Mobile learning has moved in the last decade from being a small, scattered research interest to being viewed by many international agencies as a way of delivering their humanitarian missions to the developing contexts of the global South. This paper explores and documents fundamental concepts and concerns that characterize or perhaps jeopardise…
Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.
The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.
Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi
This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…
A conceptual review of self-regulated learning (SRL) is offered, focusing on SRL as an activity that can be taught. Motivational self-regulation is considered as part of the SRL model, and an intervention aimed at putting the theories of SRL into practice is described. (SLD)
interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation
The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) was established to address the compartmentalization of education and training, the absence of norms and standards and the need for international recognition. According to the South African Qualifications Authority (1996),this framework was aimed at developing a comprehensive qualifications structure and an integrated approach to education and training in the country (NCHE, 1996:46). Educational institutions, including those for nursing, were challenged with a view to rethink the whole culture of teaching and learning and was counted as knowledge. The major principle of the NQF was the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), which had to be persued across all sectors (Musker, 1998: 8). RPL was seen as a means to widen access into learning programs for those who had been historically denied this. The challenge for educational institutions was how to ensure that RPL systems once implemented did not compromise academic standards. Research into methodologies to implement the NF in the absence of mechanisms was then essential. The purpose of the study was to develop and test a RPL model for nurses in South Africa. The study adopted a multi phase decisions-oriented evaluation research design. Stuffelbeam's educational evaluation model was used to guide data collection and analysis. The research questions were incorporated under the different phases of evaluation. The model was development at six levels: level one was at the policy makers level; level two was at the stakeholders; levels three to six were at institutional level where three institutions participated at pilot site for the RPL model development. These levels are presented as tiers in the figure 1. This article present the results of the model development at the first two levels, which according to Stuffelbeam's model is the context evaluation for boundary setting. Part two will present the model development at institutional level, involving the input and process
Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable
Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather
This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.
An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...
In 1999 powers and responsibilities were devolved from the UK government to the new devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This paper deals with the issue of radioactive waste management in the Scottish context as, following devolution, responsibility for radioactive waste management in Scotland is a devolved responsibility of the Scottish Parliament. The founding principles of the Scottish Parliament are: Openness and participation, Accountability, Power sharing, Equal opportunities. The government of Scotland is known as the Scottish Executive and has 22 Ministers covering a wide range of devolved responsibilities including: wider environmental matters, health, socioeconomic, skills and education. The Scottish Ministers also have specific responsibility in legislation regarding the governance of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Scotland also has its own agencies to deliver his government policies, such as the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and enterprise and skills delivery bodies. There is a high level of interest in nuclear and radioactive waste issues in Scotland as Scotland has both civil nuclear and defense sites around the country which generate radioactive waste. Alongside this is its close proximity to the largest nuclear site in the UK: Sellafield
Sep 3, 2017 ... research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organiza- ... Conclusion: There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed poli- ..... designing of research methodology; writing of ...
Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.
Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.
Moore, Gabriel; Redman, Sally; Rudge, Sian; Haynes, Abby
Rapid reviews are increasingly used by policy agencies to access relevant research in short timeframes. Despite the growing number of programmes, little is known about how rapid reviews are used by health policy agencies. This study examined whether and how rapid reviews commissioned using a knowledge brokering programme were used by Australian policy-makers. This study used interview data to examine the use of 139 rapid reviews by health policy agencies that were commissioned between 2006 and 2015. Transcripts were coded to identify how rapid reviews were used, the type of policy processes in which they were used, what evidence of use was provided and what reasons were given when rapid reviews were not used. Fisher's exact test was used to assess variation between types of agencies. Overall, 89% of commissioned rapid reviews were used by the commissioning agencies and 338 separate instances of use were identified, namely, on average, three uses per review. Policy-makers used reviews primarily to determine the details of a policy or programme, identify priorities for future action or investment, negotiate interjurisdictional decisions, evaluate alternative solutions for a policy problem, and communicate information to stakeholders. Some variation in use was observed across agencies. Reasons for non-use were related to changes in organisational structures, resources or key personnel in the commissioning agencies, or changes in the broader political environment. This study found that almost all rapid reviews had been used by the agencies who commissioned them, primarily in policy and programme development, agenda-setting, and to communicate information to stakeholders. Reviews were used mostly in instrumental and conceptual ways and there was little evidence of symbolic use. Variations in use were identified across agencies. The findings suggest that commissioned rapid reviews are an effective means of providing timely relevant research for use in policy processes
Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.
Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E
To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.
Graham, Linda J.
This article considers the increased identification of special educational needs in Australia's largest education system from the perspectives of senior public servants, regional directors, principals, school counsellors, classroom teachers, support class teachers, learning support teachers, and teaching assistants (n = 30). While their…
Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet
The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…
Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)
The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.
Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn
In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.
During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today. Above energy security and food and water security lurks climate change. Some events of 2015 have politically legitimised climate change and its mitigation, and 2016 saw the world finally sworn to action. The bioeconomy holds some of the answers to the economic challenges thrown up by mitigating climate change while maintaining growth and societal wellbeing. For bioeconomy policy makers, the future is complex and multi-faceted. The issues start in regions and extend to global reach. It is hard to quantify what is going to be the most difficult of challenges. However, one of the visions for the bioeconomy, that of distributed manufacturing in small- and medium-scale integrated biorefineries flies in the face of the current reality of massive fossil fuel and petrochemical economies of scale, married to gargantuan fossil fuel consumption subsidies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.
Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.
Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Jones, Ellen; Nguyen, Leah; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C.; Bailey, Jessica H.
Abstract Background: Intervention strategies to reduce obesity include policy and environmental changes that are designed to provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors. Policy changes at the state level are one way to influence access, social norms, and opportunities for better nutrition and increased physical activity among the population. Methods: Ten states were selected for a broad variance in obesity rates and number of enacted obesity prevention policies during the years of 2006–2009. Within the selected states, a purely qualitative study of attitudes of childhood obesity policy using semistructured telephone interviews was conducted. Interviews were conducted with state policy makers who serve on public health committees. A set of six states that had more than eight childhood obesity policies enacted were selected for subsequent qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of well-established advocates. Results: Policy makers in states where there was more childhood obesity policy action believed in the evidence behind obesity policy proposals. Policy makers also varied in the perception of obesity as a constituent priority. The major differences between advocates and policy makers included a disconnect in information dissemination, opposition, and effectiveness of these policies. Conclusions: The findings from this study show differences in perceptions among policy makers in states with a greater number of obesity prevention bills enacted. There are differences among policy makers and advocates regarding the role and effectiveness of state policy on obesity prevention. This presents an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to improve communication and translation of evidence to policy makers, particularly in states with low legislation. PMID:22799551
Advocates of evidence-based policy making (EBPM) are typically concerned with the impact of particular interventions. This implicit ontology of the policy world, as disaggregated into a variety of independent interventions, has been challenged by Pawson (2006), in terms of the contingencies that activate, inhibit or reshape the impact of any…
As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…
Carpenter, T E
Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.
Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.
Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs
Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T
Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This note summarizes the results and describes the policy implications of the recently published book globalization, wages, and the quality of jobs that evaluates some of the effects of trade and foreign investment on workers. This book contains a framework for analysis, a literature review, and five country studies that provide the foundation for three main lessons for policy makers that ...
The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…
Farrington, J. W.
Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.
Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K
Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner
When modeling a decision problem using the influence diagram framework, thequantitative part rests on two principal components: probabilities forrepresenting the decision maker's uncertainty about the domain andutilities for representing preferences. Over the last decade, several methodshave been...
Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.
Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil
Lai, K.-W.; Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Gibson, D.
The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in
Brewster, L. M.; Berentzen, C. A.; van Montfrans, G. A.
To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university
Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we ... Conclusions: HIV among older adults remains a low priority among policy-makers in Botswana but is at least now on the agenda.
Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David
The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…
Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F
To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.
Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven
emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods......This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...
Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy
Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use
Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A
Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.
Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook
Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives
Woods, Jeffrey G.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…
van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus
We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.
Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.
This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.
Printing Office, 2011), 46. 92 artificial intelligence into unmanned operations continues to advance, future research should include an examination of...is unlimited UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: A GUIDE FOR POLICY MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS by Darren E. Price March 2016...DATE March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C
Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.
Niemeyer, Dodie J.; Gerber, Hannah R.
Collaborative learning environments found with gaming communities can provide excellent structures to study the way that learners act within informal learning environments. For example, many of these gaming communities encourage gamers to create videogames and virtual world walkthroughs and commentaries. Walkthroughs and commentaries provide…
Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.
The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.
The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.
Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari
Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.
Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek
Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.
Ukraine. Additionally, I provide five lessons learned from the Russian invasion, followed by four recommendations for U.S. policy makers regarding...Lessons Learned from Crimea and a Prediction of Putin’s Future Behavior 1. Putin views himself as a contemporary Peter the Great, and his grand...approval -ratings. 28 “Vladimir Putin’s Unshakeable Popularity” Levada Center, Economist, 4 February 2016, http://www.economist.com/ blogs /grapicdetail
Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.
Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.
Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.
Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel
Bettzuge, Marc Oliver
Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.
Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen
National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…
Delgado Gallego, María Eugenia; Vázquez Navarrete, María Luisa; Zapata Bermúdez, Yolanda; Hernán García, Mariano
Health sector reforms taking place in Colombia during the Nineties included policies to promote social participation in the health system, which is considered essential to its functioning. The aim of this article is to analyse the meaning and the significance of participation in health for the different social actors involved in implementing policies in Colombia. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was carried out using focal groups (FG) and semi-structured individual interviews (I) of the different social actors: 210 users (FG), 40 community leaders (FG), 3 policy makers (E) and 36 healthcare professionals (E). A carried out analysis was content up of the contents. The study area corresponded to the municipalities of Tulua and Palmira in Colombia. The concept of participation was interpreted differently depending on the actor studied: for users and leaders the concept referred to contributing ideas, presence in social spaces, solidarity and frequently, and use of the health services. Healthcare professionals considered the activities carried out by institutions together with the community as social participation, the use of services and affiliation to the health system. Policy markers considered participation to concern evaluation and control of the health services by the community, to improve its quality. The different concepts of participation reveal dif ferences between the content of the policy and how it is understood and interpreted by the different social actors in their interaction with the health services. These different perspectives must be taken into account to develop a link between society and the health services.
Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public
Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.
Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.
Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as
Full Text Available Mind mapping tools are used to stimulate thinking about sustainability and define its significance for urban planning. Such tools are based on keywords that are identified and structured through dialogue-based procedures. The approach can be used also for switching between highlighting sectorial aspects, such as territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and cross-sectorial aspects, such as sustainable mobility and energy efficiency. This paper emphasizes a structured dialogue with desicion-makers at national, regional and local levels, aimed at identifying what decision-makers really need to decide and the key barriers to the implementation of existing urban sustainability tools. This study was organized in four discrete steps. Initially, what EU urban sustainability projects can deliver (studies, methodologies, tools, policies, etc. was identified. The deliverables were evaluated against certain criteria and categorized into cross-cutting aspects (territorial management and urban design, social and economic cohesion and sectorial aspects (sustainable mobility, energy efficiency. The structured dialogue was implemented in parallel with the evaluation of the deliverables in order to match them with decision-makers’ needs, priorities and expectations. The ultimate goal was to develop and make available an operational Decision Support System (DSS for public Authorities and urban planners, which combines their needs, priorities and expectations (structured dialogue results with existing deliverables, developed within the framework of EU projects that up to now have had a low transferability and applicability rate.
Begley, Cecily; Murphy, Kathy; Higgins, Agnes; Cooney, Adeline
To ascertain and explore the views held by key healthcare policy-makers on the impact of clinical specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles. Specialist and advanced practice roles are common world-wide and were introduced in Ireland in 2000. After experiencing these roles for a decade, the views of healthcare policy-makers were sought as part of a national evaluation. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Following ethical approval, 12 policy-makers were interviewed in 2010, using a six-part interview schedule. Policy-makers believed that specialist and advanced practice roles resulted in better continuity of care, improved patient/client outcomes and a more holistic approach. These clinicians were also said to be leading guideline development, new initiatives in care, education of staff, audit and policy development. They lacked administrative support and research time. Budget cuts and a government-applied recruitment moratorium were said to hamper the development of specialist/advanced practice roles. Healthcare policy-makers believe that specialists and advanced practitioners contribute to higher quality patient/client care, particularly at a strategic level. These roles could make an important contribution to future health service developments, particularly in relation to chronic-disease management and community care, where more advanced practitioner posts are required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn
A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.
out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.
Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest
require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.
Arnold, L. M.
The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.
Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer
Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and documentary evidences from published literature, this study reveals three essential areas where the policy-making processes (and therefore policy makers intervene in the provision of energy infrastructure. These are: (1 granting access to historical data; (2 regulations; and (3 permitting/issuance of licenses. This study also reveals three major unintended consequences of the policy decision processes and institutions in the governance of energy infrastructure provisions in Nigeria, which are: (1 government financing corruption in the energy sector; (2 economic delusion; and (3 uncontrolled growth in energy demand driven more by export and not local internal demand.
Wang, Monica L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Anatchkova, Milena; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly; Maddock, Jay; Clausen, Kristian E; Lemon, Stephenie C
To examine policy makers' public policy priorities related to physical activity and the built environment, identify classes of policy makers based on priorities using latent class analysis, and assess factors associated with class membership. Cross-sectional survey data from municipal officials in 94 cities and towns across 6 US states were analyzed. Participants (N = 423) were elected or appointed municipal officials spanning public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, and city management. Participants rated the importance of 11 policy areas (public health, physical activity, obesity, economic development, livability, climate change, air quality, natural resource conservation, traffic congestion, traffic safety, and needs of vulnerable populations) in their daily job responsibilities. Latent class analysis was used to determine response patterns and identify distinct classes based on officials' priorities. Logistic regression models assessed participant characteristics associated with class membership. Four classes of officials based on policy priorities emerged: (1) economic development and livability; (2) economic development and traffic concerns; (3) public health; and (4) general (all policy areas rated as highly important). Compared with class 4, officials in classes 1 and 3 were more likely to have a graduate degree, officials in class 2 were less likely to be in a public health job/department, and officials in class 3 were more likely to be in a public health job/department. Findings can guide public health professionals in framing discussions with policy makers to maximize physical activity potential of public policy initiatives, particularly economic development.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key
Granqvist, Pehr; Sroufe, L. Alan; Dozier, Mary; Hesse, Erik; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Solomon, Judith; Schuengel, Carlo; Fearon, Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Steele, Howard; Cassidy, Jude; Carlson, Elizabeth; Madigan, Sheri; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Foster, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Gribneau, Naomi; Spangler, Gottfried; Ward, Mary J.; True, Mary; Spieker, Susan; Reijman, Sophie; Reisz, Samantha; Tharner, Anne; Nkara, Frances; Goldwyn, Ruth; Sroufe, June; Pederson, David; Pederson, Deanne; Weigand, Robert; Siegel, Daniel; Dazzi, Nino; Bernard, Kristin; Fonagy, Peter; Waters, Everett; Toth, Sheree; Cicchetti, Dante; Zeanah, Charles H.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Main, Mary; Duschinsky, Robbie
Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the
Granqvist, P. (Pehr); Sroufe, L.A. (L. Alan); Dozier, M. (Mary); Hesse, E. (Erik); Steele, M. (Miriam); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); Solomon, J. (Judith); C. Schuengel (Carlo); Fearon, P. (Pasco); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); Steele, H. (Howard); Cassidy, J. (Jude); Carlson, E. (Elizabeth); Madigan, S. (Sheri); Jacobvitz, D. (Deborah); Foster, S. (Sarah); Behrens, K. (Kazuko); Rifkin-Graboi, A. (Anne); Gribneau, N. (Naomi); Spangler, G. (Gottfried); Ward, M.J. (Mary J); True, M. (Mary); Spieker, S. (Susan); Reijman, S. (Sophie); Reisz, S. (Samantha); A. Tharner (Anne); Nkara, F. (Frances); Goldwyn, R. (Ruth); Sroufe, J. (June); Pederson, D. (David); Pederson, D. (Deanne); Weigand, R. (Robert); Siegel, D. (Daniel); Dazzi, N. (Nino); Bernard, K. (Kristin); P. Fonagy (Peter); Waters, E. (Everett); Toth, S. (Sheree); Cicchetti, D. (Dante); Zeanah, C.H. (Charles H); Lyons-Ruth, K. (Karlen); Main, M. (Mary); Duschinsky, R. (Robbie)
textabstractDisorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of
Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick
Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law
Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter
Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.
Full Text Available Objective – To test a metric for library use, that could be comparable to metrics used by competing government departments, for ease of understanding by policy makers. Design – Four types of data were collected and used: Time-diaries, exit surveys, gate counts, and circulation statistics. Setting – A large public library in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects – Time-diary subjects were 445 patrons checking out materials; exit survey subjects were 185 patrons leaving the library. Methods – A paper-based time diary, prototypes of which were tested, was given to patrons who checked out library materials during a one-week period. These patrons were charged with recording the use of the checked-out items during the entire three-week loan period. From this information, the average number of hours spent with various types of loaned material (print and audio/DVD was calculated. The average number of hours spent per item type was then applied to the circulation statistics for those items, across a month, to get a total of hours spent using all circulated material during that month. During the same one-week period of time-diary distribution, exit surveys were conducted by library staff with patrons leaving the library, asking them how long they had spent in the library during their current visit. The average number of minutes per visit was calculated and then applied to the gate count for the month, to get a total number of minutes/hours spent “resident” in the library that month. Adding the totals, a grand total of patron time-use hours was calculated. A monetary value was applied per hour, using the results of a contingent valuation study from Missoula, Montana (Dalenberg et al., 2004, in order to convert hours of library benefit into a dollar figure. Main Results – There was a 24% response rate for the time diaries (106/445. The diary entries yielded an average of 3.5 hours of time-use per print item, and 1.9 hours per DVD. The range for
Gordova, Yulia; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander
Due to a global climate change the following consequences are predicted: rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and polar ice, changes in precipitation, changes in the hydrological regime, impact on ecosystems, agriculture and forestry. In Russia's vast territory these effects will be most dramatic. According to Hydrometeorological Center of Russian Federation report there is an increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events, as well as in their damage to ecosystems and infrastructure. In the framework of adaptation to climate change and mitigation of its consequences it is necessary to promote and support activities aimed at reducing possible risks. Adaptation methods include among others improving seasonal weather forecasts, systems of early warning and systems of management of risks. But there is a problem of insufficient awareness among decision-makers, as well a lack of scientific background. Those responsible for making decisions, stakeholders and the public do not have the skills and knowledge to work with the accumulated climate data to development an adaptation and sustainable development strategy. The goal is to provide these groups with tools, skills, thematic information for understanding climate processes occurring in the region. We believe that the preparation of both the persons responsible for decision-making, and the future specialist in environmental sciences shouldn't be realized artificial learning environment, but on the basis of actual operating computational and information systems used in climate research. Such kind of a system was developed by a team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS. The information-computational Web GIS "Climate" (http://climate.climate.scert.ru) provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is
Jacobson, M. Z.
Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.
"Learning to Teach in the Digital Age" tells the story of a group of K-12 teachers as they began to connect with digital making and learning pedagogies. Guiding questions at the heart of this qualitative case study asked how teaching practices engaged with and responded to the maker movement and digital making and learning tools and…
Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika
Open methods for coordinating (OMC) education policies in the EU rely on a number of techniques, one of which is policy learning. This article examines how policy learning and governance transform each other. More specifically, policy-learning in the education OMC becomes differentiated into four distinct learning styles: mutual, competitive,…
Full Text Available This study uses Hungarian quarterly data from the International Monetary Fund to estimate a distributed lag model whose coefficients allow derivation of the short-run and long-run marginal propensities to consume. MPCs are main factors determining the consumption, investment, government spending, and export and import multipliers of the economy. Hungary's economy has stagnated and its policy makers are exploring new ways to manage its economy. Our model reveals that the numerical value of Hungarian short-run marginal propensity to consume (MPC is 0.4081181655 and the long-run MPC is 0.9458619. These results are consistent with the corresponding figures in emerging and advanced economies. These derived MPCs suggest that Hungarian economic policy makers should use fiscal instruments to bring these macroeconomic variables back to their long-term trend effectively
Chigozie Jesse Uneke
Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research
This book presents cutting-edge, peer reviewed research on networked learning organized by three themes: policy in networked learning, researching networked learning, and boundaries in networked learning. The "policy in networked learning" section explores networked learning in relation to policy...... networks, spaces of algorithmic governance and more. The "boundaries in networked learning" section investigates frameworks of students' digital literacy practices, among other important frameworks in digital learning. Lastly, the "research in networked learning" section delves into new research methods...
