WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy issues discussed

  1. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  2. Modelling issues on climate change policies. A discussion of the GTAP-E model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremers, H.; Nijkamp, P.; Wang, Shunli

    2000-01-01

    Ater the Kyoto agreements the need has arisen to trace the implications of various international environmental strategies. In this paper, we discuss relevant modelling issues of incorporating important environmental policy measures in one of the popular applied general equilibrium models for international trade, the so-called GTAP model. Special attention is paid to an extended version, the GTAP-E (Global Trade Analysis Project - Energy) by addressing the question how to include the widely discussed instruments of International Emission Trading, Joint Implementation, and Clean Development Mechanisms. The paper will be concluded with some policy issues. 10 refs

  3. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  4. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  5. Animal Welfare Policy: Implementation in the Context of Wildlife Research--Policy Review and Discussion of Fundamental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ellen; Sikes, Robert S; Beaupre, Steven J; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    The use of vertebrate animals in research and education in the United States is subject to a number of regulations, policies, and guidelines under the immediate oversight of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), which are charged with ensuring the ethical and appropriate use of the animal subjects. In almost all instances, this regulatory and oversight landscape of animal use has been developed around domesticated animals in biomedical research environments. When the research activities involve wild species, especially in their natural habitat rather than a laboratory, oversight personnel and investigators alike struggle with determining what constitutes ethical and appropriate activities. These difficulties stem from fundamental differences in biology between wild and domesticated animals and from the differences in research objectives and methods in wildlife compared with biomedical research. Here we discuss the various policies, regulations, and guidance documents for animal use in the context of wildlife research. We compare the expectations of the various oversight agencies and how these expectations are met when working with wild vertebrates. We make recommendations for how IACUCs can use available resources to ensure that activities involving wild species are conducted in compliance with existing regulations and policies and in ways that are biologically appropriate for these nondomesticated species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Vaccine Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaul, Susan

    2005-01-01

    .... Whether a vaccine's target is naturally occurring or present because of hostile intent, the issues policy makers must deal with include vaccine development, production, availability, safety, effectiveness, and access...

  7. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  8. Who Are the Homeless? What Is Homelessness? The Politics of Defining an Emerging Policy Issue. U.B.C. Planning Papers: Discussion Papers #10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchanski, J. D.

    Homelessness has emerged on the public agenda of economically advanced nations but not all such issues become recognized as "legitimate" social problems. National politicians and policymakers have an interest in defining the problem narrowly in order to avoid response and implied criticism of existing policies and institutions. Local…

  9. Energy issues in New South Wales - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The paper identifies the New South Wale's energy resources and the principles that should guide the formulation of policy. The formulation of policy. The issues in developing the Energy Resources Policy outlined are: energy efficiency - reasonably priced energy supplies, improved industry performance and competitiveness/efficiency of energy industries; environmental concerns - competing land uses, sustainable development, the greenhouse effect, pollution, and environmental degradation; security of energy supply - access to resources and a safe reliable energy supply; industry stability - long term planning directions for industry and economically sustainable energy supplies; public awareness - providing information to enable informed energy use choices. Comments on the issues raised in the Discussion Paper are invited from the community, energy suppliers, energy consumers, other government agencies, unions and public interest groups. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  10. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  11. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  12. Discussing Global Issues through Contemporary Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary global issues can be examined through the lens of modern photographic art. In an effort to prepare global-ready graduates, this article explores the pressing problems of environmental degradation, urbanization, and homelessness through the work of three contemporary artists. Illustrative works, suggested approaches, and curriculum…

  13. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  14. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  15. Language Policy for Education in Multilingual India: Issues and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    A discussion of language policy in India's educational system identifies substantive issues of both theoretical and comparative interest; presents a detailed account of the issues associated with policy-making for language in education in the Indian socio-political context; and discusses the current status of implementation of these policies, with…

  16. 19 CFR 177.4 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 177.4 Section 177.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.4 Oral discussion of issues. (a... issue or issues involved should indicate that desire in writing at the time the ruling request is filed...

  17. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95... of issues. (a) General. A person submitting a request for an advance ruling and desiring an opportunity to orally discuss the issue or issues involved should indicate that desire in writing at the time...

  18. 19 CFR 177.27 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 177.27 Section 177.27....27 Oral discussion of issues. Any party authorized to request a ruling under the provisions of § 177.23 may request an opportunity for oral discussion of the issues presented in the request. The oral...

  19. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  20. Mindfulness and discussing "thorny" issues in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Pride, Leah D.; Amat, Arnau; Tsetsakos, Panagiota; Lee, Kristi J.; Paylor-Smith, Christian; Zapata, Corinna; Wright, Shequana; Smith, Theila

    2016-09-01

    Being in the moment, showing compassion, being non-judgmental, acknowledging deep emotional challenges without getting stuck: these are mindfulness characteristics important to us as teachers, yet not often included in teacher preparation. These concerns become magnified when we focus on difficult knowledge and thorny issues, like topics related to gender and race. Using a sociocultural framework, we address how mindfulness, heuristics, and other contemplative practices can be adopted to create safe, supporting, and healing spaces for such complex, often emotionally painful discussions. Participant narratives are used extensively to provide a voice to those marginalized or hurt. Drawing from these narratives and their experience in discussing thorny issues, we put forth possible solutions and interventions that can create spaces that encourage and support critical discourse through mindful practices. The development of a heuristic for discussing thorny issues whose characteristics can be adopted by interested teachers and educators to help frame and mediate this type of difficult discussion is an outcome of this research.

  1. Analyzing Students' Learning in Classroom Discussions about Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudsberg, Karin; Ohman, Johan; Ostman, Leif

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the purpose is to develop and illustrate a method that facilitates investigations of students' learning processes in classroom discussions about socioscientific issues. The method, called transactional argumentation analysis, combines a transactional perspective on meaning making based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy and an…

  2. Breaking Barriers, Building Bridges: Critical Discussion of Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joy

    Noting that picture books can invite students to engage in critical discussion of complex issues of race, class, and gender, this lesson plan helps students to confront the injustice of barriers that separate human beings from one another and to examine the role of prejudice and stereotypes in sustaining these barriers. During the five 45-minute…

  3. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…

  4. Family reunification: policies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G

    1995-01-01

    "International standards provide for protection of the family as the fundamental unit of society. However, a consequent right to family reunification for migrants is not sanctioned and continues to be resisted. This article reviews the formulation of the possibility for family reunification as provided for in international and regional standards and by migration policies. It argues that family separation, if inherent in some forms of migration, should not be institutionalized by migration policies and that state sovereignty is limited when dealing with human rights. More specifically it argues that labor migration, as currently developing in Asia, will require appropriate family reunification policies, because it will evolve into some form of settlement." excerpt

  5. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  6. Ethical issues in health-care inquiry: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Jeanette J; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2013-02-01

    This paper is a discussion of the possible ethical dilemmas that may arise in both qualitative and quantitative research despite stringent methodological protocols. Three categories of ethical issues will be elaborated on, namely, researcher-participant relations, informed consent and confidentiality and privacy. These are of note because ethical dilemmas most often arise in these areas. Both qualitative and quantitative research types may thus present with problems associated with any, or a combination, of these categories. Methodological rigour will also be discussed as a vital component of any research study. Critics of the qualitative approach have often suggested that the innate lack of methodological rigour has resulted in the preponderance of ethical issues in qualitative studies. Qualitative studies, similar to quantitative studies, have mechanisms that guarantee rigour, quality and trustworthiness. These checks are at par with those of quantitative research but based on different criteria. Both types of research, then, can be considered equal in terms of methodological rigour, regardless of the nature. As no research approach can be perfectly free from threats of ethical issues, it is the researcher's responsibility to address these in ways that will be less harmful to the participants, bearing in mind ethical problems can arise at any time during the research endeavour. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  8. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  9. Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xutong; Guo, Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today

  10. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  11. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ''real'' issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ''Are we addressing the 'real' issue?'' The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ''hard-wired'' annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?

  12. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  13. Modeling policy issues in a world of imperfect competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model the beha......General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model...... as well as on shareholders' aggregate demand...

  14. Body talk: students' identity construction while discussing a socioscientific issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes

    2012-06-01

    Vision II school science is often stated to be a democratic and inclusive form of science education. But what characterizes the subject who fits into the Vision II school science? Who is the desirable student and who is constructed as ill-fitting? This article explores discourses that structure the Vision II science classroom, and how different students construct their identities inside these discourses. In the article we consider school science as an order of discourses which restricts and enables what is possible to think and say and what subject-positions those are available and non-available. The results show that students' talk about a SSI about body and health is constituted by several discourses. We have analyzed how school science discourse, body discourse and general school discourse are structuring the discussions. But these discourses are used in different ways depending on how the students construct their identities in relation to available subject positions, which are dependent on how students at the same time are "doing" gender and social class. As an example, middle class girls show resistance against SSI-work since the practice is threatening their identity as "successful students". This article uses a sociopolitical perspective in its discussions on inclusion and exclusion in the practice of Vision II. It raises critical issues about the inherited complexity of SSI with meetings and/or collisions between discourses. Even if the empirical results from this qualitative study are situated in specific cultural contexts, they contribute with new questions to ask concerning SSI and Vision II school science.

  15. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  16. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  17. Translational medicine policy issues in infectious disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fears, R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, V. ter

    2010-01-01

    The European Academies Science Advisory Council has published a series of reports on infectious disease policy issues, analyzing priorities for building the science base as part of public health strategy. Among current challenges facing the European Union are the needs to tackle antibiotic

  18. National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T

    2013-01-01

    The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP.

  19. Quality of modelling for Integrated Crop Management : Issues for discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der W.; Leeuwis, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Models are used in research and extension, to draw together information and to suggest actions. In combination with computers, models constitute frequently used means of information transfer within and among groups of people in agricultural knowledge systems: researchers, farmers, policy makers, and

  20. Advocacy and policy issues Tutorial 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial is aimed at those who are new to the area of repositories and who want to learn more about key advocacy and policy issues. The tutorial will include information and advice on putting together an institutional advocacy campaign and developing policies for your repository. There will be opportunities for participants to share experiences and to ask questions. The tutorial will include a practical exercise in developing an advocacy presentation. Participants with experience of advocacy are welcome to attend the session to share their experiences, but should bear in mind that it is aimed primarily at those looking for help and advice in advocacy matters.

  1. Roundtable discussion: Materials management issues supporting licensing renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this technical session is to discussion the relationships between nuclear materials management/procurement engineering and plant license renewal. The basis for the discussion is DG-1009 'Standard format and content of technical information for applications to renew nuclear power plant operating licenses', dated 12/90

  2. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Imports/exports issues and options : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Alberta marketplace is ideally located for connections to British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Mid-Continental Area Power Pool (MAPP). Alignment with other markets becomes an important issue and provides challenges that must be overcome. It provides an opportunity for expanded trade in Alberta based loads and generation. The Real Time (RT) market for the trading of physical, dispatchable energy and the forwards markets (financial and intended to go to delivery through the RT market) are comprised in the Alberta marketplace. The development of a complete marketplace for electricity is fully supported by the Power Poll of Alberta. Developments in those two markets allow greater opportunity for a review of the interconnections in the Alberta electricity market. In this document, an attempt is made to identify issues relating to the imports and exports and develop alternative mechanisms to resolve these issues. Three main objectives were put forth: identify a better mechanism to meet the requirements of the Pool Price Deficiency Regulation (PPDR), identify a better mechanism to allow imports and exports to participate in the Alberta market that takes into consideration the impact of transmission constraints, and to better align with external markets. An hour ahead firm market for interconnections was one option that addresses the issues under consideration

  4. Mindfulness and Discussing "Thorny" Issues in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Pride, Leah D.; Amat, Arnau; Tsetsakos, Panagiota; Lee, Kristi J.; Paylor-Smith, Christian; Zapata, Corinna; Wright, Shequana; Smith, Theila

    2016-01-01

    Being in the moment, showing compassion, being non-judgmental, acknowledging deep emotional challenges without getting stuck: these are mindfulness characteristics important to us as teachers, yet not often included in teacher preparation. These concerns become magnified when we focus on difficult knowledge and thorny issues, like topics related…

  5. Friedreich's ataxia cardiomyopathy: case based discussion and management issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanley, A

    2010-04-01

    Cardiac involvement is common in Friedreich\\'s Ataxia and is a common cause of premature death. Evidence regarding treatment of congestive heart failure in patients with Friedreich\\'s Ataxia is lacking. The case of a 31-year-old male with advanced Friedreich\\'s Ataxia who presented with an acute diarrhoeal illness and features of acute heart failure is discussed. We then review the reported cardiac manifestations of Friedreich\\'s Ataxia and discuss management options.

  6. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Seelman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice

  7. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  8. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-01-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site

  9. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.

  10. Barriers and facilitators for oncology nurses discussing sexual issues with men diagnosed with testicular cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2013-01-02

    PURPOSE: Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men\\'s concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses\\' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. METHODS: This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the \\'passive waiting stance\\' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning.

  11. Barriers and facilitators for oncology nurses discussing sexual issues with men diagnosed with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Annamarie; Higgins, Agnes; Sharek, Danika

    2013-08-01

    Testicular cancer occurs at a time in a man's life when major social life changes are occurring and when body image, fertility, sexual desire and performance can be central issues. Oncology nurses, as members of the multidisciplinary team, are in an ideal position to address men's concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate oncology nurses' self-perceived knowledge and comfort in relation to discussing sexuality concerns with men diagnosed with testicular cancer and to identify the barriers and facilitators to such discussions. This study employed a self-completion, anonymous survey design with a sample of registered nurses working in five, randomly chosen, oncology centres in Ireland. In total, 89 questionnaires (45% response rate) were included for analysis. Findings suggest that although nurses were open to addressing concerns, few informed patients they were available to discuss sexual concerns. Nurses reported lacking knowledge of, and discomfort in, discussing the more intimate aspects of sexuality, including: ejaculatory difficulties, erectile dysfunction, impotence, prosthesis options and testicular self examination. Findings reinforce the need for more comprehensive education on sexuality issues and testicular cancer. Nurses need to take a more proactive approach to sexuality care, as opposed to the 'passive waiting stance' that permeates the current culture of care. Education programmes need to include specific information on sexual issues associated with testicular cancer, and oncology nurses must subsume sexuality as an essential aspect of their role through changes in policies and nursing care planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    Interview with Marsha Cooke of CBS, Ritz Carlton Hotel, Beijing, May 3, 2012. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 6...none of China’s claims are eventually accepted, China could continue to apply its concept of its EEZ rights to the EEZ that it indisputably derives...system in Asia, U.S. plans to advance ballistic missile defense in the region, the U.S. “air-sea battle concept ”—an effort to increase the joint

  13. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  14. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  15. Forcing the issue on radiation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    1999-01-01

    For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA's arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people's minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA's straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA's actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard

  16. EU POLICY REGARDING THE COMPETITIVENESS ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bârsan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the most important, but also challenging economic issues nowadays, which is economic competitiveness. The literature is not unanimous in recognizing the importance of competitiveness, especially where it concerns the state level. However, the relevance of international competitiveness is increasingly brought into light by theory, specific policy measures and by periodical evaluations made by international organizations. Against this background, the EU is one of the main players whose position is still lagging behind the USA, and, according to recent evaluations, behind the other OECD countries. The European Council in March 2000, held in Lisbon, had launched a very inciting challenge – that of transforming the EU economy into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, by 2010. Such an ambitious target requires an evaluation of the competitiveness level and also new measures to be taken in order to accomplish this objective.The article presents opinions on the EU competitiveness issue, and on the main weak and strong points, concluding that even the target and especially the schedule seem to be unrealistic, the new direction of action, i.e. towards better business conditions for enterprises being correct.

  17. RETHINKING STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY ACCESS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: REACTIONS TO POLICY FORUM DISCUSSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need to progress and innovate in health technology assessment (HTA) is a must in a continuously changing environment. The HTAi Policy Forum reflected on two specific areas for development where it was thought there was need for careful consideration and deliberation during the main annual meeting in February 2016. The study by Husereau et al. (1) in this journal presents the discussions resulting from this Forum. To further share the deliberations of the Forum and with a view to opening this debate to the wider HTA community, a panel session during the HTAi Annual Meeting in Tokyo was organized. Presentations at the panel included a summary of the HTAi Policy Forum discussions and perspectives from a patient, a representative of healthcare system provider, and a representative from an HTA organization and industry. This letter presents the issues raised in the panel session.

