, education, and overall well-being pay high dividends for taxpayers and the economy as a whole. Without adequately funded education, nutrition, housing, early education and care, and other basic supports, the foundation of children's well-being is at risk. This report 1)…

  17. Producing More Actionable Science Isn't the Problem; It's Providing Decision-Makers with Access to Right Actionable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Policy-makers today have almost infinite climate-relevant scientific and other information available to them. The problem for climate change decision-making isn't missing science or inadequate knowledge of climate risks; the problem is that the "right" climate change actionable knowledge isn't getting to the right decision-maker, or is getting there too early or too late to effectively influence her decision-making. Actionable knowledge is not one-size-fit-all, and for a given decision-maker might involve scientific, economic, or risk-based information. Simply producing more and more information as we are today is not the solution, and actually makes it harder for individual decision-makers to access "their" actionable knowledge. The Climatographers began building the Climate Web five years ago to test the hypothesis that a knowledge management system could help navigate the gap between infinite information and individual actionable knowledge. Today the Climate Web's more than 1,500 index terms allow instant access to almost any climate change topic. It is a curated public-access knowledgebase of more than 1,000 books, 2,000 videos, 15,000 reports and articles, 25,000 news stories, and 3,000 websites. But it is also much more, linking together tens of thousands of individually extracted ideas and graphics, and providing Deep Dives into more than 100 key topics from changing probability distributions of extreme events to climate communications best practices to cognitive dissonance in climate change decision-making. The public-access Climate Web is uniquely able to support cross-silo learning, collaboration, and actionable knowledge dissemination. The presentation will use the Climate Web to demonstrate why knowledge management should be seen as a critical component of science and policy-making collaborations.

  18. Tobacco Policy/Regulatory Factors | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  20. Policy analysis tools for air quality and health : report from the May 19, 2005 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, S.; Shortreed, J.

    2005-08-01

    The total impact of air pollution on human health is not well understood. This workshop examined key policy issues concerning air quality, and the availability of models and analyses to inform decision-makers. Attendants included stakeholders from health and environment departments of municipal, provincial and federal governments, as well as academics, consulting firms, industry and non-governmental organizations. The complexity of computer-based models was identified as a significant barrier to the development of a better understanding of the impacts of air pollution on human health, and it was noted that most models are not equipped to deal with the various levels of policy and decision-making that occur across many jurisdictions. It was observed that there is also a lack of data. It was suggested that efficient and cost-effective models are needed to identify good policy options, as well as tools that maximize the integration of information in a comprehensive manner. Evaluations of the impacts of air pollution should occur within the broad context of public health and consider both social and interactive needs. Continuing stakeholder dialogue was recommended, as well as a more in-depth exploration of policy analysis tools. A national meeting was planned to build on conclusions from the workshop. A guidance document was proposed to provide best practices to guide non-experts on health impacts, the interpretation of monitoring results, and the selection of models and appropriate analyses. Case studies of issues facing municipalities concerning planning and land use decisions were recommended, as well as various actions to mitigate the effects of poor air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Five presentations were given, followed by breakout sessions and discussions. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...... more can be added to our comprehension of the way the panel makers worked in Antwerp. In the following paper I shall give a brief summary of the present state of research, as well as outline the complicated task of interpreting these marks and their use as a dating tool. The ready-made supports...

  2. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  3. The impact of HTA reports on health policy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2005-11-02

    The objective of health technology assessment (HTA) is to support decision-making in the health sector by assessing health technologies systematically under medical, economic, social, and ethical aspects. The present study aims at identifying ways of enabling the impact of HTA on decision-making processes in the German health sector. The authors formulate three research questions: (1) Can methods be identified that allow a valid assessment of the impact of HTA reports on the decision-making processes? (2) Has been shown an impact of HTA reports on decision-making processes in the health sector? (3) Which are the factors responsible for a high or a low impact of HTA? The authors include studies that present a methodology to assess the impact of HTA, that investigate the impact of HTA on decision-making processes, or study the factors that might enhance or hinder the impact of HTA. Medical and social science electronic databases, lists of publications and projects of the European, North American, Canadian, and Australian HTA agencies, as well as the bibliography of the identified articles and documents are looked through. The writers do a handsearch of the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care and contact 64 HTA agencies by a letter, requesting information on investigations that might not have been published. Abstracts from about 5,000 articles are read. 57 articles are ordered as full-text, 43 are finally included and 14 excluded. (1) In eight studies interviews with decision-makers are used to elicit the information, in three studies document analysis is employed, and in six surveys the results rely only on the observations and interpretations of the authors. One study analyses service data and in nine examinations more than one of the methods listed above are employed. Only in two studies pre-defined indicators were used and only in one clinical trial a prospective design is chosen. (2) In nine studies the impact of a population of HTA

  4. The impact of HTA reports on health policy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: The objective of health technology assessment (HTA is to support decision-making in the health sector by assessing health technologies systematically under medical, economic, social, and ethical aspects. The present study aims at identifying ways of enabling the impact of HTA on decision-making processes in the German health sector. The authors formulate three research questions: (1 Can methods be identified that allow a valid assessment of the impact of HTA reports on the decision-making processes? (2 Has been shown an impact of HTA reports on decision-making processes in the health sector? (3 Which are the factors responsible for a high or a low impact of HTA? Methods: The authors include studies that present a methodology to assess the impact of HTA, that investigate the impact of HTA on decision-making processes, or study the factors that might enhance or hinder the impact of HTA. Medical and social science electronic databases, lists of publications and projects of the European, North American, Canadian, and Australian HTA agencies, as well as the bibliography of the identified articles and documents are looked through. The writers do a handsearch of the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care and contact 64 HTA agencies by a letter, requesting information on investigations that might not have been published. Results: Abstracts from about 5,000 articles are read. 57 articles are ordered as full-text, 43 are finally included and 14 excluded. (1 In eight studies interviews with decision-makers are used to elicit the information, in three studies document analysis is employed, and in six surveys the results rely only on the observations and interpretations of the authors. One study analyses service data and in nine examinations more than one of the methods listed above are employed. Only in two studies pre-defined indicators were used and only in one clinical trial a prospective design is chosen. (2 In

  5. A design approach to adapting maker community projects to the IoT constrained device philosophy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT) advocates promise huge benefits but what technical challenges does the maker community face in order to participate in this new technological wave? We report on our experience in incorporating a maker community friendly...

  6. Progress report and preliminary 1981-83 agenda of the United States Radiation Policy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The U.S. Radiation Policy Council is responsible for coordinating the formulation and implementation of Federal Policy relating to radiation protection. In carrying out this very broad and basic mandate, the RPC has been directed to: Advise on the formulation of broad radiation protection policies; monitor the implementation of Federal policies; Help resolve conflicts in jurisdiction among Federal agencies; Recommend corrective legislation, if needed; ensure effective liaison with the States and the Congress; and Serve as a forum for public participation and comment. The RPC was established by Executive Order Number 12194 in February 1980. The Council was created to coordinate the formulation and implementation of Federal policies relating to radiation protection. This report summarizes the first 7 months the Council has been in operation, its activities, and decisions through September 1980

  7. Journal data sharing policies and statistical reporting inconsistencies in psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Borghuis, J.; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Dominguez Alvarez, L.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present three retrospective observational studies that investigate the relation between data sharing and statistical reporting inconsistencies. Previous research found that reluctance to share data was related to a higher prevalence of statistical errors, often in the direction of

  8. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  9. Entryway into the child protection system: the impacts of child maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A; Duran, Lloyd

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the impacts of maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures on four aspects of entry into the child protection system (the maltreatment referral rate, the percentage of referrals screened in for investigation, the screened-in report rate and the substantiated report rate). Using secondary data from several sources, eight multiple linear regression models were created and analyzed. Results from a sample of 44 states indicated significant effects for system structure but no effects for reporting policies. Specifically, states with decentralized reporting system structures were significantly more restrictive in access than other states. These results have implications for child welfare administrators and policymakers seeking to maximize access for maltreated children and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  11. Evaluation of the Monroe Slurry Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) installed a Monroe Slurry : Maker on one of its 2009 Volvo Wheelers (see Photos 1 and 2). This truck was equipped with a : Henderson Utility Body. An 18 gallon per minute spoo...

  12. Marine Corps Provisioning Policy Review Staff Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-28

    ny (3) k n: : iY/, kN ( (2) DC/S Av iat io i 2~ DW/5 10"-S (3) Dirtector Intoli jeflce (2) Dirc toz C--/; (2) 1;1 llC (12)) LSlt. (21, C ,Y\\ (2) Ll. fX ...overages only, Mount Out (:o) stocL.s. (MOE =4) -_ . .. .. ... .. .. 7I ANNEX D Subj: Progress Report As a reflection of an IIP’s appropriate makeup

  13. Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Yeh

    2014-10-01

    versus privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis.As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  14. Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Austad, Kirsten E; Franklin, Jessica M; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2014-10-01

    privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships) were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis. As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  16. 76 FR 44462 - Statement of General Policy or Interpretation; Commentary on the Fair Credit Reporting Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... General Policy or Interpretations Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (``FCRA''). Recent legislation transferred authority to issue interpretive guidance under the FCRA to the Consumer Financial Protection... on the Fair Credit Reporting Act AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; rescission of...

  17. Cultural bias in the AAP's 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisch, Morten; Aigrain, Yves; Barauskas, Vidmantas; Bjarnason, Ragnar; Boddy, Su-Anna; Czauderna, Piotr; de Gier, Robert P. E.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Fasching, Günter; Fetter, Willem; Gahr, Manfred; Graugaard, Christian; Greisen, Gorm; Gunnarsdottir, Anna; Hartmann, Wolfram; Havranek, Petr; Hitchcock, Rowena; Huddart, Simon; Janson, Staffan; Jaszczak, Poul; Kupferschmid, Christoph; Lahdes-Vasama, Tuija; Lindahl, Harry; MacDonald, Noni; Markestad, Trond; Märtson, Matis; Nordhov, Solveig Marianne; Pälve, Heikki; Petersons, Aigars; Quinn, Feargal; Qvist, Niels; Rosmundsson, Thrainn; Saxen, Harri; Söder, Olle; Stehr, Maximilian; von Loewenich, Volker C. H.; Wallander, Johan; Wijnen, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recently released its new Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision, concluding that current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks. The technical report is based on the scrutiny of a large

  18. Geothermal policy project. Quarterly report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts continued to carry forward policy development in existing project states. Follow-up contacts were made with most project states, and state visits and meetings occurred in eight project states. Several state-specific documents and one background document, geothermal Policies in Selected States, were prepared during this reporting period. In Yakima, Washington, the project cosponsored a geothermal symposium with the Washington State Energy Office, in addition to attending several other geothermal meetings and conferences.