Leclaire, Rene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirsch, Gary B [CLE, INCORPORATED
The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.
This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…
Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D
The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.
Denham, André R.; Guyotte, Kelly W.
Digital games have the potential of being a transformative tool for applying constructionist principles to learning within formal and informal learning settings. Unfortunately, most recent attention has focused on instructionist games. Connected gaming provides a tantalizing alternative approach by calling for the development of games that are…
Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong
facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster
Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn
In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…
Russell, A. Wendy; Vanclay, Frank M.; Salisbury, Janet G.; Aslin, Heather J.
The pace and reach of technological change has led to calls for better technology policy and governance to improve social outcomes. Technology assessment can provide information and processes to improve technology policy. Having conducted a review of international best practice, we established a set
Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena
This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…
assessment that feeds strategic decision-making. • Conduct or commission evaluations that target specific program learning needs. Priority 2: Continue to develop an even more flexible approach to program evaluation, maintaining quality and ...
Leemans, R.; Verbeek, K.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an international body of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) that publishes authoritative reports on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of climate change and climate policy. The knowledge contained in the IPCC reports forms the basis for the development of global climate policy by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The three volumes of the Third Assessment Report will be published early in 2001, shortly after Cop6 (Sixth Convention of Parties, The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000). This broadly supported summary of scientific insights will be important for the further substantiation of climate policy
In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)
Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.
Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio
The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Owens, Katharine A
The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena
The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and
Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid
As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.
Full Text Available A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behaviour. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithmthat is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of theserequirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework.%Adaptation of the parameter vector is needed to reuse the elemental behaviours for more than one situation. %Second, the learning architecture needs to learn to select between and to sequence such parametrized building blocks. Finally,%the expressibility of a modular control architecture can be drastically increased if the architecture supports co-activate the single building blocks.%In this paper we give an overview of our work on learning such a modular control architecture. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithmsthat are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that support co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots.
Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…
Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.
Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…
Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.
B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel
This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...
Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John
To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.
Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick
There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm
The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.
Simpson, Sarah; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny
In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA
Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; El Asam, Aiman; Morsi, Hisham; Khattab, Azhar
Cyberbullying is a worldwide problem affecting mental health, education, safety and general well-being for individuals across the globe. Despite the widespread availability of the Internet, research into prevalence rates of cyberbullying in Qatar is lacking and legislating for the crime has been slow to develop. Recently there have been some positive initiatives in the country such as a Cybercrime Prevention Law, the development of a National ICT Strategy, and a website detailing safe practice guidelines for Internet usage. However, the implementation and usage of these initiatives are still limited and there is a lack of awareness of cyberbullying in Qatar. As a result, the risk factors and consequences among school-aged children are unknown. The current paper presents an evaluation of the legislative and public policy solutions to cyberbullying available in Qatar, and outlines the critical challenges that could potentially face educators in shaping best practice guidelines for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vrijens, France; Renard, Françoise; Jonckheer, Pascale; Van den Heede, Koen; Desomer, Anja; Van de Voorde, Carine; Walckiers, Denise; Dubois, Cécile; Camberlin, Cécile; Vlayen, Joan; Van Oyen, Herman; Léonard, Christian; Meeus, Pascal
Following the commitments of the Tallinn Charter, Belgium publishes the second report on the performance of its health system. A set of 74 measurable indicators is analysed, and results are interpreted following the five dimensions of the conceptual framework: accessibility, quality of care, efficiency, sustainability and equity. All domains of care are covered (preventive, curative, long-term and end-of-life care), as well as health status and health promotion. For all indicators, national/regional values are presented with their evolution over time. Benchmarking to results of other EU-15 countries is also systematic. The policy recommendations represent the most important output of the report. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina
Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.
The social pressure to decrease noise nuisance caused by rail transport lines is growing rapidly. The solutions realized by the railway companies are often only effective locally and are specified without taking note of future European transport flows. In order to evolve their new policy the Dutch Railway company (NS) is developing a special purpose Geographical Information System. By means of this system it is possible to calculate the acoustic consequences of different future plans on a national or international scale. The input parameters of the system are the number of trains to be expected on the different lines, train speeds, train types, the noise nuisance law concerned, and the amount of sound reduction on specific trains and tracks. The acoustic consequences are quantified either as costs for noise barriers and sound-insulating measures in houses or as the area or number of people living within one specific equal noise level contour. The system gives policy-makers insight into the effects of certain sound reduction measures, of changes in the noise nuisance law and future transport flows. Results of studies show that the system can be a useful aid when making choices between investing in certain acoustic measures to be taken at the source or taking measures along the propagation path. In addition the system is useful as a monitoring system. Thus it is possible to quantify the effects of policy implementation and independent developments.
Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E
In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Piterou, Athena; Shackley, Simon; Upham, Paul
Project Arable Biomass Renewable Energy (ARBRE) was a 'flagship' project in the UK to demonstrate electricity generation from dedicated energy crops, employing the high efficiency of gasification combined cycle technology while also contributing to the waste management problem of sewage disposal. The plant never reached commercial operation and this paper provides the first detailed public account of the reasons, drawing on interviews with the main actors. Project ARBRE failed due to three unfortunate developments: the withdrawal for reasons of commercial strategy of the main company that initiated and financed the project; bankruptcy of the turnkey contractor appointed to oversee the project; and technical problems with the gasification technology, which could not be resolved within the financial and time constraints. All these factors acted in reinforcing manner and they were individually preventable: documenting the process of failure is a learning experience that can prevent their recurrence
Braden P. Te Hiwi
In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indig...
/ The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country
AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F
The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim
Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
advances, the paper identifies three levels of policy learning and argues that their effects on innovation systems are related to specific capacities of the relevant organizations implementing change. This analytical framework is used in the study of trans-national policy learning in Europe in the area......Bengt-Åke Lundvall’s work has underlined the importance of policy learning for inducing innovation systems’ adaptability. In spite of his efforts and of the general interest in this topic, studies of policy learning in innovation policy continue to be scarce. Elaborating from recent theoretical...... of science–industry relations, showing the importance of capacities (or lack thereof). This calls for the practical need of addressing organizational capacity-building, in particular of analytical capacity, for truly strategic innovation policy-making....
Full Text Available The ‘ECI Day 2016: Forging Change’ conference brought together policy makers, academics and civil society representatives to discuss how to maximise the effectiveness of the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI, the EU’s only mechanism of participatory democracy, within its existing rules. Since 2012 these annual conferences have brought together a significant number of interested parties to evaluate the performance of the ECI and look to its future. Through a series of workshops and plenary sessions during ECI Day 2016, participants from diverse backgrounds interacted to produce a number of conclusions that will hopefully be used to inform the future development of the ECI tool. This review focuses on how the representatives of the EU’s institutions, academics and civil society representatives collaborated to create a productive environment and reach a clear conclusion to the proceedings. This was a strength of the conference that will hopefully contribute to ‘forging change’ for the ECI, though resistance to reform from one key stakeholder remains an obstacle.
in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....
Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key
This research provides energy and environment policy : makers with an up-to-date summary of eco-driving : research. Our review of an extensive database of ecodriving : studies reveals the fuel and emissions reduction : outcomes achieved to date and t...
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…
Pals Svendsen, Lisbet; Mondahl, Margrethe; Faizi, Ahmad Zaki
Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays...... a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools. This is the background for the research described in this article. Our study...... which was conducted on the basis of semi-structured focus group interviews with n=50 high school students and n=2 high school teachers shows that the ICT tools Photostory, MovieMaker and Voki indeed have an influence on students’ perceived intrinsic motivation in connection with German language...
Keynejad, Roxanne; Semrau, Maya; Toynbee, Mark; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Lund, Crick; Gureje, Oye; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Courtin, Emilie; Abdulmalik, Jibril O; Alem, Atalay; Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte
Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed
Braden P. Te Hiwi
Full Text Available In this article, I examine how the process of Indigenous participation in policy-making pertaining to the development of federal sport policy in Canada is connected to Indigenous forms of self-determination. By conducting semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous sport policy-makers, I investigate how their respective thoughts, experiences, and actions shape their perspective on self-determination. My analysis shows that a focus on relationships was at the center of the interviewed Indigenous sport policy-makers’ approaches to the promotion of Indigenous self-determination. Furthermore, the relational nature of Indigenous policy-makers’ identities was also central to their pursuit of self-determination. The promotion of family and community type relationships with government representatives could be used as an outcome of policy-making, in addition to traditional policy directives.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and
Whedon, James M; Goertz, Christine M; Lurie, Jon D; Stason, William B
documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians.
Whedon, James M.; Goertz, Christine M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Stason, William B.
efforts to improve claims and documentation practices; and additional rigorous efficacy/effectiveness research and clinical studies for chiropractic services need to be performed. Research of chiropractic services should target the triple aim of high-quality care, affordability, and improved health. Conclusions The barriers that were identified in this study can be addressed. To overcome these barriers, the chiropractic profession and individual physicians must assume responsibility for correcting deficiencies in compliance and documentation; further research needs to be done to evaluate chiropractic services; and effectiveness of extended episodes of preventive chiropractic care should be rigorously evaluated. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies related to chiropractic reimbursement should be reexamined using the same standards applicable to other health care providers. The integration of chiropractic physicians as fully engaged Medicare providers has the potential to enhance the capacity of the Medicare workforce to care for the growing population. We recommend that Medicare policy makers consider limited expansion of Medicare coverage to include, at a minimum, reimbursement for evaluation and management services by chiropractic physicians. PMID:25067927
by analysing the cooperation in the committees of the Nordic Council of Ministers. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point, fifteen hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things, it is concluded that in order to maximise policy learning in international committees......In spite of their long history and extensive activities, the international committees of the Nordic Council of Ministers have not hitherto been subject to scholarly examination. This paper demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning in practise and theoretically...
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Hatton, Michael J., Ed.
The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M.…
Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others
KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.
Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others
KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc
Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka
Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.
Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Key findings. A Record Breaking Year for Renewable Energy: New Installations, Policy Targets, Investment and Jobs. Mainstreaming renewables: guidance for policy makers
Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Brown, Adam; Di Domenico, Stefanie E.; Kielmanowicz, Daniele; Williamson, Laura E.; Jawahar, Rashmi; Appavou, Fabiani; Musolino, Evan; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy C.; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Skeen, Jonathan; Epp, Baerbel; Anna Leidreiter; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Sovacool, Benjamin; Saraph, Aarth; Mastny, Lisa; Martinot, Eric
2015 was an extraordinary year for renewable energy. Renewables are now cost competitive with fossil fuels in many markets and are established around the world as mainstream sources of energy. Cities, communities and companies are leading the rapidly expanding '100% renewable' movement. Distributed renewable energy is advancing rapidly to close the energy access gap. The REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) provides an annual look at the tremendous advances in renewable energy markets, policy frameworks and industries globally. Each report uses formal and informal data to provide the most up-to-date information available. Reliable, timely and regularly updated data on renewables energy are essential as they are used for establishing baselines for decision makers; for demonstrating the increasing role that renewables play in the energy sector; and illustrating that the renewable energy transition is a reality. This year's GSR marks 11 years of REN21 reporting. Over the past decade the GSR has expanded in scope and depth with its thematic and regional coverage and the refinement of data collection. The GSR is the product of systematic data collection resulting in thousands of data points, the use of hundreds of documents, and personal communication with experts from around the world. It benefits from a multi-stakeholder community of over 700 experts. Country information for 148 countries were received and used as basis for GSR2016 preparation. The country data received is featured in the REN21 Renewables Interactive Map (www.ren21.net/map)
Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; ?hman, Ann
Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourse...
This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies...... have significant common elements. As a basis for the discussion an inventory of policy elements is presented. Denmark and Portugal have been chosen as examples of smaller EU member states with different historical, social and cultural characteristics. Developments and policies in the two countries......, including the links with EU education policy, are described. The discussion includes comparison drawing on the inventory of policy elements. A main conclusion is that the different historical trajectories of the two countries remain very important for present-day education and for the advancement...
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available previously untested (again, by ourselves) concepts and technologies, our learning from the first design iteration proved to be of significant value. Both design iterations incorporate a combination of an Arduino Uno  and a Raspberry Pi [12..., it is feasible to combine an Arduino Uno with a Raspberry Pi in the creation of a functional and usable sensing and actuation platform. Second, low cost, non-calibrated sensors can successfully be used for sensing ambient temperature and electrical current...
This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Uncontrolled proliferation of health technologies (HT is one contributor to the increasing pressure on health systems to adopt new technologies. With limited resources, policy-makers encounter difficulties in fulfilling their responsibility to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The aim of this study is to explore how policy-makers' reason about the diffusion and utilization of health technologies in Iran using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and interferon beta as tracers. Method This qualitative exploration complements quantitative data generated in a research project investigating the diffusion and utilization of MRI and interferon beta in Iran. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 informants in different positions and levels of authority in the Ministry of Health (MOH, University of Medical Sciences, Health Insurance Organizations, and Parliament. The data was analysed using the framework approach. Findings Although policy-makers appeared to be positive to health technology assessment (HTA, the processes of policy-making described by the interviewees did not seem to be based on a full understanding of this (discipline. Several obstacles to applying knowledge about HT and HTA were described. The current official plan for MRI adoption and diffusion in the country was said not to be followed, and no such plan was described for interferon beta. Instead, market forces such as advertising, and physician and consumer demand, appear to have strong influence on HT diffusion and use. Dual practice may have increased the induced demand and also reduced the supervision of the private sector by the MOH. Conclusion Management instability and lack of coordination in the MOH were found to be important obstacles to accumulation of knowledge and experience which, in turn, could have led to suboptimal managerial and policy-making processes. Furthermore marketing should be controlled in order to avoid
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff
British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…
The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes
van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.
This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive
Goicolea, Isabel; Wulff, Marianne; Sebastian, Miguel San; Ohman, Ann
Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to
Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A
In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants' attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient's quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less likely to pay more for therapeutic
Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...
Hangulu, Lydia; Akintola, Olagoke
In South Africa, a new primary health care (PHC) re-engineering initiative aims to scale up the provision of community-based care (CBC). A central element in this initiative is the use of outreach teams comprising nurses and community health workers to provide care to the largely poor and marginalised communities across the country. The provision of care will inevitably lead to an increase in the amount of health care waste (HCW) generated in homes and suggests the need to pay more attention to the HCW that emanates from homes where there is care of a patient. CBC in South Africa is guided by the home-based care policy. However, this policy does not deal with issues about how HCW should be managed in CBC. This study sought to explore health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC in South Africa from the policy-makers' and stakeholders' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 policy-makers and 21 stakeholders working in 29 communities in Durban, South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English; were guided by an interview guide with open-ended questions. Data was analysed thematically. The Durban Solid waste (DSW) unit of the eThekwini municipality is responsible for overseeing all waste management programmes in communities. Lack of segregation of waste and illegal dumping of waste were the main barriers to proper management practices of HCW at household level while at the municipal level, corrupt tender processes and inadequate funding for waste management programmes were identified as the main barriers. In order to address these issues, all the policy-makers and stakeholders have taken steps to collaborate and develop education awareness programmes. They also liaise with various government offices to provide resources aimed at waste management programmes. HCW is generated in CBC and it is poorly managed and treated as domestic waste. With the rollout of the new primary health care model, there is a greater need to consider HCWM in CBC. There
Jay E Maddock
Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.
D.Ed. Guidance is essential in a child's development because most traits of human life, with the exclusion of genetic characteristics, are learned (City Press, 1998:7). The learning process raises the question of where and from whom these characteristics are acquired. This, according to Ferron (1990:45), implies that maximum performance of man is a result of good and sound guidance. This may be an oversimplification, but even if it is only partly true, guidance cannot be neglected without ...
Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.
Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)
Feminist scholars praise and criticize the UNSC Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security for its considerations of women and gender in conflicts. Poststructuralist feminists show how gender is constructed in the UN’s security policies and how these constructions reproduce gendered dichotomies
The energy transition is more than a shift from one energy system (finite resources) to another (more renewable and low energy-based). Our century's challenge is to radically reduce our energy use. The local level is where the new energy paradigm is happening. Ambitious policies at European level are crucial to speed up the movement
Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew
With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiotti, Q.; Morton, I.; Maarouf, A.
The current science regarding climate change and its potential health effects was assessed in an effort to provide information to decision-makers dealing with health infrastructure in the Toronto-Niagara region. This report also presents an assessment of how the health care system can adapt to handle the increased demand for services resulting from the projected negative human health effects of climate change. The first part of the report presents some background information on climate change and health issues and demonstrates how the current health care infrastructure cannot deal effectively with the full range of health effects that may occur in heavily populated areas such as the Toronto-Niagara region. The second part of the report summarizes the scientific knowledge about the expected impacts of climate change and associated health effects, such as heat stress, extreme weather events, poor air quality, vector-borne diseases, food and water-borne diseases, and increased exposure to ultra-violet radiation. It was noted that children and the elderly are most vulnerable. The final part of the report outlines an adaptation action plan to improve the health care infrastructure through public education and communication, surveillance and monitoring, ecosystem intervention, infrastructure development, technical engineering, and medical intervention. 100 refs., 1 fig
Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.
Tabenkin, H; Gross, R
The aim of the study was to determine the attitudes of policy makers in the health care system in Israel to a change in the role of primary care physicians (PCP) and to ascertain the conditions under which they would be ready to adopt the model of PCP as gatekeeper. The study design was qualitative, with analyses of in-depth structured interviews of 20 policy makers from the Ministry of Health, the Sick Funds' central administrations and the Israel Medical Association (IMA) central office. The majority of the respondents claim that they want highly trained PCPs (family physicians, pediatricians and internals) to play a central role in the health care system. They should be co-ordinators, highly accessible and should be able to weigh cost considerations. However, only about half of the respondents support a full gatekeeper model and most of them think that the gatekeeper concept has a negative connotation. They also feel that it would be difficult to implement regulations regarding primary care. The barriers to implementation of the gatekeeper model, as cited by the respondents include loss of faith in PCPs by the general population, dearth of PCPs with adequate training, low stature, lack of availability on a 24-h basis, resistance by specialists, strong competition between the sick funds including promises of direct access to specialists, the medical care habits of the general population many of whom do not settle for only one opinion, and a declared anti-gatekeeper policy by one of the sick funds. Ways to overcome these obstacles include implementation of fundholding clinics, patient education on the importance of having a personal physician, appropriate marketing by family medicine and primary care advocates, and continued training in primary care. Israeli health care policy makers have an ambivalent attitude to strengthening the role of primary care. In theory, they profess support for placing primary care physicians in a central role in the health care system
Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…
Darquea, Jodie J
In 2000 Ecuador created the “Agreements of Sustainable Use and Custody of Mangroves” management for the local communities, helping to stop deforestation of mangroves caused by shrimp farming. With this program, the Ecuadorian government offers economic incentives to support community–based management without taking into consideration the essential role of ecosystem services. This policy fails to encourage the capacity of the communities to grow through monitoring of ecosystem services. This p...
Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy
Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.
Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul
This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.
Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R
The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.
Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics.
Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie
This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people's organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development.
Full Text Available The immigration of foreign workers is a topic of utmost importance for the United States economy. To some extent, it should be considered as a matter of national priority. Over the past years, the number of foreign students that pursue a graduate degree at United States universities has increased, and keeps rising every year. The majority of these newly made doctorate students stay in the USA, in order to pursue specialty occupations. This paper will address issues regarding foreign immigration policies, and will contain a proposal to implement a system that can effectively and selectively deal with the increasing number of both foreign students and foreign workers who apply for work visas.
Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy
Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data
Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul
This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy
communicating these approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions.
Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise
The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article provides an overview of how teacher quality and learning outcomes are included in national education policies. It responds to a set of specific questions focused on strategies to improve learning, links between teacher quality and learning outcomes, and how policy seeks to overcome learning obstacles for the most disadvantaged. The…
Full Text Available The role of higher education in promoting economic growth and social cohesion has been recognised in multiple international documents, programmes and strategies. Likewise, a number of countries and higher education institutions worldwide have introduced policies that aim at fostering learners’ employability, active citizenship, personal development, knowledge base, competences and capabilities. However, not all these policies have successfully addressed current global trends like the economic downturn, demographic change, the changing nature of the labour market, and pressing social needs. This paper posits that introducing lifelong learning principles to the formulation and implementation of higher education policies may provide more inclusive and comprehensive frameworks for meeting the needs and aspirations of the multiple stakeholders of higher education.
Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa
Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oti, Alfred Gabriel
Outside of formal education, many young people between 16 and 19 years of age are heavy consumers of digital content and some are frequent makers of digital content. Traditionally, the digital and media literacies and making skills needed for engagement with digital content come from participation in formal education courses such as Multimedia. The digital content taught and made within formal courses resembles the digital content that young people consume and make outside of formal education...