  18. Setting Authorized Limits for Radioactive Discharges: Practical Issues to Consider. Report for Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Application of the principles of radioactive waste management requires the implementation of measures that afford protection of human health and of the environment, now and in the future. The IAEA has issued safety standards and other publications that provide a framework for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment. This framework is relevant for regulatory bodies that issue authorizations and for organizations that (i) use radionuclides for medical or research purposes, (ii) operate nuclear reactors or (iii) reprocess nuclear material. An IAEA Safety Guide on Regulatory Control of Radioactive Discharges to the Environment was issued in 2000 that outlines the roles and responsibilities of regulatory bodies, licensees and registrants and provides guidance on the authorization procedure. However, there have been significant developments in radiological protection policy since the publication of this Safety Guide, most notably the issue of ICRP Publications No. 101 on Assessing Dose of the Representative Person for the Purpose of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Optimisation of Radiological Protection and No. 103 on The 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP. The objective of this IAEA-TECDOC is to stimulate discussion on the practical implementation of the control of radioactive releases in order to inform the review and revision of IAEA guidance on this subject. This IAEA-TECDOC is based on the practical experience of Member States and on information provided at Technical Committee Meetings held in 2003 and 2008 and gained by means of a questionnaire. It summarizes international experience on the optimization of discharges and the setting by the regulatory body of authorized limits on discharges for nuclear installations and non-nuclear facilities. Its issue at this stage is intended for consultation as a preparatory step pending the current process of revision of the IAEA's International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing

  19. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  20. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  1. A dawning demand for a new cannabis policy: A study of Swedish online drug discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Josefin

    2014-07-01

    This study examines how online discussions on drug policy are formulating an oppositional cannabis discourse in an otherwise prohibitionist country like Sweden. The focus of the paper is to identify demands for an alternative cannabis policy as well as analysing how these demands are linked to governance. The empirical material is 56 discussion-threads from the online message-board Flashback Forum that were active during the first eight months of 2012. Discourse theory was used to locate the discourse, and governmentality theory was used to locate the political belonging of the discourse. On Flashback Forum demands for a new cannabis policy are articulated in opposition to Swedish prohibitionist discourse. The oppositional discourse is constructed around the nodal points cannabis, harm, state and freedom that fill legalisation/decriminalisation/liberalisation with meaning. The nodal points are surrounded by policy demands that get their meaning through the particular nodal. These demands originate from neo-liberal and welfarist political rationalities. Neo-liberal and welfarist demands are mixed, and participants are simultaneously asking for state and individual approaches to handle the cannabis issue. Swedish online discourse on cannabis widens the scope beyond the confines of drug policy to broader demands such as social justice, individual choice and increased welfare. These demands are not essentially linked together and many are politically contradictory. This is also significant for the discourse; it is not hegemonised by a political ideology. The discourse is negotiated between the neo-liberal version of an alternative policy demanding individual freedom, and the welfarist version demanding social responsibility. This implies the influence of the heritage from the social-democratic discourse, centred on state responsibility, which have been dominating Swedish politics in modern times. Consequently, this study refutes that the demand for a new cannabis

  2. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  3. Breakout Session A: Safety Issues. Report from breakout session and discussion on safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The first issue discussed during the breakout session on safety aspects of accident-tolerant fuels was the objective that must be assigned to the development of such concepts. The first goal should be to avoid, or at least limit, the release of radioactive materials into the environment in case of an accident. This implies that severe accidents (core melt) situations must be avoided. To reach this goal, the core geometry must remain coolable, even for accident scenarios worse than what current fuel designs are able to sustain. There was a consensus that the station blackout (SBO) is a good reference transient to evaluate the potential benefits from new, more robust, fuel designs. With respect to the present situation, the merits of new designs can be analysed with respect to three figures: - the 'grace period', i.e. the additional amount of time before the onset of core melt, during which more recovery actions can be made; - the amount of combustible gases produced; - the amount of radioactive materials released. It is important to note that those three values are not independent from one another. They may be understood as three different ways to measure the improvements arising from accident tolerant fuels. The notion of 'grace period' was discussed and it was suggested that it should be compared to the amount of time needed to switch from normal operation to accident management type of procedures. The participants agreed that the 'grace period' should be counted in hours (or even days but the realism of this last goal was questioned). In other words, there was a consensus that a 'grace period' of some minutes is pointless and definitely not worth the effort of developing and characterising the behaviour of new concepts. Although the purpose of accident-tolerant fuel development is to improve the core robustness in design basis accidents (DBA) and situations somewhat beyond like SBO, it was recognised that new concepts must

  4. Straight chiropractic philosophy as a barrier to Medicare compliance: a discussion of 5 incongruent issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, David R.; Soltys, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this commentary is to discuss potential 5 factors within straight chiropractic philosophy and practice that may prevent Medicare compliance. Discussion The national Medicare Benefit Policy Manual and the Florida Local Coverage Determination were reviewed to identify documentation and conceptual issues regarding chiropractic practice. Five Medicare positions were contrasted with tenets of straight chiropractic philosophy. Based on Medicare’s documentation requirements, Medicare defines subluxation and chiropractic practice from the perspective of treating spinal pain and related functional disability. In contrast, traditional straight chiropractic philosophy is not based on the treatment of spinal pain and disability or other symptomatic presentations. In this context, 5 potential areas of conflict are discussed. Conclusion The Medicare version of chiropractic practice is not consistent with traditional straight chiropractic philosophy, which may play a role in preventing Medicare compliance. The chiropractic profession may need to consider the fashion in which “philosophy” as it relates to technique and practice is presented to students and doctors to facilitate compliance with the documentation requirements of Medicare. PMID:25067928

  5. Health-care professionals' perspective on discussing sexual issues in adult patients after haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeltink, Corien M; Witte, Birgit I; Stringer, Jacqui; Liptrott, Sarah; Babic, Aleksandra; Greenfield, Diana M; Salooja, Nina; Incrocci, Luca; Visser, Otto; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Duarte, Rafael F; Zweegman, Sonja

    2018-03-01

    The majority of adult patients have sexual concerns after post-haematopoietic cell transplantation. Even so, health-care professionals (HCP) do not routinely discuss these problems. We, therefore, surveyed all the members of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation to evaluate the barriers and facilitators to discussing sexual issues. The 73-item web-survey was completed by 166 registered nurses (RNs) and 126 medical doctors (MDs). Sixty-eight percent reported that they seldom discussed sexual issues. Younger MDs (p issues (p issues were discussed in the presence of a relative (60% RNs, 67% MDs) and that professionals prefer patients to raise sexual issues themselves (54% RNs, 44% MDs). The most important perceived facilitator was for the patient to initiate discussion (≥ 90% for RNs and MDs). Overall, haematopoietic cell transplantation survivors may not be receiving the support on sexual issues they probably need.

  6. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  7. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  8. Straight chiropractic philosophy as a barrier to Medicare compliance: a discussion of 5 incongruent issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, David R; Soltys, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to discuss potential 5 factors within straight chiropractic philosophy and practice that may prevent Medicare compliance. The national Medicare Benefit Policy Manual and the Florida Local Coverage Determination were reviewed to identify documentation and conceptual issues regarding chiropractic practice. Five Medicare positions were contrasted with tenets of straight chiropractic philosophy. Based on Medicare's documentation requirements, Medicare defines subluxation and chiropractic practice from the perspective of treating spinal pain and related functional disability. In contrast, traditional straight chiropractic philosophy is not based on the treatment of spinal pain and disability or other symptomatic presentations. In this context, 5 potential areas of conflict are discussed. The Medicare version of chiropractic practice is not consistent with traditional straight chiropractic philosophy, which may play a role in preventing Medicare compliance. The chiropractic profession may need to consider the fashion in which "philosophy" as it relates to technique and practice is presented to students and doctors to facilitate compliance with the documentation requirements of Medicare.

  9. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  10. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy: Structures and Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined issues pertaining to structures and institutional arrangement for agricultural extension policy. It highlighted the broad objectives of the new policy thrust in agriculture in Nigeria, and identified sub-policies that were expected to facilitate growth of the agricultural sector of the economy. Agricultural ...

  11. Private trouble, policy issue: people's noise annoyance and policy discours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is well know that social problems are defined as such in policy processes. Simultaneously, there is ample evidence for the construction of problem perception at an individual level. In this article, I shall report on a study on the relation between the two: how policy discourses affect problem

  12. Government Policies Affecting Forests in Latin America: An Agenda for Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Laarman

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies policy issues that affect the extent, distribution, and condition of forests in Latin America. Forest management policies are only one element in the framework; policies related to agricultural development and land tenure can have potentially negative consequences for forests. Mineral exploration, hydroelectric reservoirs, highway projects, and urban expansion also have impacts on forest conversion. Finally, macroeconomic policies affect forests through their impact on i...

  13. Policy Studies on Bioethical Issues Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes the policies, operation, and some decisions of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research instituted to study the ethical aspects of scientific research. (MLH)

  14. Conducting a Spanish National Adult Literacy Survey: A Discussion of the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    A discussion of issues concerning the feasibility of conducting a Spanish version of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) is presented. The discussion is based on a 1992 seminar to address linguistic, political, and logistic concerns in such an undertaking. While the experience with the NALS guided discussion, the primary focus was on special…

  15. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    Agriculture is the bedrock of economic development in Nigeria. However, the development of the ... This policy direction placed additional responsibilities on extension by including sustainable development ... years and the recent trends in agricultural development world wide have necessitated the formulation of more ...

  16. A Discussion about Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation and the Critical Issue of Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples' lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted…

  17. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education…

  18. Issues in International Climate Policy: Theory and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Gupta, J.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change is currently at the center of scientific and political debate, and the need for well-designed international climate policies is widely recognized. Despite this, the complexity of both the climate change problem and the international negotiation process has resulted in a large number

  19. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  20. Policy and Management Issues in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Health care technology as a policy issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions

  2. A report of the technological aspects of regulatory-policy issues of geostationary platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.

    1981-12-01

    Geostationary platforms and their possible application to low cost communication services are discussed. A number of regulatory technology, policy issues related to the introduction of a geostationary platform, e.g., organizational arrangements for platform operation, electromagnetic compatibility at orbit environment, sharing with terrestrial services and other satellites, diversity operation, frequency reuse, small orbit spacing and efficient modulation techniques are considered. Some technological policy issues may require demonstrated results before a commercially viable geostationary platform is implemented by investors and approved by regulators.

  3. Saving Behavior in Latin America: Overview and Policy Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gavin; Ricardo Hausmann; Ernesto Talvi

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews and contributes to the policy debate on the issue of saving in Latin America, presenting an alternative perspective on the relationship between saving and growth, saving and inflation stabilization and structural reform, and saving and capital flows.

  4. Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-06

    decision on United States v. Windsor holding sections of DOMA unconstitutional , DOD issued a new policy extending all military benefits for married...situation, it would be hard to argue (as it was for justification of the USFPA), that one or the other had the primary responsibility for child care...Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues Kristy N. Kamarck Analyst in Military Manpower January 6, 2017

  5. California renewable energy policy and implementation issues: An overview of recent regulatory and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper has three primary goals: (1) to provide a brief account of recent events in California renewables policy; (2) to outline the California State Legislature`s ultimate decision on renewable energy policy; and (3) to aid other states in their efforts with renewables policy by summarizing some of the key implementation issues and political conflicts that may occur when crafting some of the potential threats and opportunities that electricity restructuring presents to the development of renewable energy. We then outline the renewables policy debate in California since the California Public Utility Commission`s ``Blue Book``, including both regulatory and legislative developments. We also provide some insight into the minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR) versus surcharge-based renewables policy debate in California. Finally, we identify and discuss key renewables policy implementation issues that have driven the dialogue and recent decisions in California`s renewables policy.

  6. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  7. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  8. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions

  9. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  10. Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University Libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the need and importance of serial policy statement as a guide to providing balanced, relevant and up to date information for quality academic exercise particularly in the area of teaching and research work. The paper formulated and presents a serial policy statement for adoption by Nigerian university ...

  11. Harnessing Emotions to Deliberative Argumentation in Classroom Discussions on Historical Issues in Multi-Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2016-01-01

    This theoretical paper is about the role of emotions in historical reasoning in the context of classroom discussions. Peer deliberations around texts have become important practices in history education according to progressive pedagogies. However, in the context of issues involving emotions, such approaches may result in an obstacle for…

  12. Perceptions of Opinion "Climates" and Willingness to Discuss the Issue of Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Charles T.; Neuwirth, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    Examines willingness to discuss the issue of abortion. Finds that persons whose opinions are congruent with those of the national majority are more willing to speak to a stranger than are those whose opinions are shared only by a minority. Finds that involvement and knowledge directly influence opinion expression, whereas education and gender…

  13. Panel Discussion : Report of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Barthelemy, Ramon; Garmon, Savannah; Reeves, Kyle; APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues Team

    Following the presentation of the findings and recommendations of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues (C-LGBT) by Committee Chair Michael Falk, a panel discussion will be held featuring several members of the committee. The discussion will focus on how APS can best ensure the recommendations of the committee are carried out in a timely fashion and other ideas on future APS efforts toward LGBT inclusion in physics. Discussion topics will also include the research and other input that shaped the committee's findings and recommendations.

  14. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  15. Regional and Special Issues in Social Policy & Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finer, Catherine Jones; Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and elaboration of regional and special issues of Social Policy & Administration (SP&A) from the contrasting perspectives of the two editors principally involved in their production as a distinctive feature of the journal. Catherine Jones Finer, who retired fro......-to-date range of documents to trace trends and developments over time, not merely in the content of the regional and special issues themselves, but in the increasingly international and supra-national social policy environment to which they relate....

  16. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  17. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  18. Discussion: Towards an Educational Perspective in CLIL Language Policy and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes eight studies on different aspects of language policy, pedagogical practices, and teacher training in school contexts where a foreign language is used to teach curricular content (CLIL). This is a very welcome contribution because it provides additional perspectives to former studies that had focused on the linguistic outcomes…

  19. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [de

  20. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  1. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  2. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  3. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical work and empirical research have examined science policy-informing "dialogue events," dialogue events that do not seek to inform public policy are under-theorized and under-researched, even though they are common and growing in popularity in the UK. We describe how, from...... a critical perspective, it may initially appear that such events cannot be justified without returning to the deficit model. But with this paper, we seek to open up a discussion about these non policy-informing events by arguing that there are in fact further ways to understand and frame them. We...

  4. Special Issue of Policy in Focus features IDRC supported projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... These issues have been at the core of a series of projects supported by IDRC that have also been prioritised by The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth's (IPC-IG) research and knowledge-sharing activities. IDRC has supported research to examine how social protection impacts labour markets, ...

  5. Teaching medical students how to take a sexual history and discuss sexual health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C J; McCarthy, S A

    2002-12-01

    Taking a sexual history and discussing sexual health issues with patients form an important part of a medical consultation. These specific communication skills can be acquired through various teaching methods. This paper describes the communication skill workshops conducted for undergraduate medical students on how to talk to patients about sex. 198 medical students participated in a series of workshops conducted in the University of Malaya in 2001-2002. Pre- and post-workshop evaluations of the programme were carried out to find out the students' difficulties and to assess the usefulness of the workshop. The workshop consisted of a short lecture, role-plays and discussion. Only 34% of the participants had received some informal training during their clinical years. The main barriers encountered were gender and age differences, language and choice of words, patients and doctors feeling shy, and cultural differences. The workshop was felt to be useful (mean score 4.38, maximum 5.0), most students felt comfortable during the workshop (mean score 4.10, maximum 5.0) and there was significant improvement in the "comfort level" when talking to patients about sex after attending the workshop (P Gender, language and cultural differences were the main barriers in taking a sexual history and discussing sexual health issues among the medical students. Communication workshop was felt to be a useful and comfortable method of learning these specific.

  6. Applying scientific knowledge: a discussion about educational research and policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia dos Santos Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two concepts of research used to develop policies: “policy sciences” and “evidence-based education”. To this end, the repercussion of these proposals in education in other countries and their repercussions in the Brazilian context are analyzed and considered. Furthermore, there is an attempt to emphasize the characteristics of educational research starting in Brazil from 1950 and 1990. The comparison between international and local repercussions of “policy sciences” and “evidence-based education” suggests some reflections about the production and the use of scientific knowledge that aims to contribute to the discussions about the social impact of research on education in Brazil.

  7. Soviet Anti-Poverty Policy 1955-1975. Discussion Papers 402-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Alastair

    This paper assesses the nature and extent of poverty in the USSR in the post-Stalin period, primarily in the decade after 1958. The author describes Soviet anti-poverty policies and discusses their impact. He notes that the Soviet government's ability to influence economic welfare and income distribution lies in its control over wage and salary…

  8. Nuclear fuel assurance: origins, trends, and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-02-01

    The economic, technical and political issues which bear on the security of nuclear fuel supply internationally are addressed. The structure of international markets for nuclear fuel is delineated; this includes an analysis of the political constraints on fuel availability, especially the connection to supplier nonproliferation policies. The historical development of nuclear fuel assurance problems is explored and an assessment is made of future trends in supply and demand and in the political context in which fuel trade will take place in the future. Finally, key events and policies which will affect future assurance are identified

  9. Land & Development In Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baranyi, S.; Deere, C. D.; Morales, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book suggests that Latin America may not be poised for a radical shift in land policy and administration, and that it is home to some worrisome trends and a rich array of initiatives on land issues. Researchers have a crucial role to play in illuminating policy alternatives and monitoring outcomes. The book also discusses how these lines of research could feed into policy debates in countries like Bolivia, Brazil, and Guatemala, as well as at the regional level and in the global sphere. ...

  10. Discussion on several issues of the accidents management of nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xuewu; Wang Zhe; Zhang Yingzhen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses several issues of the accident management of nuclear power plants in operation, for example: the necessity, implementation principle of accident management and accident management program etc. For conducting accident management for beyond design basis accidents, this article thinks that the accident management program should be developed and implemented to ensure that the plant and its personnel with responsibilities for accident management are adequately prepared to take effective on-site actions to prevent or mitigate the consequences of severe accident. (authors)

  11. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  12. Proceedings of conference on public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a public forum in which to identify and discuss the legal, institutional, social, environmental, and other public policy issues relating to nuclear waste management. This volume is a comprehensive synthesis of the speeches, papers, and discussions during the plenary and luncheon sessions. Preliminary goals are proposed for nuclear waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for the ten papers. (DLC)

  13. Integrated assessment of climate change: Characterizing key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    A multidisciplinary, multiagency workshop was convened by the US Department of Energy in Washington, DC, June 29-30,1994. The goal of the workshop was to define key policy issues related to global climate change and the types of information pertaining to these issues that decision makers would find most useful. The workshop was organized by the Center for Global Environmental Studies and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in cooperation with a steering committee composed of seven national laboratories.