  19. [Importance and Implementation of Prevention in Germany--A Nationwide Survey of Decision-makers in the GKV-Spitzenverband and Political Decision-makers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, S; Boettcher, A; Metzner, F; Plaumann, M; Walter, U

    2015-09-01

    Representatives of the statutory health insurance (n=46) and policy makers at the local, federal and state level (n=136) were interviewed in 2 nationwide online surveys about the significance and degree of implementation of prevention. The group comparison between the decision-makers shows significant differences in terms of attitudes towards health prevention. The political leaders are demanding an improvement of the GKV-benefit package and the obstacles require the cooperation of urgent attention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Health Impact Assessment: a useful tool for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Turco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment is defined as ‘the combination of procedures, methods and tools through which it is possible to evaluate a policy, a program or a development plan concerning possible effects on public health and their distribution in the general population’. In a constructive debate this definition points out some interesting observations: - health is not the result of health policies alone, but it is often defined by the attention given to it in other contexts; - health is however the result of policies and it therefore must deserve the attention of Decision Makers; - health must not be taken into consideration without taking into account an evaluation of its distribution and its determinants within a population. Particular attention must therefore be paid into inequalities; - following the Council of the European Union recent conclusions on Health in All Policies we have to consider that everyday environments such as day-care centers, schools,workplaces,neighborhoods and the commute between them have significant effects on health and that health, in turn, has an effect on the economy by enabling active and productive participation in working life. In the past 20 years huge progress has been achieved in the epidemiological contest to define risks. Nowadays, it is known that a low cultural level lowers the capacity to respond to prevention, that elevated pollution levels do represent a health risk, and that the scarce social relationships that elderly people have in our society have strong consequences on their health and their quality of life.

  1. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  2. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit report: UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. These issues are addressed in this RWMAC report. (author)

  3. Heterogeneous fundamentalists and market maker inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a heterogeneous agents model of asset price and inventory with a market maker who considers the excess demand of two groups of agents that employ the same trading rule (i.e. fundamentalists) with different beliefs on the fundamental value. The dynamics of our model is driven by a bi-dimensional discrete non-linear map. We show that the market maker has a destabilizing role when she actively manages the inventory. Moreover, inventory share and the distance between agents’ beliefs strongly influence the results: market instability and periodic, or even, chaotic price fluctuations can be generated. Finally, we show through simulations that endogenous fluctuations of the fractions of agents may trigger instability for a larger set of parameters.

  4. Maker-Breaker games on random geometric graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beveridge, Andrew; Dudek, Andrzej; Frieze, Alan; Muller, Tobias; Stojakovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    In a Maker-Breaker game on a graph G, Breaker and Maker alternately claim edges of G. Maker wins if, after all edges have been claimed, the graph induced by his edges has some desired property. We consider four Maker-Breaker games played on random geometric graphs. For each of our four games we show

  5. States, Events, and Truth-makers

    OpenAIRE

    Botti Benevides, Alessander; Masolo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the ontological foundations of reified temporal logics (RTLs) has been relatively quiet, even though we think some problems still exist. In this paper, we identify some of these problems and propose (partial) solutions to them in a FOL framework. States are here characterized (at the syntactic level) as truth-makers of propositions-they reify true propositions-and events are built from states. These choices make the event-state distinction much crisper tha...

  6. DIY and Maker Communities in Electronic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, John

    2017-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, there has been huge growth in new do-it-yourself (DIY) and maker communities, reflecting the democratisation of technology. Such practitioners have tended to reject pervasive and ubiquitous technologies and ‘virtualness’, and have moved towards working directly with materials through arts and crafts approaches. Running alongside the growth of digital technologies and culture, a counter-culture took hold, built on grassroots initiatives that had ‘much in common with punk ...

  7. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  8. MAKER: An Ethnography of Maker and Hacker Spaces Achieving Diverse Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Donna M.; McNair, Lisa D.; Masters, S.

    2017-01-01

    Some have hailed the emergence of maker spaces as an opportunity to broaden participation of underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, engaging participants in open, creative, and supportive spaces for learning and applying practical STEM knowledge. Others have questioned the potential of these spaces, as many maker and hacker spaces seem to be enacting certain norms that are more conducive to participation of white, male, middle-class, able-bodie...

  9. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit Report: UK Nuclear Decommissioning Policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is an independent body which advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales, on civil radioactive waste management issues. Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. (author)

  10. NoiseMaker: simulated screens for statistical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Phoenix; Birmingham, Amanda

    2010-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is a common technique for both drug discovery and basic research, but researchers often struggle with how best to derive hits from HTS data. While a wide range of hit identification techniques exist, little information is available about their sensitivity and specificity, especially in comparison to each other. To address this, we have developed the open-source NoiseMaker software tool for generation of realistically noisy virtual screens. By applying potential hit identification methods to NoiseMaker-simulated data and determining how many of the pre-defined true hits are recovered (as well as how many known non-hits are misidentified as hits), one can draw conclusions about the likely performance of these techniques on real data containing unknown true hits. Such simulations apply to a range of screens, such as those using small molecules, siRNAs, shRNAs, miRNA mimics or inhibitors, or gene over-expression; we demonstrate this utility by using it to explain apparently conflicting reports about the performance of the B score hit identification method. NoiseMaker is written in C#, an ECMA and ISO standard language with compilers for multiple operating systems. Source code, a Windows installer and complete unit tests are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/noisemaker. Full documentation and support are provided via an extensive help file and tool-tips, and the developers welcome user suggestions.

  11. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  12. Introducing short term flexibility in the EU ETS to assure its long-term credibility: a multi-criteria analysis of policy options. Climate Report no. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Zuheir; Alberola, Emilie; Berghmans, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    their preferences collected through a survey conducted in February 2014. Each policy option was evaluated according to their performance on the CO 2 emissions reductions, on their political and economic performance and on their institutional feasibility. This report highlights the conclusions from this research, that could contribute to the ongoing debate: 1. In priority, the choice of the policy option should be based on its environmental and political and economic performances rather than on its institutional feasibility. There was consensus on this between public decision makers, industry decision makers and researchers. 2. The EC's proposed mechanism - MSR - is never the most preferred option to restore the long term credibility of the EU ETS, and instead other options such as an auction reserve price or a rolling emission cap are considered more useful for restoring the scheme's credibility. However, when the institutional feasibility is considered to be a priority, the surplus corridor (MSR) appears in the first position in the ranking. 3. The choice of the best policy option is not supported by all stakeholders and the difficulty of the regulator remains to build a consensus. Whereas setting an auction reserve price has the lowest level of consensus between stakeholders, the choice of a surplus corridor (MSR) or a rolling emissions cap represent a wider consensus. 4. Results demonstrate that, as part of the objective of the best policy option to reform the EU ETS, 'certainty' seems to be preferred to 'ambiguity'; and 'automation' seems to be preferred to 'discretion'. (authors)

  13. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  14. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  15. "Safe Schools within Safe Communities: A Regional Summit in the Heartland." Policy Briefs Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Aurelio, Jr.; Sullivan, Carol

    This report documents the proceedings of a regional policy seminar hosted by the Iowa Department of Education with support from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) and the Midwest Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities (MRC). The seminar, "Safe Schools Within Safe Communities," was held on September 19-20,…

  16. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy; Umweltgutachten 2016. Impulse fuer eine integrative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-08-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  17. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

  18. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC's history structure, and operations; CIRRPC's most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies

  19. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  20. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  1. Vaccine Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaul, Susan

    2005-01-01

    .... Whether a vaccine's target is naturally occurring or present because of hostile intent, the issues policy makers must deal with include vaccine development, production, availability, safety, effectiveness, and access...

  2. Report on policy and activities concerning public awareness of health effects of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-11-01

    In the summer of 1986, the Executive Committee authorized a study limited to determining policy and practices relevant to dissemination of information to the public on radiation health effects in three federal agencies. This report summarizes findings on two broad questions related to the communication issue: What, if any, are the policies under which federal agencies operate in disseminating information on health effects of radiation and what are the current programs and activities designed to provide the public information on health effects of radiation.

  3. Engagement Between Decision Makers and the Research Community in Califonria'a Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.; Franco, G.; Wilhelm, S.; DeLaRosa, J.

    2016-12-01

    The State of California has been supporting the development of regional climate change science for more than two decades. The engagement between the scientific community in California and State agencies has been strong, and supported by multiple formalized relationships. For example, research results have informed state climate policy formulation such as the passage of AB32, a law that requires the State to bring GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and three Bills on climate adaptation that became law late in 2015. Scientific research has also been used for long-term planning of state resources such as the Forestry Plan, the Water Plan, and the Integrated Energy Policy Report. The Climate Action Team Research Working Group meets monthly to coordinate climate-related research activities supported by more than 20 state agencies and is the steering committee for the next California Climate Assessment that will be released in 2018. The State is co-producing the research commissioned for the 2018 Assessment in various ways, including the identification of research projects, the integration of more than 50 research studies, and active participation during execution of the research. The presentation will discuss the State's successes in linking decision-makers and the scientific community as well as challenges and potential ways to enhance these linkages.

  4. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".

  5. Eli Hecksher as a Portrait Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Carlson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eli Heckscher was not only author of extensive investigations into economic history. He was also skillful in depicting phenomena in small format in encyclopædias, journals and newspapers. This article presents Heckscher as portrait maker of economic scholars. In these portraits—what he emphasized, what he praised, what he criticized—one can discern the stance of the portrait maker himself. Overall, his portraits are permeated by admiration of sharp theoretical analyses and massive economic historical investigations. He admires the founding fathers of political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, stresses continuity in the development of economic thought, praises humble innovators like David Davidson, Knut Wicksell and Alfred Marshall and denounces (what he perceives as pretentious innovators like Gustav Cassel and John Maynard Keynes. He is critical towards economists who attempt to break out of the classical and neoclassical tradition, especially representatives of the German historical school, and what he judges to be a new type of mercantilism, represented by Bertil Ohlin and Keynes. At the same time he appreciates voluminous and solid investigations into economic history, even if performed without theoretical beacons, by scholars like William Cunningham, William Ashley, John Clapham, Marc Bloch, Richard Ehrenberg and Werner Sombart.