Iribarren, Diego; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo
The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO 2 e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.
Ismail, N; de Viggiani, N
The Healthy Prisons Agenda seeks to reduce prisoners' health risks, balance prisoners' rights with a security regime, ensure equivalent prison health service provisions to community health services, and facilitate the whole-prison approach. There is an established assumption that legislation will ensure better implementation of health promotion programmes. This study aimed to examine whether a legislative framework, via a direct regulation, could lead to enhanced implementation of the Healthy Prisons Agenda in England. A qualitative study design was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 30 key prison policy makers in England. Our findings contradict the established assumption that legislation improves the implementation of health promotion programmes. A direct regulation was perceived as restrictive, manifesting excessive compliance and encouraging a risk-averse culture, whilst preoccupation with security, order and discipline amongst prison governors and custody staff was deemed an internal institutional barrier to implementing the Healthy Prisons Agenda. External barriers included diminishing resources, lengthier or delayed sentencing, and an unsympathetic public and political stance towards prisoner rehabilitation. A direct regulation should not be used to operationalize the Healthy Prisons Agenda. Rather, self-regulation, along with proactive solutions for the identified barriers to implementing the Agenda, is the most appropriate path forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
García-Gusano, Diego; Iribarren, Diego; Garraín, Daniel
Highlights: • Formulation and application of the Renewable Energy Security Index (RESI). • Prospective analysis combining Energy Systems Modelling and Life Cycle Assessment. • Feasibility proven through two case studies of power generation in Spain and Norway. • Good coverage of key energy security aspects (availability, affordability, etc.). • Novel and easy-to-report index suitable for energy policy-making. - Abstract: Energy security is a wide-ranging term to encompass issues such as security of supply, reliability of infrastructures, affordability and environmental friendliness. This article develops a robust indicator – the Renewable Energy Security Index, RESI – to enrich the body of knowledge associated with the presence of renewable energy technologies within national electricity production mixes. RESI is built by combining environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic energy systems modelling. Spain and Norway are used as illustrative case studies for the prospective analysis of power generation from an energy security standpoint. In the Spanish case, with a diversified electricity production mix and a growing presence of renewable technologies, RESI favourably “evolves” from 0.36 at present to 0.65 in 2050 in a business-as-usual scenario, reaching higher values in a highly-restricted CO 2 scenario. The Norwegian case study attains RESI values similar to 1 due to the leading role of renewable electricity (mainly hydropower) regarding both satisfaction of national demand and exportation of electricity surplus. A widespread use of RESI as a quantifiable energy security index of national power generation sectors is found to be feasible and practical for both analysts and energy policy-makers, covering a significant number of energy security aspects.
Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine
Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.
Full Text Available Editor’s note: These papers are a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers. This debate can be pursued on the Journal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/528 where you are invited to share your reflections under your name.In the initial paper ‘Learning to Grow’, the authors argue that a key challenge for middle-income countries is to avoid ‘the middle-income trap’. In this situation, economic growth has come to a halt and a country is unable to transition to the next level in part due to inadequacies in high-level human capital. Taking the example of Singapore as a country that has avoided the middle-income trap, the authors call for ‘a much closer alignment of policies for human capital and economic development’ and a ‘human capital focussed development strategy’. In his answer, Professor Gopinathan, from the National University of Singapore, analyses some key conditions that were crucial for Singapore’s success and questions whether the model could be exported to other contexts.
Claudio A. Méndez
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones respecto de la etapa de implementación de la política de autogestión hospitalaria en dos hospitales de alta complejidad del sur de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a tomadores de decisiones de los hospitales Regional de la ciudad de Valdivia y San José de la ciudad de Osorno, durante el período de agosto de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. Se seleccionó una muestra por conveniencia de 26 tomadores de decisiones. Las 26 entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas en forma literal. El análisis de la información se hizo utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en su aproximación inductiva. RESULTADOS: Para los entrevistados, la conceptualización de la autogestión está determinada por la autonomía para la toma de decisiones respecto de la asignación de recursos y el financiamiento de la provisión de servicios de salud en las instituciones hospitalarias. También manifestaron que para mejorar la etapa de implementación se deben incluir políticas de recursos humanos y de financiamiento de la función de provisión de servicios de salud. A las debilidades, por su parte, las relacionaron con la ausencia de capacidades organizacionales y competencias gerenciales de los equipos de salud para la implementación de los cambios. CONCLUSIONES: La política de autogestión hospitalaria es conceptualizada desde la autonomía financiera, y su implementación está determinada por las brechas de capacidad que persisten en el diseño de la política.OBJECTIVE: To learn the perceptions of decision-makers concerning the implementation stage of a hospital self-management policy in two highly complex hospitals in southern Chile. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study based on semi-structured in-depth interviews of decision-makers at the Regional Hospital of Valdivia
Steffensen, Jonny Trapp
EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...... to the 1997-1999 revision of EU rural development policy...
Full Text Available This paper critically examines the role of government policy with respect to e-learning as an agent of change in the higher education sector. The potential impact of e-learning on the structure and organisation of the higher education sector has become a central issue for managers at institutional level and government policy makers across the globe. There is clear evidence from a range of policy documents from various nations of a general acceptance that an imperative exists to engage with the ‘knowledge economy’ in order to secure or retain a competitive economic advantage in the global order. It is seen that emerging digital technologies have a central role to play in this task and many governments have been active in promoting the development of e-learning as an agent of improvement, capacity building and organisational change in the higher education sector. Evidence is available that such technologies, supported by government policy, have served to enhance the quality of the student experience within the existing organisational and pedagogical frameworks which characterise the majority of higher education institutions. There is, however, little evidence of radical restructuring or the ‘transformation’ of existing institutions into the ‘virtual universities’ envisioned by some early commentators. This paper explores the wider policy context within which governments must work if they are to reap the full benefits of emerging technologies.
Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Rodriguez-Estevez, J. M., Sr.; Romo-Aguilar, M. D. L.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Salinas-Prieto, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Pérez-Campuzano, E.
REDESCLIM was designed and develop in 2011 due to a public call from The Science and Technology Mexican Council (CONACYT); CONACYT lead the activities for its organization and development among the academic community. REDESCLIM was created to enhance the capacity of response to hydro-meteorological disasters and climate events through an integrative effort of researchers, technologists, entrepreneurs, politicians and society. Brief summary of our objectives: 1) Understand the causes of disasters, to reduce risks to society and ecosystems 2) Support research and interdisciplinary assessment of the physical processes in natural and social phenomena to improve understanding of causes and impacts 3) Strengths collaboration with academic, government, private and other interdisciplinary networks from Mexico and other countries 4) Build human capacity and promote the development of skills 5) Recommend strategies for climate hazard prevention, mitigation and response, especially for hazard with the greatest impacts in Mexico, such as hurricanes, floods, drought, wild fires and other extremes events. We provide a continues communication channel on members research results to provide scientific information that could be used for different proposes, specificaly for decision makers who are dealing with ecological and hydro meteorological problems that can result in disasters, and provide a services menu based on the members scientific projects, publications, teaching courses, in order to impact public policy as final result. http://www.redesclim.org.mx. So far we have some basic results: Fiver national meetings (participants from 35 countries around the world), 7 Workshops and seminars (virtual and in-person), Climatic data platforms ( http://clicom.mex.cicese.mx, http://clicom-mex.cicese.mx/malla, http://atlasclimatico.unam.mx/REDESCLIM2/ ), climate change scenarios for the general public at http://escenarios.inecc.gob.mx, 14 seed projects, one model to hurricane simulation
The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education…
Prøitz, Tine Sophie
Learning outcomes can be considered to be a key concept in a changing education policy landscape, enhancing aspects such as benchmarking and competition. Issues relating to concepts of performance have a long history of debate within the field of education. Today, the concept of learning outcomes has become central in education policy development,…
Congress results in fertile opportunities for policy supporters to champion preferred solutions or attention to particular issues, and provides...tipping point,” resulting in the rapid emergence of attention that establishes the fertile ground for legislative change. The underpinning priority of...Andrew Corporate scandal MC252 oil spill Child obesity Bosnia Oklahoma City Bombing 50 The data used in this study was aggregated primarily from
Full Text Available Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems.
Lifelong learning is a key concept in EU policy documents not only on education, but also on economic competitiveness and social cohesion. The discourse on lifelong learning has been strongly criticised by educational researchers, who document that it often reflects narrow notions of learning and...
This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.
The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…
Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe
Reza Salami; Javad Soltanzadeh
Having recognized the importance of designing Science, Technology and Innovation policies (STIP), many Less Developed Countries (LDCs) such as Iran have nowadays attempt to reshape their STI policies. The policy makers of LDCs like Iran can adopt and design suitable strategies learning from the successful experiences of prosperous nations. This paper performs a comparative analysis of STI policies of some successful countries in managing their technological change. This is mostly due to the f...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions
Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.
K.-S. Lee (Kun-Sei); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); S.-I. Lee (Sang-Il); H.-W. Koo (Hye-Won)
textabstractInterest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health
In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things...
This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…
Since the early 1990s, lifelong learning has become a major policy concern for the European Union, being seen as a means for enabling individuals to be more competitive in social and economic contexts that are continually changing. After a series of white papers and strategies in the field of lifelong learning, the EU launched the Lifelong…
Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd
This paper deals with an intriguing paradox that can be observed in today’s regional economic policy making: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, simultaneously more and more governments try to copy policy experiences that proved to be
Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.
Dunlop, Claire A; Radaelli, Claudio M
In response to the attacks on the sovereign debt of some Eurozone countries, European Union (EU) leaders have created a set of preventive and corrective policy instruments to coordinate macro-economic policies and reforms. In this article, we deal with the European Semester, a cycle of information exchange, monitoring and surveillance. Countries that deviate from the targets are subjected to increasing monitoring and more severe 'corrective' interventions, in a pyramid of responsive exchanges between governments and EU institutions. This is supposed to generate coordination and convergence towards balanced economies via mechanisms of learning. But who is learning what? Can the EU learn in the 'wrong' mode? We contribute to the literature on theories of the policy process by showing how modes of learning can be operationalized and used in empirical analysis. We use policy learning as theoretical framework to establish empirically the prevalent mode of learning and its implications for both the power of the Commission and the normative question of whether the EU is learning in the 'correct' mode.
Reports that all six regional college/university accrediting agencies have rewritten, or are currently rewriting, their standards to place more emphasis on what students learn, accept the growth of part-time faculty members, develop ways to evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning, and let colleges tailor accreditation process to their own…
meet policy aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...father for feeding a passion for learning with a work ethic ; and your patient love. To D, B, and C: I love you eternally. v
In this paper we analyze disinflation in two environments.One in which the central bank has perfect knowledge, in the sense that it understands and observes the process by which private sector inflation expectations are generated, and one in which the central bank has to learn the private sector
The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: firstname.lastname@example.org , tel. 62232.
Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.
Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be
A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policy integration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targets and requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainable development. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy is a renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedish energy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendly bioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multi sector and a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many different sectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on different levels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in two sectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational). A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracing EPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporating environmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore, institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed. Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in the case of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consists of policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews. Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture of the EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused on studying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows that priorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; but that EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectors and on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdown process
In this era of globalisation, the present perception of lifelong learning (LLL) in the Indian policy domain has been going through major changes in an attempt to make it nationally realistic yet globally viable. In this process, all facets of the concept of LLL are constantly metamorphosing, and this in many ways outperforms the older perception…
Kubalìk, Jiřì; Alibekov, Eduard; Babuska, R.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri
Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms can be used to derive optimal control laws for nonlinear dynamic systems. With continuous-valued state and input variables, RL algorithms have to rely on function approximators to represent the value function and policy mappings. This paper
Fancourt, Nigel Peter Michell
The study of how policy processes shape religious education as a curriculum subject, rather than within faith schooling, is relatively unexplored. This paper applies a policy analysis perspective to an important distinction in non-confessional English religious education, which has also been adopted internationally: "learning about…
opportunities to flourish or perish. Further, it acknowledges the importance for adult education and learning policies of governance beyond and across the purview of governmental structures that operate within single countries, where state-led institutions and non-governmental international organizations play...... a key role. Finally, it explains why analyses that are either institution- or country-focused still constitute a pre-condition for governance studies on adult education to grow in future years.......This chapter provides a conceptual rationale for the following chapters. From a public policy perspective on adult education and learning, it argues that legislative frameworks and rationales at federal, state or municipal levels are an essential feature for adult education and learning...
Prinsen, Gerard; Overton, John
Simulation games have a long history in education and are well suited to learning about negotiation, power, relationships and uncertain outcomes. This paper reflects on the experience of using a semester-long simulation game to introduce postgraduate students to development policy. It focuses on three issues identified in the literature--realism,…
Full Text Available The Makers is the latest novel of the American science fiction writer, blogger and Silicon Valley intellectual Cory Doctorow. Set in the 2010s, the novel describes the possible impact of the present trend towards the migration of modes of production and organization that have emerged online into the sphere of material production. Called New Work, this movement is indebted to a new maker culture that attracts people into a kind of neo-artisan, high tech mode of production. The question is: can a corporate-funded New Work movement be sustainable? Doctorow seems to suggest that a capitalist economy of abundance is unsustainable because it tends to restrict the reach of its value flows to a privileged managerial elite.
Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.
Ulph, A.; Maddison, D.
In this paper we construct a simple model of global warming which captures a number of key features of the global warming problem: (1) environmental damages are related to the stock of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; (2) the global commons nature of the problem means that these are strategic interactions between the emissions policies of the governments of individual nation states; (3) there is uncertainty about the extent of the future damages that will be incurred by each country from any given level of concentration of greenhouse gases but there is the possibility that at a future date better information about the true extent of environmental damages may become available; an important aspect of the problem is the extent to which damages in different countries may be correlated. In the first part of the paper we consider a simple model with two symmetric countries and show that the value of perfect information is an increasing function of the correlation between damages in the two countries in both the cooperative and non-cooperative equilibria. However, while the value of perfect information is always non-negative in the cooperative equilibrium, in the non- cooperative equilibrium there is a critical value of the correlation coefficient below which the value of perfect information will be negative. In the second part of the paper we construct an empirical model of global warming distinguishing between OECD and non-OECD countries and show that in the non-cooperative equilibrium the value of perfect information for OECD countries is negative when the correlation coefficient between environmental damages for OECD and non-OECD countries is negative. The implications of these results for international agreements are discussed. 3 tabs., 26 refs
Choung, Oh-Hyeon; Lee, Sang Wan; Jeong, Yong
When making a choice with limited information, we explore new features through trial-and-error to learn how they are related. However, few studies have investigated exploratory behaviour when information is limited. In this study, we address, at both the behavioural and neural level, how, when, and why humans explore new feature dimensions to learn a new policy for choosing a state-space. We designed a novel multi-dimensional reinforcement learning task to encourage participants to explore and learn new features, then used a reinforcement learning algorithm to model policy exploration and learning behaviour. Our results provide the first evidence that, when humans explore new feature dimensions, their values are transferred from the previous policy to the new online (active) policy, as opposed to being learned from scratch. We further demonstrated that exploration may be regulated by the level of cognitive ambiguity, and that this process might be controlled by the frontopolar cortex. This opens up new possibilities of further understanding how humans explore new features in an open-space with limited information.
Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt
As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing.
Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.
.... It will be of interest to academics, researchers and students interested in this field of study, and provides learning for policy makers and practitioners active in the fields of collaboration...
Using internet technology to inform researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders about sustainable land management in drylands: experience from a large interdisciplinary and international project
Geeson, N.; van den Elsen, E.; Brandt, J.; Quaranta, G.; Salvia, R.
In the last twenty years the advent of the internet has made it much easier to share the results of scientific research with a wider range of audiences. Where once there were only scientific journals and books, it is now possible to deliver messages and dissemination products instantly, by email or other media, to huge circulation lists; thereby also addressing non-scientific audiences. Most scientific projects now host a website, but until recently few have exploited the communication possibilities to maximum advantage. DESIRE has been a large interdisciplinary and international project working to mitigate desertification by selecting and trialling sustainable land management practices with stakeholders. Therefore it has been very important to use a general project website, and a separate Harmonised Information System, to ensure that partners and stakeholders are able to understand the sustainable options and learn from one another. The project website has included many useful features, such as general project and partner information, a schedule of future meetings, and repositories of publicly (and project only) downloadable documents. Lessons have been learned about communication preferences between groups with different interests. For example, an on-line forum seemed a good way of allowing project partners to have their say on various topics. However it was not well-used and it was concluded that partners preferred to communicate just by email, a medium that they access most days for many uses. Whereas the project website focuses on the latest news, the Harmonised Information System has been used to document the history of the project, stage by stage, filling in each section as results became available. Information can be accessed from the perspective of both the research aims and each study site. Interactive tools and drop-down menus are among the features that are used to make the information as attractive and as accessible as possible. Although English is the
Most observers regard both adult and higher education as key for citizenship and democracy yet the worldwide contexts, appearance and expression of adult education and lifelong learning have changed significantly during the past 20 years. Focusing on ten countries (Scotland, Czech Republic, USA......, Brazil, Mexico, Botswana, Ghana, Palestine, South Korea and India) and five international organisations, this book explores recent changes in their overall contexts and policies about adult education, how such policies intersect with developments in higher education and how they may contribute to debates...... on citizenship and democracy. It highlights several significant shifts: increased awareness of the role of adult education/lifelong learning in enhancing economic growth and social cohesion and mobility, challenging economic and social exclusion and inequality, and developing human and social capital; increased...
There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…
Benn K.D. Sartorius
Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.
Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Haynes, Bridgette M.H.; Rybak, Michael E.; Pirkle, James L.
The CDC’s National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the population’s nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003–2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutpoint-based prevalence data during 2003–2006, and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (≥60 y) compared to younger (20–39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (≥6 y) were not at risk for deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (A, B-6, B-12, C, D, E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. About 90% of women (12–49 y) were not at risk for iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk for deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20–39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy. PMID:23596164
Full Text Available The current water scarcity situation in South Africa is a threat to sustainable development. The present paper has assessed the water footprint of milk produced and processed in South Africa using the procedures outlined in the water footprint assessment manual. The results show that 1352 m3 of water is required to produce one tonne of milk with 4% fat and 3.3% protein in South Africa. The water used in producing feed for lactating cows alone accounts for 86.35% of the total water footprint of milk. The water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows is about 85% higher than that of non-lactating cows. Green water footprint accounts for more than 86% of the total water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows. Green and blue water footprints are the highest contributors to the total water footprint milk production in South Africa. Water used for feed production for both lactating and non-lactating cows accounts for about 99% of the total water footprint of milk production in South Africa. Particular attention should be given to feed crops with low water footprints and high contribution to dry matter to provide balanced ration with low water footprint. Water users, managers and livestock producers should pay attention to green and blue water consumption activities along the milk value chain and design strategies to minimize them. Corn, sorghum and lucerne production under irrigation in the greater Orange River basin is sustainable, whereas oats production for silage in the same catchment area is not sustainable. Our findings provide the rationale for dairy producers and water users in the dairy industry to get an understanding of the degree of sustainability of their input and output combinations, production choices, and policy interventions, in terms of water use.
Development of a small biped entertainment robot QRIO. In Micro- Nanomechatronics and Human Science, 2004, pages 23–28, 2004.  Odest Chadwicke Jenkins...adaptation of biped locomotion. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 47:79–91, 2004.  Ulrich Nehmzow, Otar Akanyeti, Cristoph Weinrich, Theocharis...Confidence-Based Robot Policy Learning from Demonstration Sonia Chernova CMU-CS-09-105 March 5, 2009 School of Computer Science Computer Science
Finlay, Ian; Spours, Ken; Steer, Richard; Coffield, Frank; Gregson, Maggie; Hodgson, Ann
One of the stated aims of government policy in England is to put teaching, training,and learning at the heart of the learning and skills system. This paper provides a critical review of policies on teaching, learning and assessment in the learning and skills sector over the past five years. It draws upon data collected and analysed in the early stages of an ESRC-funded Teaching and Learning Research Programme project. Using evidence from policy sources, we argue that despite policy rhetoric a...
Salajan, Florin D.
This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…
Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.
. Geoengineering has planet-wide consequences and must therefore be discussed within intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. The research community has been addressing many of these issues, but the global policy community and the public largely have not. It's time to do so.
Riley, Donna M.; McNair, Lisa D.; Masters, S.