  14. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  15. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  16. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  18. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  19. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of

  20. Discussing nuclear issues at school by history and geography teachers in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigue, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief survey involving 30 history and geography teachers from the Paris region shows that they address nuclear energy in class. National programs allow various approaches at different levels, without really focusing on the subject. The discussion brings the question down to a trivial issue, in accordance with the general french consensus, but that does not prevent pupils from asking questions, preoccupied as they are by certain choices which have already been made for the future. In order to answer those questions to the best extent possible in view of the underlying ethical problem, teachers would welcome better training, up-to-date, pluri-disciplinary and objective information, as well as appropriate and easy-to-use educational material

  1. Response to Environment Canada's framework for discussion on the environment. A summary of issues for input into The Green Plan: A national challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    A framework for discussion was published by the Canadian government in order to initiate discussion and encourage cooperative problem solving with respect to major environmental issues facing the country. A response to this framework for discussion from the Canadian Petroleum Association is provided, incorporating views and concerns expressed by the Association's member companies who collectively account for about 2/3 of all upstream petroleum industry spending in Canada. Key issues that most affect the upstream petroleum industry are discussed in the areas of sustainable development, consultation with all parties involved, balancing of economic and environmental costs, legislation and regulation, compliance and accountability, economic policy instruments, research and communication, strengthening of partnerships in environmental management, waste management and recycling, global warming, water pollution, Arctic environmental protection, environmental emergencies, parks, and wildlife. Detailed responses to issues are then presented. The Association's environmental program and its environmental code of practice are appended

  2. Public opinion on policy issues in genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Rene; Gadarian, Shana Kushner

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine public opinion on major policy issues in genetics and genomics, including federal spending on genetic research, the perceived significance of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, and whether clinicians should be involved in direct-to-consumer genetic testing. This was a survey with a nationally representative sample of 2,100 American adults administered by the nonpartisan research firm YouGov in January 2011. The majority of the respondents (57%) believe that the federal government should spend more on genetic research, 82% rank the 2008 antidiscrimination law as "important," and 65% say that clinicians should be involved in explaining genetic test results (contra the practice of some direct-to-consumer companies). On all three policy issues, gender and political party affiliation were statistically significantly associated with respondents' views, whereas race/ethnicity and education were less consistently associated with policy opinions. Americans demonstrate widespread support for scientific research on genetics, laws protecting citizens against genetic discrimination, and the need to involve medical professionals in the process of genetic testing. These results are useful for scientists designing research projects, clinicians interacting with patients, professional organizations lobbying for resources, federal agencies setting budget priorities, and legislators designing regulation.

  3. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, A.

    1996-01-01

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  4. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  5. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Issues in the Seclusion and Restraint of Juveniles: Policy, Practice and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate use of seclusion and restraint (S/R is an important issue among juvenile justice professionals. Recent newspaper articles have brought the issue to the attention of the United States Senate, law enforcement agencies, and the general public. The result has been a series of investigations and publications by the Senate, law enforcement, and professional associations. Despite the attention this issue has received, professionals have yet to reach a definitive agreement as to what recent legislation and the professional and popular literature regarding the use of S/R. They identify major issues currently under discussion, highlight areas of consensus, and enumerate several dimensions that require further exploration. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of S/R for social work practitioners, including the importance of education and training, monitoring, hiring, policy advocacy, and ongoin research.

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  8. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  9. Institutional and legislative issues of emergency management policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, B

    2001-12-14

    The emergency management policy as an organic component of the national development policy in contemporary Russia exists only for a slight more than a decade. However, its basic trends and directions could be revealed. In the legislative area covering technological accidents involving hazardous materials these include increasing differentiation of acts in terms of issue coverage, gradual integration of legislation via enforcement of the so-called systemic (umbrella) acts and increasing incorporation of specific acts, and keeping dominance of federal emergency acts. In addition, emergency legislation and policy programs on communities' protection against major hazards drift from alleviation-oriented towards more mitigation-focused. Meanwhile, the bulk of the existing acts are still specific laws and regulations, which consider most emergency response. In institutional realms the key direction of emergency policy development involved organization and progress of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Elimination of the Russian Federation (USEPE) with EMERCOM as a key coordinator and actor in handling technological hazards and accidents. The detailed analysis of USEPE organizational pattern and operation modes including institutional structure, key functions, means and forces and operation routines is provided. It is argued that the system's logic and flexible organizational framework only to some extent contribute to effective mitigation of the major emergencies and/or disasters. In no less extent it depends on the existing socioeconomic conditions, which have been for a long time unfavorable in Russia and thus seriously constrain the USEPE effectiveness. This provides for ambiguous integral evaluation of the emergency management policy in the 1990s and early 2000s.

  10. Economic rationalisation of health behaviours: the dangers of attempting policy discussions in a vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Rowley, Kevin; Luke, Joanne; Doyle, Joyce; Ritte, Rebecca; O'Shea, Rebekah; Brown, Alex

    2014-08-01

    When analysing the health behaviours of any group of people, understanding the constraints and possibilities for individual agency as shaped by the broader societal context is critical. In recent decades, our understanding of the ways in which physical and social environments influence health and health behaviours has expanded greatly. The authors of a recent analysis of Australian Aboriginal health data using an economic 'rational choice model,' published in this journal, claim to make a useful contribution to policy discussions relating to Aboriginal health, but neglect context. By doing so, they neglect the very factors that determine the success or failure of policy change. Notwithstanding the technical sophistication of the analyses, by ignoring most relevant determinants of health, the conclusions misrepresent the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and therefore risk perpetuating harm, rather than improving health. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  12. Policy issues for Australia's education systems: Evidence from international and Australian research

    OpenAIRE

    Gary N. Marks; Julie McMillan; John Ainley

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose here is to discuss education policy issues in the context of empirical evidence. We note that many commonly held beliefs about Australian education such as, the relative performance and participation levels of Australian students; the importance of socioeconomic background on educational outcomes both relative to other countries and changes over-time; gender differences in mathematics and science; and the labour market situation of early school leavers; are not supported by empiri...

  13. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  14. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  15. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  16. Another issue comes out: gay rights policy voting in recent U.S. presidential elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie A

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.

  17. Wind power policy: Issues and challenges in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, C.J. [TMES Institute of Business Management and Computer Studies, Mandvi, Gujarat (India); Mistry, S.H. [C. K. Pithawalla Institute of Management, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    The energy policy of India is much concerned with the country's ever increasing energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of country's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels. Our nation is heavily dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands. It is estimated that by 2030; India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. So, renewable energy usage can be sustainable alternative to country's energy demand. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market. To promote the usage of wind energy, government have declared tax incentives and other incentives but still the most of the estimated wind potential is not realized for energy need of country. In this paper author tries to identify the issues and challenges for promotion of wind power promotion in India and will suggest for the correction in the existing energy policy. (Author)

  18. Conservation agriculture in India – Problems, prospects and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA technologies involve minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. In India, efforts to develop, refine and disseminate conservation-based agricultural technologies have been underway for nearly two decades and made significant progress since then even though there are several constraints that affect adoption of CA. Particularly, tremendous efforts have been made on no-till in wheat under a rice-wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic plains. There are more payoffs than tradeoffs for adoption of CA but the equilibrium among the two was understood by both adopters and promoters. The technologies of CA provide opportunities to reduce the cost of production, save water and nutrients, increase yields, increase crop diversification, improve efficient use of resources, and benefit the environment. However, there are still constraints for promotion of CA technologies, such as lack of appropriate seeders especially for small and medium scale farmers, competition of crop residues between CA use and livestock feeding, burning of crop residues, availability of skilled and scientific manpower and overcoming the bias or mindset about tillage. The need to develop the policy frame and strategies is urgent to promote CA in the region. This article reviews the emerging concerns due to continuous adoption of conventional agriculture systems, and analyses the constraints, prospects, policy issues and research needs for conservation agriculture in India.

  19. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: Financing Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  20. Factors associated with frequency of discussion of or referral for counselling about fertility issues in female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwé, L A; Stiggelbout, A M; Overbeek, A; Hilders, C G J M; van den Berg, M H; Wendel, E; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E; Ter Kuile, M M

    2018-01-01

    Current practices in counselling of female cancer patients with respect to fertility issues need considerable improvement, particularly given the general underuse of fertility preservation options and the negative impact that infertility can have on quality of life. We investigated the relationship between physicians' and physician-related factors and the frequency of physicians discussing fertility issues and referring to a reproductive specialist. We invited 1,832 physicians in the Netherlands who had treated at least five reproductive-age female cancer patients within the past year to complete a questionnaire. Of the 748 respondents, 406 met our inclusion criteria, and 280 participated. Analysis revealed that 79% of the participants usually or always discuss fertility issues. Specialty, confidence in knowledge regarding fertility issues and a lack of reproductive specialists in their region contributed independently to the variance in the frequency of discussing fertility issues. Moreover, 54% either regularly or always refer. Specialty and frequency of discussion contributed independently to the variance in referral. In conclusion, although high, frequency of discussion of fertility issues is not optimal, and referral seems limited. Patients would benefit from more knowledge among physicians regarding fertility issues and referral options, both in terms of informed choice, and more importantly, quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Educational innovations: Categories of bulletin board postings designed to increase awareness of contemporary pharmaceutical policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jacob T; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this project was to categorize and classify bulletin board postings pertaining to pharmaceutical policy from both the professional and lay press. Bulletin board postings were used to supplement in-class discussion to keep students, faculty and staff up-to-date on emerging trends. A bulletin board located in the main classroom area of the College of Pharmacy Building where students would pass by on the way to class and congregate during break periods was used to display articles from various sources concerning topics related to pharmaceutical policy. Information is presented about the primary subject matters addressed in the articles, the types of publications from which they were drawn, and the top ten sources of articles displayed. This project showed that coverage of issues related to pharmacists is predominantly seen in newspapers and most pertinent issues are business related. It can be seen from this analysis that the issues facing pharmacists are varied. The pharmaceutical policy field is transforming and many of these changes are very relevant to the general population. This is seen from the coverage of all of these issues in the lay press.

  2. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  3. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2005-01-01

    for policy making including educational, managerial, and regulatory interventions. The (often overlapping) concepts of medicines management, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical care are then discussed to show how professionals, sometimes in collaboration with policymakers, have tackled the problem......In this article the authors deal with issues of drug utilisation from a clinical and policy perspective. They address the difficulties of managing drug therapy on a population level, which is known among professionals, as the problem of rational use of medicines. Various definitions...... and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...

  4. How issue frames shape beliefs about the importance of climate change policy across ideological and partisan groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shane P; Swanson, Meili

    2017-01-01

    We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals' beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important. We conclude by discussing our findings relative to extant literature and considering the implications of our findings for those who seek to address the issue of climate change.

  5. How issue frames shape beliefs about the importance of climate change policy across ideological and partisan groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals’ beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important. We conclude by discussing our findings relative to extant literature and considering the implications of our findings for those who seek to address the issue of climate change. PMID:28727842

  6. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  7. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  8. Attitudes and Language Use in Group Discussions on Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2016-01-01

    The school systems of many countries have been pervaded by student-centred pedagogy making students' small group discussion a common feature of the classroom practice.However, there is a lack of studies focussing different modes of discussion for the purpose of finding out whether some modes are more beneficial than others. Hence, the aim of this…

  9. Clinical PsyD Trainees' Comfort Discussing Sexual Issues with Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Maria Papachrysanthou; Gaubatz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and theorists have noted that sexuality is an innate element humans possess across the lifespan; however, it remains an uncomfortable area of discussion even among many psychologists-in-training. In this cross-sectional study, 138 Clinical PsyD trainees completed a questionnaire exploring their comfort discussing sexuality with…

  10. Toward a Greater Understanding: Utilizing Book Discussions to Effectively Engage Students in the Exploration of Women and Leadership Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Heather Inez Ricks

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of a book discussion as an instructional tool for developing leadership competency skills in female university students. A book discussion centered on Sheryl Sandberg's book "Lean In" was held as a means to conceptualize discourse regarding leadership issues in the arena of women and leadership in a…

  11. Nonsexual Touch, Self-Disclosure, and Friendship in the Therapeutic Setting: A Discussion of Boundary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Janet L.; Lee, Sandra S.

    Conflict over appropriate treatment boundaries has been an issue since the time of Freud. To better understand these boundaries, some traditional, humanistic and feminist models which range from conservative, strict boundaries to more liberal or relaxed boundaries are considered here. The ethical considerations and implications of nonsexual touch,…

  12. The experiences of providing children's palliative care education in undergraduate nursing programmes--a discussion of some practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Honor; Price, Jayne

    2012-05-01

    Despite recent proliferation of palliative care services for children, and the fact that the needs of these children and their families are enshrined in current policy directives, the challenges of providing education for nurses within this area of practice is largely underexplored. This paper examines some of the key issues facing nurse educators who are involved in the delivery of palliative care content in undergraduate children's nursing programmes. Drawing on the extensive experiences of two nurse educators in children's palliative care education, research and practice, key issues which should be considered by those involved in curriculum development and delivery will be outlined. Such issues include ambiguity in terminology and resultant lack of conceptual clarity, the limited evidence base to underpin practice and education, the complexities of teaching sensitive topics to large groups and limited teaching expertise to deliver the content. Suggestions for addressing such issues will be outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  14. Sentinel Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Patients: Issues for Discussion and Our Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Pechlivanides

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node biopsy has been established for several years now as a standard procedure of breast cancer surgery, but there are several variations of the indications and the technique used. This paper provides information regarding several issues of debate for its application as are the selection criteria, the application to patients with multifocal/multicentric breast cancer or DCIS, postneoadjuvant chemotherapy, the necessary number of nodes to be biopsied, the need for lymphoscintigraphy, the technique for frozen section, the factors that may predict nonsentinel nodes (NSNs involvement, the value of micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells, the internal mammary chain sentinel nodes, and finally the axillary recurrence after SLNB. Our view for these issues is included together with our experience of 430 SLNBs.

  15. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy mix and continuously reviewed its energy policy to ensure sustainable energy supply and security. This paper examines and discusses the intricacy of the existing and new energy policies, issues and challenges in Malaysia. The overall approach in addressing the energy issues and challenges will continue to focus on adequacy, quality, security and sustainability of both non-renewable and renewable energy supply in the country's development and the promotion and implementation of its energy efficiency programs. The recently launched National Green Technology Policy is also discussed. (author)

  16. Medicare Part D-a roundtable discussion of current issues and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Donald C; Evans, Steven; Januska, Jeff; Lee, Helen Y; Lewis, Sonya J; Nolan, Steve R; Noga, Mark; Stemple, Charles; Thapar, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    Medicare Part D was introduced with a goal of providing access to prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries. Regulatory mandates and the changing landscape of health care require continued evaluation of the state of the Part D benefit. To review the current state of plan offerings and highlight key issues regarding the administration of the Part D benefit. The Part D drug benefit continues to evolve. The benefit value appears to be diluted compared to the benefit value of large employer plans. Regulatory restrictions mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are reported to inhibit the ability of plans to create an effective, competitive drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. Management in this restrictive environment impedes competitive price negotiations and formulary coverage issues continue to create confusion especially for patients with chronic diseases. The doughnut hole coverage gap represents a significant cost-shifting issue for beneficiaries that may impact medication adherence and persistence. To address these and other challenges, CMS is working to improve the quality of care for Part D beneficiaries by designing and supporting demonstration projects. Although these projects are in different stages, all stakeholders are hopeful that they will lead to the development of best practices by plans to help manage their beneficiaries more efficiently. A significant number of Medicare beneficiaries are currently receiving prescription drug benefits through Part D. The true value of this benefit has been called into question as a result of plan design parameters that lead to cost-shifting, an increasing burden for enrollees. Concerns regarding the ability to provide a competitive plan given the stringent rules and regulations have been voiced by plan administrators. In an effort to drive toward evidence-based solutions, CMS is working to improve the overall quality of care through numerous demonstration projects.

  17. An instance of secularization? The Finnish online discussion of the issue of same-sex marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Hokka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010 one of Finland’s four national TV channels aired a panel discussion dealing with gay and lesbian rights in society. Among the debaters were members of parliament from various parties, well-known actors and other public figures, as well as a priest, a bishop and other religious spokespeople. Afterwards, a great number of people publicly expressed their views on same-sex marriages. The ways the Lutheran Church treated the same-sex couples, as well as the reasons and outcomes of a vast number of resignations from the Church were discussed, particularly in the online discussion forums. The public discussion spread rapidly, especially through the social media. Resignations from the Church are often perceived as a clear sign of the decline of religious beliefs and practices, which is an integral aspect of the secularization process. But lately the whole notion of a secularization of society has been questioned and a growing number of researchers have stated that the concepts of resacralization, desecularization, or a resurgence of religion would actually better describe the current situation than the theory of secularization. The aim of this article is to examine whether the concept of secularization still has some explanatory power at least in the Nordic countries. Another aim is to contemplate what kind of knowledge this special case has to offer when rethinking secularization.

  18. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  19. Comment 4 - policy for sustainable development: Some unresolved issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttan, V.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are now in the midst of the third wave of social concern since World War II about the implications of natural resource availability and environmental change for the sustainability of improvements in human well-being. The first wave of concern in the late 1940s and early 1950s focused primarily on the quantitative relationship between resource availability and economic growth. The response to this first wave of concern was technical change in raw material production. The second wave of concern, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on the rising demand for assimilation by the environment of residuals derived from growth in commodity production and consumption - primarily at the local and regional level. Since the mid 1980s, these two early concerns have been supplemented by a third. This more recent concern centers around the implications for environmental quality, food production, and human health of a series of environmental changes such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and others that are occurring on a transnational scale. Before actions to resolve these more recent challenges to sustainable economic growth are taken, a number of unresolved issues must be confronted to allow a commitment to this resolution to be translated into an internally coherent reform agenda. In this note, he discuss three of these issues

  20. Interpretation for Discussions about End-of-Life Issues: Results from a National Survey of Health Care Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alicia; Kerr, Kathleen; O'Riordan, David; Pantilat, Steven Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Communication about end-of-life issues is difficult across language barriers. Little is known about the experience of health care interpreters in these discussions. Objectives Objectives of this study were to: 1) assess the experiences of healthcare interpreters when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues; 2) identify interpreter characteristics and experiences that may be associated with improved satisfaction and comfort with interpreting these discussions; and 3) describe interpreter training needs. Methods The study utilized an electronically administered survey distributed nationally to health care interpreters in the United States. One hundred and forty-two health care interpreters participated. Measurements included general experiences, attitudes, and perceived training needs when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues. Results Most respondents had received a certificate in interpretation (71%, 101/142), completed more than 40 hours of training (89%, 127/142), and had more than 5 years of interpreting experience (65%, 93/142). Overall, 85% (121/142) of respondents had interpreted discussions about end-of-life issues and most interpreted multiple discussions per week. Of those interpreters who had experience with these discussions, the majority (85%, 103/121) reported feeling comfortable, but only half (48%, 58/121) reported that these discussions usually went well. Interpreters who felt clear about their role were more likely than interpreters who did not feel clear about their role to think that discussions went well (51% [57/112] versus 11% [1/9], p=0.02) and to feel comfortable interpreting (88% [98/112] versus 56% [5/9], p=0.01). Eighty percent (97/121) of respondents with experience in end-of-life discussions were personally interested in more specific training for these discussions. Attitudes and perceived training needs did not differ by interpreter demographics or qualifications. Conclusions The majority of

  1. Climate Change and Its Causes, A Discussion About Some Key Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the limits of the Anthropogenic Global Warming Theory advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A phenomenological theory of climate change based on the physical properties of the data themselves is proposed. At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system. A climatic stabilization or cooling until 2030-2040 is forecast by the phenomenological model.