  6. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  7. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  8. Statins: antimicrobial resistance breakers or makers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey H.T. Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The repurposing of non-antibiotic drugs as adjuvant antibiotics may help break antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Statins are commonly prescribed worldwide to lower cholesterol. They also possess qualities of AMR “breakers”, namely direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics, and ability to stimulate the host immune system. However, statins’ role as AMR breakers may be limited. Their current extensive use for cardiovascular protection might result in selective pressures for resistance, ironically causing statins to be AMR “makers” instead. This review examines statins’ potential as AMR breakers, probable AMR makers, and identifies knowledge gaps in a statin-bacteria-human-environment continuum. The most suitable statin for repurposing is identified, and a mechanism of antibacterial action is postulated based on structure-activity relationship analysis. Methods A literature search using keywords “statin” or “statins” combined with “minimum inhibitory concentration” (MIC was performed in six databases on 7th April 2017. After screening 793 abstracts, 16 relevant studies were identified. Unrelated studies on drug interactions; antifungal or antiviral properties of statins; and antibacterial properties of mevastatin, cerivastatin, antibiotics, or natural products were excluded. Studies involving only statins currently registered for human use were included. Results Against Gram-positive bacteria, simvastatin generally exerted the greatest antibacterial activity (lowest MIC compared to atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. Against Gram-negative bacteria, atorvastatin generally exhibited similar or slightly better activity compared to simvastatin, but both were more potent than rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Discussion Statins may serve as AMR breakers by working synergistically with existing topical antibiotics, attenuating virulence factors, boosting human immunity, or aiding in wound healing. It

  9. Renewables 2014. Global status report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Lins, Christine; Adib, Rana; Hullin, Martin; Leitner, Sarah; Mazzaccaro, Stefano; Murdock, Hannah; Williamson, Laura E.; Wright, Glen; McCrone, Angus; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Lily Riahi; Sims, Ralph; Jonathan Skeen; Sverrisson, Freyr; Martinot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It enables policy-makers, industry, investors, and civil society to make informed decisions. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast. The Renewables Global Status Report relies on up-to-date renewable energy data, provided by an international network of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors

  10. Lawsuits allege price fixing by generic drug makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Two years after high generic drug prices became a public controversy, Reuters is reporting that 20 states filed a lawsuit Thursday against Mylan, Teva Pharmaceuticals and four other generic drug makers (1. The suit alleges the companies conspired to fix prices or allocated markets to prop up prices. The civil lawsuit, led by antitrust investigators in Connecticut, comes one day after the U.S. Department of Justice filed criminal charges against two former executives of the generic drug maker, Heritage. The states attorneys general asked the court to order the companies to disgorge ill-gotten gains, which were not defined, pay attorneys' fees and stop collusion. Of the states in the Southwest only Nevada is participating in the lawsuit. The cases are part of a broader generic drug pricing probe that remains under way at the state and federal level, as well as in the U.S. Congress. In 2014, media reports of …

  11. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  12. Trajectories to reconcile sharing and commercialization in the maker movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, David; Zirngibl, M.; Sbeih, J.; Devoldere, B.

    2017-01-01

    Maker technologies, including collaborative digital fabrication tools like 3-D printers, enable entrepreneurial opportunities and new business models. To date, relatively few highly successful maker startups have emerged, possibly due to the dominant mindset of the makers being one of cooperation

  13. An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.

  14. The Roles of Decision Makers in Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    how to use special operations forces properly. The literature review recognizes numerous factors that decision makers and senior level commanders... decision makers continued negotiations to buy more time for the preparation of the operation. In Operation Thunderbolt, the decision makers initially...approved the continuation of the negotiation process to buy more time for planning like in previous case studies. However, the Russian decision

  15. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-02-01

    Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009-2015 and categorised as 'passive', low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more 'intense' policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in 'passive' areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4-6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  17. Background Paper: Chinese renewables status report - October 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junfeng; Ma, Lingjuan; Shannon Wang; Wuming Yu; Lv, Fang; Yang, Jinliang; Qin, Shipin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Mengjie; Tong, Juandong

    2009-10-01

    This report provides recommendations to policy-makers in China on improving the effectiveness of renewable energy policies domestically. It was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with the Chinese Renewable Energy Industry Association (CREIA) and technology experts from various Chinese research institutions and the private sector. The report was derived from a larger background paper with more detailed scrutiny of each renewable energy technology and its policy implications in China

  18. Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2014-06-01

    News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TableMaker: An Excel Macro for Publication-Quality Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hlavac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces TableMaker, a Microsoft Excel macro that produces publicationquality tables and includes them as new sheets in workbooks. The macro provides an intuitive graphical user interface that allows for the full customization of all table features. It also allows users to save and load table templates, and thus allows layouts to be both reproducible and transferable. It is distributed in a single computer file. As such, the macro is easy to share, as well as accessible to even beginning and casual users of Excel. Since it allows for the quick creation of reproducible and fully customizable tables, TableMaker can be very useful to academics, policy-makers and businesses by making the presentation and formatting of results faster and more efficient.

  20. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  2. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC's second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks

  3. Is it Feasible to Use Students' Self-reported Step Data in a Local School Policy Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....

  4. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  5. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  6. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Adherence to reporting guidelines and clinical trial registration policies in oncology journals: a cross-sectional review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayant, Cole; Moore, Gretchan; Hoelscher, Mark; Cook, Courtney; Vassar, Matt

    2018-04-13

    Reporting guidelines (RG) aim to improve research transparency and ensure high-quality study reporting. Similarly, clinical trial registration policies aim to reduce bias in results reporting by ensuring prospective registration of all trial outcomes. Failure to adhere to quality standards documented in RGs may result in low-quality and irreproducible research. Herein, we investigate the adherence to common RGs and trial registration policies in 21 oncology journals. We surveyed the Instructions for Authors page for each of the included oncology journals for adherence to common reporting guidelines and trial registration policies. We corresponded with editors to determine accepted study types and cross-referenced this information with a journal's RGs and trial registration policies to calculate the per cent of journals that adhere to a specific guideline or policy. 76.2% (16/21) of oncology journals surveyed adhere to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for clinical trials while only 33.3% (7/21) adhere to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for observational studies. Similarly, 76.2% (16/21) of oncology journals adhere to clinical trial registration policies. We further demonstrate that journal adherence to RGs positively affects author reporting, despite adherence to trial registration policies showing no such benefit. Our results show that oncology journals adhere to RGs and trial registration policies at a higher rate than other specialties, but nonetheless show room for improvement. We conclude that oncology journal adherence to RGs and trial registration policies is encouraging, but nonetheless suboptimal. We recommend the adoption of RGs and trial registration policies by all oncology journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Powerplant productivity improvement study: policy analysis and incentive assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Policy options that the Illinois Commerce Commission might adopt in order to promote improved power plant productivity for existing units in Illinois are identified and analyzed. These policy options would generally involve either removing existing disincentives and/or adding direct incentives through the regulatory process. The following activities are reported: in-depth review of existing theoretical and empirical literature in the areas of power plant reliability, regulatory utility efficiency and performance incentives, and impacts of various regulatory mechanisms such as the Fuel Adjustment Clauses on productivity; contacts with other state public utility commissions known to be investigating or implementing productivity improvement incentive mechanisms; documentation and analysis of incentive mechanisms adopted or under consideration in other states; analysis of current regulatory practice in Illinois as it relates to power plant productivity incentives and disincentives; identification of candidate incentive mechanisms for consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission; and analysis and evaluation of these candidates. 72 references, 8 figures.

  9. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  10. Report mapping legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support, FRAME Deliverable 12.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churruca Muguruza, C.; Isa, F. G.; San José, D. G.; Fernández Sánchez, P. A.; Márquez Carrasco, C.; Muñoz Nogal, E.; Nagore Casas, M.; Timmer, Alexandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/351098852

    2014-01-01

    This report is devoted to the mapping of legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support. In particular, it highlights the EU´s human rights priorities in terms of themes and vulnerable groups in its external action based on a review of EU policy documents and

  11. Informational coping style and depressive symptoms in family decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Daly, Barbara J; Douglas, Sara L; Clochesy, John M

    2010-09-01

    Overwhelmed family decision makers of chronically critically ill patients must comprehend vital information to make complex treatment decisions that are consistent with patients' preferences. Exploration of informational coping styles of family decision makers may yield evidence for tailored communication practices supporting the psychological and informational needs of family decision makers. To describe patterns in the demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers; to assess differences in informational satisfaction, role stress, and depressive symptoms between family decision makers classified as monitors and as blunters; and to describe the predictive associations between informational coping styles, informational satisfaction, and role stress on depressive symptoms in family decision makers. A secondary data analysis of 210 family decision makers of cognitively impaired patients who required 3 days or more of mechanical ventilation. On enrollment, decision makers completed the abbreviated Miller Behavioral Style Scale to assess informational coping styles, the Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey's informational subscale to assess informational satisfaction, a single-item measure of role stress, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale to assess depressive symptoms. No associations emerged between demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers. Monitors had higher depression scores than did blunters. Both information coping style and informational satisfaction influenced depressive symptoms; however, role stress was the most significant predictor. Family decision makers classified as monitors were at higher risk for depression than were those who seem to avoid information. Targeting monitors with additional psychological and informational support may mitigate their psychological impairment.