Some have hailed the emergence of maker spaces as an opportunity to broaden participation of underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, engaging participants in open, creative, and supportive spaces for learning and applying practical STEM knowledge. Others have questioned the potential of these spaces, as many maker and hacker spaces seem to be enacting certain norms that are more conducive to participation of white, male, middle-class, able-bodie...
Carley, S.; Youtie, J.; Solomon, G.; Porter, A.
The notion of a credibility map argues that everyone has a distinctive map that dictates the preference given to different types and sources of information. When seeking to influence other academic fields, scholars will likely turn to scientific and technical information though other types, such as policy reports, may also be relevant. We draw on the credibility mapping concept to understand how a major policy report is taken up by the target academic community. The report, How People Learn, was published by the US National Academies in 2000, to expose the education community (mainly educational researchers but also knowledge-seeking practitioners) to major cognitive science research findings of relevance to learning. We applied several search strings to measure the take up of this report in the target community. We used Google Scholar to evince that that How People Learn was cited in nearly 15,000 publications, these citations grew particularly steeply from 2000 to 2008, and most were in education-related journal papers. We performed a similar analysis using the Web of Science, which showed that most of the citations were substantial as opposed to perfunctory. (Author)
Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin
This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…
McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia
This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…
Staff College to attend the USAF Air Command and Staff College. After earning distinguished graduate honors at Air Command and Staff College in 2013, he...submission to the infidel , which was intolerable to any good Muslim,” they resisted the Europeans with added fervor and tenacity.10 The resistance...inclination, Islam did not tolerate French colonization because believers viewed the French as infidels who were taking over dâr al-islâm (territory of
De Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron; Ruelle, Christine; Valkering, Pieter
Sustainable regional development is a participatory, multi-actor process, involving a diversity of societal stakeholders, administrators, policy makers, practitioners and scientific experts. In this process, mutual and collective learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and
Salajan, Florin D.; Roumell, Elizabeth A.
This article records and documents the historical development of e-learning policies at EU level by conducting a discourse and content analysis of four key e-learning policy documents drafted and implemented by the European Commission over the past 20 years: "Learning in the Information Society: Action Plan for a European Education…
This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future
Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis
This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.
Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari
This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it
The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan
investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. The aim of the report is to provide the background for policy-makers and investors who want to incorporate the concept of 'true costs' into the discussion of electricity generation. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price. Whatever the state of the data and methods, the process of the analysis and stakeholder discussion can be just as important as the final results in providing guidance to decision-makers. Consideration of the true costs should be a component of decision-making for all energy investment worldwide. (authors)
Vano, J. A.
Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.
Luck, Jo; Rossi, Dolene
Central Queensland University (CQU) is progressing toward a policy whereby all course materials will only be available online from 2013. The assumption by decision-makers within CQU is that current and potential students are comfortable enough with the use of technology that they will accept all their course materials being delivered online. This…
Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jakobi, Anja P.
In recent years, policy scholars have increasingly turned towards the international level as a source for national policy change. This article conceptualises this development as the emergence of a global policy field of education. The example of lifelong learning is given to illustrate this global policy process. In the first part, I introduce…
Pinto, Laura Elizabeth
When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empowerment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…
Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”
Full Text Available This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.
Lohwasser, Richard; Madlener, Reinhard
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to play a major role in the stabilization of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. To develop the capture technology from its current demonstration phase towards commercial maturity, significant funding is directed to CCS, such as the EU’s €4.5 bn NER300 fund. However, we know little about how this funding relates to market diffusion of CCS. This paper addresses that question. We initially review past learning effects from both capacity installations and R and D efforts for a similar technology using the concept of two-factor learning. We apply the obtained learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching rates to CCS in the electricity market model HECTOR, which simulates 19 European countries hourly until 2040, to understand the impact of learning and associated policies on CCS market diffusion. We evaluate the effectiveness of policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching by relating the policy budget to the realized CCS capacity and find that, at lower policy cost, both methods are about equally effective. At higher spending levels, policies promoting learning-by-doing are more effective. Overall, policy effectiveness increases in low CO 2 price scenarios, but the CO 2 price still remains the key prerequisite for the economic competitiveness, even with major policy support. - Highlights: ► Identified two-factor learning rates for CCS through empirical data from flue gas desulphurization. ► Evaluated effectiveness of CCS stimulation policies addressing learning-by-doing and learning-by-researching. ► Both policy types are about equally effective with small policy budgets. ► Policies addressing learning-by-doing, e.g., subsidies to CCS projects, are more effective with large policy budgets. ► Analysis deployed HECTOR power market model that simulates 19 European countries on hourly granularity until 2040.
Ruddy, Thomas F.; Hilty, Lorenz M.
Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them
Steffensen, Jonny Trapp
This thesis examines the concept of 'policy learning' and explores its applicability to the European Commission's role in EU policymaking. Policy learning refers to 'knowledge-based' policy formulation, where content of policy proposals is shaped to a 'non-trivial' extent by administrative...... to 'measure' the respondents' use and attitudes towards usage of policy-relevant knowledge. The concepts of policy learning and policy strategy are applied to a case-study of the Commission's role in reformulating EU agrarian structural policy in a longitudinal perspective (1968-1997); and in the most recent...
Manoonpong, Poramate; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Wörgötter, Florentin
associations. Based on these biological findings, we propose a new learning model to achieve successful control policies for artificial systems. This model combines correlation-based learning using input correlation learning (ICO learning) and reward-based learning using continuous actor–critic reinforcement...... learning (RL), thereby working as a dual learner system. The model performance is evaluated by simulations of a cart-pole system as a dynamic motion control problem and a mobile robot system as a goal-directed behavior control problem. Results show that the model can strongly improve pole balancing control...... policy, i.e., it allows the controller to learn stabilizing the pole in the largest domain of initial conditions compared to the results obtained when using a single learning mechanism. This model can also find a successful control policy for goal-directed behavior, i.e., the robot can effectively learn...
Lisbet Pals Svendsen
Full Text Available Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communication Technology tools. This is the background for the research described in this article. Our study which was conducted on the basis of semi-structured focus group interviews with n=50 high school students and n=2 high school teachers shows that the ICT tools Photostory, MovieMaker and Voki indeed have an influence on students’ perceived intrinsic motivation in connection with German language and culture learning. Depending on the nature of the tool, our thematic analysis indicates that such tools facilitate different aspects of perceived intrinsic motivation. Still, our study shows that the tools have a limited effect on perceived intrinsic motivation, unless they are addressed and used strategically in the proper pedagogical context.
Lisbet Pals Svendsen
Full Text Available Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communication Technology tools. This is the background for the research described in this article. Our study which was conducted on the basis of semi-structured focus group interviews with n=50 high school students and n=2 high school teachers shows that the ICT tools Photostory, MovieMaker and Voki indeed have an influence on students’ perceived intrinsic motivation in connection with German language and culture learning. Depending on the nature of the tool, our thematic analysis indicates that such tools facilitate different aspects of perceived intrinsic motivation. Still, our study shows that the tools have a limited effect on perceived intrinsic motivation, unless they are addressed and used strategically in the proper pedagogical context.
Lee, Moosung; Friedrich, Tom
Although the lifelong learning policy of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has had a unique impact on international discussions over the last four decades, little historical research has revealed the ideological influences at work within UNESCO's lifelong learning policy texts. With this in mind, this…
Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace
Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.
In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…
Leonard, Simon N.
This paper provides a critique of the performative assumptions of the teacher professional learning policy direction being adopted in Australia. Through international policy borrowing, the policy direction in Australia is similar to many other countries in that it encourages increasingly standardised teaching practice to afford a more quantitative…
Hannah Ayaba Tanye
Full Text Available The continual innovation in technology has ripple effect on the way services are offered and undoubtedly has affected educational policies leading to educational reform. Governments, including the Government of Ghana have shown support to Universities in their implementation of eLearning. However, there is gap in the eLearning practice in Ghana. A well structured eLearning system with a supervisory role of Government and support system from university management for eLearners is little to none. How should online course be accredited? What pedagogy would ensure that the impact of skills and knowledge are not compromise for distance learners? What security measures should be put in place to ensure that learner’s data is secured? How Universities collaboration challenges can be minimized? and How students’ satisfaction level of eLearning system can be enhanced? This study seeks to answer these questions as a basis for eLearning policy debate at the National level.
Li, Jinna; Modares, Hamidreza; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Xie, Lihua
This paper develops an off-policy reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to solve optimal synchronization of multiagent systems. This is accomplished by using the framework of graphical games. In contrast to traditional control protocols, which require complete knowledge of agent dynamics, the proposed off-policy RL algorithm is a model-free approach, in that it solves the optimal synchronization problem without knowing any knowledge of the agent dynamics. A prescribed control policy, called behavior policy, is applied to each agent to generate and collect data for learning. An off-policy Bellman equation is derived for each agent to learn the value function for the policy under evaluation, called target policy, and find an improved policy, simultaneously. Actor and critic neural networks along with least-square approach are employed to approximate target control policies and value functions using the data generated by applying prescribed behavior policies. Finally, an off-policy RL algorithm is presented that is implemented in real time and gives the approximate optimal control policy for each agent using only measured data. It is shown that the optimal distributed policies found by the proposed algorithm satisfy the global Nash equilibrium and synchronize all agents to the leader. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Despite evidence that service-learning projects can have positive effects on students' learning and civic engagement, such projects are not yet widely utilized in political science. This seems to be driven, in part, by the concern that service-learning projects may politicize students. In my Urban Politics and Policy class, I implemented a…
S. Abdallah (Sherief); M. Kaisers (Michael); T. Ito; C.M. Jonker (Catholijn); M. Gini; O. Shehory (Onn)
htmlabstractQ-learning is a very popular reinforcement learning algorithm being proven to converge to optimal policies in Markov decision processes. However, Q-learning shows artifacts in non-stationary environments, e.g., the probability of playing the optimal action may decrease if Q-values
Kickert, Rob; Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Prinzie, Peter; Arends, Lidia R
Optimising student learning and academic performance is a continuous challenge for medical schools. The assessment policy may influence both learning and performance. Previously, the joint contribution of self-regulated learning (SRL) and participation in scheduled learning activities towards academic performance has been reported. However, little is known about the relationships between SRL, participation and academic performance under different assessment policies. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in average scores of SRL, participation and academic performance of students under two assessment policies: (i) a conjunctive lower stakes, lower performance standard (old) assessment policy and (ii) a compensatory higher stakes, higher performance standard (new) assessment policy. In addition, this research investigated whether the relationships between academic performance, SRL and participation are similar across both assessment policies. Year-1 medical students (i) under the old assessment policy (n = 648) and (ii) under the new assessment policy (n = 529) completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire on SRL, and additional items on participation. Year-1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year-1 course examination grades. manova and structural equation modelling were used for analyses. Generally, students under the new assessment policy showed significantly higher Year-1 performance, SRL and participation, compared with students under the old assessment policy. The relationships between Year-1 performance, SRL and participation were similar across assessment policies. This study indicates that the higher academic performance under a compensatory higher stakes, higher performance standard assessment policy, results from higher SRL and participation, but not from altered relationships between SRL, participation and performance. In sum, assessment policies have the potential to optimise student learning and
Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.
/methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...... portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design...
Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie
In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…
Lille, Benjamin; Romero, Margarida
Creativity is a key competence in 21st century education. Among the active learning pedagogies which aims to develop creativity, learning by making is an emerging approach in which the students are engaged in the co-creation of a shared artefact. In this study, we aim to analyse the creativity competency through a maker-based projects.…
Vogler, Sabine; Paris, Valérie; Ferrario, Alessandra; Wirtz, Veronika J; de Joncheere, Kees; Schneider, Peter; Pedersen, Hanne Bak; Dedet, Guillaume; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din
This article discusses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in European countries with regard to their ability to ensure affordable access to medicines. A frequently applied pricing policy is external price referencing. While it provides some benchmark for policy-makers and has been shown to be able to generate savings, it may also contribute to delay in product launch in countries where medicine prices are low. Value-based pricing has been proposed as a policy that promotes access while rewarding useful innovation; however, implementing it has proven quite challenging. For high-priced medicines, managed-entry agreements are increasingly used. These agreements allow policy-makers to manage uncertainty and obtain lower prices. They can also facilitate earlier market access in case of limited evidence about added therapeutic value of the medicine. However, these agreements raise transparency concerns due to the confidentiality clause. Tendering as used in the hospital and offpatent outpatient sectors has been proven to reduce medicine prices but it requires a robust framework and appropriate design with clear strategic goals in order to prevent shortages. These pricing and reimbursement policies are supplemented by the widespread use of Health Technology Assessment to inform decision-making, and by strategies to improve the uptake of generics, and also biosimilars. While European countries have been implementing a set of policy options, there is a lack of thorough impact assessments of several pricing and reimbursement policies on affordable access. Increased cooperation between authorities, experience sharing and improving transparency on price information, including the disclosure of confidential discounts, are opportunities to address current challenges.
FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q
MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.
Hsu, Yu-Chang; Ching, Yu-Hui; Baldwin, Sally
This research explored how K-16 educators learned physical computing, and developed as maker-educators in an online graduate course. With peer support and instructor guidance, these educators designed maker projects using Scratch and Makey Makey, and developed educational maker proposals with plans of teaching the topics of their choice in STEAM…
Stracke, Christian M.
Invited Speech at the Moscow International Education Fair 2016, Moscow, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 15 April): "Free Education for Open Learning: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all"
... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...
Coyle, C; Saunderson, W; Freeman, R
To examine the attitudes of dental students and social policy students towards learning disabilities in order to identify whether attitudinal differences exist and to suggest recommendations in the dental undergraduate curriculum commensurate with Government legislation in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional survey of all undergraduate dental students at Queen's University, Belfast and all undergraduate social policy students at University of Ulster. A convenience sample of all undergraduate dental and social policy students was obtained. The students completed a questionnaire to assess attitude towards learning disability. The data were analysed using Cronbach's alpha, Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way fixed effect model). The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. The response rate was 83% for dental students and 97% for social policy students. Dental students had significantly lower mean scores and hence less favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with social policy students. Female dental students had significantly higher mean scores and hence more favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with male students. The findings show that dental undergraduates compared with social policy students had less favourable attitudes towards those with learning disability. Dental students should receive training in learning disability and undergraduate programmes should be conceptualised as a spiral curriculum. It is proposed that social policy theory should be introduced into undergraduate dental curricula, that early exposure to learning disability in a community setting should be incorporated into the first undergraduate years and in later undergraduate clinical years students should treat patients with learning disability in order to promote experiential learning and reflective practice.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the right to learn in school type education and considers the assessment as assurance of teaching and learning quality. It deals with the current evaluation processes and discriminatory misconceptions of merely summative assessments, which tend to qualify students. This text evaluates the punitive bias of meritocratic grading of learning and argues that only formative assessment can ensure the right to learn
Dhirathiti, Nopraenue S.; Pichitpatja, Pojjana
The study examined the process of policy implementation of lifelong learning for the elderly in Thailand, covering four main regions within the country. The study empirically compared inputs, processes, outputs, and outcomes of policy implementation in the north, south, northeast, and central regions of Thailand and captured the rigor of policy…
This article examines the continuities and discontinuities in the international problematisation of education across the lifespan as an education policy, currently conceptualised as lifelong learning. Through the critical examination of international organisations' policy documents, this paper demonstrates that while on the one hand there is a…
McGuire, Maureen; Goldstein, Carol; Claywell, Lora; Patton, Ryan
This is a content analysis of the reflections of 187 nursing students after experiential learning opportunities in both master's and doctoral level health policy courses. Results show that experiential activities in a health policy class for nursing students increased their knowledge of the legislative process and motivated them to identify newfound intent to become more involved in the political process.
Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid
This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…
McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.
Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.
Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Wene, C.O.
The book 'Learning Curves: Theory, Models, and Applications' first draws a learning map that shows where learning is involved within organizations, then examines how it can be sustained, perfected, and accelerated. The book reviews empirical findings in the literature in terms of different sources for learning and partial assessments of the steps that make up the actual learning process inside the learning curve. Chapter 23 on 'Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy' is written by Bob van der Zwaan and Clas-Otto Wene. In this chapter they provide some interpretations of experience and learning curves starting from three different theoretical platforms. These interpretations are aimed at explaining learning rates for different energy technologies. The ultimate purpose is to find the role that experience and learning curves can legitimately play in designing efficient government deployment programs and in analyzing the implications of different energy scenarios. The 'Component Learning' section summarizes recent work by the authors that focuses on the disaggregation of technologies in their respective components and argues that traditional learning for overall technology should perhaps be replaced by a phenomenology that recognizes learning for individual components. The 'Learning and Time' section presents an approach that departs more strongly from the conventional learning curve methodology, by suggesting that exponential growth and progress may be the deeper underlying processes behind observed learning-by-doing. Contrary to this view, the cybernetic approach presented in the 'Cybernetic Approach' section sees learning curves as expressing a fundamental property of organizations in competitive markets and applies the findings from second order cybernetics to calculate the learning rates for operationally closed systems. All three interpretations find empirical support. The 'Conclusions' section summarizes the
The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong…
Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham
This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…
This paper explores experiences at the interface of research and policy through the lens of informal learning. The paper contends that in order to further social justice it is essential to value the informal learning that takes place outside the confines of educational institutions. However, it also demonstrates the difficulties in getting…
Stracke, Christian M.
keynote on Open Learning at the International IEEE EDUCON Conference 2016: I will speak about “Open Learning for Smart Education: Open educational policies, strategies and access for all”. This year EDUCON is taking place from 10th to 13th of April 2016 in Abu Dhabi. My questions of the keynote
By means of documentary evidence and six in-depth interviews, this paper traces policy and practice relating to the education of visually impaired children with learning difficulties from 1900 to 1970. It reveals that if visually impaired children with learning difficulties were given an education at all, their needs were not usually met and they…
Yorke, Jon; Vidovich, Lesley
This paper examines higher education quality policy developments internationally (U.K., U.S.) and in Australia with respect to the role of learning standards and assessment in work-integrated learning. Whilst remaining located primarily within the Australian higher education context, the paper briefly identifies some of the more influential global…
Watson, John; Pape, Larry; Murin, Amy; Gemin, Butch; Vashaw, Lauren
"Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning" (2014) is the 11th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004 that examine the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. It summarizes that at a…
This study examined and compared the legal inputs, structural settings and implementation process of lifelong learning policy in Thailand and Japan focusing on street-level agents. The findings demonstrated that while both countries had legal frameworks that provided a legislative platform to promote lifelong learning among the elderly based on a…
Cuthill, Michael; Buys, Laurie; Wilson, Bruce; Kimberley, Helen; Reghenzani, Denise; Kearns, Peter; Thompson, Sally; Golding, Barry; Root, Jo; Weston, Rhonda
Given Australia's population ageing and predicted impacts related to health, productivity, equity and enhancing quality of life outcomes for senior Australians, lifelong learning has been identified as a pathway for addressing the risks associated with an ageing population. To date Australian governments have paid little attention to addressing these needs and thus, there is an urgent need for policy development for lifelong learning as a national priority. The purpose of this article is to explore the current lifelong learning context in Australia and to propose a set of factors that are most likely to impact learning in later years. Evidence based policy that understands and incorporates learning opportunities for all citizens is required to meet emerging global challenges. Providing appropriate learning opportunities to seniors is one clear pathway for achieving diverse health, social and economic outcomes.
Castelnuovo, E.; Galeotti, M.; Vergalli, S.; Gambarelli, G.
Many predictions and conclusions in the climate change literature have been made and drawn on the basis of theoretical analyses and quantitative models that assume exogenous technological change. One is naturally led to wonder whether those conclusions and policy prescriptions hold in the more realistic case of endogenously evolving technologies. In previous work we took a popular integrated assessment model and modified it so as to allow for an explicit role of the stock of knowledge which accumulates through R and D investment. In our formulation knowledge affects both the output production technology and the emission-output ratio. In this paper we make further progress in our efforts aimed to model the process of technological change. In keeping with recent theories of endogenous growth, we specify two ways in which knowledge accumulates: via a deliberate, optimally selected R and D decision or via experience, giving rise to Learning by Doing. As an illustration, we simulate the model under the two versions of endogenous technical change and look at the dynamics of a selected number of relevant variables, including growth rates of GDP and physical capital, as well as total emissions and rate of domestic abatement. Keywords: Climate Policy, Environmental Modeling, Integrated Assessment, Technical Change
Wei Qing-Lai; Song Rui-Zhuo; Xiao Wen-Dong; Sun Qiu-Ye
This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. (paper)
Okma, Kieke G H; Marmor, Theodore R
This article addresses the vocabulary of cross-national analysis and commentary about health care, health policy and health politics. We conclude there is a large gap between promise and performance in comparative policy commentary and point to major sources of confusion, such as the lack of generally agreed vocabulary, vague language and the use of faddish and misleading terms and aspirational labels (illustrated by a selection of widely used expressions in comparative reports). We next examine the basic purposes of international policy comparison, distinguish three useful and two misleading approaches and frame defensible ground rules for comparative work.