  2. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions.

  3. Introduction of a New National Currency; Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Cortés Douglas; Richard K. Abrams

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have become independent or regained their independence. Many have chosen to issue their own currencies and more are likely to do so. This paper draws on these and earlier experiences in order to summarize the main policy and institutional arrangements necessary for the introduction of a new currency and to discuss the key features of, and procedures for, the conversion. The paper is designed as a workin...

  4. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  5. International greenhouse gas trading programs: a discussion of measurement and accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward; Kats, Gregory; Sathaye, Jayant; Joshi, Hemant

    2003-01-01

    There is general scientific consensus that global warming is occurring and that this results from human activities, primarily burning fossil fuels. There is also a growing international consensus that the most cost-effective way to slow global warming is to establish international climate change trading programs that let institutions sell greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions in an international trading program. A well designed international GHG trading program could save billions or tens of billions of dollars and could result in a more rapid transfer of cleaner, more modern energy generating, transmitting and using technologies to developing nations. Establishing an international GHG trading program will require the development of international consensus rules on how to value and credit investments, for example in energy efficiency, that result in reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. Such a program would require the development of an international technical agreement on how to value emissions reductions attributed to energy-efficiency investments that reflect realistic estimates of future energy savings--and emissions reductions--that come from those investments. This paper examines five possible approaches for valuing energy savings which might serve as the basis for an international agreement, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and discusses lessons learned from conducting this evaluation process

  6. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  7. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  8. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. O'Sullivan…

  9. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Seismic Hazard Assessment and Uncertainties Treatment: Discussion on the current French regulation, practices and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the seismic risk in the context of nuclear safety in France is guided by the Fundamental Safety Rule (RFS2001-01) for the assessment of seismic hazard, and by the Guide ASN/2/01 for the design rules of civil engineering structures. These two references have been updated respectively in 2001 and 2006 and validated by the Nuclear Safety Authority. The French approach is anchored on a deterministic approach. We propose to recall the principles of the methodology recommended by the RFS 2001-01, and to illustrate the advantages and limitations highlighted in recent years. Indeed, this regulatory framework is used both in the design stage and for safety reassessment of all nuclear facilities, power reactors and experimental laboratories and factories. We focus on: (i) key parameters of the approach, and their level of knowledge, (ii) key steps and principles that lead to a non-homogeneous approach between various geographic sites, depending on the seismic activity and / or knowledge, (iii) on physical phenomena (such as the geometric extension of the seismic source, the complexity of earthquake rupture on the fault plane) that are not taken into account, or for which (2D and 3D site effects, and non-linear soil behavior under strong motions), the RFS 2001-01 approach does not provide any guidance, (iv) consideration of epistemic and random uncertainties. We discuss also the probabilistic approaches widely implemented both in France as recently to establish the seismic zoning (reference for the regulation of conventional building and classified installations for the environment), used worldwide and strongly supported by the international Atomic Energy Agency references (safety guides and guidelines). The Tohoku earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, triggering the tsunami that itself caused the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi site has resulted in the realization in France of the Complementary Safety Studies as a request of the

  10. Informing body checking policy in youth ice hockey in Canada: a discussion meeting with researchers and community stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Carly D; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-11-05

    Body checking is a significant risk factor for injury, including concussion, in youth ice hockey. Recent evidence regarding injury rates in youth leagues prompted USA Hockey to institute a national policy change in 2011 that increased the age of body checking introduction from 11-12 years old (Pee Wee) to 13-14 years old (Bantam). Body checking policy was more controversial in Canada, and research evidence alone was insufficient to drive change. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of one of the knowledge exchange processes that occurred between researchers and community stakeholders, leading up to a national policy change in 2013. There were 28 stakeholder attendees, representing the research community, youth hockey organizations, and child health advocacy groups. A one-day meeting held in Whistler, British Columbia, in April 2013. Researchers and stakeholders presented current perspectives on evidence and policy change, and discussion focused on an a priori set of questions designed to elicit facilitators and barriers to policy change. Three major factors that can drive policy change in the sport safety context were identified: the need for decision-making leadership, the importance of knowledge translation, and the role of sport culture as a barrier to change. There is a critical need for researcher and stakeholder partnership in facilitating ongoing policy discussion and informing evidence-based policy change in sport and recreation injury prevention.

  11. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    How can we sustain global economic performance while reducing and perhaps eliminating climate impacts? This dual objective ultimately requires the innovation of radically new low- or zero-emitting energy technologies. But what is involved in such innovation, and why and how should governments support it? What are the implications for innovation policy makers? The paper discusses the nature of the innovation challenge of climate change, develops a framework for analyzing modes of innovation, applies the framework to energy technologies and analyses policies for energy innovation. The overall argument is that we are 'locked in' to an unsustainable but large-scale hydrocarbon energy system. The innovation problem is to develop alternatives to this system as a whole. Yet despite widespread environmental innovation efforts and incentives, these are not yet addressing the innovation challenge on an adequate scale. The analytical framework sees technologies not as single techniques but as multi-faceted technological 'regimes'. Technological regimes comprise production systems and methods, scientific and engineering knowledge organization, infrastructures, and social patterns of technology use. We live not with individual energy technologies but with a complex hydrocarbon regime. Against this background we can identify three modes of innovation, with very different characteristics. They are; Incremental innovations - upgrades to existing technologies, producing innovation within existing technological regimes, such as increases in the capabilities and speeds of microprocessors; Disruptive innovations - new methods of performing existing technical functions, changing how things are done, but not changing the overall regime, such as the shift from film to digital imaging; Radical innovations - technological regime shifts, involving wholly new technical functions, new knowledge bases, and new organizational forms, such as the transition from steam power

  12. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  13. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  14. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    constrained from increased production by lack of capital, high yielding and disease resistant banana varieties. Policy recommendation to this effect was suggested. Key words: Policy, structure, conduct, performance and banana. INTRODUCTION. Cultivated bananas (cultivars) belong to the Euniusa of the family muraceae.

  15. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  16. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  17. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part IV. Energy-efficient recreational travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disaggregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. This report contains the design of a specific policy that addresses energy conservation in recreational travel. The policy is denoted as an ''Information System for the National Park Service.'' This work is based on prior examination of the characteristics of the recreational trip and decision making for the recreational experience. The examination revealed which aspects of the recreational travel system needed to be addressed to encourage energy-efficient modal decisions for recreational travel. This policy is briefly described in Section 1, the ''Summary of Initiative.'' A more detailed discussion of the policy follows. The material which led to the policy's formation is developed in Section 2: Importance and Impact of the Recreational Trip; Weekend Travel; The Flowchart: Decision Making for the Recreational Experience; Policy Development for Phase 1 ''Planning the Trip;'' and Objectives and Strategies for ''Planning the Trip.'' (MCW)

  18. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics: Uncertainty, Values and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as feasible, policies, targeting climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach. This special issue will identify the main challenges that climate change poses from social, economic, methodological and ethical perspectives by focusing on the complex interrelations between uncertainty, values and policy in this context. This special issue brings together scholars from economics, social sciences and philosophy in order to address these challenges.

  19. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  1. Social Policy Issues in Planning Major Development Projects: Rural Community Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)

  2. Emission trading schemes: potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jeff; Owen, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The case for the imposition of carbon (emission) taxes or tradable carbon permits in important tax jurisdictions is arguably strong, based upon the polluter pays principle first proposed by Pigou almost a century ago. This paper briefly reviews the arguments for and against these market-based instruments, and discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages in a practical context. In the case of Australia, the revenue effect of the proposed tradable carbon permits scheme is estimated to be A$11.5 billion in 2010-11. For comparison, this is roughly equivalent to a quarter of the revenue from the Goods and Services Tax. The paper focuses on three neglected aspects of climate change taxation discussion to date: how much tax revenue is likely to be raised, and the administrative and compliance costs of an emissions trading scheme, with particular reference to Australia. In discussing these issues, the paper draws upon selected and relevant international experience, particularly the European Union emissions trading scheme. The challenges of an emissions trading scheme, including integration with the existing tax system, particularly in an Australian context, are also discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising the key challenges and issues facing this 'ultimate externality' debate, particularly from a taxation policy perspective.

  3. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  4. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  5. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  6. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  7. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 133... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... issues to extend the enforcement discretion to correspond with a submittal schedule for new license...

  8. Innovation Zones: Creating Policy Flexibility for Personalized Learning. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan; Gentz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative instructional models and create space for…

  9. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  10. Computer Viruses. Legal and Policy Issues Facing Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.; And Others

    Compiled by various members of the higher educational community together with risk managers, computer center managers, and computer industry experts, this report recommends establishing policies on an institutional level to protect colleges and universities from computer viruses and the accompanying liability. Various aspects of the topic are…

  11. 2008 Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Notwithstanding, Ola (2006) in her own studies, itemized the need to formulate and adopt every policy as thus:- i. Encourages advice from the academic staff regarding what materials to add to collection. ii. Encourages Input from students iii. Ensures participation of the collection development librarian iv. Defines clearly the ...

  12. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  13. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  14. Rethinking Social Policy for an Aging Workforce and Society: Insights from the Life Course Perspective. CPRN Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Victor W.; Mueller, Margaret M.

    Canadian population trends were examined from a life course perspective to identify needed social policy changes. First, the following principles underpinning the life course perspective were discussed: (1) aging involves biological, psychological, and social processes; (2) human development and aging are lifelong processes; (3) individuals' and…

  15. Discussing Terrorism: A Pupil-Inspired Guide to UK Counter-Terrorism Policy Implementation in Religious Education Classrooms in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermaine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    My research into pupils' perceptions of terrorism and current UK counter-terrorism policy highlights the need for more detailed and accurate discussions about the implementation of the educational aims, in particular those laid out by the Prevent Strategy. Religious education (RE) in England is affected by these aims, specifically the challenging…

  16. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options: a discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  17. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options : A discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  18. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  19. MODELING MONETARY POLICY RULES IN THE MENACOUNTRIES: ISSUES AND EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Husam Helmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the monetary policy reaction function for two sets of MENAcountries: The inflation target countries, (Turkeyand Israel and the exchange ratetarget countries, (Jordan and Morocco. We motivateour empirical analysis byanalyzing a simple Taylor rule. This model looks atthe effects of inflation andoutput on setting the interest rate by the centralbank. Furthermore, we extendedour model by adding the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate using similarmodel used by Clarida et al (1998 with using GMM estimator.Findings of this study yield some interesting results,all the central banks in thesample uses interest rate smoothing in managing their monetary policy. Inaddition, The Central bank in Turkey, Israel and Morocco focuses on achievinglow level of inflation. On the other hand, the Monetary Authority in Jordan caresabout stabilizing the output gap. Estimating the extended Taylor rule suggests thehighly significant effect of foreign interest rateon setting the interest rate inTurkey. Taken all together, the results lend support to the importance of followinga rule rather than discretionary in reducing the inflation rate and crediblemonetary policy. In addition, the simple Taylor rule can be applied on MENAcountries but it requires some modification such asadding the exchange rate andthe foreign interest rate.

  20. Discussing end-of-life care issues with terminally ill patients and their relatives: comparisons among physicians, nurses and psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasevoli, Mario; Giantin, Valter; Voci, Alberto; Valentini, Elisabetta; Zurlo, Anna; Maggi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Orrù, Graziella; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Pegoraro, Renzo; Manzato, Enzo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the end-of-life topics most frequently discussed by Italian physicians, nurses and psychologists with terminally ill patients and their relatives. Findings were compared with the levels of communication reported by physicians in other countries involved in the EURELD research project, in Europe and elsewhere. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to measure levels of communication and administered to 716 professionals (181 physicians, 454 nurses and 81 psychologists) employed in geriatric hospital wards, hospices and nursing homes, or registered with professional associations in the Veneto and Trentino Alto-Adige regions of north-east Italy. Statistical analyses (frequency analysis, multivariate logistic regression) were conducted on data from questionnaires returned by standard mail or email. Communication levels vary for the various end-of-life issues which physicians, nurses and psychologists are required to discuss and the individuals with whom they deal. Italian physicians are more communicative with relatives than with patients, whereas psychologists tend to discuss these problems more with patients than with members of their families. Nurses behave in much the same way with both patients and relatives. By comparison with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, Italian physicians reveal more evident differences in their willingness to discuss end-of-life issues, depending on whether they are communicating with patients or relatives. Having received bio-ethical training helps physicians communicate with their patients. Communicating is a fundamental part of providing care for terminally ill patients and support for their families. The patient care process involves several kinds of professionals, who are all increasingly called upon to be prepared to discuss the end of a patient's life, and to develop a therapeutic relationship which includes communicating without evading any of the aspects (and problems) relating to this

  1. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  2. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  3. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  4. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  5. Staff discussion of fifteen technical issues listed in attachment to November 3, 1976 memorandum from Director, NRR to NRR staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    Issues discussed include: treatment of non-safety grade equipment in evaluation of a postulated steamline break accidents, lack of independence of interlocks in ECCS valves, acceptability of swing bus design of BWR-4 plants, loss of offsite power subsequent to manual safety injection reset following a LOCA, postulated reactor coolant pump rotor seizures, single failures in reactivity control, passive failures following a LOCA, probabilistic assessment of reliability, frequency decay, grid stability, interpretation of GDC 19, load break switch, instrument trip setpoints, computer protection system, and overpressurization

  6. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  7. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  8. OECD Trilog Plenary Symposium : public policy issues in global freight logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This is the fifth plenary symposium on public policy issues in global freight logistics conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD's Trilateral Logistics Project, Trilog Project, is aimed at clarifying the pub...

  9. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  10. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... policy makers appear to be adopting tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential diplomacy in the international...

  11. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    current Ukrainian government is disbanding the Berkut, and the perceived weakness of the authorities in Kyiv could potentially be exploited by Crimea and...banned imports of Ukrainian chocolates from Roshen, a company owned by a strong supporter of the Association Agreement. Russian officials also briefly...reactor site. The two countries are cooperating on energy issues as well. U.S. officials have repeatedly stressed that Ukraine’s security depends on

  12. PRIORITIES OF REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Kudryavtseva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of eliciting priority ecological problems are analyzed in the article. The problem of air pollution is considered to be the foreground issue for both the Ural Federal District and Russia; that was due substantiated. An extended technique of setting priorities for air pollutants and techniques for integral ecological and social assessment of air pollution acuteness extent in the region have been offered; calculations for the Ural Federal District have been made according to the techniques mentioned.

  13. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Ghelfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different signals appear to delineate a possible framework for recovery for legumes: the first of these is represented by the recent reversal trend in domestic consumption, due to healthy reasons and a fall in meat consumption. The favourable trend of organic consumption can also be considered as a positive factor for pulses. However, the focus point for pulses future perspective is the recent development of the European policy (2014-2020 that planned several actions in support of them, such as coupled payments and the provisions of greening rules. These policies aim to support the training effort needed to bring home to producers the importance of legumes in a proper crop rotation that maintains soil fertility and therefore better yields and profitability. In light of this and based on the general crisis in cereals prices, it is possible to be reasonably optimistic regarding the future of the legumes sector in Italy.

  14. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  16. Governing the transition to renewable energy: A review of impacts and policy issues in the small hydropower boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Richards, Sarah; Silber-Coats, Noah; Crootof, Arica; Tecklin, David; Bauer, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy technologies raises new and important governance questions. With small hydropower (SHP) expanding as part of renewable energy and climate mitigation strategies, this review assesses its impacts and identifies escalating policy issues. To provide a comprehensive literature review of small hydropower, we evaluated over 3600 articles and policy documents. This review identified four major concerns: (1) confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting scholarship and policy-making; (2) there is a lack of knowledge and acknowledgement of small hydropower’s social, environmental, and cumulative impacts; (3) small hydropower’s promotion as a climate mitigation strategy can negatively affect local communities, posing contradictions for climate change policy; and (4) institutional analysis is needed to facilitate renewable energy integration with existing environmental laws to ensure sustainable energy development. For readers interested in small hydropower, we clarify areas of confusion in definition and explain the corresponding impacts for distinct system designs. For a broader readership, we situate small hydropower implementation within international trends of renewable energy development – the contradictory impacts of climate change policy, emerging dynamics in energy finance, and reliance on market mechanisms. Our paper provides a timely contribution to scholarship on small hydropower and the transition to renewable energy. - Highlights: • Confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting small hydropower debates. • Small hydropower’s negative impacts are largely overlooked in policy discussions. • Small hydropower exemplifies paradoxical problems with climate change policy. • Policies needed to integrate renewable energy development with national environmental institutions.