  12. Computerized clinical decision support systems for chronic disease management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Tamara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs may improve chronic disease management, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, ongoing disease and treatment monitoring, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve the processes of chronic care (such as diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease and associated patient outcomes (such as effects on biomarkers and clinical exacerbations. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for potentially eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials that compared the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS was designed to support chronic disease management. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of relevant outcomes. Results Of 55 included trials, 87% (n = 48 measured system impact on the process of care and 52% (n = 25 of those demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Sixty-five percent (36/55 of trials measured impact on, typically, non-major (surrogate patient outcomes, and 31% (n = 11 of those demonstrated benefits. Factors of interest to decision makers, such as cost, user satisfaction, system interface and feature sets, unique design and deployment characteristics, and effects on user workflow were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions A small majority (just over half of CCDSSs improved care processes in chronic disease management and some improved patient health. Policy makers, healthcare administrators, and practitioners should be aware that the evidence of CCDSS effectiveness is limited, especially with respect to the small number and size of studies

  13. Addressing Inequities in Urban Health: Do Decision-Makers Have the Data They Need? Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, H; Thomson, D R; Lin, R Y; Maharjan, U; Agarwal, S; Newell, J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and uncontrolled urbanisation across low and middle-income countries is leading to ever expanding numbers of urban poor, defined here as slum dwellers and the homeless. It is estimated that 828 million people are currently living in slum conditions. If governments, donors and NGOs are to respond to these growing inequities they need data that adequately represents the needs of the urban poorest as well as others across the socio-economic spectrum.We report on the findings of a special session held at the International Conference on Urban Health, Dhaka 2015. We present an overview of the need for data on urban health for planning and allocating resources to address urban inequities. Such data needs to provide information on differences between urban and rural areas nationally, between and within urban communities. We discuss the limitations of data most commonly available to national and municipality level government, donor and NGO staff. In particular we assess, with reference to the WHO's Urban HEART tool, the challenges in the design of household surveys in understanding urban health inequities.We then present two novel approaches aimed at improving the information on the health of the urban poorest. The first uses gridded population sampling techniques within the design and implementation of household surveys and the second adapts Urban HEART into a participatory approach which enables slum residents to assess indicators whilst simultaneously planning the response. We argue that if progress is to be made towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities, as articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11, then understanding urban health inequities is a vital pre-requisite to an effective response by governments, donors, NGOs and communities.

  14. Towards a Custom-Made Whistleblowing Policy. Using Grid-Group Cultural Theory to Match Policy Measures to Different Styles of Peer Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing.

  15. Report: EPA Needs Policies and Procedures to Manage Public Pesticide Petitions in a Transparent and Efficient Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0019, October 27, 2015. OPP’s lack of policies and procedures to manage public pesticide petitions in a transparent and efficient manner can result in unreasonable delay lawsuits costing the agency time and resources.

  16. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  17. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  18. Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schiller

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological assessments and monitoring programs often rely on indicators to evaluate environmental conditions. Such indicators are frequently developed by scientists, expressed in technical language, and target aspects of the environment that scientists consider useful. Yet setting environmental policy priorities and making environmental decisions requires both effective communication of environmental information to decision makers and consideration of what members of the public value about ecosystems. However, the complexity of ecological issues, and the ways in which they are often communicated, make it difficult for these parties to fully engage such a dialogue. This paper describes our efforts to develop a process for translating the indicators of regional ecological condition used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into common language for communication with public and decision-making audiences. A series of small-group sessions revealed that people did not want to know what these indicators measured, or how measurements were performed. Rather, respondents wanted to know what such measurements can tell them about environmental conditions. Most positively received were descriptions of the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators provide about broad ecological conditions. Descriptions that respondents found most appealing contained general reference to both the set of indicators from which the information was drawn and aspects of the environment valued by society to which the information could be applied. These findings can assist with future efforts to communicate scientific information to nontechnical audiences, and to represent societal values in ecological programs by improving scientist-public communication.

  19. Contribution of Renewable Cooling to the Renewable Energy Target of the EU. Policy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkmann, T.; Buerger, V. [The Oeko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Renewable cooling technologies do not play a major role in the climate protection discussion in the European Union today. At the same time the cooling demand is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Renewable cooling technologies could contribute to the EU renewable energy target if an appropriate political framework for a further spread of the technologies is created. This renewable cooling policy report intends to support the dissemination of renewable cooling technologies. It provides an overview of the situation, technologies and potential for cool-ing from renewable sources and identifies key areas in which further investigation is required. The report shows that there is a great need for the creation of a political framework supporting the market diffusion of renewable cooling technologies. Firstly the question of a commonly accepted definition on renewable cooling is being addressed. Secondly renewable cooling technologies are described and the today's role of cooling in European statistics and policies is analysed. In the next step existing studies are evaluated to compare the expected development of the cooling demand in Europe to the market potential of renewable cooling. At the end of the paper a long-term vision for renewable cooling is described and first steps towards a European roadmap for renewable cooling are given.

  20. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) establish retail regulatory policies for electric and natural gas utilities, respectively, aimed at achieving three purposes: conservation of energy supplied by electric and gas utilities; efficiency in the use of facilities and resources by these utilities; equitable rates to electricity and natural gas consumers. PURPA also continues the pilot utility implementation program, authorized under Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production ACT (ECPA), to encourage adoption of cost-based rates and efficient energy-management practices. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize and analyze the progress that state regulatory authorities and certain nonregulated utilities have made in their consideration of the PURPA standards; and (2) to summarize the Department of Energy (DOE) activities relating to PURPA and ECPA. The report provides a broad overview and assessment of the status of electric and gas regulation nationwide, and thus helps provide the basis for congressional and DOE actions targeted on the utility industry to address pressing national energy problems.

  1. 75 FR 35121 - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... of policy-relevant scientific, technical, and socio- economic information for understanding the... ``summary for policy makers'') in detail at the time that they accept the overall report. Principles and....ipcc.ch/pdf/ipcc-principles/ipcc-principles.pdf ; http://www.ipcc.ch/organization/organization...

  2. The policy relevance of wear emissions from road transport, now and in the future--an international workshop report and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gon, Hugo A C Denier; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Janssen, Nicole; Harrison, Roy M; Hulskotte, Jan; Johansson, Christer; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Keuken, Menno; Krijgsheld, Klaas; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Riediker, Michael; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-02-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions, but do not address "nonexhaust" emissions from brake wear, tire wear, road wear and suspension in air of road dust. Is this a problem? To what extent do nonexhaust emissions contribute to ambient concentrations of PM10 or PM2.5? In the near future, wear emissions may dominate the remaining traffic-related PM10 emissions in Europe, mostly due to the steep decrease in PM exhaust emissions. This underlines the need to determine the relevance of the wear emissions as a contribution to the existing ambient PM concentrations, and the need to assess the health risks related to wear particles, which has not yet received much attention. During a workshop in 2011, available knowledge was reported and evaluated so as to draw conclusions on the relevance of traffic-related wear emissions for air quality policy development. On the basis of available evidence, which is briefly presented in this paper it was concluded that nonexhaust emissions and in particular suspension in air of road dust are major contributors to exceedances at street locations of the PM10 air quality standards in various European cities. Furthermore, wear-related PM emissions that contain high concentrations of metals may (despite their limited contribution to the mass of nonexhaust emissions) cause significant health risks for the population, especially those living near intensely trafficked locations. To quantify the existing health risks, targeted research is required on wear emissions, their dispersion in urban areas, population exposure, and its effects on health. Such information will be crucial for environmental policymakers as an input for discussions on the need to develop control strategies. Road

  3. Energy policy and the energy business in Switzerland - Annual reports 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    These two reports on Swiss energy policy and the Swiss energy business are part of a set of reports published by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE-AES. In the first report titled 'Secure electricity supply on the test-bed' the focus is placed on Swiss electricity generation and security of supply. Developments in 2008 are commented on. These include the frameworks for the approval of new nuclear power stations, final disposal of radioactive wastes, hydropower and the cost-covering scheme for the remuneration of power generated from renewable sources of energy. The importance of electricity in Switzerland's future energy supplies is noted, as is the importance of Switzerland as an important player in Europe's electricity market. Topics covered also include possible gas-fired power stations and improvements in the area of hydropower. The difficult start that Swiss electricity market liberalisation has experienced is commented on and the role of the VSE-AES in an open power market is examined. In a further report, energy-efficiency and renewable forms of energy are placed at the focus of attention. The high level of acceptance by the general public enjoyed by these topics is noted. Official Swiss policy in this area is examined, as is the electricity consumption behaviour of the Swiss population. The potential for an increase in efficiency and promotional efforts being made by utilities in this area are discussed. The reduction of CO 2 emissions is discussed. The contribution that power generation from renewable forms of energy can make in fulfilling climatic goals is discussed and commented on. Difficulties with the restricted monetary resources available for the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable sources of energy are discussed

  4. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  5. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  6. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  7. Criminal Liability of Political Decision-Makers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, Willem; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Dutch criminal law does not provide for criminal liability for a political decision-maker who decides to build a bridge, if thereafter the project runs out of control or the bridge appears not to justify the funds spent on the project. This is most probably even the case if the decision-maker knew

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel has an emergency squad when operating, has a manual fire alarm system, or is an ocean-going... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers. (a... miscellaneous vessel must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In...

  9. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  10. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are several new bioenergy interventions (policies, projects, or programmes) that are being considered and these developments must be assessed in terms of their sustainability. Both public and private sector policy makers, decision makers, and technology...

  11. DE-FG02-04ER25606 Identity Federation and Policy Management Guide: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty, A

    2011-05-25

    The goal of this 3-year project was to facilitate a more productive dynamic matching between resource providers and resource consumers in Grid environments by explicitly specifying policies. There were broadly two problems being addressed by this project. First, there was a lack of an Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)-compliant mechanism for expressing, storing and retrieving user policies and Virtual Organization (VO) policies. Second, there was a lack of tools to resolve and enforce policies in the Open Services Grid Architecture. To address these problems, our overall approach in this project was to make all policies explicit (e.g., virtual organization policies, resource provider policies, resource consumer policies), thereby facilitating policy matching and policy negotiation. Policies defined on a per-user basis were created, held, and updated in MyPolMan, thereby providing a Grid user to centralize (where appropriate) and manage his/her policies. Organizationally, the corresponding service was VOPolMan, in which the policies of the Virtual Organization are expressed, managed, and dynamically consulted. Overall, we successfully defined, prototyped, and evaluated policy-based resource management and access control for OGSA-based Grids. This DOE project partially supported 17 peer-reviewed publications on a number of different topics: General security for Grids, credential management, Web services/OGSA/OGSI, policy-based grid authorization (for remote execution and for access to information), policy-directed Grid data movement/placement, policies for large-scale virtual organizations, and large-scale policy-aware grid architectures. In addition to supporting the PI, this project partially supported the training of 5 PhD students.