Jan 1, 2009 ... For the International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) and its partners, the link between research and policy is of paramount importance in their goal to improve social, economic, and environmental conditions in developing countries. Collaboration between researchers and decision-makers, ...
The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?
Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success
This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…
van Dellen, Teije; Klercq, Jumbo; Buiskool, Bert-Jan
Lifelong learning has never been an integral part of the Dutch educational culture. Nevertheless, nowadays yearly many adults (about 17.8% in 2015) are after either or not finishing initial education in some respect emergently participating in (continuing) second, third or more learning paths
Simpson, Steven Marshall
Learning object repositories, a form of digital libraries, are robust systems that provide educators new ways to search for educational resources, collaborate with peers, and provide instruction to students in unique and varied ways. This study examines a learning object repository created by a large suburban school district to increase teaching…
Turn on the news or open the paper and sure enough there will be mention of the disastrous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although it has retreated from the big headlines, the disaster still looms large as people deal with the aftermath of the BP catastrophe. The Deepwater Horizon disaster has put offshore drilling and emergency oil spill response on the forefront of everyone's minds in the International community. Maritime oil disasters, no matter how you look at them, affect everyone. Their oily consequences create a ripple effect in which not only does the industry suffer and those who must daily deal with the pollution, but governments and policy makers must attempt to draw policy conclusions and find ways in which to limit such events in the future. Blame gets passed around like a virus and in the meantime cleanup efforts experience varying degrees of success. People lose hope and trust as the oil companies and government officials scramble to cover all their bases and seek to assure that this disaster won't happen again. But what makes a disaster like Deepwater Horizon an exception and what makes it a more fundamental problem that needs to be addressed globally? This event that has drawn so much attention internationally is not the first maritime oil disaster nor, unfortunately, will it be the last. The ultimate goal is that the international community learns from these events and does all in its power to ensure that future oil disasters will not reach this level of severity. Many people wonder how such a disaster could occur and why it was 'allowed' to happen. The purpose of this brief note is to shed light on maritime oil disasters by examining five such cases starting in the late 1970's until today. Since there is absolutely no way to paint disasters in black and white terms, the intent of this research is to put oil disasters into a historical context, to compare them, and to see if we are learning lessons from past oil
Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu; Yeh, Sonia
This letter examines the effectiveness of various biofuel and climate policies in reducing future processing costs of cellulosic biofuels due to learning-by-doing. These policies include a biofuel production mandate alone and supplementing the biofuel mandate with other policies, namely a national low carbon fuel standard, a cellulosic biofuel production tax credit or a carbon price policy. We find that the binding biofuel targets considered here can reduce the unit processing cost of cellulosic ethanol by about 30% to 70% between 2015 and 2035 depending on the assumptions about learning rates and initial costs of biofuel production. The cost in 2035 is more sensitive to the speed with which learning occurs and less sensitive to uncertainty in the initial production cost. With learning rates of 5–10%, cellulosic biofuels will still be at least 40% more expensive than liquid fossil fuels in 2035. The addition of supplementary low carbon/tax credit policies to the mandate that enhance incentives for cellulosic biofuels can achieve similar reductions in these costs several years earlier than the mandate alone; the extent of these incentives differs across policies and different kinds of cellulosic biofuels. (letter)
Ryberg, Thomas; Sinclair, Christine
The biennial Networked Learning Conference is an established locus for work on practice, research and epistemology in the field of networked learning. That work continues between the conferences through the researchers’ own networks, ‘hot seat’ debates, and through publications, especially...... for the Networked Learning Conference are all peer-reviewed, and as they have turned into chapters for this book, each has been re-reviewed by the editors and other authors. The result is a genuinely collegial distillation of themes from a stimulating conference; a snapshot of a time when national and international...
This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…
Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn
In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources.
Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.
indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...... a tentative analysis of the so-called Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) developed by the European Environment Agency (EEA). The results suggest that a limited direct policy use of TERM occurs while so-called 'symbolic' use is detected. This may partly be due to the short history of the TERM...
DUMITRAȘCU DANUȚ DUMITRU
Full Text Available EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE â€“ UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Ana TuÂºa, 1 Affiliation , â€œLucian Blagaâ€ University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management Claudiu Sorin Voinia 2 , Affiliation, â€œLucian Blagaâ€ University of Sibiu Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering DÃ£nuÃ¾ Dumitru DumitraÂºcu 3 Affiliation, â€œLucian Blagaâ€ University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management The theme paper consists in a comparative analysis of European preuniveristary education decision makers. Decision makers in preuniversity education management remain the key issue in the political agenda of most European countries. The diversity of educational policies in each European country aims to increase school autonomy, in a way that allows comparison of their main elements of management. Scientific research carried out aimed both theoretical and practical terms: - comparative analysis of how the makers of European schools are responsible for the management practiced in the educational institution. - identification of the achievement of school autonomy. Lately, in terms of policy makers and school autonomy, schools have gone through many reforms. It was felt the need to improve the democratic management and the quality of the educational process. The analysis and the approaches differ in terms of pace of reform, scale transfer of authority and areas that apply. No approach can be chosen as the ideal one or more effective than others, because the contexts in which they were made are so diverse. However, as it moves along, educational policy makers can learn from the approaches and experiences of others. The methodology was based on: the study of scientific literature from the country and abroad, on the theory and practice regarding the decision in the management of school education activities. Comparative analysis was conducted based on questionnaires
Globalisation and Europeanisation are changing the nature of the nation state and, therefore, of citizenship itself. This article briefly reviews this process. Thereafter the article concentrates on the way that the European Commission's policy documents on lifelong learning have argued that employability and active citizenship should be the…
Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane
programmes. Simultaneously a staff health team is formed from existing organisational structures, integrating local knowledge and building support for school policy making based on the pupils’ visions. A pilot study - applying the model in one Danish elementary school - has been conducted as an action...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....
Stoyanov, S.; Aroyo, L.M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Ivanov, Ivan
This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between
Felder, Martijn; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; de Bont, Antoinette
In Dutch healthcare, new market mechanisms have been introduced on an experimental basis in an attempt to contain costs and improve quality. Informed by a constructivist approach, we demonstrate that such experiments are not neutral testing grounds. Drawing from semi-structured interviews and policy texts, we reconstruct an experiment on free pricing in dental care that turned into a critical example of market failure, influencing developments in other sectors. Our analysis, however, shows that (1) different market logics and (2) different experimental logics were reproduced simultaneously during the course of the experiment. We furthermore reveal how (3) evaluation and political life influenced which logics were reproduced and became taken as the lessons learned. We use these insights to discuss the role of evaluation in learning from policy experimentation and close with four questions that evaluators could ask to better understand what is learned from policy experiments, how, and why. PMID:29568225
Felder, Martijn; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; de Bont, Antoinette
In Dutch healthcare, new market mechanisms have been introduced on an experimental basis in an attempt to contain costs and improve quality. Informed by a constructivist approach, we demonstrate that such experiments are not neutral testing grounds. Drawing from semi-structured interviews and policy texts, we reconstruct an experiment on free pricing in dental care that turned into a critical example of market failure, influencing developments in other sectors. Our analysis, however, shows that (1) different market logics and (2) different experimental logics were reproduced simultaneously during the course of the experiment. We furthermore reveal how (3) evaluation and political life influenced which logics were reproduced and became taken as the lessons learned. We use these insights to discuss the role of evaluation in learning from policy experimentation and close with four questions that evaluators could ask to better understand what is learned from policy experiments, how , and why .
Krueger, Kem P; Russell, Mark A; Bischoff, Jason
To incorporate Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into a course and determine whether doing so increased students' knowledge of and interest in healthcare policy. A healthcare policy course for second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students was redesigned to incorporate activities reflecting Fink's Taxonomy including completing a required reading, outlining the required reading, presenting the outline to a small group of peers, attending lectures, and completing a final policy project and simulation activity. The effectiveness of the course was assessed using a pre-post non-randomized control design, with nursing and social work students serving as the control group. Interest and knowledge scores increased significantly among students in the intervention group. Differences between the low-interest students and the rest of the class identified on the precourse tests were not apparent on the postcourse test. Applying Fink's Taxonomy to course activities increased students' interest in and importance placed on learning health policy.
Patrick, Susan; Gentz, Susan
There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative instructional models and create space for…
This paper seeks to understand what government mechanisms have allowed China’s wind industry to grow as fast as it has over the past ten years. Instead of formal rules and regulations, this paper focuses on specific sets of institutional conditions that have been crucial in the process of high-speed implementation of wind energy in China. Specifically, fragmentation and centralisation, together with policy experimentation and policy learning, have been fundamental for pol...
Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137
Schneider, Carol Geary
Ensuring the quality of college learning is, beyond doubt, the most important responsibility of higher education accreditation. Yet, almost no one currently thinks that accreditation, especially at the institutional level, is what it should be for twenty-first-century students and institutions of higher education. In this article, the author…
Bornfreund, Laura; McCann, Clare; Williams, Conor; Guernsey, Lisa
Earlier this year, in "Subprime Learning: Early Education in America since the Great Recession," the current state of early education in the U.S. was surveyed by examining progress over the last five years . It was found that while the public, political, and research consensus is stronger than ever, the field remains in dire need of…
Twigg, Carol A.
American Colleges and Universities are continuously challenged to increase access to higher education, improve the quality of student learning, and control or reduce the rising cost of instruction. These challenges are interrelated. As tuition costs continue to rise, access is curtailed. When high failure rates prevent students from successfully…
on citizenship and democracy. It highlights several significant shifts: increased awareness of the role of adult education/lifelong learning in enhancing economic growth and social cohesion and mobility, challenging economic and social exclusion and inequality, and developing human and social capital; increased...
Schwille, John; Dembele, Martial; Schubert, Jane
This booklet targets policymakers and educators with busy lives (especially those in developing countries) who may neither have the time nor the opportunity to read widely across all the issues raised herein. This publication looks at all forms of teacher learning, formal and informal, from teachers' own early schooling, through their training,…
Hollie Smith; Christine Gilbert
In the past 30 years, energy researchers have concluded their academic publication with sections that deal directly with policy implications and recommendations. Yet too often, these recommendations are written with little understanding of how policymakers balance different needs, prefer to communicate, or use scientific information. In this manuscript, we outline key variables—time, training, and interpretation—that are key to understanding how to better communicate research implications to ...
In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants, th......-qualified and engaged participants, and a neutral presidency should be present in order to act as an authoritative persuader....
Just as in the United States, political changes in the United Kingdom and other nations affect education policy. Louise Stoll, professor at the London Centre for Leadership in Learning, Institute of Education, University of London, offers a different view on policy in these excerpts from a conversation with Tracy Crow, Learning Forward's associate…
Rachel F. Brummel; Kristen C. Nelson; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams
Policies such as the US Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA) mandate collaboration in planning to create benefits such as social learning and shared understanding among partners. However, some question the ability of top-down policy to foster successful local collaboration. Through in-depth interviews and document analysis, this paper investigates social learning and...
Dotti, Nicola Francesco
How to build the local capacity to address grand societal challenges such as climate change, ageing and unemployment? While routine policy making is already challenging, addressing complex challenges also requires advanced knowledge, in terms of information on complex phenomena, models to interpret this information, and tools that can be implemented. However, cities have limited staff and few resources to carry out context-specific research to deal with complex issues. Focusing on the role of...
Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne
The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…
Meyer, Niels I
The paper describes the learnings from different policies for promotion of wind power and compares the Danish development to that in Sweden and Spain. It is concluded that liberalization has created a number of problems for the promotion of wind power and for the establishment of a sustainable...
Purpose: To compare in a fruitful way the human resources (HR) policies that exist in the European Union (EU) and in the United States of America (USA). Nowadays, the world is evolving to a situation in which big economic spaces like Brazil, Russia, India, China, Japan, the EU and the USA are becoming dominant. Those spaces can learn from one…
Rodriguez, Alberto J.
This case study draws attention to Pedro's story, a Grade 6 Latino teacher who, along with other grade 4-6 teachers, participated in a three-year professional development research project. By using data analyzed from multiple ethnographic interviews with teachers and students, and by drawing from the quantitative analyzes of concept map unit tests, we illustrate how Pedro's significant professional growth and his students' learning were truncated by top-down school district policies. These policies were implemented because of the punitive nature of the No Child Left Behind Act. Simply put, this case study exposes the impact of opp(reg)ressive policies on learning, that is, policies simultaneously oppressive and regressive. The critical perspective of the project, and its emphasis on assisting teachers to make their pedagogy and curriculum more culturally and socially relevant, was informed by sociotransformative constructivism (sTc). This is a theoretical framework that affords equal importance to cross-cultural education (learning about and acting on socially/culturally relevant issues) and social constructivism (learning to critically produce and consume knowledge). We hope that this case study will provide additional insights into the slow progress we continue to make in science teacher professional development and in closing the achievement gap.
Hoss, Nickta; Eberle, Francis
This Policy Update highlights the mismatch between the skills taught in many teacher preparation programs and those needed to help students achieve rigorous learning standards. State boards of education have a role to play here. They have authority over preparation program standards and approval processes, curriculum, teacher certification and…
Panitsides, Eugenia A.; Anastasiadou, Sofia
The Lisbon European Summit in 2000 has been a milestone in reframing education policies to foster a "knowledge economy", whilst amid the challenges of the new decennium Lifelong Learning (LLL) has been propounded as a powerful lever for attaining "sustainable growth". The present article aims to elucidate the development of an…
Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.
Policies for the selection, acquisition, and weeding of library materials, based on collection needs stated by academic departments and staff inputs, are listed for a university learning resource center. An alphabetical index is provided of major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth…
Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.
Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles
Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook
This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…
ClassDojo is one of the world's most successful educational technologies, currently used by over 3 million teachers and 35 million children globally. It reinforces and enacts emerging governmental "psycho-policies" around the measurement and modification of children's social and emotional learning in schools. This article focuses…
Bogomolova, Anna; Kolyuzhnov, Dmitri
-, č. 379 (2008), s. 1-34 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy rules * New Keynesian model * adaptive learning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp379.pdf
Kim, Kellie; Schiller, Ellen; Meinders, Dona; Nadkarni, Swati; Bull, Bruce; Crain, Danielle; Huennekens, Bill; O'Hara, Nancy; Thacker, Christopher
This white paper provides a snapshot of available policies and guidance related to online learning and students with disabilities from a small group of states that require online experience as part of high school graduation or report a higher number of online course enrollments. The Appendix allows for a quick scan of the following 12 elements…
Roberts, P.C.; Burwell, C.C.
The annual frequency of Licensee Events Reports (LERs) is used to measure the learning that takes place in reactor operations. Learning curve theory is found to apply to the separate sets of reporting frequencies associated with pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The method of analysis is then used to discover whether learning is enhanced at multireactor sites and for utilities operating several sites. Although no pattern is observed for owners of several sites, a clear learning benefit accrues to multireactor sites compared to single-reactor sites. The authors use the learning index derived from the analyses and conclude that if all future reactors are placed at sites already in operation with one or more reactors, the total probability for accident (as measured by LER reporting frequencies) will actually decrease even as the total number of reactors increases. This finding funishes additional evidence in support of the existing-site policy advocated by the Institute for Energy Analysis
Feichtinger, G.; Veliov, V.M.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.
In this paper the effect of environmental policy on the composition of capital is investigated. By allowing for non-linearities it generalizes Xepapadeas and De Zeeuw (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1999) and determines scenarios in which their results do not carry over. In particular, we show that the way acquisition cost of investment decreases with the age of the capital stock is of crucial importance. Also it is obtained that environmental policy has opposite effects on the average age of the capital stock in the case of either deterioration or depreciation. We also focus more explicitly on learning and technological progress. Among others we obtain that in the presence of learning, implementing a stricter environmental policy with the aim to reach a certain target of emissions reduction has a stronger negative effect on industry profits, which implies quite the opposite as to what is described by the Porter hypothesis
Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Holford, John
The idea of “sustainability” as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important...... opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social Justice....... of “sustainability” entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning...
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
B. Cashore; I. Visseren-Hamakers; P. Caro Torres; W. de Jong; A. Denvir; D. Humphreys; Kathleen McGinley; G. Auld; S. Lupberger; C. McDermott; S. Sax; D. Yin
This report, âCan Legality Verification Enhance Local Rights to Forest Resources? Piloting the policy learning protocol in the Peruvian forest context,â reports on the testing of the application of the 11-step Policy Learning Protocol in Peru in 2015-16. The Protocol (Cashore et al. 2014) enables actors to draw from international policy initiatives in order to improve...
Ferioli, F.; Schoots, K.; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der
In this paper, we investigate the use of learning curves for the description of observed cost reductions for a variety of energy technologies. Starting point of our analysis is the representation of energy processes and technologies as the sum of different components. While we recognize that in many cases 'learning-by-doing' may improve the overall costs or efficiency of a technology, we argue that so far insufficient attention has been devoted to study the effects of single component improvements that together may explain an aggregated form of learning. Indeed, for an entire technology the phenomenon of learning-by-doing may well result from learning of one or a few individual components only. We analyze under what conditions it is possible to combine learning curves for single components to derive one comprehensive learning curve for the total product. The possibility that for certain technologies some components (e.g., the primary natural resources that serve as essential input) do not exhibit cost improvements might account for the apparent time dependence of learning rates reported in several studies (the learning rate might also change considerably over time depending on the data set considered, a crucial issue to be aware of when one uses the learning curve methodology). Such an explanation may have important consequences for the extent to which learning curves can be extrapolated into the future. This argumentation suggests that cost reductions may not continue indefinitely and that well-behaved learning curves do not necessarily exist for every product or technology. In addition, even for diffusing and maturing technologies that display clear learning effects, market and resource constraints can eventually significantly reduce the scope for further improvements in their fabrication or use. It appears likely that some technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, are significantly more amenable than others to industry-wide learning. For such
Bacigalupe, Amaia; Esnaola, Santiago; Martín, Unai; Zuazagoitia, Jon
The Ottawa Charter has exerted a great deal of influence on the public health debate and on health promotion practices over the last 25 years. The Charter shifted the main focus from individual risk behaviours to social determinants of health, and introduced innovative strategies such as participatory processes and empowerment of communities. This new public health era is based, essentially, on the introduction of health promotion to increase people's opportunities to make healthy choices. Building healthy public policies (HPP) is a core area, even an overriding concern for health promotion, as it seeks to put health onto the agenda of policy-makers across different sectors, to improve the conditions under which people live. HPP is concerned with equity, and has, by its nature, an intersectoral focus with an explicit interest in the impacts of all policies on the health of the population. It represents a reaction against the individualistic and victim-blaming approach of curative medicine and the excessive focus previously placed on health education.
Full Text Available Efforts are underway in many European countries to channel efforts into creating improved integrated health and social care services. But most countries lack a strategic plan that is sustainable over time, and that reflects a comprehensive systems perspective. The Policy Guide on Integrated Care (PGIC as presented in this paper resulted from experiences with the EU Project INTEGRATE and our own work with healthcare reform for patients with chronic conditions at the national and international level. This project is one of the largest EU funded projects on Integrated Care, conducted over a four-year period (2012–2016 and included partners from nine European countries. Project Integrate aimed to gain insights into the leadership, management and delivery of integrated care to support European care systems to respond to the challenges of ageing populations and the rise of people living with long-term conditions. The objective of this paper is to describe the PGIC as both a tool and a reasoning flow that aims at supporting policy makers at the national and international level with the development and implementation of integrated care. Any Policy Guide on Integrated should build upon three building blocks, being a mission, vision and a strategy that aim at capturing the large amount of factors that directly or indirectly influence the successful development of integrated care.
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Cohen, R.L.; Lichter, S.R.
In October 1980, the authors surveyed selected scientific experts, decision-makers in financial and regulatory communities and Congress, and directors of major activist groups for national environmental organizations. Questions concerned policy preferences for and general attitudes toward nuclear energy, problems, energy resources, and considerations important to most influential groups in nuclear development. The survey revealed, surprisingly, that most regulators, congressional leaders, outside experts, and financiers are as united in their support of nuclear energy development as are industry executives, Three Mile Island notwithstanding. The antinuclear perspective is represented almost entirely by the heads of activist groups and a few scattered allies in Congress, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. A relatively few dissenters have played a major role in blocking nuclear development. Implications for the regulatory process from these survey results are that cost-benefit analyses and empirical findings on nuclear power issues will not convince activists and their followers; it appears that they have acquired a kind of veto over nuclear development. Through actively political behavior in the contest for nuclear energy's future, and through sympathetic media, activists have won the American public to their side. 7 tables
In the context of South African higher education, this paper argues that lecturers who teach multilingual classes cannot depend on policy makers to create circumstances in which deep learning will take place. It becomes necessary to think in terms of micro-planning (Baldauf 2006), or perhaps rather classroom strategies, ...