  17. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics : Uncertainty, Values and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as

  18. Introduction: Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.

    2015-01-01

    "Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"

  19. Explaining How Political Actors Gain Strategic Positions: Predictors of Centrality in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamara V.; Wang, Yuling; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from interviews with 111 reading policy actors from California, Connecticut, Michigan, and Utah, this study explains how individuals acquire central positions in issue networks. Regression analyses showed that the greater a policy actor's reputed influence was and the more similar their preferences were to other members in the network,…

  20. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  1. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump "older people" together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as "senior." This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active "young-old" and the potentially more impaired "old-old" (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old's plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population.

  2. Barriers to convergence: legislative, regulatory and policy issues in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of Alberta`s electric power industry has created potential for convergence with the natural gas industry. This presentation outlined some of the key issues dealing with convergence, including (1) the existing regulatory structures, (2) areas of convergence, (3) a comparison of the state of transition in Alberta of the electricity and natural gas to commodity markets in terms of supply, market, and legislative and regulatory jurisdiction, (4) price convergence and limiting factors, (5) key elements in the restructuring of the electric industry in Alberta, (6) the influence of restructuring on convergence, and (7) the barriers and limits to convergence. 37 figs.

  3. The Teacher Workforce in Australia: Supply, Demand and Data Issues. Policy Insights, Issue #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the current teacher workforce situation in Australia. It highlights workforce trends and projected growth, and areas where the collection and analysis of additional data may assist in the targeting of effective policy. Demand for teachers is on the rise. The population of primary students is set to increase…

  4. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  6. The Public-Private Divide in Ethiopian Higher Education: Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nega, Mulu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education context. The article is based on two premises.…

  7. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump “older people” together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as “senior.” This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active “young-old” and the potentially more impaired “old-old” (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old’s plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population. PMID:24523829

  8. Policy and technical issues for international safeguards in nuclear weapons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of international safeguards into the military and commercial fuel cycles of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) -- the subject of previous proposals in international safeguards discussions and of studies in the safeguards literature -- has been given impetus by recent US government initiatives for safeguards on excess weapons materials and a verified fissile materials production cutoff. These proposals, if implemented, would have implications on the safeguards objectives, approaches, and technologies that are traditionally employed in international safeguards. This paper examines the modifications and innovations that might be required to the current international safeguards regime in meeting these proposed new roles. Although the examples given are in the context of the US materials and facilities, many of the conclusions are valid for other NWS. None of the statements in this paper represent official US position on policy for international safeguards in weapons states. Instead, the purpose is to identify policy and technical issues and to offer, where possible, options for their resolution. This paper limits consideration to the potential role of the IAEA in verifying these proposed initiatives for declared facilities, recognizing that there may also be a role for bilateral, multilateral, or regional verification regimes. Indeed, in some cases verification of weapons materials may be more appropriate for a bilateral arrangement. Because traditional IAEA safeguards may not be admissible for weapons materials, the concept of ''transparency'' is suggested as a less intrusive alternative providing some confidence that materials are as declared

  9. [Food insecurity: associated variables and issues for public policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Sara E; Patiño, Gonzalo A; Herrán, Oscar F

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the explanations change over time according to the state of demographic, epidemiological and nutritional transitions. Five methods were compared to establish t he magnitude of food insecurity and related variables. Four hundred and thirty-two households in Colombia were classified using five methods, including (1) the scale of perceptions of food safety (EPSA),(2) the Latin American and Caribbean scale (ELCSA), (3) the usual intake of energy from the head of household, (4) the usual consumption of energy of all members of the home, and (5) an algorithm based on consumption and status of children. Binomial regression established variables associated with food insecurity. Insecurity varied between 35.9% and 87.0%. According ELCSA and method 3, households with children have a lower risk of insecurity, 0.51 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.90) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.96). Under the EPSA and ELCSA, increased insecurity is associated with nonpayment of utilities, 1.75 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.28) and the head of household declared limited access to food, 1.48 (95% CI: 1, 20 to 1.68). Sporadic income was associated with the method 3, 1.34 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.53) and method 4, 1.32 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.52). Paying rent, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.16), time spent in the municipality, 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.93) and not having sewer, 1.13 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) were associated with the food insecurity using method 5. Since the country has reliable information that is obtained routinely it is not relevant or useful to use these methods with the purpose of developing social policies.

  10. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  11. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  12. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  13. Further Monetary Easing Policies under the Non-negativity Constraints of Nominal Interest Rates: Summary of the Discussion Based on Japan's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Nobuyuki; Okina, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines issues surrounding monetary policy under zero interest rates based on one and a half year fs experience in Japan. After reviewing the market development in Japan, it summarizes the transmission mechanism of monetary policy under zero nominal interest rates, and considers what would be the likely policy options if a central bank were to conduct further monetary easing. Specifically, a more detailed policy announcement is regarded as feasible, less costly, and the less risky...

  14. Smart Specialisation, Entrepreneurship and SMEs : Issues and Challenges for a Results-Oriented EU Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways that European regional policy has been re-shaped in order to build on the role played by entrepreneurship in driving regional innovation. The various lines of re-thinking which have helped to reform the policy draw heavily on modern theories of entrepreneurship and

  15. Coastal erosion and beach nourishment in Scania as issues in Swedish coastal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, L.E.; Frederiksson, Caroline; Wang, Zilin; Slinger, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the dynamics of coastal policy change in Sweden, using erosion and beach nourishments as an example. The Multiple Stream Model is a theoretical model on agenda setting and policy change developed by the political scientist John Kingdon (1984, 2003). This paper applies Kingdon’s

  16. General practitioner views about discussing sexual issues with patients with coronary heart disease: a national survey in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Molly

    2010-05-25

    Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients\\' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs\\' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate). Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn\\'t ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.

  17. General practitioner views about discussing sexual issues with patients with coronary heart disease: a national survey in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Hannah M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate. Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn't ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.

  18. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  19. News, discussion and associative issue ownership: instability at the micro level versus stability at the macro level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Walter, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Associative issue ownership refers to one of the prerequisites for representative democracy-public awareness of the issue priorities of competing political parties. This article addresses the question of how the instability of associative issue ownership at the micro level of individual voters,

  20. Polish Housing Policy in Com parison with the Housing Policy in the UE – Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main principles of Polish housing policy and to compare it with the housing policy in the European Union. Poland, as an UE member, did not hammer out successful solutions which could facilitate the process of building new low-rental dwellings. The authors aim is to find the answer to research question: is it worth concentrating on fulfilling housing needs of low-income households in Poland and if yes, why? In order to do this the following hypothesis is put forward: on account of long-standing neglect connected with the Polish social housing finance there is an urgent need of housing reform oriented to the low-income housing growth.

  1. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Korea to drug trafficking . Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and...trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies in combating international drug trafficking . The challenge to policy makers...country’s chronic food shortages. Another issue of rising concern is the degree to which profits from any North Korean drug trafficking , counterfeiting

  2. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  3. Carbon dioxide capture and storage : public perception, policy and regulatory issues in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Huijts, N.M.A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Dept. of Human Technology Interactions

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS) is emerging as a viable option to mitigate global climate change. However, uncertainty exists on the public acceptance, a legal framework, and the policy incentives for CCS. These issues must be addressed before widespread adoption of CCS technology. This paper discussed the current situation in the Netherlands. Although CCS was mentioned as a cost-effective option in the Netherlands 1998 Option Document, it was not included in the country's 1999 Climate Change Action Plan because a Dutch research team identified several threats to the implementation of geological CCS in the Netherlands. The threats included lack of public acceptance, unplanned seepage of CO{sub 2} from the reservoir, and lengthy legal and regulatory procedures. A reported public perception study highlighted the results of an inquiry on the perception of CCS with 112 people in Alkmaar and surroundings in northwest Netherlands. Alkmaar is located above a gas storage field, which in the past has caused several small earthquakes. The average attitude towards CCS was not positive but also not rejecting. The public's perception of CCS seemed to be dominated by concern. Meanwhile, the legal framework in the Netherlands is developing in great strides, allowing CCS through policy incentives that include the European Union Emissions Trading System, Joint Implementation, and an electricity subsidy. As such, CCS appears to have good chances, even of short-term commercial implementation in the Netherlands. However, it was emphasized that public opinion should continue to be taken into account when CCS is planned in populated areas. Despite public concerns, and the not in my back yard syndrome (NIMBY), CCS was rated more favourable for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions than nuclear, intensive energy savings, or maintaining coal. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Administrative and policy issues in reimbursement for nursing home capital investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerstler, H; Carlough, T; Schlenker, R E

    1991-01-01

    The way in which states reimburse for nursing home capital costs can create incentives for nursing home owners to use the home primarily as a vehicle for real estate speculation, with potentially adverse consequences for patient care. In order to help promote and control the stability, adequacy, and quality of capital investment in long-term care, an increasing number of states are using a fair-rental approach for calculating capital reimbursement. In this article we compare the fair-rental approach with traditional cost-based capital reimbursement in terms of administration and policy. We discuss issues of concern to the state (cost and reimbursement design options) and the investor (after-tax cash flows, rate of return, etc.). Our analysis suggests that fair-rental systems may be superior to traditional cost-based reimbursement in promoting and controlling industry stability, while at the same time providing an adequate return to investors, without incurring long-term increases in the costs of administering programs.

  5. A Note on Tourism and Regional Development: some Policy Issues in the Post-crisis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this final note we offer some considerations about the current role of tourism for regional development by focusing mainly on two aspects, the impact of the economic crisis together with the institutional changes derived from it and the new policy issues arising from the new framework.

  6. Politics in India: A Research Bibliography on Indian Political Institutions, Behavior and Public Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Urmila

    This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…

  7. Managing and Mobilising Talent in Malaysia: Issues, Challenges and Policy Implications for Malaysian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Norzaini; Sirat, Morshidi; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The future of Malaysia as a high-income and competitive nation largely depends on its pool of highly skilled human capital. Hence, the issue of human capital development has taken centre stage in numerous reform agendas of Malaysia. This paper seeks to provide examples of policy initiatives aimed at facilitating the management of highly educated…

  8. Screening Mental Health Problems in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…

  9. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  10. Transnational issue-specific expert networking: A pathway to local policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on key findings from a study of subnational governments in Mexico and Nigeria (O'Brien, 2013). With empirical richness of the case study method and small-n statistical analysis across the subnational units for each country, this study asks: How can we push the needle toward more progressive policy change on violence against women in developing and democratizing contexts? This study finds that issue-specific expert networking is a civic pathway to subnational policy responsiveness in Mexico and Nigeria. The dynamics of this pathway illuminate local-global political connections, and this study shows how issue-specific expert networking is important for the diffusion of an international norm and policies on violence against women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  12. Breastfeeding practices in women with type 1 diabetes: a discussion of the psychosocial factors and policies in Sweden and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bodil; Skouteris, Helen; Berg, Marie; Nagle, Cate; Morris, Heather; Nankervis, Alison; Sparud-Lundin, Carina

    2015-03-01

    Women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) face many challenges during their pregnancy, birth and in the postnatal period, including breastfeeding initiation and continuation while maintaining stable glycaemic control. In both Sweden and Australia the rates of breastfeeding initiation are high. However, overall there is limited information about the breastfeeding practices of women with T1DM and the factors affecting them. Similarities in demographics, birth rates and health systems create bases for discussion. The aim of this paper is to discuss psychosocial factors, policies and practices that impact on the breastfeeding practices of women with T1DM. Swedish research indicates that the overall breastfeeding rate in women with T1DM remains significantly lower than in women without diabetes in the first 2 and 6 months after childbirth with no differences in exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation and continuation among women with T1DM in Sweden has been shown to be influenced by health services delivery, supportive breastfeeding policies and socio-economic factors, particular perceived support from social networks and health professionals. There is limited research on the impact of attitudes towards breastfeeding, emotional and social well-being and diabetes-related stress on the decision of women with T1DM to initiate and continue to breastfeed for at least 6 months. A more comprehensive understanding of the breastfeeding practices and psychosocial factors operating during the first 6 months after birth for women with T1DM will be instrumental in the future design of interventions promoting initiation and continuation of breastfeeding in Sweden, Australia and elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  14. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: RFP, Contract, and Administrative Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers contracts, Request for Proposals (RFPs), and administrative issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  15. Policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinnagbe O. Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation are important, yet, frequently neglected functions in most organisations. In Nigeria, many programmes have been established over the years but only little monitoring and evaluation have been carried out because of many implementation problems and lack of realistic and/or stable policy framework. This paper was designed to X-ray policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. Inductive and deductive reasoning through a review of relevant literature was used in this philosophical paper. To improve the performance of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria, the following policy issues must be addressed: The questions of what should be monitored or evaluated, when should monitoring and/or evaluation be carried out and who should monitor and/or evaluate; and the methodology to be adopted in any project should be included in any agricultural programmes and/or policies. Manpower and financial resources, effective communication and the issue of accountability must be properly considered. The tools for monitoring and evaluation are also very crucial. The paper concluded that planning a good agricultural programme is not a problem in Nigeria but poor implementation is, as a result of poor monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, attention should be on when, how and who should be involved in monitoring and evaluation.

  16. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  17. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. Discussion The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive “combination prevention” programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. Conclusions The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers’ openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of Pr

  18. The German energy policy as a consequence of Fukushima. The scientific discussion between nuclear phase-out and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The book on the German energy policy as a consequence includes the following contributions: The German energy turnaround - scientific contributions. The energy turnaround in Germany - issue of interdisciplinary science. The transformation of the energy systems as social and technical challenge, - on the need of integrating energy research. Transformations and transformation blockades in the German energy system. The German energy turnaround in the context of international best practice. Energy turnaround also in Japan? - The chances of a nuclear phase-out. Possibilities and limits of public participation for the realization of an energy turnaround. Public energy in Germany - a model for participation? A plea for a comprehensive analysis of the energy turnaround in relation to the omnipresent crisis. Challenges and development in the German energy industry - consequences of the increasing percentage of renewable energies on the costs and the security of supply. Research funding and innovation promotion in the area of selected renewable energies. The economic chances of an energy turnaround. The need of appropriate monetary boundary conditions for the energy turnaround and the possibilities of an organization. The human factor in the context of the energy turnaround - environmental-psychological research approaches. The legal contribution to the energy turnaround. Vulnerability and resilience of energy systems. Geography of renewable energies -spatial constraints of a sustainable energy system. Critics and alternatives: The German energy turnaround that is no turnaround.

  19. Policy planning for nuclear power: an overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. (NHA)

  20. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2005-01-01

    and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...... to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary...

  1. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  2. TRAN-STAT, Issue No. 3, January 1978. Topics discussed: some statistical aspects of compositing field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Some statistical aspects of compositing field samples of soils for determining the content of Pu are discussed. Some of the potential problems involved in pooling samples are reviewed. This is followed by more detailed discussions and examples of compositing designs, adequacy of mixing, statistical models and their role in compositing, and related topics

  3. Replicating Social Programmes: Approaches, Strategies and Conceptual Issues. Management of Social Transformations (MOST) Discussion Paper Series, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper reviews the key issues and methodologies involved in the replication of social programs, as they pertain to non-profit sector development in the United States and in international development. The related process of knowledge transfer and dissemination, as well as the more specific strategies involved in replication and going-to-scale…

  4. Policy Statements Issued by Scientific Societies: Why Less can be More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, P. F.

    2001-12-01

    The results of hydrological research are increasingly important to decision-makers grappling with problems as diverse as global climate change, non-point source pollution, extreme weather events, and damage from flooding. In some cases scientific aspects of these problems are interwoven with economic, political and social disputes, and policy makers often seek the consensus scientific opinion to help shape the debate. Policy or position statements issued by scientific societies like AGU can embody scientific consensus and thus inform the public and policy makers. But this is not always the case. The potential for creating public misunderstanding is ever present. Therefore, the process leading to a policy statement needs to be deliberative, inclusive to the extent possible, and circumspect. In contrast to advocacy organizations or trade groups, as a learned society AGU and members acting on its behalf should only advocate positions on political or social issues that are based solely on available geophysical data and recognized scientific debate. That does not mean that AGU and other scientific societies must refrain from entering a political debate. AGU has a responsibility to its members to adopt positions of advocacy on geophysical science issues based on their intrinsic merits and needs. However, a learned society like AGU should state only what is credible about the scientific aspects of a political debate and not overstep its authority as an objective source of analysis and commentary for the geophysical sciences. Before adopting an advocacy position, AGU's volunteers follow a process that includes checks and balances so that the final statement is based on sound scientific issues and reflects the interests of the Union as a whole. Any AGU member or committee can propose a position statement, but the Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) decides whether the proposal fall within the guidelines for advocacy. If it does and if COPA considers the issue worthy of an

  5. Nuclear energy policy issues after the 3.11 Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Commission (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident has become one of the worst accidents in nuclear history and it is not completely over yet. It will take at least 30 years or more to decontaminate and decommission the crippled nuclear reactors on site. Still, more than 140,000 people are away from home and restoring and assuring the life and welfare of those evacuated people is the top priority of Japanese government's nuclear energy policy. The government will release its new energy policy soon which will state that nuclear power is considered as an important base load electricity source, while committing to reduce its dependence as much as possible. For nuclear energy policy, there are certain important issues to be overcome regardless of future of nuclear power in Japan. They are: (1) spent fuel management and radioactive waste disposal, (2) restoring public trust (3) securing human resources and (4) plutonium stockpile management.

  6. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  7. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  8. Policy planning for nuclear power: An overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This special report, Policy Planning for Nuclear Power: An Overview of the Main Issues and Requirements, has been prepared in response to the express request of a number of IAEA Member States for a document to assist makers in developing countries on the introduction of nuclear power. The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. Further information and details on the technical and other issues presented in this report are given in the list of related IAEA publications and documents at the end of this report

  9. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  10. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  11. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  12. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  13. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive "combination prevention" programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers' openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of PrEP implementation.