  12. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  13. A Theory of Change for Capacity Building for the Use of Research Evidence by Decision Makers in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of public policy to reduce poverty and inequality in southern Africa requires an increased use of research evidence to inform decision making. There is an absence of clear evidence as to how best to encourage evidence-informed decision making, and how to build capacity among decision makers in the use of research. This paper…

  14. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  15. Hispanic Youth in Boston: In Search of Opportunities and Accountability. A Report by the Boston Latino Youth Policy Analysis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Office of Planning and Evaluation, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This report discusses the school-to-work transition process of Hispanic youth in Boston. The report was prepared in response to the high rates of unemployment and participation in low-paying service sector jobs by Hispanics and was funded by a grant from the Hispanic Policy Development Project as part of a national effort to identify key public…

  16. State of the environment reporting (SOER) and the policy process in South Africa: Learing for the future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Will, C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the Environment Report 2005 (Year One). Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning, Provincial Government of the Western Cape. Dryzek, J. S (1997) The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses. Oxford University Press...) The Politics of Environmental Discourse. Ecological Modernisation and the Policy Process. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hajer, M. A and Wagenaar, H. (eds) (2004) Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge...

  17. Progress report to the Department of Energy in support of basic energy and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This progress report describes the accomplishments of the first and second years of the three year institutional grant received from the Department of Energy and describes the activities now envisioned for year three. Attachments detailing the highlights of the first and second years' accomplishments are included. Research areas include: light path of carbon reduction in photosynthesis; heat transfer in coal-ash slags; mechanism of plant cell enlargement in Gymnosperms, emulsion stability in enhanced oil recovery; selective transfer phenomenon in friction and wear; conceptual design of the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Fusion Reactor; integration of farm level alcohol production consistent with the economic and labor constraints of a farming operation, and newsmedia coverage of selected energy policy proposals. Separate abstracts have been prepared for selected attachments for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  18. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada.

  19. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocío Uría-Martínez, Patrick W. O’Connor, Megan M. Johnson

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  20. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  1. Cultural bias in the AAP's 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Aigrain, Yves; Barauskas, Vidmantas; Bjarnason, Ragnar; Boddy, Su-Anna; Czauderna, Piotr; de Gier, Robert P E; de Jong, Tom P V M; Fasching, Günter; Fetter, Willem; Gahr, Manfred; Graugaard, Christian; Greisen, Gorm; Gunnarsdottir, Anna; Hartmann, Wolfram; Havranek, Petr; Hitchcock, Rowena; Huddart, Simon; Janson, Staffan; Jaszczak, Poul; Kupferschmid, Christoph; Lahdes-Vasama, Tuija; Lindahl, Harry; MacDonald, Noni; Markestad, Trond; Märtson, Matis; Nordhov, Solveig Marianne; Pälve, Heikki; Petersons, Aigars; Quinn, Feargal; Qvist, Niels; Rosmundsson, Thrainn; Saxen, Harri; Söder, Olle; Stehr, Maximilian; von Loewenich, Volker C H; Wallander, Johan; Wijnen, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recently released its new Technical Report and Policy Statement on male circumcision, concluding that current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks. The technical report is based on the scrutiny of a large number of complex scientific articles. Therefore, while striving for objectivity, the conclusions drawn by the 8 task force members reflect what these individual physicians perceived as trustworthy evidence. Seen from the outside, cultural bias reflecting the normality of nontherapeutic male circumcision in the United States seems obvious, and the report's conclusions are different from those reached by physicians in other parts of the Western world, including Europe, Canada, and Australia. In this commentary, a different view is presented by non-US-based physicians and representatives of general medical associations and societies for pediatrics, pediatric surgery, and pediatric urology in Northern Europe. To these authors, only 1 of the arguments put forward by the American Academy of Pediatrics has some theoretical relevance in relation to infant male circumcision; namely, the possible protection against urinary tract infections in infant boys, which can easily be treated with antibiotics without tissue loss. The other claimed health benefits, including protection against HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, and penile cancer, are questionable, weak, and likely to have little public health relevance in a Western context, and they do not represent compelling reasons for surgery before boys are old enough to decide for themselves.

  2. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  3. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  4. Educational Productivity. The Impact of Policy Decisions on School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    In order to elicit discussion on issues of concern to policy-makers at all levels of government, the Regional Planning and Service Project of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory invited educational policy-makers from its region to participate in a symposium on the impact of policy decisions on school performance. Symposium…

  5. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  6. The Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report: A Scientific Basis for Policy and Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Mayes, M. A.; Reed, S.; Najjar, R.; Romero-Lankao, P.

    2017-12-01

    The second "State of the Carbon Cycle of North America Report" (SOCCR-2) includes an overview of the North American carbon budget and future projections, the consequences of changes to the carbon budget, details of the carbon budget in major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (including coastal ocean waters), information about anthropogenic drivers, and implications for policy and carbon management. SOCCR-2 includes new focus areas such as soil carbon, arctic and boreal ecosystems, tribal lands, and greater emphasis on aquatic systems and the role of societal drivers and decision making on the carbon cycle. In addition, methane is considered to a greater extent than before. SOCCR-2 will contribute to the next U.S. National Climate Assessment, as well as providing information to support science-based management decisions and policies that include climate change mitigation and adaptation in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Although the Report is still in the review process, preliminary findings indicate that North America is a net emitter of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere, and that natural sinks offset about 25% of emitted carbon dioxide. Combustion of fossil fuels represents the largest source of emissions, but show a decreasing trend over the last decade and a lower share (20%) of the global total compared with the previous decade. Forests, soils, grasslands, and coastal oceans comprise the largest carbon sinks, while emissions from inland waters are a significant source of carbon dioxide. The Report also documents the lateral transfers of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems and from terrestrial to near-coastal ecosystems, to complete the carbon cycle accounting. Further, the Report explores the consequences of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on terrestrial and oceanic systems, and the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks based on the drivers of future carbon cycle changes, including carbon-climate feedbacks

  7. Policy to Performance: State ABE Transition Systems Report. Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Policy to Performance project was funded in 2009 to build the capacity of state adult basic education (ABE) staff to develop and implement policies and practices that would support an ABE transition system. Policy to Performance states were selected though a competitive process. State adult education directors…

  8. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...... of offering quantity on cleared day-ahead prices, and adopts linear decision rules as the real time control strategy. These allow enhancing overall profits from both day-ahead and balancing markets. The integrated price-maker strategy is formulated as a stochastic programming problem, where uncertainty......Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...

  9. EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRAȘCU DANUȚ DUMITRU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Ana Tuºa, 1 Affiliation , “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management Claudiu Sorin Voinia 2 , Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering Dãnuþ Dumitru Dumitraºcu 3 Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management The theme paper consists in a comparative analysis of European preuniveristary education decision makers. Decision makers in preuniversity education management remain the key issue in the political agenda of most European countries. The diversity of educational policies in each European country aims to increase school autonomy, in a way that allows comparison of their main elements of management. Scientific research carried out aimed both theoretical and practical terms: - comparative analysis of how the makers of European schools are responsible for the management practiced in the educational institution. - identification of the achievement of school autonomy. Lately, in terms of policy makers and school autonomy, schools have gone through many reforms. It was felt the need to improve the democratic management and the quality of the educational process. The analysis and the approaches differ in terms of pace of reform, scale transfer of authority and areas that apply. No approach can be chosen as the ideal one or more effective than others, because the contexts in which they were made are so diverse. However, as it moves along, educational policy makers can learn from the approaches and experiences of others. The methodology was based on: the study of scientific literature from the country and abroad, on the theory and practice regarding the decision in the management of school education activities. Comparative analysis was conducted based on questionnaires

  10. European biofuel policies in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuijl, E.; Deurwaarder, E.P.

    2006-05-01

    Despite the benefits of the production and use of biofuels in the fields of agriculture, security of energy supply and the environment, in India and surrounding countries, the barriers to the use of biofuels are still substantial. The project ProBios (Promotion of Biofuels for Sustainable Development in South and South East Asia) aims at promoting biofuels in the view of sustainable development in the Southern and South eastern Asian countries. The first stage of this project concerns a study, which will provide a thorough review of the complicated and sector-overarching issue of biofuels in India and surrounding countries. This report describes past experiences with the policy context for a selection of EU countries, with the purpose of identifying conclusions from the European experience that may be valuable for Indian and South East Asian policy makers and other biofuels stakeholders

  11. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  12. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    When modeling a decision problem using the influence diagram framework, thequantitative part rests on two principal components: probabilities forrepresenting the decision maker's uncertainty about the domain andutilities for representing preferences. Over the last decade, several methodshave been...

  13. Mutual benefits of collaborations between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians

    OpenAIRE

    SHARP , David

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Effective collaboration between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians can be of great benefit to all parties, leading to improved instrument designs, greater understanding of an instrument’s playing characteristics, and an improved knowledge of the physical processes that occur within an instrument. As a working relationship develops between an instrument maker, a musician and an acoustician, the trust that builds up can facilitate increasingly more detailed in...

  14. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  15. Joint force opportunities: Policy Aims And Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    meet policy aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...father for feeding a passion for learning with a work ethic ; and your patient love. To D, B, and C: I love you eternally. v

  16. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC's continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest

  17. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC`s continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest.

  18. Special Report on China and Chinese Provinces. Policy and Regulatory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, A.; Hinostroza Parades, J.A.; O' Leary, M.; Owen, G. (ed.); Lemaire, X. (ed.) [Sustainable Energy Regulation Network SERN, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This review outlines the legislation and policies and roles of institutions involved in sustainable energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in China at Central and Provincial Government level.