Kafai, Yasmin B.; Fields, Deborah A.; Searle, Kristin A.
Electronic textiles are a part of the increasingly popular maker movement that champions existing do-it-yourself activities. As making activities broaden from Maker Faires and fabrication spaces in children's museums, science centers, and community organizations to school classrooms, they provide new opportunities for learning while challenging…
2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers
Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.
The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in
Lima, Licínio C.; Guimarães, Paula; Touma, Nathalie
The chapter presents a theoretical proposal of three analytical models of Adult Learning and Education (ALE) policies. Some analytical categories and the corresponding dimensions are organised according to the ALE rationale which is typical of each social policy model. Historical, cultural and educational features are mentioned in connexion with the different policy models and its interpretative capacity to making sense of policies and practices implemented in Germany, Portugal...
Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive wastes are generated during operation as well as during the decontamination and dismantling of CEA's nuclear facility/installation. The safe and responsible management of radioactive wastes at all stages is an essential requirement of the regulatory system. The management covers the whole sequence of operations starting with the generation of waste and ending with its disposal. The disposal here means discarding of waste with no intention for retrieval. It is important to note here that the safety principles and practices that are applicable during the operational phase are also applicable during the decommissioning phase. As the radioactive waste arising is an inevitable outcome of decommissioning work, all the regulatory requirements associated with decommissioning remain in force in waste management. This presentation deals initially with the regulatory standards related to the management of wastes. As the management of radioactive wastes inevitably includes treatment and conditioning of wastes, following treatment and conditioning of wastes, storage, transportation and eventual disposal are the logical outcome of the radioactive wastes, processes are at any time improved based on the feedback experience and the lessons learned. (author)
Korte, R; Richter, H; Merkle, F; Görgen, H
The financing of health services has become an increasingly critical and urgent issue in many developing countries particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper analyses options available to policy makers. The possible effects and side effects of strategies are described based on the experience from different countries. The dangers of simplistic solutions are discussed. A cautious approach is recommended taking into consideration the lessons learned in other regions accompanied by a careful ongoing evaluation especially regarding the ability to pay of the poorer sections of the population. Providing for equity in health care should be an important guiding principle. It therefore appears to be necessary to find an appropriate mix of public and private sector interventions with elements of cost-sharing for services and drugs, insurance schemes and more efficient use of available resources.
Social learning is a prerequisite for sustainable energy use. This paper sets out some considerations from learning theory that offer a useful way of looking at domestic energy awareness and at actions to improve energy efficiency and conserve energy. Findings from a survey of residents of an English village that had won an 'energy-conscious village' competition are used to illustrate how individual and social learning can occur over a period of time, and how a 'top down' initiative may relate to other more informal sources of motivation and information. A model of learning about domestic energy use that incorporates awareness, action and feedback is proposed, and the implications for policy and further research are discussed
THE PAPER ADDRESSES THE INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOCUSING ON FOUR MAJOR AREAS: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children's language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.
The paper addresses the intersections between research findings and Canadian educational policies focusing on four major areas: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children’s language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies. PMID:24847289
Johnson, Donna B; Lamson, Erica; Schwartz, Rachel; Goldhammer, Camie; Ellings, Amy
Implementing evidence-based practices and policies for breastfeeding support in community clinics is a promising, but challenging, approach to reducing disparities in breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to apply a policy process research framework to increase knowledge of factors that facilitate adoption and implementation of breastfeeding policy changes. In 2013, Washington State piloted a process to encourage 8 clinics to adopt and implement steps to become breastfeeding friendly. Evaluation data were collected through interviews, project reports, training evaluations, and pre- and post-self-assessments of achievement of the steps. In 6 months, clinics increased the breastfeeding-friendly steps that they were implementing from a median (interquartile range) of 1.5 (0-3) to 6 (5-7). Improvements were most likely in the steps that required the fewest resources and administrative changes. Barriers to implementation included misperceptions about breastfeeding and breastfeeding support; lack of administrative "buy-in"; need for organizational changes to accommodate actions like monitoring breastfeeding rates and allowing providers training time; and the social-political climate of the clinic. Several factors, including actions taken by public health practitioners, enhanced the change process. These included fostering supportive relationships, targeting technical assistance, and providing resources for planning and training. This pilot project demonstrates that it is possible to make changes in breastfeeding support practices and policies in community clinics. Recommendations to enhance future work include framing and marketing breastfeeding support in ways that resonate with clinic decision makers and enhancing training, resources, and advocacy to build capacity for internal and external systems changes to support breastfeeding best practices. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lange, A. [Univ. of Maryland (United States); Treich, N. [Univ. of Toulouse (France)
Climate policy decisions today have to be made under substantial uncertainty: the impact of accumulating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is not perfectly known, the future economic and social consequences of climate change, in particular the valuation of possible damages, are uncertain. However, learning will change the basis of making future decisions on abatement policies. These important issues of uncertainty and learning are often presented in a colloquial sense. Two opposing effects are typically put forward: First, uncertainty about future climate damage, which is often associated with the possibility of a catastrophic scenario is said to give a premium to slow down global warming and therefore to increase abatement efforts today. Second learning opportunities will reduce scientific undertainty about climate damage over time. This is often used as an argument to postpone abatement efforts until new information is received. The effects of uncertainty and learning on the optimal design of current climate policy are still much debated both in the academic and the political arena. In this paper, the authors study and contrast the effect of uncertainty and learning in a two-decision model that encompasses most existing microeconomics models of climate change. They first consider the common expected utility framework: While uncertainty has generally no or a negative effect on welfare, learning has always a positive, and thus opposite, effect. The effects of both uncertainty and learning on decisions are less clear. Neither uncertainty nor learning can be used as an argument to increase or reduce emissions today, independently on the degree of risk aversion of the decision-marker and on the nature of irreversibility constraints. The authors then deviate from the expected utility framework and consider a model with ambiguity aversion. The model accounts well for situations of imprecise or multiple probability distributions, as present in the context of climate
Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.
The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts
Policy-makers today have almost infinite climate-relevant scientific and other information available to them. The problem for climate change decision-making isn't missing science or inadequate knowledge of climate risks; the problem is that the "right" climate change actionable knowledge isn't getting to the right decision-maker, or is getting there too early or too late to effectively influence her decision-making. Actionable knowledge is not one-size-fit-all, and for a given decision-maker might involve scientific, economic, or risk-based information. Simply producing more and more information as we are today is not the solution, and actually makes it harder for individual decision-makers to access "their" actionable knowledge. The Climatographers began building the Climate Web five years ago to test the hypothesis that a knowledge management system could help navigate the gap between infinite information and individual actionable knowledge. Today the Climate Web's more than 1,500 index terms allow instant access to almost any climate change topic. It is a curated public-access knowledgebase of more than 1,000 books, 2,000 videos, 15,000 reports and articles, 25,000 news stories, and 3,000 websites. But it is also much more, linking together tens of thousands of individually extracted ideas and graphics, and providing Deep Dives into more than 100 key topics from changing probability distributions of extreme events to climate communications best practices to cognitive dissonance in climate change decision-making. The public-access Climate Web is uniquely able to support cross-silo learning, collaboration, and actionable knowledge dissemination. The presentation will use the Climate Web to demonstrate why knowledge management should be seen as a critical component of science and policy-making collaborations.
Schrock, Andrew Richard
Hacker and maker spaces (HMSs) are open-access workshops devoted to creative and technical work. Their growing numbers (over 500 worldwide) make them a significant grassroots movement supporting informal learning. Scholars have found pedagogical benefits of tinkering and hacking, but the cultural contexts from which these practices arise remain under-studied. How do members of hacker and maker spaces bring about personalized and collaborative learning? In-depth interviews were conducted betwe...
The argument of this article is that during the last two decades or so, in lifelong learning policies in Greece, priority was given to the confrontation of social exclusion that stems from unemployment and, thus, to the achievement of the aims of employability and social inclusion. EU funding and the relatively centralised character of the regulated part of adult/continuing education in Greece favoured the expansion of training programmes for the unemployed. As in the 1990s, so in the 2000s, ...
LL.M. (Labour Law) A university is a community of adults in which close personal relationships between adults can develop. These institutions of higher learning recognise the need for policies prohibiting sexual harassment but few have addressed the subtle issues surrounding consensual and special amorous relationships between academic staff members and students and whether they have the right to regulate private behaviour between adults. The aim of this minor dissertation is to explore th...
Mehra, Pankaj; Wah, Benjamin W.
Effective load-balancing policies use dynamic resource information to schedule tasks in a distributed computer system. We present a novel method for automatically learning such policies. At each site in our system, we use a comparator neural network to predict the relative speedup of an incoming task using only the resource-utilization patterns obtained prior to the task's arrival. Outputs of these comparator networks are broadcast periodically over the distributed system, and the resource schedulers at each site use these values to determine the best site for executing an incoming task. The delays incurred in propagating workload information and tasks from one site to another, as well as the dynamic and unpredictable nature of workloads in multiprogrammed multiprocessors, may cause the workload pattern at the time of execution to differ from patterns prevailing at the times of load-index computation and decision making. Our load-balancing policy accommodates this uncertainty by using certain tunable parameters. We present a population-based machine-learning algorithm that adjusts these parameters in order to achieve high average speedups with respect to local execution. Our results show that our load-balancing policy, when combined with the comparator neural network for workload characterization, is effective in exploiting idle resources in a distributed computer system.
Altenburg, Tilman; Engelmeier, Tobias
In order to avoid irreversible damage to global ecosystems, new ‘green’ technologies are needed, some of which are nowhere near commercial maturity. In these cases, governments may create temporary rents to make investments ‘artificially’ attractive, but the creation of such rents involves risks of faulty allocation and political capture. This article first highlights the importance of managing rents effectively in promoting ‘green’ technologies; it then shows how India's National Solar Mission has been remarkably effective in triggering solar investments and managing the necessary subsidies, e.g. through a process of competitive reverse bidding for tariffs. Policy design and implementation also reflect considerable experimentation and learning. Some risks remain, especially regarding the enforceability of renewable energy quotas at the level of Indian states. - Highlights: • India's National Solar Mission effectively triggered solar investments. • Reverse bidding substantially decreased policy costs. • Sequenced implementation allowed for policy learning. • India's solar policy is a good example of green rent management
Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John
The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.
Oplinger, James; Lande, Micah; Jordan, Shawn; Camarena, Leonor
This study examines the emergence of leadership characteristics within a new organizational community of individuals: the Maker community. The Maker community is a group of individuals that classify themselves as "Makers" and have become innovators and entrepreneurs through the creation of technological gadgets, artistic projects, and…
This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…
Field, John; Schemmann, Michael
The article analyses how citizenship is conceptualised in policy documents of four key international organisations. The basic assumption is that public policy has not turned away from adult learning for active citizenship, but that there are rather new ways in which international governmental organisations conceptualise and in some cases seek to…
Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)
In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)
Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del
In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.
Kember, Deborah; Brandenburg, Tony; Murphy, Angela
The ACCE position statement for creating media enriched learning communities targets all stakeholders in educational policy and practice who influence the future of learning, schools, and systems. Stakeholders include policy-makers in government, national and international organisations, professional networks and institutions, school leaders,…
Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai
This paper establishes an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) method to solve nonlinear continuous-time (CT) nonzero-sum (NZS) games with unknown system dynamics. The IRL algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control and off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Off-policy IRL is designed to do policy evaluation and policy improvement in the policy iteration algorithm. Critic and action networks are used to obtain the performance index and control for each player. The gradient descent algorithm makes the update of critic and action weights simultaneously. The convergence analysis of the weights is given. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system and the existence of Nash equilibrium are proved. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed method for nonlinear CT NZS games with unknown system dynamics.
Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie
The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…
Innovation policy involves using policy instruments to achieve societal goals. In order to learn from both past and foreign experiences, scholars and practitioners very often value sources of knowledge about these instruments. This dissertation deals with the role of Strategic Intelligence in both
Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor
The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average…
Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…
FileMaker Pro, famed for power and ease of use, has added a suite of new features that can seriously boost your database productivity. This tutorial helps you take full advantage of the fresh stuff. It focuses on FileMaker's terrific new tool for integrating the Web with your databases: the Web Viewer. Step-by-step instructions help you create a Web Viewer from one of FileMaker's templates or a totally custom version of your own. But the tutorial doesn't stop there. It goes on to cover Object Naming, including FileMaker's rules for Object Names and how to use them in scripts; new scripts; ne
Tag på ekspedition under havets overflade med Nordsøen Movie Maker, hvor din tur i Nordsøen Oceanarium får et helt nyt virtuelt lag. Rejs ud til de syv destinationer og hold øje med de unikke ‘moviespots‘ i nærheden af akvarierne. Her kan du med Nordsøen Movie Maker filme og dokumentere dine...... oplevelser med legesyge sæler, susende hvirvelstrømme og gigantiske klumpfisk. Nordsøen Movie Maker giver filmen et ekstra virtuelt lag, og via augmented reality bliver der tilføjet seje og morsomme, animerede specialeffekter. 1) Download app’en 2) Find et moviespot ved ekspeditionsposterne i Nordsøen......! Nordsøen Movie Maker er udviklet i et samarbejde mellem Nordsøen Oceanarium, Aalborg Universitet - Center for Interaktive Digitale Medier samt Huge Lawn - Miracle Apps....
The 21st century will be the site of numerous changes in education systems in response to a rapidly evolving technological environment where existing skill sets and career structures may cease to exist or, at the very least, change dramatically. Likewise, the nature of work will also change to become more automated and more technologically intensive across all sectors, from food service to scientific research. Simply having technical expertise or the ability to process and retain facts will in no way guarantee success in higher education or a satisfying career. Instead, the future will value those educated in a way that encourages collaboration with technology, critical thinking, creativity, clear communication skills, and strong lifelong learning strategies. These changes pose a challenge for higher education's promise of employability and success post-graduation. Addressing how to prepare students for a technologically uncertain future is challenging. One possible model for education to prepare students for the future of work can be found within the Maker Movement. However, it is not fully understood what parts of this movement are most meaningful to implement in education more broadly, and higher education in particular. Through the qualitative analysis of nearly 160 interviews of adult makers, young makers and young makers' parents, this dissertation unpacks how makers are learning, what they are learning, and how these qualities are applicable to education goals and the future of work in the 21st century. This research demonstrates that makers are learning valuable skills to prepare them for the future of work in the 21st century. Makers are learning communication skills, technical skills in fabrication and design, and developing lifelong learning strategies that will help prepare them for life in an increasingly technologically integrated future. This work discusses what aspects of the Maker Movement are most important for integration into higher education.
Pathways to policy: Lessons learned in multisectoral collaboration for physical activity and built environment policy development from the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative.
Politis, Christopher E; Mowat, David L; Keen, Deb
The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer funded 12 large-scale knowledge to action cancer and chronic disease prevention projects between 2009 and 2016 through the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative. Two projects, Healthy Canada by Design (HCBD) and Children's Mobility, Health and Happiness (CMHH), developed policies to address physical activity and the built environment through a multisectoral approach. A qualitative analysis involving a review of 183 knowledge products and 8 key informant interviews was conducted to understand what policy changes occurred, and the underlying critical success factors, through these projects. Both projects worked at the local level to change physical activity and built environment policy in 203 sites, including municipalities and schools. Both projects brought multisectoral expertise (e.g., public health, land use planning, transportation engineering, education, etc.) together to inform the development of local healthy public policy in the areas of land use, transportation and school travel planning. Through the qualitative analysis of the knowledge products and key informant interviews, 163 policies were attributed to HCBD and CMHH work. Fourteen "pathways to policy" were identified as critical success factors facilitating and accelerating the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy. Of the 14 pathways to policy, 8 had a focus on multisectoral collaboration. The lessons learned from the CLASP experience could support enhanced multisectoral collaborations to accelerate the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy in new jurisdictions across Canada and internationally.
Full Text Available Drawing on the policy-transfer literature, where processes such as Europeanization accentuate the role of policy networks as facilitators or constraints in the implementation of acquis, in addition to the familiar mechanism of “conditionality”, the principal objective of this article is to explore the challenges of policy learning toward administrative-capacity building and, more specifically, the role of what I refer to here as “donor-bureaucrat-contractor” networks in the Western Balkans. By employing a qualitative methodology consisting of forty semi-structured interviews and focus groups with policymakers, donor officers, civil-society experts and consultants in the region during the period of January 2011 to December 2016, a critical analysis of aid-supported policy learning via training as a conduit to administrative capacity-building reveals a series of context-specific dimensions, such as the informality of such networks, overreliance on local NGOs as “capacitybuilding” implementation partners and the ability of the context to affect donor behaviour - all ultimately contributing to the (non- occurrence of policy transfer. Th e overarching conclusion this article draws is that potential answers to problems with aid-supported policy learning in the region may probably lie in the invisible workings of the aforementioned networks rather than solely in the official channels of communication between Brussels and regional governments. From a policymaking standpoint, this conclusion in itself may as well be construed as a recommendation to mobilize future research surrounding the impact of such networks on European Union (EU accession processes in the region. Th is may encourage research organizations both in the EU and the region to (re orient future endeavors towards this dimension of administrative capacity-building - a core requirement for EU accession - especially as the EU itself faces its own enlargement dilemmas following
Pamela L. Martin
Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.In her article ‘Pay to Preserve: The Global Politics of Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Proposal’, published in DevPol’s special issue on Energy and Development in 2011, Pamela L. Martin, Associate Professor of Politics at the Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, provided a favourable outlook on Ecuador’s innovative environmental governance mechanism. Accordingly, its unique potential lay in its objective of contributing towards sustainable development and social justice and in case of success, the author even predicted a possible replication in other developing countries. Despite its benefits, the initiative was abandoned in 2013. In this paper, Martin revisits the initiative and analyses the reasons for its failure, namely President Correa’s public pursuit of a Plan B, entering into negotiations with oil firms interested to explore the ITT reserves. Moreover, the initiative was in stark competition with the national REDD+ programme, the mainstream policy approach to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation against payments, which is being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC.Pamela L. Martin’s article is followed by a response by Dr. Imme Scholz, Deputy Director of the German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE. She examines why Germany, as the largest European donor, withdrew its support for the Yasuní-ITT Initiative.Readers who are intetested are invited to contribute to this policy debate on our blog .Download the whole
Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris
"Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning" (2013), the 10th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004, examines the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. In this 10th…
This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.
Full Text Available Having recognized the importance of designing Science, Technology and Innovation policies (STIP, many Less Developed Countries (LDCs such as Iran have nowadays attempt to reshape their STI policies. The policy makers of LDCs like Iran can adopt and design suitable strategies learning from the successful experiences of prosperous nations. This paper performs a comparative analysis of STI policies of some successful countries in managing their technological change. This is mostly due to the fact that the other LDCs can draw valuable lessons from these success stories which in turn can also contribute to success in their own short and long term development. Firstly, the empirical experiences of some successful nations namely (Brazil, India, China, South Africa and South Korea will be studied. The empirical experience in STI policymaking will be surveyed. The most critical success factors contributed mostly to their management of STI policies will also be compared. Finally, a general framework of STI policymaking drawing from the experiences of these countries will be proposed for other LDCs like Iran.
Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni
High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a “non-democratic” mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons “vote” independently (“democratic”) for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated. PMID:21572529
Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.
Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni
High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic") for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.
Nuclear power industry being cost intensive, must be considered as a high-tech employer of highly qualified man power. Similar challenge is faced by manufacturers: the part of supply chain. Nuclear power plant is very complex equipment as far as technology and science is involved. Nuclear power can be the option for bigger share of balanced national or global energy mix, to meet growing demand for power, with stability of supply and reducing CO 2 emissions till the year 2050. Hence, there is need to treat nuclear power as a long-term program, with which all its positive features will be a stronger alternative to conventional fossil power plants as well as all renewables. (author)
Los hallazgos de la investigación sobre el crecimiento económico, la reducción de la pobreza y la igualdad están inspirando cambios de las políticas públicas en Perú. Al mismo tiempo que otros latinoamericanos responsables de políticas conocen los resultados, académicos están revisando sus teorías sobre el ...
Putten, van der W.H.; Mudgal, S.; Turbé, A.; Toni, de A.; Lavelle, P.; Benito, P.; Ruiz, N.