  14. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  15. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-01-01

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution

  16. Different Welfare System—Same Values? How Social Work Educators in Norway, Chile and Argentina Comprehend Core Social Work and Social Policy Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolv Lyngstad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2013 and 2014, five focus-group interviews were conducted in Norway, Chile and Argentina in order to understand better how professors at social work programs understand professional issues and controversial social policy issues in their countries. In the focus groups, the participants were asked to reflect upon a vignette which was a fictitious discussion about professional issues and dilemmas in social work practices. Three themes were deployed in the vignette. The first related to different attitudes with respect to how social problems in society should be approached and treated (with a special focus on the relationship between the public, private and civil sectors in solving welfare problems. The second was about social work dilemmas in the contested space between universal equality values and local freedom values/discretion embedded in local self-determination. The third focused on welfare states’ principles distinguishing welfare benefits and services and how public welfare policies should be designed. The three countries are very different with respect to variables affecting welfare policies and social work practices. The most profound difference is likely that Chile (and to a lesser degree Argentina since the dictatorship is highly influenced by neo-liberal policies advocating small public involvement in social policy, whereas Norway is a typical social-democratic welfare state. This fact, however, does not affect the reflections and apprehensions of the issues in a substantial way. The professional attitudes of the professors are surprisingly equal in spite of their different backgrounds.

  17. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  18. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  19. Outsourcing, Globalizing Economics, and Shifting Language Policies: Issues in Managing Indian Call Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brian; Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a dialogic discussion about several issues concerning call centers, including globalizing surges, modernity tropes and educational practices. Based on a critical discourse analysis of a document offering to train west-based entrepreneurs to assume managerial positions in call centers in India, the paper explores ways in which…

  20. A discussion on issues which elderly evacuees after FDNP accident think about for the returning to own hometown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Maiko; Otsu, Haruka; Tomisawa, Toshiko

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the thoughts of elderly evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident about for the returning to their hometowns, and discussed the support needed for them. The subjects were 86 elderly people (mean age: 74.2 ± 7.2 years) whose hometown was one city in Fukushima. They completed a questionnaire regarding anxiety about radiation, requirements on return to their hometown, frequency of use of personal dosimetry, and so on. Thirty-nine people answered that they intend to return to their hometown if the evacuation order is lifted. They were mainly worried about the level of radiation and the post-decontamination state. Twenty-one people always use a personal dosimetry, while 34 people use it only on return to their home town temporarily. The rebuilding for evacuees to return to their hometowns needs a construction of a safe living environment such as satisfactory decontamination work and comfortable infrastructure. (author)

  1. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  2. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  3. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  4. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  5. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  6. Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis 10 years after the first description: what is known and the issues under discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, F; Pérez, A; Requena, L; Rütten, A

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on palmoplantar hypokeratosis, a process that was first indentified only 10 years ago, discusses the current state of our understanding, the therapeutic options available, and the debate about etiology. Forty-four publications reporting 69 cases were found. Palmar or plantar hypokeratosis occurs mainly in women (76.8%) and age at the time of a first visit to a physician ranges from 42 to 84 years. Most cases present between the ages of 51 and 70 years. The majority of patients have had solitary lesions usually located on the right palm, particularly in the regions of the thenar (in 44/79 lesions [55.7%]) or hypothenar eminences (in 11/79 lesions [13.9%]). In only 8 cases was there a history of prior trauma at the site. Studies using polymerase chain reaction techniques to identify human papillomavirus involvement were negative in most cases. These hypokeratotic lesions are localized epidermal depressions formed by an abrupt thinning of the stratum corneum, providing a singular histopathologic feature. This condition can currently be considered a localized keratinization disorder affecting zones where there is a thick stratum corneum. The precipitating cause is unknown and a definitive treatment remains to be found. The mechanism would be the localized failure of a clone of keratinocytes during differentiation toward normal palmoplantar hyperkeratinization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor Associated with Underlying Ataxia Syndromes: A Case Series and Discussion of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genko Oyama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been utilized to treat various symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Though ataxia syndromes have not been formally or frequently addressed with DBS, there are patients with ataxia and associated medication refractory tremor or dystonia who may potentially benefit from therapy.Methods: A retrospective database review was performed, searching for cases of ataxia where tremor and/or dystonia were addressed by utilizing DBS at the University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration between 2008 and 2011. Five patients were found who had DBS implantation to address either medication refractory tremor or dystonia. The patient's underlying diagnoses included spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2, fragile X associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, a case of idiopathic ataxia (ataxia not otherwise specified [NOS], spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, and a senataxin mutation (SETX.Results: DBS improved medication refractory tremor in the SCA2 and the ataxia NOS patients. The outcome for the FXTAS patient was poor. DBS improved dystonia in the SCA17 and SETX patients, although dystonia did not improve in the lower extremities of the SCA17 patient. All patients reported a transient gait dysfunction postoperatively, and there were no reports of improvement in ataxia‐related symptoms.Discussion: DBS may be an option to treat tremor, inclusive of dystonic tremor in patients with underlying ataxia; however, gait and other symptoms may possibly be worsened.Erratum published on July 27, 2016

  8. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant

  9. Public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul: Indicators for discussion and analysis in the area of the High Abilities/ Giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The actions to settle the proposal of public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil are discussed and analyzed in this paper, based upon Prieto’s indicators (2001, 2002, 2003: legal guidelines; theoretical conception; educational organization and functioning; educational system management; investments in the educational field; and teachers’ working conditions. Finally, a new paradigm of Special Education and the relevance of proposing public policies considering this model are highlighted, as well as the importance of an articulation among the different state departments to reinforce the public policy actions.

  10. Italy's All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zanini, Michele

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation builds an analytical framework for understanding the key policy issues and tradeoffs affecting the Italian Army's transition from a mixed conscript/volunteer model to an All-Volunteer Force (AVF...

  11. Energy and the global warming issue in developing countries: analyzing the incidence of the fuel carbon tax and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddayao, C.M.; Percebois, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    By changing the natural environment, energy resource use has repercussions for human welfare. So do policies that are proposed to deal with concerns over global climate warming, particularly with respect to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the major policy options identified are reduction of emission from fossil fuel consumption, as well as more rigorous forest management to avoid further deforestation. The basic approach to reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels is through the efficient use of energy. Fuel switching, pollution prevention technologies, and the 'polluter pays' principle are also among the policy strategies often discussed. One of the proposed economic policy instruments in the 'polluter pays' category that could lead to more efficient use of energy and at the same time deal with the CO 2 problem is the carbon tax. This paper will focus on the incidence of the tax in the different sectors of a developing country and suggest the key issues in analyzing this incidence. This introduction will include a brief background discussion on the greenhouse gas (GHG) issue which has led to the proposal for the carbon tax. In section II, the incidence of the carbon tax will be reviewed. In section III, the key analytical issues for analyzing incidence of the tax on a sector-by-sector analysis of a national tax will be raised. In this version of this paper, the intended quantitative analysis is not presented; we hope to have partial results by the time of conference. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Economic and policy issues of U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig D; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends from 1964 to 2010 based on estimates developed from USDA surveys, and the influence of economic factors, agricultural policy, and pesticide regulation on aggregate quantities and mix of pesticides used. Synthetic organic pesticide use grew dramatically from the 1960s to the early 1980s, as farmers treated more and more acreage. Use then stabilized, with herbicides applied to about 95% of corn, cotton, and soybean acres, annually. Subsequently, major factors affecting trends were: (1) changes in crop acreage and other economic factors, (2) use of new pesticides that reduced per-acre application rates and/or met more rigorous health and environmental standards, and (3) adoption of genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. The use of pesticides and other control practices responded to economic factors such as input and output markets and agricultural policies. Changing societal values toward pesticide risks and benefits profoundly affected pesticide policy, influencing the pesticides available for use, but only indirectly affecting aggregate quantities used. While the current pesticide regulatory process might have economic inefficiencies, it might be consistent with policy preferences held by much of the public-to reduce pesticide hazards rather than minimize regulatory costs. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. The central bank issuing policy and Fisher´s equation of exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of money and establishing interest rates are the main activities of central banks. Through this, the banks immediately influence the behaviour of households, companies, financial markets and the state with the impact on real outcome, employment and prices. When monitoring the issue of money, it is necessary to focus not only on its volume, but also on the attributes and functions carried by money. Among the first economists who considered the quality monetary aspect were J. Locke, D. Hume, D. Ricardo and others. The founders of modern monetarism of the 20th century were I. Fisher and M. Friedman. Fisher was the first to define the equation of monetary equilibrium in the present-day form. The objective of the paper is to point out different approaches to the equation and its modifications and different meanings of its variables. As regards the monetary aggregate M – Money – the paper also deals with the denomination of the aggregate to its various elements, which is significant for fulfilling monetary policy targets. This approach is very important especially at present in the time of crisis when central banks are performing their policy considering contradictory targets of price stability and economic growth.

  14. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  15. The Global Financial Crisis: Countercyclical Fiscal Policy Issues and Challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisami, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region—Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which ar...

  16. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  17. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  18. Integrating security issues in nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Classical vs policy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Rosita, Widya; Sihana, Fnu; Ferdiansjah; Santosa, Haryono Budi; Muharini, Anung

    2015-01-01

    Recently, risk management for nuclear facilities becomes more complex due to security issue addressed by IAEA. The harmonization between safety, safeguards and security is still questionable. It also challenges to nuclear engineering curriculum in the world how to appropriately lecture the new issue. This paper would like to describe how to integrate this issue in developing nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Indonesia has still no nuclear power plant, but there are 3 research reactors laid in Indonesia. As addition, there are several hospitals and industries utilizing radioisotopes in their activities. The knowledge about nuclear security of their staffs is also not enough for handling radioactive material furthermore the security officers. Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is the only university in Indonesia offering nuclear engineering program, as consequently the university should actively play the role in overcoming this issue not only in Indonesia, but also in Southeast Asia. In the other hand, students has to have proper knowledge in order to complete in the global nuclear industry. After visited several universities in USA and participated in INSEN meeting, we found that most of universities in the world anticipate this issue by giving the student courses related to policy (non-technical) study based on IAEA NSS 12. In the other hand, the rest just make nuclear security as a case study on their class. Furthermore, almost all of programs are graduate level. UGM decided to enhance several present related undergraduate courses with security topics as first step to develop the awareness of student to nuclear security. The next (curriculum 2016) is to integrate security topics into the entire of curriculum including designing a nuclear security elective course for undergraduate level. The first trial has successfully improved the student knowledge and awareness on nuclear security. (author)

  19. Legal and policy issues associated with monitoring employee E-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.

  20. How Do We Ensure Research and Scientific Integrity? A Diverse Panel Discusses the Critical Components and Challenges of Crafting and Implementing Effective Scientific Integrity Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    10 Years of Scientific Integrity Policy at the U.S. Geological Survey The U.S. Geological Survey implemented its first scientific integrity policy in January 2007. Following the 2009 and 2010 executive memoranda aimed at creating scientific integrity policies throughout the federal government, USGS' policy served as a template to inform the U.S. Department of Interior's policy set forth in January 2011. Scientific integrity policy at the USGS and DOI continues to evolve as best practices come to the fore and the broader Federal scientific integrity community evolves in its understanding of a vital and expanding endeavor. We find that scientific integrity is best served by: formal and informal mechanisms through which to resolve scientific integrity issues; a well-communicated and enforceable code of scientific conduct that is accessible to multiple audiences; an unfailing commitment to the code on the part of all parties; awareness through mandatory training; robust protection to encourage whistleblowers to come forward; and outreach with the scientific integrity community to foster consistency and share experiences.

  1. A Guide to Tax Policy and Higher Education. A Looseleaf Reference Service on Tax Issues Affecting Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to help presidents, trustees, and friends of higher education understand and act upon the many issues of tax policy that will affect their institutions. The contents include: (1) an introduction to the purpose, organization, and uses of the reference; (2) a paper on the principal tax issues affecting higher education most…

  2. Health Manpower Credentialing: Legal Implications of Institutional Licensure. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No.: C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Stephen

    The objective of this analysis is to outline in broad fashion the current trends and issues in the licensure of health manpower and to contrast two proposed alternative systems of credentialing that focus on licensure of health care institutions instead of individual health care providers. The argument of the analysis is that the current system of…

  3. Domestic micro-generation: Economic, regulatory and policy issues for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim; Sauter, Raphael [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Bahaj, Bakr; James, Patrick; Myers, Luke [Sustainable Energy Research Group, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Wing, Robert [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Micro-generation in individual homes has been the subject of increasing policy and industry attention in recent years. Whilst it has been estimated that micro-generation could meet 30-40% of UK electricity demand by 2050, deployment to date has been slow. In its Micro-generation Strategy the UK government has started to outline how deployment could be increased. Various technical, economic, behavioural and institutional changes are needed to establish a UK market for micro-generation. This article discusses how different deployment models for domestic micro-generation might attract investments in these technologies. It considers not only investments by individual households but also by energy companies. Starting from an economic analysis of payback times for three different technologies (micro-CHP, micro-wind and solar PV) it identifies policy and regulatory recommendations. It argues for technology-specific support policies in the short term. It also suggests that a 'level playing field' for micro-generation technologies as a result of fiscal and market reforms could considerably increase the attractiveness of micro-generation technologies. (author)

  4. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  5. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  6. Why We Need to Have Broad-Based Societal Discussions of the Governance of Geoengineering, at national and international levels, starting with scientists and increasingly with policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.

    2017-12-01

    . Geoengineering has planet-wide consequences and must therefore be discussed within intergovernmental institutions, including the United Nations. The research community has been addressing many of these issues, but the global policy community and the public largely have not. It's time to do so.

  7. Issues Regarding the Conducting of the Euro Area Monetary Policy During the European Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina O Criste

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides for the identification of the present challenges faced by the monetary policy of the European Central Bank, given that the sovereign debt crisis has complicated the pursuing of its primary objective of the maintaining the price stability. This research is a part of a larger framework, being a continuation of some previous works related to the issue of the sustainable functioning of a currency area. Based on the research of the international monetary institutions documents, we have presented "the route" of the financial shock and also the challenges facing the European Central Bank monetary policy in the current period and in the short-term perspective. The results reveal that the current crisis has been maintained and enhanced by the conflict occurrence between the “no bail out” clause provided in the Maastricht Treaty, and the “too big to fail” principle applied to the sovereign debt of the European countries. This discrepancy has undermined the confidence in the euro project at a level where the conventional channels of the monetary transmission mechanism do not work efficiently. This topical subject could be a reference for the academic research regarding the European monetary integration process and its new challenges.

  8. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  9. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  10. Policy issues arising from the judgmental nature of risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcquaid, J.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of risks is pervaded by the need to exercise judgement. The scientific basis for characterising risk problems and judging the effectiveness of possible controls is often uncertain, lacking information and understanding of the processes involved. However, the risk management measures adopted will not be determined by science alone, but must reflect sociological, economic, ethical and political considerations. These in turn are in themselves judgmental, informed to a greater or lesser extent by empirical evidence and influenced by the prevailing climate of public opinion. The overall process provides a rich source of confusion for the public as to the status of the eventual policy decision, with important implications for the manner in which the process of communication is managed. The important role of judgement, as distinct from formal analysis, at every stage needs to be reflected in risk communication. The engagement of those who bear the risks, and of other interested parties in the exercise of judgement must be tailored to nature of the judgement and to the decision to be made. Appropriate procedures need to be adopted to enable that engagement. Although the issue has come into particular prominence in recent years, it is not a new phenomenon. The presentation will describe the arrangements that have been developed in the UK over the past 25 years, and will be illustrated by some specific examples of risk decision making on issues of high public concern. (author)

  11. Open of chat rooms for discussing geological disposal issues and review of adequate approaches for offering the information using the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Ito, Toshikazu; Yabuta, Naohiro; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Tsunoda, Hirokazu

    2001-03-01

    JNC is doing publicity work to let the technical reliability for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) comprehended widely. But the information about geological disposal of HLW itself and its technology has not been spread and recognized. It has been required to offer the opportunity to discuss the geological disposal and its technology as our own issue. Recently the internet, which has such characteristics as two-way, instant and open communication means, has become used on business and for pleasure commonly. So the opportunity for discussing the topics related to geological disposal of HLW has been offered on the internet web site so-called 'Internet Forum' by JNC since fiscal year 1999. 'Internet Forum' or an assembly of chat rooms is being run on the web server which is not operated by JNC in order to provide the place where discussion on the issue can be done as fairly and objectively as possible. In this report, the results of Internet Forum in fiscal year 2000 comparing with that in fiscal year 1999 were shown and the adequate approaches of operating 'Internet Forum' and offering the information about geological disposal of HLW were reviewed. (author)

  12. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  13. Carbon dioxide capture and storage. Public perception, policy and regulatory issues in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Huijts, N.M.A. [Human Technology Interactions, Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    While CO2 capture and storage (CCS) projects are quickly emerging all over the world, uncertainty is prevailing on the public acceptance, a legal framework, and the policy incentives for CCS. Fulfilment of these requirements is essential for CCS deployment. This paper discusses the state of affairs in the Netherlands. The reported public perception study highlights the results of an inquiry on the perception of CCS with 112 people in the city of Alkmaar and surroundings in the Northwest of the Netherlands. Alkmaar is located above a gas storage field, which in the past has caused several small earthquakes. It can be concluded that the average attitude towards CO2 capture and storage is not positive but also not rejecting, although the drawbacks of the technology were regarded greater than the benefits, and significant NIMBY feelings could be distinguished. The public's feelings associated with storage of CO2 seem to be dominated by concern. Besides public perception of CCS, the legal and policy framework are key to implementation of CCS. The legal framework in the Netherlands is developing with a big step taken by the coming into force of a Mining Act allowing storage of CO2 in the underground under conditions for safety and environmental impacts. Policy incentives include the European Union Emissions Trading System, Joint Implementation, and an electricity subsidy of 7 eurocents/kWh for a Zero Emission Power Plant. All things combined, CCS appears to have good chances, even of short-term commercial implementation in the Netherlands. The occurrence of NIMBY feelings, however, should be taken into account when CCS is planned in populated areas.

  14. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  15. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for enabling advanced traveler information services (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents policy considerations for Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Services, or EnableATIS. : EnableATIS is the traveler information element of the Dynamic Mobility Applications program, and it provides a framework to : develop mu...