  19. The influence of science funding agencies in support of effective decision-maker scientist partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Lemos, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence supports the idea that collaboration between scientists and decision-makers is an influential factor in generating actionable knowledge. Nevertheless, persistent obstacles across the research-policy-practice interface limit the amount of engagement that may be necessary to satisfy demands for information to support decisions. Funding agencies have been identified as one possible driver of change, but few multi-year studies have been conducted to trace the influence of program designs on research practices or other outcomes. To fill this gap, we examine a body of applied science projects (n=120) funded through NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve System from 1998-2014. Periodic innovation in the structure of this funding program, including requirements for end user engagement and the inclusion of collaboration specialists, offers a natural experiment from which to test hypotheses about the how funding program design influences research practice, utilization, and broader impacts. Using content analysis of project reports and interviews of project team members, end users, and program managers (n=40), we produce a data that can be analyzed through both statistical and qualitative methods. We find that funder mandates significantly influence the intensity of interaction between researchers and practitioners as well as affect long-term change in research cultures. When interaction intensifies, corresponding gains appear in the readiness of research to support decision-making and the readiness of user groups to incorporate findings into their work. While collaborative methods transform research practice and positively influence the applied contexts in which partnerships occur, it remains less clear whether this actually increases the direct use of scientific to inform decisions. For example, collaboration may lead to outcomes other than new knowledge or knowledge application, yielding many positive outcomes that are distinct from knowledge use

  20. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  1. "Every Child Counts": Testing Policy Effectiveness Using a Randomised Controlled Trial, Designed, Conducted and Reported to CONSORT Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Carole; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We report a randomised controlled trial evaluation of an intensive one-to-one numeracy programme--"Numbers Count"--which formed part of the previous government's numeracy policy intervention--"Every Child Counts." We rigorously designed and conducted the trial to CONSORT guidelines. We used a pragmatic waiting list design to…

  2. The Strange Case of the Two Wootton Reports: What Can We Learn about the Evidence-Policy Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The contrasting careers of two government-sponsored commissions of inquiry in the late 1960s are the focus of this paper, which examines what can be learnt from them about the impact, or lack of impact, of such bodies on policy making. The Wootton Report on cannabis, published in 1968, had its recommendations rejected by the government that had…

  3. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...

  4. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 1500.6 Section 1500.6 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk...

  5. Medical Schools' Industry Interaction Policies Not Associated With Trainees' Self-Reported Behavior as Residents: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S.; Austad, Kirsten E.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G.; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students attending schools with policies limiting industry/student interactions report fewer relationships with pharmaceutical representatives. Objective To investigate whether associations between students' medical school policies and their more limited industry interaction behaviors persist into residency. Methods We randomly sampled 1800 third-year residents who graduated from 120 allopathic US-based medical schools, using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We surveyed them in 2011 to determine self-reported behavior and preferences for brand-name prescriptions, and we calculated the strength of their medical schools' industry interaction policies using the 2008 American Medical Student Association and Institute on Medicine as a Profession databases. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between strength of school policies and residents' behaviors with adjustments for class size, postresidency career plan, and concern about medical school debt. Results We achieved a 44% survey response rate (n = 739). Residents who graduated from schools with restrictive policies were no more or less likely to accept industry gifts or industry-sponsored meals, speak with marketing representative about drug products, attend industry-sponsored lectures, or prefer brand-name medications than residents who graduated from schools with less restrictive policies. Residents who correctly answered evidence-based prescription questions were about 30% less likely to have attended industry-sponsored lectures (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.56–0.98). Conclusions Any effect that medical school industry interaction policies had on insulating students from pharmaceutical marketing did not persist in the behavior of residents in our sample. This suggests that residency training environments are important in influencing behavior. PMID:26692972

  6. The Canadian launch of the 2018 Global Food Policy Report | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-02

    3 days ago ... Faris leads USC Canada's policy work, collaborating closely with national and international civil society networks on food security, agroecology, biodiversity, seeds, and climate change. He is co-chair of the Food Security Policy Group; an active member of the civil society networks of the Committee for ...

  7. Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 : reframing the Future of the European Landscape : policy visions and research report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.; Pedroli, B.

    2008-01-01

    This Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 proposes to undertake a radically new strategic operational approach for the European Union when defining targets for its territorial policies. The key principles are: (1) to establish a policy monitoring for rural development on the basis of a landscape functions;

  8. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  9. Database of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives and Policies Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Brian

    2018-03-28

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) is an online resource that provides summaries of all financial incentives and regulatory policies that support the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency across all 50 states. This project involved making enhancements to the database and website, and the ongoing research and maintenance of the policy and incentive summaries.

  10. Brazil - Attacking Brazil's Poverty : A Poverty Report with a Focus on Urban Poverty Reduction Policies (Vol. 2 of 2) - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The first central message of this report is that Brazil has over the last years achieved great progress in its social policies and indicators. The second central message is that poverty remains unacceptably high for a country with Brazil's average income levels. The worst remaining income poverty is mostly concentrated in the Northeast region, and in the smaller urban and rural areas. The ...

  11. CDC's Prevention Status Reports: Monitoring the Status of Public Health Policies and Practices for Improved Performance and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine

    Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health

  12. Policies for Enabling Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy Internationally: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Speer, Bethany; Volpi, Christina; Cook, Orrin; Jones, Todd; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo; Nilson, Emily

    2017-05-25

    This paper explores the policy and regulatory enabling environment for corporate sourcing of renewables. The paper has been developed in support of the Corporate Sourcing of Renewables Campaign, which was launched at the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) meeting in June 2016. Through the campaign, a subset of CEM member governments is collaborating with corporate and nongovernmental organization partners to facilitate increased corporate procurement of renewables and pursue supportive policies for corporate procurement. This paper finds that policy certainty is essential to creating vibrant markets for renewable energy. While policymakers may need to adjust policy mechanisms over time as markets go through different stages of maturity, they must also consider the economic decisions that end-users make in evaluating projects. Policy interaction is also important to consider because buyers seek assurances that their investments in renewables have impact and wish to make clear claims about their renewable energy purchases.

  13. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  14. Information processing by networks of quantum decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a model of a multi-agent society of decision makers taking decisions being based on two criteria, one is the utility of the prospects and the other is the attractiveness of the considered prospects. The model is the generalization of quantum decision theory, developed earlier for single decision makers realizing one-step decisions, in two principal aspects. First, several decision makers are considered simultaneously, who interact with each other through information exchange. Second, a multistep procedure is treated, when the agents exchange information many times. Several decision makers exchanging information and forming their judgment, using quantum rules, form a kind of a quantum information network, where collective decisions develop in time as a result of information exchange. In addition to characterizing collective decisions that arise in human societies, such networks can describe dynamical processes occurring in artificial quantum intelligence composed of several parts or in a cluster of quantum computers. The practical usage of the theory is illustrated on the dynamic disjunction effect for which three quantitative predictions are made: (i) the probabilistic behavior of decision makers at the initial stage of the process is described; (ii) the decrease of the difference between the initial prospect probabilities and the related utility factors is proved; (iii) the existence of a common consensus after multiple exchange of information is predicted. The predicted numerical values are in very good agreement with empirical data.

  15. Maker Cultures and the Prospects for Technological Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Susana; Pólvora, Alexandre

    2016-07-07

    Supported by easier and cheaper access to tools and expanding communities, maker cultures are pointing towards the ideas of (almost) everyone designing, creating, producing and distributing renewed, new and improved products, machines, things or artefacts. A careful analysis of the assumptions and challenges of maker cultures emphasizes the relevance of what may be called technological action, that is, active and critical interventions regarding the purposes and applications of technologies within ordinary lives, thus countering the deterministic trends of current directions of technology. In such transformative potential, we will explore a set of elements what is and could be technological action through snapshots of maker cultures based on the empirical research conducted in three particular contexts: the Fab Lab Network, Maker Media core outputs and initiatives such as Maker Faires, and the Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA). Elements such as control and empowerment through material engagement, openness and sharing, and social, cultural, political and ethical values of the common good in topics such as diversity, sustainability and transparency, are critically analysed.

  16. "Mind the Gap" in reporting the outdated statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moazen, Babak; Rezaei, Farimah; Lotfizadeh, Masoud; Darvishi, Mohammad; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Close cooperation between researchers and policy-makers to find the specific health needs of communities, would lead to taking evidence-based decisions in addressing communities’ health problems. Publication errors, like reporting outdated statistics are among the key factors that influence effectiveness of such decisions.

  17. Disease management in healthcare organizations: results of in-depth interviews with disease management decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whellan, David J; Cohen, Elizabeth J; Matchar, David B; Califf, Robert M

    2002-07-01

    Despite the widening use of disease management (DM) programs throughout the country, little is understood about the "state of DM" in healthcare systems and managed care organizations. To better characterize the range of users of DM in healthcare and to identify critical issues, both present and future, for DM. Qualitative survey. Forty-seven healthcare systems (n = 22) and managed care organizations (n = 25) were randomly selected. Decision makers were identified and interviewed between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2000. We limited quantitative analysis to tabulations of suitable responses, without statistical testing. Responses were organized around 3 themes: models for DM, implementation strategies, and measurements of success. Of 47 decision makers surveyed, 42 (89%) reported that their organizations currently have (75%) or are working to develop (14%) DM programs. Although the goals of DM programs were similar, organizations took a variety of approaches to achieving these ends. There were typically 3 steps in implementing a DM program: analysis of patient data, external analysis, and organizational analysis. Decision makers believed that DM programs had only achieved partial success in reaching the 2 main goals of improved quality of care and cost savings. Given the variety of DM programs, there is a need to develop a classification scheme to allow for better comparison between programs. Further quantitative studies of decision makers' opinions would be helpful in developing programs and in designing necessary studies of patient management strategies.

  18. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold

    2016-01-01

    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge.

  19. Innovation: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  20. Towards triple-A policies. More renewable energy at lower cost. D16 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-11-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches.