Human societies rely on the vast diversity of benefits provided by nature, such as food, fibres, construction materials, clean water, clean air and climate regulation. All the elements required for these ecosystem services depend on soil, and soil biodiversity is the driving force behind their
McCoy, Daniel A.
The Barrington prize lecture 1992/1993 Sustainable development has become a key phrase during the last decade in development and environmental literature. Governments and international bodies have adopted the goal of sustainable development with surprising alacrity since the concept was brought to prominence in the early 1980s by the World Conservation Strategy. The concept became enshrined by the influential 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development...
Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M
Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (N...
Kohler Jillian C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.
Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M
Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.
Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.
Jones, Lucile M.
No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).
Full Text Available Basandosi sulle evidenze relative al rapporto tra tecnologia e apprendimento e sul recente rapporto OCSE riguardante il Piano Nazionale Scuola Digitale, l’autore riflette sui criteri che devono orientare le politiche innovative, ispirati a sostenibilità, ottimizzazione dell’impatto educativo, sottolineando anche la necessità di finalizzare meglio l’impiego delle tecnologie verso specifici obiettivi. Viene ricordato come storicamente si tenda a sovrastimare l’effetto positivo delle tecnologie sull’apprendimento; la ricerca ha invece rilevato i limiti della loro efficacia (da ricercare in determinate aree e la rilevanza del rischio del sovraccarico cognitivo che la loro introduzione può comportare. Si propongono alcuni suggerimenti per i decisori scolastici rispondendo alle due domande “Quali criteri per la politica tecnologica?”, “In che modo usare le tecnologie per apprendere a scuola?”.
Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M
Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries . Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals . Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613
Keep, Ewart; James, Susan
A focus of Government policy has been the need to ensure that those at the lower end of the labour market invest in their human capital through re-engaging with learning, which has been assumed to enable progress into better-paid employment. This article explores the problems created by "bad jobs" and the evidence for the existence of a…
Vanderschuren, Marianne [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E. [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W. [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)
For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and in effective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context - pros, cons and implementation viability are identified. (author)
Vanderschuren, Marianne, E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Lane, T.E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Korver, W., E-mail: WKorver@goudappel.n [Goudappel Coffeng BV (Netherlands)
For years, the world has enjoyed the luxury of inexpensive transport fuels, resulting in the continuous expansion of transport demand and vast improvements in mobility levels. The threat of peak oil and other environmental concerns, however, are forcing a paradigm shift in terms of transport planning. In recent times, many developed nations have been investigating alternative ways and means of weaning themselves off oil as the main transport energy source and managing transport energy demand. South Africa is a developing nation that, in terms of transportation technology and policy, lags behind developed countries. This presents South Africa with the opportunity to learn from other countries' triumphs and mistakes and to skip over obsolete investment patterns and ineffective policy. It needs to be determined what South Africa can do to bend the stream of continuously growing transport (energy) demand, without hampering growth in mobility. Solutions can potentially be found by looking at the European Union's past and present situation and responses. This paper summarises various European energy management transport policies. These policies are translated into a South African context-pros, cons and implementation viability are identified.
Full Text Available This article seeks to examine Indonesian cultural policy in comparison to Singapore and Malaysia. It focuses particularly on documentary films as a field covered by the cultural policy, which is closely associated with the creative industry. Therefore, this article analyzes various official documents regarding cultural policy and the position documentary films within that policy. While Singapore’s cultural policy is quite comprehensive and visionary in managing and regulating arts and culture, it tends to neglect documentary films as it celebrates commercial feature (fiction films. Similarly, Malaysian cultural policy pays scant attention to documentary films despite its nationalistic nature. Learning from those two neighboring countries, Indonesia should not only have a comprehensive cultural policy, but also a clear vision on the development of infrastructures while taking into account the fast changing ecology of documentary films in Indonesia.
Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu
Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.
Attard Tonna, Michelle; Shanks, Rachel
Current reforms in the Maltese and Scottish educational contexts can only be fully implemented if teachers radically transform the way they teach. Teacher professional learning is an important mechanism that policy-makers, school leaders and administrators have to achieve this. Teacher professional learning is, above all, situated within the…
Kools, Marco; Stoll, Louise
What are the characteristics of a school as learning organisation? This paper should be seen as an attempt to work towards a common understanding of the school as a learning organisation concept that is both solidly founded in the literature and is recognisable to all parties involved, i.e. educators, policy makers, parents and others alike. The…
Godt, Sue; Mhatre, Sharmila; Schryer-Roy, Anne-Marie
West Africa was the focus of global attention during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, when systemic health system weaknesses compounded a serious emergency and complicated response efforts. Following the crisis, calls were made to strengthen health systems, but investments to date have fallen short of delivering the support needed to build strong health systems able to prevent and manage future outbreaks.In part, this reality serves to highlight the shortcomings of the solutions being repeatedly prioritised by external funders and experts, solutions that often fail to consider the wealth of West African evidence and actors actively working to strengthen the leadership and health systems needed to drive and sustainably improve national health outcomes. Unfortunately, this knowledge and experience are rarely heard in the global arena.This journal supplement is a contribution, although small, to changing this practice by putting the perspectives, experiences and knowledge of West Africans on the table. It presents findings from a series of research and capacity development projects in West Africa funded by the International Development Research Centre's Maternal and Child Health programme (formerly Governance for Equity in Health Systems).The evidence presented here centres around two key themes. First, the theme that context matters. The evidence shows how context can change the shape of externally imposed interventions or policies resulting in unintended outcomes. At the same time, it highlights evidence showing how innovative local actors are developing their own approaches, usually low-cost and embedded in the context, to bring about change. Second, the collection of articles discusses the critical need to overcome the existing fragmentation of expertise, knowledge and actors, and to build strong working relationships amongst all actors so they can effectively work together to identify priority issues that can realistically be addressed given the available
Gottlieb, Lawrence K; Stone, Elliot M; Stone, Diane; Dunbrack, Lynne A; Calladine, John
MedsInfo-ED is a proof-of-concept clinical data exchange project that uses prescription claims data to deliver patient medication history to emergency department clinicians at the point of care. This patient safety initiative, while limited in scope and scale, has been crucial in identifying numerous policy and regulatory barriers to successful clinical data exchange. The lessons learned and strategies to overcome the barriers are the focus of this paper. Through commitment and effective collaboration, MA-SHARE was able to address some of these barriers that are embedded in existing government regulations and corporate business practice.
Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo
The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.
There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...... more can be added to our comprehension of the way the panel makers worked in Antwerp. In the following paper I shall give a brief summary of the present state of research, as well as outline the complicated task of interpreting these marks and their use as a dating tool. The ready-made supports...
Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H
Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit
Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko
Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring
María Ángeles Martín del Pozo
Full Text Available The paper begins by approaching the concept of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning providing a brief overview of the history of bilingual education. The influence of the linguistic policies of the European Union is discussed along with some beliefs about language teaching and how both have influenced the celerity of CLIL implementation, momentum and expansion. There are some indicators of the lack of a theoretical framework for CLIL, of insufficient teacher education and or inadequacy of materials. It is necessary to reflect systematically on to what extent commercially published textbooks match the demands of bilingual education. The second section centers on CLIL textbooks, mainly those commercialized by publishers, by referring to some recent studies which attempt to approach systematically their design and use. Since, by definition CLIL includes both content and language, our research question is if content books (in English also include content and language objectives. A corpus of 25 books from different subjects, years, and publishers is analyzed. The analysis shows an insufficient presence of linguistic objectives. Some reflections are made about this scarcity with the warning that this lack could hindrance an efficient implementation of CLIL. Thus, it could be said that these textbooks are not the product of discipline or didactic considerations but the result of the logic of market, publishers and linguistic policy.How to reference this articleMartín del Pozo, M. A., Rascón Estébanez, D. (2015. Textbooks for Content and Language Integrated Learning: policy, market and appropriate didactics?. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 123-141. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.007
In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) installed a Monroe Slurry : Maker on one of its 2009 Volvo Wheelers (see Photos 1 and 2). This truck was equipped with a : Henderson Utility Body. An 18 gallon per minute spoo...
The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.
Pawils, S; Boettcher, A; Metzner, F; Plaumann, M; Walter, U
Representatives of the statutory health insurance (n=46) and policy makers at the local, federal and state level (n=136) were interviewed in 2 nationwide online surveys about the significance and degree of implementation of prevention. The group comparison between the decision-makers shows significant differences in terms of attitudes towards health prevention. The political leaders are demanding an improvement of the GKV-benefit package and the obstacles require the cooperation of urgent attention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Peiris, K. Dharini Amitha; Gallupe, R. Brent
A comprehensive conceptual framework is developed and described for evolving recommender-driven online learning systems (ROLS). This framework describes how such systems can support students, course authors, course instructors, systems administrators, and policy makers in developing and using these ROLS. The design science information systems…
Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment is defined as ‘the combination of procedures, methods and tools through which it is possible to evaluate a policy, a program or a development plan concerning possible effects on public health and their distribution in the general population’. In a constructive debate this definition points out some interesting observations: - health is not the result of health policies alone, but it is often defined by the attention given to it in other contexts; - health is however the result of policies and it therefore must deserve the attention of Decision Makers; - health must not be taken into consideration without taking into account an evaluation of its distribution and its determinants within a population. Particular attention must therefore be paid into inequalities; - following the Council of the European Union recent conclusions on Health in All Policies we have to consider that everyday environments such as day-care centers, schools,workplaces,neighborhoods and the commute between them have significant effects on health and that health, in turn, has an effect on the economy by enabling active and productive participation in working life. In the past 20 years huge progress has been achieved in the epidemiological contest to define risks. Nowadays, it is known that a low cultural level lowers the capacity to respond to prevention, that elevated pollution levels do represent a health risk, and that the scarce social relationships that elderly people have in our society have strong consequences on their health and their quality of life.
This review analyses the report "Learning through Life" from the point of view of the sustainable development theme and from a "South" perspective. The review recognises that the report is written to influence UK policy-makers and practitioners; it has captured the results of a broad-based inquiry, and it therefore has had to…
Kasymov, U; Undeland, A; Dörre, A; Mackinnon, A
The authors analyse the nature of policy development to understand the reasons for institutional change in pasture management in Kyrgyzstan. They use the concept of intentional institutional change, emphasising its incremental nature and the important relationship between belief systems and institutions. The paper explores the relationship between the perceptions and beliefs of policy-makers, the policy interventions they undertake, and the consequences for pastoral migration and practices. The study reveals the gap between the intentions behind such policies and their outcomes, the persistence and importance of pastoral migration, and the learning process that policy-makers undergo. This close look at the development and institutionalisation of new dominant societal beliefs highlights the possible direction of the future development of formal pastoral institutions in Central Asia. Policy-makers should respond better to changes in pastoral mobility and the unsustainable increase in intensified use of natural pastures. Policy-makers must also respond to the growth in conflict over pasture use by becoming more aware of the need for inter-sectoral cooperation. The authors argue that a crucial test for the new formal institutions still lies ahead. The key questions are: whether policy-makers and pasture users can eventually come to hold the same beliefs about what is needed in their society, and what new effective institutions will emerge to define the future of pastoralism in Central Asia.
Carraro, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Giorgio
In this paper, we develop a heterogeneous agents model of asset price and inventory with a market maker who considers the excess demand of two groups of agents that employ the same trading rule (i.e. fundamentalists) with different beliefs on the fundamental value. The dynamics of our model is driven by a bi-dimensional discrete non-linear map. We show that the market maker has a destabilizing role when she actively manages the inventory. Moreover, inventory share and the distance between agents’ beliefs strongly influence the results: market instability and periodic, or even, chaotic price fluctuations can be generated. Finally, we show through simulations that endogenous fluctuations of the fractions of agents may trigger instability for a larger set of parameters.
Full Text Available This book presents 15 case studies contributed by researchers and policy makers. The Open Educational Resources (OER implementations are expressed through different point of views. This book focused on three themes: policy, costs and transformation. Policy theme is related to the establishment of priorities for supporting the decisions made by an institution or organization. Costs theme explores the funding of OER, particularly in the sense of cost effectiveness. Transformation theme provides examples that demonstrate how OER can be used in ways that go beyond replication of current teaching and learning models. The editors in the Introduction elaborately describe these three themes.
Beveridge, Andrew; Dudek, Andrzej; Frieze, Alan; Muller, Tobias; Stojakovic, Milos
In a Maker-Breaker game on a graph G, Breaker and Maker alternately claim edges of G. Maker wins if, after all edges have been claimed, the graph induced by his edges has some desired property. We consider four Maker-Breaker games played on random geometric graphs. For each of our four games we show
Botti Benevides, Alessander; Masolo, Claudio
In the last decade, the debate about the ontological foundations of reified temporal logics (RTLs) has been relatively quiet, even though we think some problems still exist. In this paper, we identify some of these problems and propose (partial) solutions to them in a FOL framework. States are here characterized (at the syntactic level) as truth-makers of propositions-they reify true propositions-and events are built from states. These choices make the event-state distinction much crisper tha...
Since the late 1990s, there has been huge growth in new do-it-yourself (DIY) and maker communities, reflecting the democratisation of technology. Such practitioners have tended to reject pervasive and ubiquitous technologies and ‘virtualness’, and have moved towards working directly with materials through arts and crafts approaches. Running alongside the growth of digital technologies and culture, a counter-culture took hold, built on grassroots initiatives that had ‘much in common with punk ...
Full Text Available Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process and results investigated. By investigating research literature, the critical success factors of data mining plans was identified and the role of organizational decision makers in each step of data mining was investigated. Then, the conceptual framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement was designed. By getting expert opinions, the proposed framework was analyzed and evantually designed the final framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement. Analysis of experts opinions showed that by knowledge sharing of data ming results with decision makers, "learning", "action or internalization" and "enforcing/unlearning" will become as critical success factors. Also, results of examining importance of decision makers' feedback on data mining steps showed that getting feedback from decision makers could have most influence on "knowledge extraction and representing model" step and least on "data cleaning and preprocessing" step.
Elmahdawy, Mahmoud; Elsisi, Gihan H; Carapinha, Joao; Lamorde, Mohamed; Habib, Abdulrazaq; Agyie-Baffour, Peter; Soualmi, Redouane; Ragab, Samah; Udezi, Anthony W; Usifoh, Cyril; Usifoh, Stella
The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic. Struggling health systems in West African countries hinder the ability to reduce the causes and effects of the Ebola epidemic. The lessons learned include the need for strengthening health systems, mainly primary care systems, expedited access to treatments and vaccines to treat the Ebola virus disease, guidance on safety, efficacy, and regulatory standards for such treatments, and ensuring that research and development efforts are directed toward existing needs. Other lessons include adopting policies that allow for better flow of relief, averting the adverse impact of strong quarantine policy that includes exaggerating the aversion behavior by alarming trade and business partners providing financial support to strengthen growth in the affected fragile economies by the Ebola outbreak. Curbing the impact of future Ebola epidemics, or comparable diseases, requires increased long-term investments in health system strengthening, better collaboration between different international organizations, more funding for research and development efforts aimed at developing vaccines and treatments, and tools to detect, treat, and prevent future epidemics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
D. Humphreys; B. Cashore; I.J. Visseren-Hamakers; W. De Jong; K. McGinley; A. Denvir; P. Caro Torres; S. Lupberger
This paper reports and reflects on the pilot application of an 11-step policy learning protocol that was developed by Cashore and Lupberger (2015) based on several years of Cashore's multi-author collaborations. The protocol was applied for the first time in Peru in 2015 and 2016 by the IUFRO Working Party on Forest Policy Learning Architectures (hereinafter...
Mordechay, Kfir; Orfield, Gary
Educators and policy makers must confront the race and class disparities in learning opportunities across American society. Nowhere are these disparities more acute than in the country's great metropolitan areas. As the demographic landscape continues to shift, metropolitan areas are fueling the transition to a majority-minority country. This…
This report describes the demographic transition in the Russian Federation and its implications for adult learning and long-term care policies. The population of Russia is aging and declining rapidly compared to other European nations. Russia's current age structure results from decades of complex demographic trends that have created a population structure with increasingly fewer young peo...
Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Rigopoulou, Yiota G.
In the context of policy change in the EU, lifelong-learning has acquired a growing significance due to its promise to foster both professional development and personal fulfillment and thus contribute to the enhancement of social inclusion, active citizenship, competitiveness, and employability. The need for developing a smart and sustainable…
Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...
Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,
Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.
Miller, Edward D
Unlike policies that address biomedical conflict of interest for individuals, conflict-of-interest policies for academic medical institutions are rare and lack consensus principles. Johns Hopkins Medicine is currently developing an institutional conflict-of-interest policy that emphasizes case-by-case review and disclosure of conflicts to research subjects and the public. Implementation of the policy will focus on transparency, consistent enforcement throughout the institution, thorough employee education about the policy, and ongoing policy review.
Full Text Available Feed-in tariff (FiT policy approaches for renewable energy (RE deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet. Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed.
.... Whether a vaccine's target is naturally occurring or present because of hostile intent, the issues policy makers must deal with include vaccine development, production, availability, safety, effectiveness, and access...
David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher
The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...
Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".
Full Text Available Eli Heckscher was not only author of extensive investigations into economic history. He was also skillful in depicting phenomena in small format in encyclopædias, journals and newspapers. This article presents Heckscher as portrait maker of economic scholars. In these portraits—what he emphasized, what he praised, what he criticized—one can discern the stance of the portrait maker himself. Overall, his portraits are permeated by admiration of sharp theoretical analyses and massive economic historical investigations. He admires the founding fathers of political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, stresses continuity in the development of economic thought, praises humble innovators like David Davidson, Knut Wicksell and Alfred Marshall and denounces (what he perceives as pretentious innovators like Gustav Cassel and John Maynard Keynes. He is critical towards economists who attempt to break out of the classical and neoclassical tradition, especially representatives of the German historical school, and what he judges to be a new type of mercantilism, represented by Bertil Ohlin and Keynes. At the same time he appreciates voluminous and solid investigations into economic history, even if performed without theoretical beacons, by scholars like William Cunningham, William Ashley, John Clapham, Marc Bloch, Richard Ehrenberg and Werner Sombart.
Cecilia Titiek Murniati
Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that teachers beliefs have a significant influence on actual classroom practice and, consequently, on students achievements. However, little research has been done to investigate the influence of Indonesian language policy and teachers beliefs. The study reported seeks to examine the influence of English language policy on pre-service teacher's beliefs about the teaching of English language grammar in Indonesian schools. The research participants were pre-service teachers who have taken the subjects of Structure, Teaching Methods, and Micro-teaching in three public and private universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta Special District. Due to time and scheduling limitations, the sampling method used in this study was convenient sampling. Documentation, survey schedules, interviews, focus group discussions were used to gather the data. The findings revealed that although the language policy in Indonesia has put English language teaching and learning within the framework of communicative competence since the enactment of the 2006 School-based Curriculum, the pre-service teachers still believed that traditional method of teaching grammar (explicit grammar instruction was imperative to use. The pre-service teachers tended to exclude English language policy enacted by Indonesian government in their discussion about teachers beliefs. Instead, the pre-service teachers constructed their beliefs about English language grammar teaching and learning process on their prior experiences in learning and teaching grammar.
Jeghal, Adil; Oughdir, Lahcen; Tairi, Hamid; Radouane, Abdelhay
The learning adaptation is a very important phase in a learning situation in human learning environments. This paper presents the authors' approach used to evaluate the effectiveness of learning adaptive systems. This approach is based on the analysis of learner satisfaction notices collected by a questionnaire on a learning situation; to analyze…
Dumas, Neil S.