  16. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  18. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  19. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  20. Introduction to the Issue: “Promoting Children’s Participation in Research, Policy and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is more than twenty years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child gave governments and states an international mandate to ensure the safety and wellbeing of children and young people and to promote their participation in decisions that affect their lives. Considerable advances have been made since that time that have, in some but not all instances, seen transformations in the status, roles and responsibilities of children and young people and in the ways in which they are perceived and treated. These advances have included greater inclusion of children’s voices in research, policy and practice underpinned by children’s rights to participation and ‘best interests of the child’ decision-making. Bringing together a unique collection of international articles from authors with considerable expertise in researching and working with children and young people, this thematic issue explores some of the ways in which facilitating constructive dialogues with children and young people, and engaging them more directly in consultation about their lives, has led to genuine improvements in the way they are treated and understood. It also considers some of the barriers that exist to prevent children and young people from full participation in public life, some of which occur as a result of structural or systemic factors, while others are the result of the decisions adults make on their behalf.

  1. End-use fuel substitution: Review of regulatory approaches and key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, S.; Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Both customers and utilities can profit from properly conceived fuel substitution policies. This examination of existing practice may help state regulators grapple with a thorny issue. Some demand-side management advocates argue that state regulators should require electric utilities to pursue cost-effective fuel substitution to natural gas aggressively and have the utilities - i.e., electric ratepayers - finanace conversions. Others maintain that electric utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of electricity and that natural gas utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of natural gas, because this arrangement maintains the fundamental forces of competition on which a market system is based. This article explores the fuel substitution experiences of several state regulatory commissions. The authors conclude that: (1) opportunities for fuel substitution exist which are beneficial to the customers of both the gas company and the competing electric company, and (2) regulatory intervention can sometimes stimulate utilities to find win-win fuel substitution opportunities.

  2. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  3. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  4. Student Perceptions of Alcohol Policy Issues. Office for Student Affairs Research Bulletin; v15 n5 Jul74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel; And Others

    A mailed survey was conducted of students' opinions on issues relevant to the university's policy toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus. Responses were received from 402 members of a random sample of 496 students from the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. Key findings include: A majority of respondents believed…

  5. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  6. A public health Immunization Resource Web site for chiropractors: discussion of current issues and future challenges for evidence-based initiatives for the chiropractic profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsan, Raheleh; Smith, Monica; Hawk, Cheryl; Haas, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The Immunization Information Resource Web site is provided as a public service by the Chiropractic Health Care Section of the American Public Health Association. The site compiles annotated bibliographies of citations from the scientific literature, as well as other authoritative peer-reviewed information sources on this topic. Our intent was to create a resource of information for health care professionals that is current, accurate, objective, evidence based, and as user-friendly as possible. This article describes the Internet-based Immunization Information Resource Web site developed and sponsored by the Chiropractic Health Care Section of the American Public Health Association and discusses current issues and future challenges for sustaining and further advancing such evidence-based initiatives for the chiropractic profession.

  7. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  8. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  9. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, J.C.; Geraedts, J.; Borry, P.; Cornel, M.C.; Dondorp, W.; Gianaroli, L.; Harton, G.; Milachich, T.; Kaariainen, H.; Liebaers, I.; Morris, M.; Sequeiros, J.; Sermon, K.; Shenfield, F.O.; Skirton, H.; Soini, S.; Spits, C.; Veiga, A.; Vermeesch, J.R.; Viville, S.; de Wert, G.; Macek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two

  10. 'Implementation deficit' and 'street-level bureaucracy': policy, practice and change in the development of community nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Ann; While, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines the mechanisms by which health and social care policies put forward by the Government may be translated into community nursing practice. Data from a research project on community nurse case managers were re-examined in the light of two classic theories often cited by policy analysts (i.e. implementation theory and 'street-level bureaucracy'). It was found that the extent to which nurses adopted the case management role, and the model of choice, depended on four major interrelated variables, namely: (1) the clarity of policy guidance; (2) the extent to which it coincided with professional (nursing) values; (3) local practices and policies; and (4) the personal vision of the community nurse. It is argued that this framework may have wider relevance, and this was tested out in two ways. First, major change in one of these variables (Government policy) over time was analysed for its effect on case management practice via the remaining variables. Secondly, an unrelated, but policy-initiated, nursing issue (nurse prescribing) was briefly examined in the light of the framework. It is suggested that this framework may be of some use when considering the likely practice response to policy-related changes in community nursing.

  11. Sustainable Development Plan for Korea through Expansion of Green IT: Policy Issues for the Effective Utilization of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Baek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government is providing full support for green IT as one of the growth engines of Korea. The purpose of this study is to derive policy issues needed for the sustainable development of Korea through utilizing Big Data by applying green IT. The analysis is done using a Delphi technique. Results show that the establishment of computing platforms that can easily share data and generate value is prioritized for the effective use of Big Data from the environment. In addition, the government-led publication of genetic information and electronic medical records for research purposes has been derived as an important policy issue for the use of bio-Big Data. Besides, a guideline concerning the standardization of machine to machine and Internet of Things communication and data security is needed to effectively use Big Data from machines/things. Moreover, a review of legislation related to the utilization of Big Data from digital media has been derived as an important policy issue. The results of this study propose the direction in which the Korean government should move for green growth through effective utilization of Big Data. The results can be also useful resources for establishing relevant policies for various countries that are accelerating sustainable development.

  12. Political Terrorism in Southeast Asia and US Policy Issues: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, George

    1998-01-01

    .... As a result, the possibility of an increase in terrorism, separatist violence, ethnic disputes, and stained regional relations takes on greater significance, both for United States foreign policy...

  13. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research – an introduction to a virtual special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the themes of a virtual special issue (VSI) of Environmental Education Research (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focused on policy research in environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The broad purpose behind preparing the VSI was to consider...... the challenges involved in linking particular concepts of environment and sustainability with key themes in educational policy, and how this remains a heavily contested practice. Examples drawn from two decades of studies published in the journal show how these might be illustrated, addressed, problematized...

  14. Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy

  15. Expert views on scientific policy advice on complex environmental health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fact-based policies grounded in solid uncontested scientific evidence: this may sound as the ideal relation between science and policy. However, this ideal rarely holds for complex environmental health risks. When scientific knowledge is contested or incomplete, scientists can take different roles

  16. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  17. Massively parallel sequencing and the emergence of forensic genomics: Defining the policy and legal issues for law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Nathan; McNevin, Dennis; Kelty, Sally F; Walsh, Simon J; Robertson, James

    2018-03-01

    Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information. Although these applications have the potential to make a more immediate and decisive forensic intelligence contribution to criminal investigations, they raise policy issues that will require detailed consideration if this potential is to be realised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the scope of the issues that will confront forensic and user communities. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.

  18. State policy towards indigenous peoples of Alaska: historical review and contemporary issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina S. Golomidova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes main stages of policy development towards indigenous peoples of Alaska and its influence on aboriginal cultures from the beginning of Russian colonization in the 18th century up to present time. The authors conclude that current policy towards indigenous peoples in Alaska can be generally evaluated as successful and supporting development of traditional cultures. The main achievements of this policy are: high level of self-organization and self-government of Alaska natives, legally secured rights for land and resources, progress in conservation of cultural heritage. However, social and economic challenges faced by indigenous people present a potential threat to the political stability in Alaska.

  19. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An

  20. [The common issues of health policy in Russia concerning private system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimovskii, K K

    2016-01-01

    The article considers main principles of national policy specified in the constitution of the Russian Federation and other legislative acts concerning health care of population and development of private health care of Russia. The public policy intends wholeness and unity of national health care system and also state control of its functioning. All official documents and normative legislative acts relate to all sectors of national health care that substantiates unity of public policy. The important emphasis in actual policy is made on development of involvement of private sector in activities related to mandatory health insurance programs and implementation of various forms ofpublic-private partnership in health care. It is pointed out that omnipresent is delay of federal legislation from legislative base of regions, including its vagueness and incompleteness. The principle of self-regulation is described that is more and more implemented in private health care.

  1. Criminal Policy Challenges under Conditions of Hybrid War: Some Issues and Solutions from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenskyy Yevhen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the specifics of national criminal policy implementation under the influence of extraordinary geopolitical factors on it. Such policy will be reviewed with Ukraine serving as an appropriate example. This country has been recently forced to adjust its own ways of implementation of the state policy against crime based on atypical modern challenges and threats. This refers to the special nature of a hybrid war, which has been actively fought on the territory of Ukraine since 2014. The author examines two key areas of criminal policy (definition of the limits of criminal behavior and establishing criminal law consequences of the committed offenses, implemented under the extraordinary circumstances of hybrid war. Symptomatic features of the hybrid form of foreign aggression are defined in the piece. At the same time, options of criminal law in combating and preventing such aggression are researched.

  2. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion.

  3. Policy Paper 05: Regional Cooperation and Environmental Issues in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Zarsky, Lyuba

    1993-01-01

    Hayes and Zarsky describe the rapidly emerging agenda for regional collaboration on environmental issues in Northeast Asia. In Part One, they describe briefly some of the major transfrontier or regional environmental issues in Northeast Asia that represent a menu of opportunities for cooperation (and potential conflict) between states. These issues include transfrontier air pollution (acid rain only), marine pollution (radionuclides and oil only), migratory species (fish only), and trade-envi...

  4. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues underlying the implementation of industrial mobilization policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkerhoff, J.R. (Brinkerhoff Associates, Burke, VA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews the background and current status of industrial preparedness in the United States and analyzes ways to implement new policy procedures. What will it take to assure that the United States can be mobilize its industry rapidly to support a major conventional war The report reaches nine important conclusions: (1) Mobilization and industrial preparedness policy must be linked and integrated with other aspects of national security policy and the national military strategy. (2) The United States cannot reverse the flow of time and go back to a period of industrial superiority and self-sufficiency. (3) The United States must come to grips with its responsibilities for providing war materiel for Allies. (4) Similarly, the United States must recognize the interdependency of international trade and industrial production. (5) Graduated Mobilization Response needs to be adopted by the government and DOD and integrated into industrial preparedness policy. (6) The DOD industrial surge program should be fully funded. (7) Industrial preparedness planning should be funded now on a priority basis. (8) Organizational responsibilities and relationships for industrial preparedness have to be clarified, strengthened, and supported. (9) Finally, it is necessary to pay attention to this problem now. The report concludes by suggesting that the United States must develop a unified, clear statement of preparedness policy, linked with other security/military policies and strategies. This must be accomplished with some swiftness, and with the cognizance of current (and most likely to continue) domestic an international economic interdependencies.

  5. Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

  6. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  7. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  8. Financial conflict-of-interest policies in clinical research: issues for clinical investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth A; Cho, Mildred K; Bero, Lisa A

    2003-08-01

    As industry sponsorship of clinical research grows, investigators' personal financial relationships with those sponsors are under increasing scrutiny. The federal government, some states, and many universities have enacted conflict-of-interest policies to monitor and regulate investigators' financial relationships. Little is known, however, about investigators' awareness of or support for these policies or their attitudes toward regulatory efforts. To explore the possible implications of conflict-of-interest policies for clinical researchers, the authors interviewed active clinical investigators at two institutions where the conflict-of-interest policies differ. The most striking feature of the interviews was the range of perceptions and attitudes expressed by clinical investigators and their implications for administrators, professional societies, and policymakers concerned with conflicts of interest. Fewer than half of the interviewed investigators could accurately describe their campus' conflict-of-interest policy. Many investigators felt that professional societies, the public, and individual investigators were appropriate monitors of conflicts of interest. Many investigators recognized the general risks associated with conflicts of interest, but felt that they personally were not at risk. A fundamental challenge facing administrators and policymakers is to demonstrate to all investigators, both clinical and nonclinical, that the potential for bias, pressure and conflict is relevant to all investigators with industry relationships.

  9. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  10. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  11. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F

    2007-01-01

    .... Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies...

  12. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F

    2006-01-01

    .... Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large scale state sponsorship of drug production and trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies...

  13. International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa; Margesson, Rhoda; Seelke, Clare R; Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji; Serafino, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as a significant human rights and global health issue. VAW, which can include both random acts of violence as well as sustained abuse over time, can be physical, psychological, or sexual in nature...

  14. Legal and Policy Issues Regarding Niche Charter Schools: Race, Religion, Culture, and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Fox, Robert A.; Buchanan, Nina K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of ethnocentric or culturally oriented niche charter schools have opened around the country. These ethnic or culture-oriented models raise legal and policy concerns about church/state entanglement as well as concerns about diversity. Indeed, there has already been litigation focused on racial and ethnic aspects of charter schools…

  15. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  16. China and India: Different Educational Paths toward Prosperity. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Kumar, Krishna B.

    2008-01-01

    Different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating economic growth. The two countries started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s; however, different policies, strategies, and historical circumstances have led them through different routes. China has…

  17. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  18. Guiding Urban Growth: Policy Issues and Demographic Constraints. Paper Series No. 5212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Peter A.

    It is proposed in this document that the selectivity of migration, in terms of both people and places become a more imposing influence in urbanization as the role of natural increase as a source of urban growth diminishes. Recent U.S. growth policy proposals have frequently been marked by a simplistic view of how urban growth works, compounded by…

  19. Managing policy issues in the promotion of gender equality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ways and means through which policies could be made more impactful in the promotion of gender equality in the education. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Document study and interviewing techniques were used to collect data from the three contraveners of ...

  20. Education Policies and Practices to Address Cultural Diversity in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1969 racial riot in Kuala Lumpur served as a historical landmark in the development of Malaysian education, as it raised concerns about the state of national unity in the country. Subsequently, education was coupled with the socioeconomic restructuring of Malaysian society in line with the New Economic Policy (NEP) that commenced in 1970.…

  1. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  2. Immigration and Multiculturalism in Britain: New Issues in Research and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Menski, Werner

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a revised and enlarged version of a lecture delivered at Osaka University of Foreign Studies, during the course of Dr. Menski's tenure as a Visiting Professor at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. It provides a wide-ranging overview of the challenges for social policy currently being thrown up within Britain's ever more plural social order.

  3. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers. Policy Issue Series No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott; McCarthy, Martha

    The first section of this policy paper provides an overview of the historical development of early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs), the legal status of ERIPs under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), cost/benefit analyses involving ERIPs, and consideration of ERIPs in Indiana. The second section contains a brief synopsis of…

  4. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  5. State Primary Stroke Center Policies in the US: Rural Health Issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Rho, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between state primary stroke center (PSC) designation policy implementation and access to optimal stroke care for residents of rural areas. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected during the period September 2008–August 2009. Following content

  6. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  7. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison; Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik. Die Diskussion in Deutschland und den Niederlanden im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [German] Die Schiefergasfoerderung mit Hilfe der sogenannten Fracking-Methode stellt fuer Gegner die Anwendung einer Hochrisikotechnologie dar, Befuerworter sehen darin hingegen einen technologischen Fortschritt und die Antwort auf derzeitige Energiefragen. Fuer die Buerger eines Landes birgt die Debatte vor allem Unsicherheiten, ist die Technologie doch mit Risiken verbunden, die nicht nur fuer den Laien schwer einzuschaetzen sind. Aufgrund dieser Unsicherheiten droht die Gefahr, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fuer politische Zwecke instrumentalisiert werden. Besonders spannend ist daher die Frage, wie die Thematik in unterschiedlichen Laendern diskutiert wird. In Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik werden die Debatten im Erdgasland Niederlande und dem Land der Energiewende, Deutschland, verglichen. Den Schwerpunkt legt Kerstin Kontny dabei auf die an der Debatte beteiligten Akteure, den Verlauf der Debatte sowie die behandelten Themen. Dabei

  8. The Green Paper Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Paul; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen articles discuss the implications of Australia's Green Paper, a public policy statement recommending substantial changes in the higher education system to improve access. The issues discussed include labor force development, educational equity, women's education, and the financing of higher education. (MSE)

  9. [A study of general public's trust in government and corporation in the issues of defense and nuclear power policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Katsuya

    2002-02-01

    This study examined general public's trust in national government and electric power companies in terms of nuclear power policies, and that in the government in terms of defense policies. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 560 Kobe citizens, and a total of 409 complete it. Covariance structure analysis was performed to test hypotheses of the present study. Results suggested that the more demanding of the government and corporations, the lower the person's trust. How well the person understood the difficulty of the work involved hardly affected his/her demand and trust in all three actors of the two issues. Results also indicated that the person who perceived the government to be under pressure to appear trustworthy tended to have lower trust in them, that Yamagishi's general trust (1998) did not influence the trust in the cases, and that awareness of popular political empowerment had a negative impact on the trust in the government.

  10. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  11. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  12. The issues of investment policy in the economy of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda NAZAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investment policy of the state is to develop a set of measures to attract investment into the economy. In this article, the basic directions of the investment policy in the Republic of Moldova to ensure the achievement of the strategic objectives of Moldova are reflected. Analyzing the situation in the republic investment sector, we can formulate the negative factors to attract investment in the development of entrepreneurship in Moldova: the unstable political situation, corruption and bureaucracy, lack of qualified human resources, poor infrastructure, etc. For developing the investment climate, it is necessary to improve the management of central and local administration, to help investors at every stage of the investment process. The following priority sectors of the national economy for attraction of investment of can be highlighted: services for entrepreneurs, development of information technology products, the development of the electronics industry, development of light industry, producing parts for self-services, the agro-industrial sector, tourism, transport logistics.