  1. Urban Sustainability and Parking Areas in Naples: a Tool for Decision-Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodological target of this paper consists in setting up a supporting tool for the public decision-maker in individuating the areas for parking within urban territory. The construction of this tool is guided by criteria referring more to urban and regional planning choices than to transport ones and concerning mostly the integration among environmental safeguard, activities distribution and need for mobility. As matter of fact, the methodological route tends to join the morphologicalsettlement and environmental characteristics of the site with the demand for parking, which depends on the activities settled in the urban ambit of reference, considering them as keyelements in building compatible choices of city transformation either in the phase of localization, distribution and sizing of interventions or in the following phase of planning the building typology of parking equipments. This paper shares the position expressed in the report on sustainable European Cities, destined to the local authorities of any city in the states of the European Union, which belongs to those documents targeted to affect the development and implementation of innovating policies and actions for promoting a more sustainable urban Europe. Therefore, the paper is divided into three parts. The first part defines the algorithm showing the iter through which it is possible to define feasible and compatible solutions for envisaging localization, distribution and typology of the areas and spaces to be realized. The second part, through the real implementation in a particular case, the city of Naples, deals with the definition of further criteria that are time by time implemented according to the urban context of reference. The tird part deals with the application to Naples and individuates a specific typology of parking areas, as implementation of the worked out algorythm and of the abovesaid criteria. The central part of the paper deals, then, with defining a route

  2. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  3. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  4. Policy study on cogeneration and heat pump techniques. Final report; Beleidsstudie naar WKK- en warmtepomptechnologieen. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Sipma, J.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blezer, I. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    New and upcoming technologies, such as micro-CHP and heat pumps, will make small-scale heat generation more diverse. Appropriate policies can advance the most beneficial technologies when the merits of the technologies are clear. For this purpose, this report compares heat generation technologies in the built environment, greenhouse horticulture and the industry and discusses the implications for CO2 emissions, energy use and costs. [Dutch] ECN heeft in samenwerking met Agentschap NL een aantal warmtekrachtkoppeling (WKK)- en warmtepomptechnologieen beoordeeld op energiegebruik, CO2-uitstoot en kosten. Enkele conclusies van dit onderzoek zijn: (1) Kleinschalige WKK leidt tot een hogere CO2 emissie van de sectoren buiten het Europese emissiehandelssysteem. Ook de totale CO2-emissie gaat door kleinschalige WKK omhoog, terwijl gebruik van warmtepompen de CO2-emissie juist verlaagt; (2) Er is geen gelijk speelveld voor WKK- en warmtepompen als het gaat om de energiebelasting. Warmtepompen worden zwaarder belast. Dit is het gevolg van belastingvrijstellingen voor WKK en het feit dat elektriciteitsverbruik van kleinverbruikers zwaarder wordt belast dan aardgasverbruik; (3) In de woningbouw presteert de water/water warmtepomp het beste van de onderzochte technologieen als het gaat om de CO2-emissie en het gebruik van primaire energie. De jaarlijkse eindverbruikerskosten zijn voor deze technologie echter ook het hoogst. De investeringen die nodig zijn voor hybride warmtepompen zijn een stuk lager; (4) Van de onderzochte technologieen voor de dienstensector presteert een warmtepompsysteem met warmte-koude opslag het beste op het gebied van energie, CO2 en kosten, mits het gebouw voldoende koelvraag heeft.

  5. Design of Absorbing Wave Maker based on Digital Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    An absorbing wave maker operated by means of on-line signals from digital FIR filters is presented. Surface elevations are measured in two positions in front of the wave maker. The reflected wave train is seperated by the sum of the incident and reflected wave trains by means of digital filtering...... and subsequent superposition of the measured surface elevations. The motion of the wave paddle required to absorb reflected waves is determined and added to the original wave paddle control signal. Irregular wave tests involving test structures with different degrees of reflection show that excellent absorption...

  6. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  7. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  8. Uruguay - Policy Options for Improving the Efficiency of Uruguay’s Railway Sector : Consolidated Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the state of the productive infrastructure of Uruguay and the development policies that govern it and to propose policy options for the long term contribution to achieving a higher level of economic and sustainable development, based on the premise that there is a link between the development of a country's infrastructure and its economic growth. The stud...

  9. The World Bank’s persuasion policy in its world development reports (1990-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Zampier da SILVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between international organizations and national governments, highlighting the influence of the former in decision-making on policies to combat poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean from the 1990’s, especially Conditional Cash Transfer policies. The research methodology is qualitative, with support of spatial analysis resources and quantitative techniques to categorize information of interest.

  10. A report of the technological aspects of regulatory-policy issues of geostationary platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.

    1981-12-01

    Geostationary platforms and their possible application to low cost communication services are discussed. A number of regulatory technology, policy issues related to the introduction of a geostationary platform, e.g., organizational arrangements for platform operation, electromagnetic compatibility at orbit environment, sharing with terrestrial services and other satellites, diversity operation, frequency reuse, small orbit spacing and efficient modulation techniques are considered. Some technological policy issues may require demonstrated results before a commercially viable geostationary platform is implemented by investors and approved by regulators.

  11. The Hispanics: A Missing Link in Public Policy. The Official Report of an Hispanic Conference (Des Moines, Iowa, October 12-13, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Miguel A., Ed.; And Others

    This report presents the proceedings of a conference on Hispanics and public policy. The report begins with five keynote addresses which, respectively, present an historical sociological overview of Hispanics in the U.S., analyze the effects on public policy of Hispanic population growth, assess the impact of Hispanic presence in the media, and…

  12. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  13. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  14. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  15. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  16. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  17. The role of financial intermediaries in monetary policy transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Colciago, A.; Pfajfar, D.

    The recent financial crisis has stimulated theoretical and empirical research on the propagation mechanisms underlying business cycles, in particular on the role of financial frictions. Many issues concerning the interactions between banking and monetary policy forced policy makers to redefine

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report, Revision 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-09-30

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements about significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the seventeenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the eighteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100, 200, 300, and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities

  19. The "Good Governance" of Evidence in Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Calls for evidence-based policy often fail to recognise the fundamentally political nature of policy making. Policy makers must identify, evaluate and utilise evidence to solve policy problems in the face of competing priorities and political agendas. Evidence should inform but cannot determine policy choices. This paper draws on theories of…

  20. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  1. Creativity Assessment in the Context of Maker-Based Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lille, Benjamin; Romero, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is a key competence in 21st century education. Among the active learning pedagogies which aims to develop creativity, learning by making is an emerging approach in which the students are engaged in the co-creation of a shared artefact. In this study, we aim to analyse the creativity competency through a maker-based projects.…

  2. SMILE Maker : a web-based tool for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Aroyo, L.M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Ivanov, Ivan

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between

  3. Knowledge uptake by technical professionals and decision-makers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... described by the above framework – and, in particular, the workings of the bureaucracy – would appear to constitute the major challenge facing high-level technical professionals and decision-makers in the provision and sustainability of water services. More generally, the investigation established that for ...

  4. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  5. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Hammes, J.J.; Pedersen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  6. Education Policy-Making and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  7. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about

  8. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  9. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  10. 7 ways to boost digital innovation and entrepreneurship in Europe. Key messages from the European innovation policies for the digital shift project

    OpenAIRE

    NEPELSKI DANIEL; BOGDANOWICZ MARC; BIAGI FEDERICO; DESRUELLE PAUL; DE PRATO GIUDITTA; GABISON GARRY; PIROLI GIUSEPPE; PESOLE ANNAROSA; THUMM NIKOLAUS; VAN ROY VINCENT

    2016-01-01

    This report attempts to summarise findings and conclusions of over 30 studies published within the EURIPIDIS project (European Innovation Policies for the Digital Shift). The objective of EURIPIDIS was to better understand how digital innovation and entrepreneurship work; to assess the EU's digital innovation and entrepreneurship performance; and to suggest how policy makers could make digital innovation and entrepreneurship in the EU work better. Because digital technologies facilitate the m...

  11. Meeting Total Fat Requirements for School Lunches: Influence of School Policies and Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Guthrie, Joanne; Mancino, Lisa; Ralston, Katherine; Musiker, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about child obesity have raised questions about the quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Local, State, and Federal policymakers responded to these concerns beginning in the mid-1990s by instituting a range of policies and standards to improve the quality of USDA-subsidized meals. While most of USDA's…

  12. Report of the Energy Commission on the trend of energetic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    French energy policy trends are described and the following problems are dealt with: cost of energy in 1985, total and itemized consumption, economization of energy, limits of various energy sources, problems related with environment, labour cost, investments and foreign currency costs [fr

  13. Report of the CIRRPC Policy Subpanel on SI metric radiation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Recognizing that use of the International System of Units (SI) for radiological quantities is increasing internationally but is not currently widely accepted in the United States, and recognizing that the existing US policy is to plan for the increasing voluntary use of SI units domestically, it is recommended that it be US policy to use dual radiation units in Federal activities. However, it is recognized that in certain operational situations, by reason of economy or safety, the utilization of dual units is undesirable. Therefore, in justified situations, agencies may adopt that system of units which best meets their needs. The objective of the recommended use of dual units is primarily to familiarize people with the SI units. This should serve to ease transition when and where transition is appropriate and mitigate economic and safety concerns. The Subpanel has made suggestions on how this policy should be implemented by Federal agencies: using dual units in issuing regulations containing radiation units, except where determined to be impractical, incorporating dual units in agency internal operating procedures as they are written or revised; and using dual units in contracts and procurement. The Subpanel recommends that this policy be reexamined in about five years following an assessment of the use of SI radiation units both internationally and within the United States. 11 refs

  14. Organizational Legitimacy in the Global Education Policy Field: Learning from UNESCO and the Global Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Okitsu, Taeko; da Costa, Romina; Kitamura, Yuto

    2018-01-01

    In the field of global education policy, it is common for scholars to reflect on the progress made toward internationally agreed-upon agendas, such as Education for All (EFA). However, scant research has turned the gaze back on the major multilateral institutions that commit to taking the lead in meeting these agendas in order to ask, what…

  15. Advertising Directed at Children: Endorsements in Advertising. Reports by the Committee on Consumer Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In the framework of its activities concerning marketing practices, the Committee on Consumer Policy, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, has examined the subjects of advertising directed at children and endorsements in advertising. These subjects raise common problems in member countries and result in a variety of responses.…

  16. State Civic Education Policy: Framework and Gap Analysis Tool. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Paul; Brennan, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The civic education policy framework and gap analysis tool are intended to guide state leaders as they address the complexities of preparing students for college, career and civic life. They allow for adaptation to state- and site-specific circumstances and may be adopted in whole or in piecemeal fashion, according to states' individual…

  17. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  18. 77 FR 31993 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... stated that ``[u]nder this IRPS, TDR loans are as defined in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the Board does not intend through this policy to change the Financial Accounting Standards..., consistent with industry practice or Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) requirements...

  19. 77 FR 4927 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Restructuring'' is as defined in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and means a restructuring in... definition of a TDR under GAAP. In addition, it is important to recognize the Financial Accounting Standards... accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the Board does not intend through this policy to change the...