This guide is an attempt to eliminate the need for decision makers to suffer from many of their future errors. It is an attempt to insure that the "right" decision is made the first time. Briefly, the theory is that one can learn from other peoples' experience and thus avoid making future mistakes. This volume is a guide to other…
Humphrey H.T. Ko
Full Text Available Introduction The repurposing of non-antibiotic drugs as adjuvant antibiotics may help break antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Statins are commonly prescribed worldwide to lower cholesterol. They also possess qualities of AMR “breakers”, namely direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics, and ability to stimulate the host immune system. However, statins’ role as AMR breakers may be limited. Their current extensive use for cardiovascular protection might result in selective pressures for resistance, ironically causing statins to be AMR “makers” instead. This review examines statins’ potential as AMR breakers, probable AMR makers, and identifies knowledge gaps in a statin-bacteria-human-environment continuum. The most suitable statin for repurposing is identified, and a mechanism of antibacterial action is postulated based on structure-activity relationship analysis. Methods A literature search using keywords “statin” or “statins” combined with “minimum inhibitory concentration” (MIC was performed in six databases on 7th April 2017. After screening 793 abstracts, 16 relevant studies were identified. Unrelated studies on drug interactions; antifungal or antiviral properties of statins; and antibacterial properties of mevastatin, cerivastatin, antibiotics, or natural products were excluded. Studies involving only statins currently registered for human use were included. Results Against Gram-positive bacteria, simvastatin generally exerted the greatest antibacterial activity (lowest MIC compared to atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. Against Gram-negative bacteria, atorvastatin generally exhibited similar or slightly better activity compared to simvastatin, but both were more potent than rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Discussion Statins may serve as AMR breakers by working synergistically with existing topical antibiotics, attenuating virulence factors, boosting human immunity, or aiding in wound healing. It
Rider, Briana B; Lier, Silje C; Johnson, Tisha K; Hu, Dale J
In August 2014, the U.S. DHHS's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion released the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention, highlighting prevention of diabetes agent-related hypoglycemia as a key area for improvement. In support of the Action Plan, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion then developed a web-based interactive module, or eLearning lesson, based on formative research and stakeholder feedback to educate healthcare professionals on strategies to prevent adverse drug events from diabetes agents. The training incorporates health literacy principles by demonstrating, through video scenarios, how to apply shared decision making when setting individualized glycemic targets, and how to use the teach-back method to confirm patients' understanding. Prior to release in September 2014, the training went through intensive usability testing and was pilot tested using a 36-item evaluation. Six months after its release (September 2014 to March 2015), the training landing page on health.gov had 24,334 unique page views. More than 90% of the 234 participants who earned continuing education credit agreed that they will be able to apply the knowledge gained from the lesson to their practice. Online trainings that model key prevention strategies are well received by health professional users and may play an important role in translating policy into improved outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Straus, Susan G; Galegher, Jolene; Shanley, Michael G; Moini, Joy S
.... The Army Distributed Learning Program, or TADLP, is a comprehensive program that is implementing DL through digital training facilities, courseware, learning management systems, and other strategies...
Langley, David; Zirngibl, M.; Sbeih, J.; Devoldere, B.
Maker technologies, including collaborative digital fabrication tools like 3-D printers, enable entrepreneurial opportunities and new business models. To date, relatively few highly successful maker startups have emerged, possibly due to the dominant mindset of the makers being one of cooperation
An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.
how to use special operations forces properly. The literature review recognizes numerous factors that decision makers and senior level commanders... decision makers continued negotiations to buy more time for the preparation of the operation. In Operation Thunderbolt, the decision makers initially...approved the continuation of the negotiation process to buy more time for planning like in previous case studies. However, the Russian decision
Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette
Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.
Full Text Available The authors describe the conception and use of elearning activities (called e-tivities in this article in the context of a distance education course titled “National and International Policy in Open and Distance Learning (ODL” which is imbedded in a Master degree program named “Information Technology in Distance Education”. This article focuses on the triple consistency between objectives, methods and evaluation.
Strangeways, Al; Papatraianou, Lisa Helen
Classroom readiness and the attendant theory-practice disjunction remains a key concern of policy makers, stakeholders and graduate teachers themselves. Links between the theoretical knowledge that preservice teachers gain during initial teacher education (ITE) courses and the practical learning of their school placements need to be strengthened…
This chapter examines the underlying motivations behind why institutions and organizations decide to apply particular policies and practices. By applying a lens of five diffusion models--learning, imitation, competition, normative, and coercion--to understand these motivations, decision makers and implementers will make better choices for…
Transit-oriented development strategies (TODS) are widely pursued by planners and policy makers. However, there is a lack of0clarity on how institutional innovation and learning accompanying0institutional change0facilitates an explicit shift towards a conducive context for TODS. This is evident in
Fretz, Joan R.
Understanding what motivates people to put forth effort, persevere in the face of obstacles, and choose their behaviors is key to creating an optimal learning environment--the type of school that policy makers desire, but are unknowingly sabotaging (Dweck, 2000). Many motivation and self-concept theories provide important insight with regard to…
Aldhafeeri, Fayiz M.; Khan, Badrul H.
This article reports on an e-learning readiness study that was carried out to assess the organizational and individual factors of the two major stakeholder groups (teachers and students) in the secondary education institutions in the State of Kuwait in order to provide significant information to the policy makers and regulatory bodies for the…
Full Text Available This article introduces TableMaker, a Microsoft Excel macro that produces publicationquality tables and includes them as new sheets in workbooks. The macro provides an intuitive graphical user interface that allows for the full customization of all table features. It also allows users to save and load table templates, and thus allows layouts to be both reproducible and transferable. It is distributed in a single computer file. As such, the macro is easy to share, as well as accessible to even beginning and casual users of Excel. Since it allows for the quick creation of reproducible and fully customizable tables, TableMaker can be very useful to academics, policy-makers and businesses by making the presentation and formatting of results faster and more efficient.
Tobin, Mollie; Nugroho, Dita; Lietz, Petra
This article synthesises findings from two systematic reviews that examined evidence of the link between large-scale assessments (LSAs) and education policy in economically developing countries and in countries of the Asia-Pacific. Analyses summarise evidence of assessment characteristics and policy goals of LSAs that influence education policy,…
This article seeks to augment an emerging interest in education policy research in enactment theorising, to explicitly consider the role and contribution of materiality in this theorising. Guided by the notion of policy "matters," the article takes as its empirical context a major policy initiative, the Building the Education Revolution…
Full Text Available Land-development offset policies consist of measures that require compensation to be made for the negative impact of land development on agricultural production, ecological and environmental conservation, and the sustainability of economic and social development. However, when such policies are inappropriately designed, unexpected problems can result. This paper describes certain land-development offset policies that have recently been implemented in China, with a particular emphasis on three such policies: the Balancing Policy, the Linkage Policy, and the Integrated Policy. These well-intentioned environmental policies have led to unexpected ecological, social, and cultural problems. This paper also describes the core of German land-development policy, which features a distinctive compensation system that has been employed since the 1970s, and compares Chinese and German land-development policies to highlight differences in three main areas: policy purposes, governance structures, and fundamental institutions. The comparisons might help explain the unexpected outcomes in China, and they also lead to land-development offset policy recommendations for China in the near future.
Meyer, Niels I
In order to deduce the most efficient policies for promoting wind power, this paper compares the different national energy policies adopted by Denmark, Sweden and Spain, and relates them to wind energy outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of long-range national energy policies...
Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P
Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogawa, I.; Hernandes Tabares, R.
The aim of this work is to present a simplified model that could help the nuclear industry to keep the expertise of safeguards professionals in touch with the state of the art, and also to have available information in the Portal of Knowledge Management. It can also provide indicators and general data for decision makers. Authors have developed the concept based on their own experience through systems running in hydroelectric and gas fired plants, and one exclusive system that manage all courses in one University. It is under development a Portal of Knowledge Management for NPP dealing with information obtained of Strategic Plans, Budgets and Economics, Operation Performance, Maintenance and Surveillance Plans, Training and Education Programs, QA Programs, Operational Experience, Safety Culture, and Engineering of Human Factors. This model will provide indicators for decision makers. Training and education module is prepared according to profile of each individual and his attributes, tasks and capabilities, and training and education programmes. The system could apply self-assessment questionnaires; immersive learning using media (video) classes, and test applications using questions randomly selected from data bank, as well as could make applications to certificate people. All these data are analyzed and generate indicators about strongest and weakness points. Managers could have indication of individual's deficiency even though in training programmes on a real time basis. Another tool that could be applied to the model is the remote operation of supervision equipment. The model is developed using web-based tools, like ASP.NET encrypted by 128 bits, and web site https. Finally, it is important to stress that the model can be customized according to industry preference. (author)
Rivers, N.; Jaccard, M.
Many clean energy technologies have experienced rapid cost declines recently as a result of accumulating experience with their production and use. It has been argued that if this relationship between experience and cost continues in the future, then it may make sense to foster market penetration of clean energy technologies on a large scale today, despite their current high costs, in order to drive down their costs in the future. If the magnitude of cost declines is sufficient, then rapid large-scale diffusion of clean energy technologies could even provide discounted social benefits that exceed discounted social costs. However, private firms may not make these investments even when socially beneficial since knowledge gained from investments spills over to other firms, and also because private firms have imperfect foresight about cost declines resulting from learning by doing investments. In this case where diffusion of clean energy technologies would provide a social net benefit, but where private firms are unwilling to invest, it may make sense for a government to adopt a regulatory approach aimed at forcing diffusion of clean energy technologies. This paper tests this hypothesis using the criteria of economic efficiency and finds that such a conclusion is unwarranted in most circumstances - instead of forcing diffusion through regulatory instruments, government should seek to correct externalities using market-based instruments. In practice however, government chooses policy based on a broader set of criteria, including especially political acceptability. Our analysis shows that in many cases, regulatory instruments are only slightly more expensive than market-based instruments. For this reason, even though regulatory instruments may be more expensive than comparable market-based instruments, they may still be superior when evaluated using multiple attributes like political acceptability. (author)
Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.
There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…
Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams) will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”). Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data). Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research. PMID:22928979
Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.
Full Text Available This paper applies a policy analysis approach to the question of how to effectively regulate micropollution in a sustainable manner. Micropollution is a complex policy problem characterized by a huge number and diversity of chemical substances, as well as various entry paths into the aquatic environment. It challenges traditional water quality management by calling for new technologies in wastewater treatment and behavioral changes in industry, agriculture and civil society. In light of such challenges, the question arises as to how to regulate such a complex phenomenon to ensure water quality is maintained in the future? What can we learn from past experiences in water quality regulation? To answer these questions, policy analysis strongly focuses on the design and choice of policy instruments and the mix of such measures. In this paper, we review instruments commonly used in past water quality regulation. We evaluate their ability to respond to the characteristics of a more recent water quality problem, i.e., micropollution, in a sustainable way. This way, we develop a new framework that integrates both the problem dimension (i.e., causes and effects of a problem as well as the sustainability dimension (e.g., long-term, cross-sectoral and multi-level to assess which policy instruments are best suited to regulate micropollution. We thus conclude that sustainability criteria help to identify an appropriate instrument mix of end-of-pipe and source-directed measures to reduce aquatic micropollution.
Kiss, Bernadett; Neij, Lena
The role of policy instruments to promote the development and diffusion of energy efficient technologies has been repeatedly accentuated in the context of climate change and sustainable development. To better understand the impact of policy instruments and to provide insights into technology change, assessments of various kinds are needed. This study analyzes the introduction and development of energy efficient windows in Sweden and the policy incentives applied to support this process. The study focuses on the assessment of technology and market development of energy efficient windows in Sweden; and by applying the concept of learning, it assesses how conditions for learning-by-searching, learning-by-doing, learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting have been supported by different policies. The results show successful progress in technology development and an improvement in best available technology of Swedish windows from 1.8 W/m 2 K in the 1970s to 0.7 W/m 2 K in 2010; in the same time period the market share of energy efficient windows increased from 20% in 1970 (average U-value of 2.0 W/m 2 K) to 80-85% in 2010 (average U-value of 1.3-1.2 W/m 2 K). The assessment shows that various policy instruments have facilitated all four learning processes resulting in the acknowledged slow but successful development of energy efficient windows. - Highlights: → Policy instruments for learning and technology change are assessed. → The development and diffusion of energy efficient windows (EEWs) in Sweden is taken as showcase. → Learning has been supported by various policies resulting in successful development of EEWs. → The thermal performance of EEWs improved with 2/3 and their market share increased by 3/5 in 40 years. → Main policies for learning are RD and D, technology procurement, testing and voluntary initiatives.
As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…
Macfadyen, Leah P.; Dawson, Shane; Pardo, Abelardo; Gaševic, Dragan
In the new era of big educational data, learning analytics (LA) offer the possibility of implementing real-time assessment and feedback systems and processes at scale that are focused on improvement of learning, development of self-regulated learning skills, and student success. However, to realize this promise, the necessary shifts in the…
Hickman, Ronald L; Daly, Barbara J; Douglas, Sara L; Clochesy, John M
Overwhelmed family decision makers of chronically critically ill patients must comprehend vital information to make complex treatment decisions that are consistent with patients' preferences. Exploration of informational coping styles of family decision makers may yield evidence for tailored communication practices supporting the psychological and informational needs of family decision makers. To describe patterns in the demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers; to assess differences in informational satisfaction, role stress, and depressive symptoms between family decision makers classified as monitors and as blunters; and to describe the predictive associations between informational coping styles, informational satisfaction, and role stress on depressive symptoms in family decision makers. A secondary data analysis of 210 family decision makers of cognitively impaired patients who required 3 days or more of mechanical ventilation. On enrollment, decision makers completed the abbreviated Miller Behavioral Style Scale to assess informational coping styles, the Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey's informational subscale to assess informational satisfaction, a single-item measure of role stress, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale to assess depressive symptoms. No associations emerged between demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers. Monitors had higher depression scores than did blunters. Both information coping style and informational satisfaction influenced depressive symptoms; however, role stress was the most significant predictor. Family decision makers classified as monitors were at higher risk for depression than were those who seem to avoid information. Targeting monitors with additional psychological and informational support may mitigate their psychological impairment.
Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken
This article examines the challenges and possibilities for UK policy learning in relation to upper secondary education (USE) across England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (NI) within current national and global policy contexts. Drawing on a range of international literature, the article explores the concepts of "restrictive" and…
Antunes, Fátima; Guimarães, Paula
Both the Portuguese appropriation of the lifelong learning policy proposed by the European Union since the mid-1990s and the definition of adult education policy in Portugal were based on a discourse that emphasised an "unacceptable educational deficit" for democracy. The role of the State in the "governance" of the public…
This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)
Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles
Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for
The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers
Full Text Available Ecological assessments and monitoring programs often rely on indicators to evaluate environmental conditions. Such indicators are frequently developed by scientists, expressed in technical language, and target aspects of the environment that scientists consider useful. Yet setting environmental policy priorities and making environmental decisions requires both effective communication of environmental information to decision makers and consideration of what members of the public value about ecosystems. However, the complexity of ecological issues, and the ways in which they are often communicated, make it difficult for these parties to fully engage such a dialogue. This paper describes our efforts to develop a process for translating the indicators of regional ecological condition used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into common language for communication with public and decision-making audiences. A series of small-group sessions revealed that people did not want to know what these indicators measured, or how measurements were performed. Rather, respondents wanted to know what such measurements can tell them about environmental conditions. Most positively received were descriptions of the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators provide about broad ecological conditions. Descriptions that respondents found most appealing contained general reference to both the set of indicators from which the information was drawn and aspects of the environment valued by society to which the information could be applied. These findings can assist with future efforts to communicate scientific information to nontechnical audiences, and to represent societal values in ecological programs by improving scientist-public communication.
Spann, Milton G., Jr.
This paper, which focuses on remediation at community colleges, is part of a series published by the Center for Community College Policy, designed to support state and local policymakers, as well as educational leaders who are interested in policy issues related to the two-year postsecondary sector. Providing academic support for remediation has…
Brewer, Thomas M.
This article provides functional, moderate, and constructive arts education policy lessons drawn from the development of two Southeastern College Art Conference (SECAC) visual arts education policy statements over the past fifteen years. These lessons can help formulate action-oriented school, district, state, and national pre-kindergarten-20…
MacDermott, Raymond J.
Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…
McGrath, Simon; Lugg, Rosemary
Much of VET policy internationally draws on a toolkit that has been seriously questioned for its logic, international relevance and effectiveness by considerable amounts of academic research. Reflecting primarily on our experiences of leading a complex, multi-country policy study, we develop an account that seeks to explore ways in which the…
Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris
This is the 10th annual "Keeping Pace" report. "Keeping Pace" has several goals: (1) add to the body of knowledge about online education policy and practice, and make recommendations for advances; (2) serve as a reference source for information about programs and policies across the country, both for policymakers and…
Barber, Sarah L; Kumar, Ankit; Roubal, Tomas; Colombo, Francesca; Lorenzoni, Luca
Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private health sector in South Africa has fundamentally changed the structure of health care delivery. A mutually reinforcing ecosystem of private health insurers, private hospitals and specialists has grown to account for almost half of the country's spending on health care, despite only serving 16% of the population with the capacity to pay. Following years of consolidation among private hospital groups and insurance schemes, and after successive failures at establishing credible price benchmarks, South Africa's private hospitals charge prices comparable with countries that are considerably richer. This compromises the affordability of a broad-based expansion in health care for the population. The South African example demonstrates that prices can be part of a structure that perpetuates inequalities in access to health care resources. The lesson for other countries is the importance of norms and institutions that uphold price schedules in high-income countries. Efforts to compromise or liberalize price setting should be undertaken with a healthy degree of caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.
Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a
Walton, P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.; Otto, F. E. L.
There is a clear role for climate science in supporting decision making at a range of scales and in a range of contexts: from Global to local, from Policy to Industry. However, clear a role climate science can play, there is also a clear discrepancy in the understanding of how to use the science and associated tools (such as climate models). Despite there being a large body of literature on the science there is clearly a need to provide greater support in how to apply appropriately. However, access to high quality professional development courses can be problematic, due to geographic, financial and time constraints. In attempt to address this gap we independently developed two online professional courses that focused on helping participants use and apply two regional climate models, WRF and PRECIS. Both courses were designed to support participants' learning through tutor led programs that covered the basic climate scientific principles of regional climate modeling and how to apply model outputs. The fundamental differences between the two courses are: 1) the WRF modeling course expected participants to design their own research question that was then run on a version of the model, whereas 2) the PRECIS course concentrated on the principles of regional modeling and how the climate science informed the modeling process. The two courses were developed to utilise the cost and time management benefits associated with eLearning, with the recognition that this mode of teaching can also be accessed internationally, providing professional development courses in countries that may not be able to provide their own. The development teams saw it as critical that the courses reflected sound educational theory, to ensure that participants had the maximum opportunity to learn successfully. In particular, the role of reflection is central to both course structures to help participants make sense of the science in relation to their own situation. This paper details the different
Zellman, Gail L.; Brandon, Richard N.; Boller, Kimberly; Kreader, J. Lee
It is important to evaluate Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRISs) so that policy makers and stakeholders can learn how well they are working and how they might be improved. Well-designed QRIS evaluations go beyond a "pass/fail" judgment to identify implementation successes and problems and assess what needs to be done to improve…
.... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...
.... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...
Full Text Available The paper addresses the intersections between research, ideology, and Canadian educational policies focusing on four major areas: (a core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c heritage language teaching, and (d the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (< 10% attend more effective alternatives (e.g. French immersion and Intensive French programs. With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students’ bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to perpetuate the falsehood that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants will impede children’s language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.
Shuai, Ziying; Macduff, Colin
The study sought to identify and explain common issues and lessons arising from four national health policy initiatives related to nursing, midwifery and allied health professions (NMAHPs) in Scotland between 2005 and 2010. The Scottish government has been seeking effective practice developments in NMAHPs through enacting policy initiatives to improve patient care. Despite many of these initiatives being individually evaluated, no integrative systematic study has been undertaken to synthesise better understandings. Multiple case study design involving qualitative research was the main methodology. The study used purposive and snowball sampling and in-depth interviews to elicit the views of 24 stakeholders. This study enabled identification and explanation of key generic lessons such as internal policy alignment, good leadership and governance at all levels, effective communication, and sustainability linked to policy external alignment. Findings highlight the importance of strategy for internal policy alignment involving top-down and cross-sectional cooperation and appraising external policy alignment when progressing a sustainable policy initiative. At all levels, leadership is important to provide clear guidance, manage different expectations and enable understanding of initiatives for enactment. Analysis of such initiatives would be useful in preparing nurse managers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smit, Thijs; Junginger, Martin; Smits, Ruud
Offshore wind energy is a promising source of renewable electricity, even though its current costs prevent large-scale implementation. Technological learning has improved the technology and its economic performance already, and could result in significant further improvements. This study investigates how technological learning takes place in offshore wind energy and how technological learning is related to different policy regimes. Offshore wind energy developments in Denmark and the United Kingdom have been analysed with a technology-specific innovation systems approach. The results reveal that the dominant forms of learning are learning by doing and learning by using. At the same time, learning by interacting is crucial to achieve the necessary binding elements in the technology-specific innovation system. Generally, most learning processes were performed by self-organizing entities. However, sometimes cultural and technical barriers occurred, excluding component suppliers and knowledge institutes from the innovation system. Danish policies successfully anticipated these barriers and removed them; therefore, the Danish policies can be characterized as pro-active. British policies shaped stable conditions for learning only; therefore, they can be characterized as active. In the future, barriers could hinder learning by interacting between the oil and gas industry, the offshore wind industry and academia. Based on this study, we suggest national and international policy makers to design long-term policies to anticipate these barriers, in order to contribute to technological learning