  20. Captive Students: Education and Training in America's Prisons. Policy Information Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    The United States has a history of vacillating between rehabilitation and punishment for prisoners. The current mood is to devote resources to building more prisons and to strengthen law enforcement and sentencing policies. Within the last 15 years, the U.S. prison population has tripled, with minority groups being overrepresented in prisons.…

  1. A resource for developing an evidence synthesis report for policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Takahashi, Ryoko

    to public health questions by summarizing the best available global and local findings from peer-reviewed and grey literature, as well as policy options, and proposes general directions, strategies and actions for consideration. This resource has been developed to outline key approaches, methods...

  2. [Health impact assessment: one way to introduce health in all policies. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, Santiago; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Sanz, Elvira; Aldasoro, Elena; Calderón, Carlos; Zuazagoitia, Juan; Cambra, Koldo

    2010-12-01

    Health impact assessment is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. Current experience shows that health impact assessment could play an important role in the development of the Health in All Policies strategy. This strategy has been extensively used in other European countries and in a wide range of policy and administrative sectors. Health impact assessment is hardly ever mandatory and is frequently carried out separately from other impact assessments. The use of this process in Spain is relatively new, limited and fundamentally based on local level experiences and the screening of regional interventions. The current normative and organizational reform of public health in Spain provides an excellent opportunity to promote the development of health impact assessment. Some of the barriers to the development of this process are related to the biomedical model of health prevailing among health professionals, politicians, and the general population, political disaffection, lack of assessment culture, underdevelopment of community participation processes, and insufficient intersectoral work. Health impact assessment provides an opportunity to move toward improving the population's health and reducing inequalities in health. Consequently, political commitment, as well as investment in education and research, is needed to introduce and develop health impact assessment in all administrative settings and policy sectors. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The National Energy Policy Institute (NEPI) at The University of Tulsa (F INAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, Roger [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2013-10-31

    NEPI, a non-profit organization located at The University of Tulsa (TU), was established to develop and disseminate national energy policy recommendations. Research under this grant covered a wide variety of projects, including research into the future of nuclear power, oil market pricing, and the feasibility of biofuels.

  4. 77 FR 25964 - Availability of Report: California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... directed freshwater flows can directly and indirectly destroy eelgrass habitats. The importance of eelgrass... conserve, protect, and manage living marine resources and the habitats that sustain them. Eelgrass is a..., as well as its importance to managed species under the MSA. NMFS developed this policy to establish...

  5. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  6. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). Sixth annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.L.

    1990-06-30

    Three CIRRPC efforts were brought to completion this last year. One of this year`s highlights was the publication of the BEIR V report cited above. This report provides a comprehensive review of up-to- date risk estimations to be used in assessing potential health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation. Also completed for publication during this period was CIRRPC Science Panel Report No. 7, Planning for Human Health Effects Research in the Event of a Nuclear Accident. Efforts of the Subpanel addressing the policy implications and use of the National Institutes of Health Radioepidemiological Tables were terminated following the Subpanel`s unanimous conclusion that further effort to develop a consensus report was unnecessary because the scientific limitations upon the uses of the Tables had already been correctly described in several publications, and there were no indications of any significant instances of the Tables being misused.

  7. Impact of health care worker policy awareness on hand hygiene and urinary catheter care in nursing homes: Results of a self-reported survey

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Ana; Chen, Shu; Galecki, Andrzej; McNamara, Sara; Lansing, Bonnie; Mody, Lona

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a self-administered questionnaire in 440 health care workers (81% response rate), we evaluated the impact of health care workers policy awareness on hand hygiene and urinary catheter care in nursing homes. We show that health care workers aware of their nursing home policies are more likely to report wearing gloves and practicing hand hygiene as per evidence-based recommendations during urinary catheter care compared with those who are unaware of their facility policies.

  8. The Power Makers' Challenge And the Need for Fission Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Power Makers - the producers of our electricity - must meet the demands of their customers while also addressing the threat of climate change. There are widely differing views about solutions to electricity generation in an emission constrained world. Some see the problem as relatively straight forward, requiring deep cuts in emissions now by improving energy efficiency, energy conservation and using only renewable resources. Many electricity industry engineers and scientists see the problem as being much more involved.   The Power Makers ’ Challenge: and the need for Fission Energy looks at why using only conventional renewable energy sources is not quite as simple as it seems. Following a general introduction to electricity and its distribution, the author quantifies the reductions needed in greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector in the face of ever increasing world demands for electricity. It provides some much needed background on the many energy sources available for producing electricity ...

  9. Market Makers' Recognition of Key Success Factors in Electronic Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Stockdale

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the recognition and use of critical success factors by market makers in electronic marketplaces. A content analysis of e-marketplace websites enabled an examination of how these factors have been incorporated into marketplace sites. Evidence of market makers’ awareness of the success factors was found in all the sites although there remain questions and issues to be addressed. Awareness of the need for critical mass and privacy were very evident, but the key factors of security, technological infrastructure and neutrality were identified as areas of concern. Evidence of an awareness of the importance of trust by market makers was found, but more effective signalling of trust to buyers and sellers within the marketplaces is required.

  10. Dynamic Model of Market with Uninformed Market Maker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin; Kopa, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2017), s. 922-958 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : market maker * optimal decision * price and inventory * high frequency data * dynamic model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 http://www.library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/smid-0483753.pdf

  11. Rancang Bangun Game Wirausaha Muda Berbasis RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Ifenta, Dicko

    2015-01-01

    Game merupakan salah satu industri di dunia saat ini. Perkembangan game begitu pesat dengan jenis yang beragam, mulai dari game yang hanya dapat dimainkan oleh satu orang saja hingga game yang dapat dimainkan oleh beberapa orang sekaligus. RPG maker VX merupakan perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk membuat sebuah game ber-genre RPG. Tujuan tugas akhir ini adalah untuk membuat sebuah game bertema wirausaha namun dengan gaya bermain RPG (Role Playing Game). 092406213

  12. The good hubbing guide: Building indie game maker collectives

    OpenAIRE

    Crogan, P.

    2015-01-01

    This Guide comes from the activities of the Arts and Humanities Research Council Video Games Research Networking Scheme project, Creative Territories (2014-15). The project looked at the recent emergence of small and independent game maker collectives. The aims were to get some bearings on these as part of the growth of indie games production and to consider how to support them as valuable components in the long term sustainability of this important breeding ground of video game creativity wh...

  13. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  14. Stakeholder perceptions of a school food policy ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Sauzier, Megan; Ferguson, Amanda

    2018-01-24

    To assess (i) the extent to which stakeholders have accepted and implemented a Healthy Food and Drink Policy for schools a decade after its introduction and (ii) any resulting implications for canteen profitability. Online survey distributed via electronic newsletter to school principals. Western Australian public schools. Principals, teachers, canteen managers, and parents and citizens committee presidents (n 307). Large majorities of respondents reported that the policy has made the foods and drinks provided in schools healthier (85 %) and that the policy constitutes a good opportunity to teach children about healthy eating (90 %). Only small proportions of respondents felt it had been difficult to implement the policy in their schools (13 %) or that the policy fails to accommodate parents' rights to choose the foods consumed by their children (16 %). Most of the policy outcomes assessed in both the initial post-implementation evaluation (2008) and the 10-year follow-up evaluation (2016) demonstrated significant improvement over time. The study results indicate that comprehensive school food policies can favourably influence the foods and drinks provided on school premises and can be highly acceptable to key stakeholders, without adversely affecting profitability. The results are encouraging for policy makers in other jurisdictions considering the implementation of similar policies.

  15. Recent Developments in Intellectual Capital Reporting and their Policy Implications. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, W. Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of recent developments in the reporting of intangible assets. It finds that rather than the wholesale restructuring of the accounting model that was proposed years ago, the trend has been to address gaps in reporting with new forms of reporting. New forms of reporting appear better suited to capture the type of…

  16. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  17. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  18. Peace and war: a study of morality and US strategic nuclear policies. Study project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginder, D.B.; Hicks, I.

    1983-05-01

    The paper examines the quesitons of peace and war and the morality of nuclear deterrence. These vital and enduring questions have been again become a focus of societal debate, especially in the light of the Catholic Bishop's pastoral letter. The nuclear debate is all encompassing, raising philosophical, political, social, strategic an religious questions. These issues present problems that each informed citizen will have to discern both morally and politically. The purpose of the paper is not to evaluate the morality of the defense and deterrent policies/strategies of the United States, but to provide the reader with the information to allow him to formulate judgment on this important question and be able to reconcile personal moral values with national policy and strategy.

  19. The effect of independent auditor's report on profit distribution policy: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Piri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Profit distribution is one of the most debatable subjects in financial field. Opposite theoretical models that sometimes, do not have a strong empirical support look for the explanation of corporate dividend policy. In this paper, the relationship between profit sharing policy and auditor`s and managers’ expected profit is studied. The study gathers the necessary information of 99 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2002-2011. The implementation of regression analysis shows that there was more explanatory power of auditors’ expected profit than managers’ expected profit in dividends. The results also show that there was no meaningful difference between auditors` expected profit and managers` expected profit.

  20. The future of health IT innovation and informatics: a report from AMIA's 2010 policy meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Julie J; Cusack, Caitlin M

    2012-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to the short-term impact that widespread adoption of health information technology (health IT) will have on the healthcare system, there is a corresponding need to look at the long-term effects that extant policies may have on health IT system resilience, innovation, and related ethical, social/legal issues. The American Medical Informatics Association's 2010 Health Policy Conference was convened to further the national discourse on the issues surrounding these longer-term considerations. Conference participants self-selected into three broad categories: resilience in healthcare and health IT; ethical, legal, and social challenges; and innovation, adoption, and sustainability. The discussions about problem areas lead to findings focusing on the lack of encouragement for long-term IT innovation that may result from current health IT policies; the potential impact of uneven adoption of health IT based on the exclusions of the current financial incentives; the weaknesses of contingency and risk mitigation planning that threaten system resilience; and evolving standards developed in response to challenges relating to the security, integrity, and availability of electronic health information. This paper discusses these findings and also offers recommendations that address the interwoven topics of innovation, resilience, and adoption. The goal of this paper is to encourage public and private sector organizations that have a role in shaping health information policy to increase attention to developing a national strategy that assures that health IT innovation and resilience are not impeded by shorter-term efforts to implement current approaches emphasizing adoption and meaningful use of electronic health records. PMID:22037887