  13. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  14. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    smuggling, irregular migration, and the movement of asylum seekers . In 2000, the United Nations drafted two protocols, known as the Palermo Protocols...the Border: Immigrants in Detention and Victims of Trafficking, Part II, 110th Cong., 1 sess., March 20, 2007. 128 Personal communication with ICE...Liana Sun Wyler Analyst in International Crime and Narcotics Alison Siskin Specialist in Immigration Policy August 4, 2010 Congressional Research

  15. Take on the issue of chronic pain with comprehensive solutions, firm policies on prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Patients who visit the ED frequently to obtain treatment for chronic pain can be frustrating and difficult to manage, but some EDs are making progress with this group by linking these patients to resources and establishing a firm policy on when narcotics will be prescribed. Experts say that while strict "no opioids" policies rarely work well, some patients can be helped when given access to more comprehensive treatment approaches. The ED at Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis has developed a multidisciplinary program that includes referrals to a primary care provider (PCP), as well as a chemical dependency specialist. All providers have access to care-management notes on the patient through the health system's electronic medical record. Patients who are non-complaint with the program risk losing access to narcotic medications when they visit the ED. The ED at Dosher Memorial Hospital in Southport, NC, has developed a policy that encourages all patients with chronic pain to seek treatment from a PCP. The hospital will help to link patients with a PCP and other resources in the region. The approach has curbed the incidence of drug-seeking behavior and helped to make the treatment of chronic pain uniform across all ED providers. Since the prevalence of pain is so high among patients in the ED, many emergency physicians are seeking added training in the treatment of pain.

  16. National Security Issues 1981 Symposium. Strategic Nuclear Policies, Weapons, and the C3 Connection, October 13-14, 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    we’re dealing largely with elements that are ulations that probably every one of us would sign only partially known. In the Rorschach test that - that...electronic, industrial, civil and con.,nerial markets. degree (A.E.) and a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Mathematics Dr DeLauer Joined TRW in 1958 following a !15...on defense, foreign policies and economic development issues. Born in 1922. Mr. Kahn holds a B.A. degree in physics and mathematics from the University

  17. Working paper Green Gas. Overview of policy issues on Green Gas; Werkdocument Groen Gas. Overzicht Beleidsvraagstukken Groen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, M.

    2012-07-15

    Early 2010, the interdepartmental Accelerator Team Green Gas was established which deals with policy issues in the field of Green Gas. This working document reflects the current state of affairs. Via the website www.groengas.nl new versions will be made available on a regular basis [Dutch] Begin 2010 is het interdepartementale Versnellerteam Groen Gas opgericht dat zich bezighoudt met vraagstukken op het gebied van Groen Gas die op het terrein van de rijksoverheid liggen. Dit werkdocument geeft de huidige stand van zaken weer. Via www.groengas.nl komen geregeld nieuwe versies beschikbaar.

  18. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  19. The 21st Century's Vision of the Korean Teaching Profession: Issues and Policy Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hwa

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of the current situation within the Korean teaching profession, highlighting major issues and problems (e.g., low professionalism; ineffective preservice and inservice teacher education; rigid, bureaucratic personnel management; legalization of the Teacher Union; and poor working conditions) and introducing the Ministry of…

  20. Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture. The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9 Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan,…

  1. Cumulative exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting compounds: a review of the current issues and implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; Ossendorp BC; Slob W; Pieters MN; SIR

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to various residues of pesticides in food is a potential area of concern. This issue is especially relevant for pesticides with a common mechanism of toxicity (e.g. organophosphates). Non-governmental organisations emphasis the need for inclusion of cumulative exposure in the

  2. Inside 'Inside View': reflections on stimulating debate and engagement through a multimedia live theatre production on the dilemmas and issues of pre-natal screening policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Gillian Lewando; Bryanston, Claudette; Lowe, Pam; Cross, Saul; Sandall, Jane; Spencer, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    The role of applied theatre in engaging both lay and professional publics with debate on health policy and practice is an emergent field. This paper discusses the development, production performance and discussion of 'Inside View'. The objectives were to produce applied theatre from research findings of a completed study on genetic prenatal screening, exploring the dilemmas for women and health professionals of prenatal genetic screening, and to engage audiences in debate and reflection on the dilemmas of prenatal genetic screening. 'Inside View' was developed from a multidisciplinary research study through identification of emergent themes from qualitative interviews, and development of these by the writer, theatre producer and media technologist with input from the researchers. Inside View was performed in London and the Midlands to varied audiences with a panel discussion and evaluation post performance. The audiences were engaged in debate that was relevant to them professionally and personally. Knowledge translation through applied theatre is an effective tool for engaging the public but the impact subsequently is unclear. There are ethical issues of unexpected disclosure during discussion post performance and the process of transforming research findings into applied theatre requires time and trust within the multidisciplinary team as well as adequate resourcing. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    Although China alone has been the source of 40% of the world’s oil demand growth since 2000,66 its continued heavy dependence on soft coal in recent...international and multilateral family planning programs, such as the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA), that have programs in China . Section 660(c) of the...abuses of China’s population - growth policy,” Washington Post, August 27, 2005, p. A1. 79 Reported in Tung Fang Jih Pao, May 21, 2007, translated in

  4. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context......, time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present...... of the discussions from which they are derived, such as who is participating in the discussions, when and where the discussions are occurring, and what else is being discussed in conjunction. We implement our framework in a tool called DGT , and present case studies on its use. In particular, we show how analyses...

  5. U.S.-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    addressed religious freedom and honored Uighur Muslims, Christians, and Tibetan Buddhists seeking religious freedom in China. He also met at the...Coordinator for Uighur affairs (Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs also serves as the Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues...dissent. Uighurs complain of forced assimilation, instead of “autonomy.” Like Tibetans , Uighurs resent the Communist controls on religion, military

  6. China’s Foreign Policy Toward North Korea: The Nuclear Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Dealing with the North Korean Nuclear Issue,” Korea Observer 36, no. 3 (Autumn 2005): 469. 40 Jianwei Wang and Zhimin Lin , “Chinese Perceptions in the...influence in the region through cooperation with neighboring countries. 53 Fei- Ling Wang...139 Wu, China Turns to Multilateralism, 106. 140 Yun -ju Do, “China`s Strategic Interest toward the SCO,” The Journal of Modern China

  7. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-10

    Briefing Kit,” 2002. 15 UNODC, April 2006, p. 38. 16 Terry Coonan and Robin Thompson, “ Ancient Evil, Modern Face: The Fight Against Human Trafficking...Persons,” August 8, 2007. 40 UNODC, April 2006. Within the region, victims from other African countries are trafficked to Egypt , Gabon, the Ivory Coast...health issues resulting from physical and sexual assault (unwanted pregnancies , HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases), and stigma and

  8. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  9. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives.

  10. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  11. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  12. Of Horse Race and Policy Issues: A Study of Gender in Coverage of a Gubernatorial Election by Two Major Metropolitan Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Shirley A.; Powers, Angela A.; Johnson, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Examines media coverage of a gubernatorial election, suggesting that: (1) gender may be a larger factor in selecting policy stories over "horse race" stories; (2) coverage of the horse race has greater impact on election outcome than coverage of policy issues; and (3) a woman will be more successful in an election if she presents herself…

  13. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  14. Feminisms, postmodernity and media culture in classroom: the american pop videoclip as an educational tool for the discussion of controversial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Triviño Cabrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to show how media culture in the area of education could offer a lot of possibilities to deal with controversial issues related to feminisms and the postmodern context where teachers and students are. In this study, we focus on popular culture from United States, concretely in the videoclips and how these type of music videos could be an educational tool that trains teachers about gender perspective and critical thinking.

  15. Extending Recidivism Monitoring for Drug Courts: Methods Issues and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVall, Kristen E; Gregory, Paul D; Hartmann, David J

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of research has been amassed documenting the effectiveness of drug treatment courts in addressing the needs of substance-abusing individuals involved with the criminal justice system. However, there is a relative dearth of research that examines the long-term impact of these programs on recidivism rates for both drug treatment court graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged from the program. In this study, we examine which demographic and programmatic/legal factors influence program disposition and recidivism rates of participants (both graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged) across the 5 years following their discharge from a drug treatment court program located in a suburban city in the Midwest. The study sample consists of 249 (N = 249) male participants who have been out of the program for more than 5 years. Results from the univariate and multivariate analyses are provided, as well as policy implications, directions for future research, and study limitations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Status of the Japan`s regulatory policy on radioactive waste management. Cleanup and recycling issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Daiji [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Safety Bureau

    1995-07-01

    Wastes from nuclear facilities are very diversified concerning that have different levels of radioactivity and include different kinds of radioactive materials. Besides some of those waste is not assumed as radioactive waste. The basic policy of the radioactive waste management is taking that diversity into full account for appropriate separate management of different types of radioactive waste and treatment and disposal of each type in a rational manner, including recycling. From the point, the disposal methods are considered or under consideration to that waste, (1) from nuclear reactor facility, (2) from nuclear fuel cycle facility--HLW, waste contaminated TRU nuclides, or contaminated uranium, (3) from RI utilization or research institute, and (4) from decommissioning of nuclear facility. Now in Japan, regulation framework for some kind of LLW from reactor facility, including waste from decommissioning of reactor is established. (J.P.N.).

  17. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  18. Overweight and obesity in India: policy issues from an exploratory multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    This article analyses a nationally representative household dataset-the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005 to 2006-to examine factors influencing the prevalence of overweight/obesity in India. The dataset was disaggregated into four sub-population groups-urban and rural females and males-and multi-level logit regression models were used to estimate the impact of particular covariates on the likelihood of overweight/obesity. The multi-level modelling approach aimed to identify individual and macro-level contextual factors influencing this health outcome. In contrast to most studies on low-income developing countries, the findings reveal that education for females beyond a particular level of educational attainment exhibits a negative relationship with the likelihood of overweight/obesity. This relationship was not observed for males. Muslim females and all Sikh sub-populations have a higher likelihood of overweight/obesity suggesting the importance of socio-cultural influences. The results also show that the relationship between wealth and the probability of overweight/obesity is stronger for males than females highlighting the differential impact of increasing socio-economic status on gender. Multi-level analysis reveals that states exerted an independent influence on the likelihood of overweight/obesity beyond individual-level covariates, reflecting the importance of spatially related contextual factors on overweight/obesity. While this study does not disentangle macro-level 'obesogenic' environmental factors from socio-cultural network influences, the results highlight the need to refrain from adopting a 'one size fits all' policy approach in addressing the overweight/obesity epidemic facing India. Instead, policy implementation requires a more nuanced and targeted approach to incorporate the growing recognition of socio-cultural and spatial contextual factors impacting on healthy behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  19. Georgia Health Policy Center Child Policy Briefs, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This set of briefs discusses state public policy and implications as they pertain to children in Georgia. The five briefs each address a single policy issue: kinship care, dental care, child care, special health care needs, and school health practice in Georgia. Each two-page brief provides background information on the issue, details the types of…

  20. Introducing discussion into multilingual mathematics classrooms: An issue of code switching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Webb

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Education in South Africa advocates collaborative and constructivist learning; however, observations indicate that little discussion occurs in most multilingual mathematics classes. In this paper we draw on a pilot study set in the Eastern Cape where teachers were introduced to the theory and practice of exploratory talk, and then tasked to perform an action research project on introducing discussion in their own multilingual mathematics classrooms. The results of the study suggest some successes in terms of teachers initiating exploratory talk and highlight the fact that these successes were only achieved where code switching between English and isiXhosa formed an integral part of the process.

  1. Policy and administrative issues for large-scale clinical interventions following disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S; Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett

    2014-02-01

    Large, programmatic mental health intervention programs for children and adolescents following disasters have become increasingly common; however, little has been written about the key goals and challenges involved. Using available data and the authors' experiences, this article reviews the factors involved in planning and implementing large-scale treatment programs following disasters. These issues include funding, administration, choice of clinical targets, workforce selection, choice of treatment modalities, training, outcome monitoring, and consumer uptake. Ten factors are suggested for choosing among treatment modalities: 1) reach (providing access to the greatest number), 2) retention of patients, 3) privacy, 4) parental involvement, 5) familiarity of the modality to clinicians, 6) intensity (intervention type matches symptom acuity and impairment of patient), 7) burden to the clinician (in terms of time, travel, and inconvenience), 8) cost, 9) technology needs, and 10) effect size. Traditionally, after every new disaster, local leaders who have never done so before have had to be recruited to design, administer, and implement programs. As expertise in all of these areas represents a gap for most local professionals in disaster-affected areas, we propose that a central, nongovernmental agency with national or international scope be created that can consult flexibly with local leaders following disasters on both overarching and specific issues. We propose recommendations and point out areas in greatest need of innovation.

  2. Discursive Policy Webs in a Globalisation Era: A Discussion of Access to Professions and Trades for Immigrant Professionals in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the link between discourse and policy using a discursive web metaphor. It develops the notion of policy as a discursive web based on a post-positivist framework that recognises the way multiple discourses from multiple voices interact in a complex web of power relationships to influence reality. Using Ontario's Access to…

  3. Discussion on the environmental protection acceptance method and the critical issues of the completion of projects about radiation usage in the hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2014-01-01

    It is widely used in the world that the hospitals take advantages of radiation technology. Practically it is involved radioactive isotope, sealed source and the usage of ray device. Based on the environmental protection acceptance of the finished projects, this article is aimed at the actual characteristics of the medical practice and differentiating the major factors of environmental effects, choosing the monitoring criteria and method of environmental protection acceptance and exploring the critical issues in the course of acceptance. Finally this essay is intended to provide theory evidence and technical support in the acceptance of the above projects. (author)

  4. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  5. Amendment of Republic Act No. 5207 and creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission: a policy issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    In line with the government's reorganization and in view of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) being replaced by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with a different function, an assessment of the usefulness and relevance of RA 5207 is discussed and the different stakeholders identified. The policy problem is how to revive the provision of RA 5207 and create the agency which will implement the provision of the Act. The author's recommendation includes the amendment of RA 5207 and the creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission with five members who would be responsible for protecting the public health and safety, the environment and safeguarding nuclear materials and nuclear installations. (ELC)

  6. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  7. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  8. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  10. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  11. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  12. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Conclusion to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Chris J; Shaw, William S

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Research of employer policies and practices to manage and prevent disability spans many disciplines and perspectives, and there are many challenges related to stakeholder collaboration, data access, and interventions. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the findings from a conference and year-long collaboration among a group of invited researchers intended to spur new research innovations in this field. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The conference goals were to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. In this paper, we summarize key points from the 6 resulting papers, compare them with an earlier 2005 conference on improving return-to-work research, and conclude with recommendations for further overarching research directions. Results/Conclusion In comparison with the 2005 conference, a greater emphasis was placed on organizational and social factors, employer roles and responsibilities, methods of implementation, non-clinical approaches, and facilitating stay-at-work as well as return-to-work. A special panel of employer consultants and representatives who were featured at the 2015 conference reinforced the importance of organizational culture, leadership style, and financial decision-making strategies at the employer level. Based on the conference proceedings, we recommend that future research in this area should strive for: (a) broader inclusion of workers and workplaces; (b) attention to multilevel influences in the workplace; (c) a focus on social as well as physical aspects of work; (d) earlier employer collaboration efforts; (e) more attention to

  13. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics.

  14. Death by homeopathy: issues for civil, criminal and coronial law and for health service policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Homoeopathy has a significant clinical history, tracing its roots back to Hippocrates and more latterly to Dr Christian (Samuel) Hahnemann (1755-1843), a Saxon physician. In the last 30 years it has ridden a wave of resurgent interest and practice associated with disillusionment with orthodox medicine and the emergence of complementary therapies. However, recent years have seen a series of meta-analyses that have suggested that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification. A 2010 report of the Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons recommended that it cease to be a beneficiary of NHS funding because of its lack of scientific credibility. In Australia the National Health and Medical Research Council is expected to publish a statement on the ethics of health practitioners' use of homoeopathy in 2013. In India, England, New South Wales and Western Australia civil, criminal and coronial decisions have reached deeply troubling conclusions about homoeopaths and the risk that they pose for counter-therapeutic outcomes, including the causing of deaths. The legal decisions, in conjunction with the recent analyses of homoeopathy's claims, are such as to raise confronting health care and legal issues relating to matters as diverse as consumer protection and criminal liability. They suggest that the profession is not suitable for formal registration and regulation lest such a status lend to it a legitimacy that it does not warrant.

  15. Too hot to handle. Social and policy issues in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.; Woodhouse, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Information about the management of radioactive wastes is provided in this book. Specifically, the book attempts to supply information to further the understanding of the history of radioactive waste management in this country and the role of nuclear energy in the future of the US; the science and technology of the processes that produce radioactive wastes and of the methods proposed for managing them; the biological effects of radiation; the public attitudes about nuclear power; the nature of risks resulting from technological developments and ways of managing them; and the political institutions and processes that govern radioactive waste management. The authors have attempted to present an objective view of nuclear waste management taking a stand neither for nor against nuclear power but placing special emphasis on radioactive waste management rather than nuclear power, because they feel that the latter aspect of the subject has received much more extensive coverage elsewhere. The contents of the book are divided into 7 chapters entitled: The Radioactive Waste Management Problem, Science and Technology of the Sources and Management of Radioactive Wastes, Nuclear Waste Management and Risks to Human Health, Public Attitudes toward Radioactive Wastes, How Safe Is Safe Enough; Determinants of Perceived and Acceptable Risk, The Politics of Nuclear Waste Management, and Value Issues in Radioactive Waste Management

  16. [Opening speech by President Suleyman Demirel for the meeting "Population Issues in Turkey: Policy Priorities"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S

    1994-01-01

    achieve these goals, but that it is possible if the State adopts these goals as a national policy and if the Turkish people adopt the same goals as their own.

  17. Discussion and Reflection on Several Core Issues in the Grand Canal Heritage Conservation Planning Under the Background of Application for World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the century, a series of new heritage concepts have appeared in the area of international cultural heritage protection, such as cultural landscape, cultural route, heritage corridor, heritage canal, which presents the development of people’s recognition of cultural heritage. According to The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, management planning must be contained in the material used to apply for world heritage. The State Administration of Cultural Heritage designed the mission and work schedule of China’s Grand Canal conservation planning in 2008. This research will introduce the working system of China’s Grand Canal conservation planning on three levels: city, province and nation. It will also summarize the characteristics of the core technologies in China’s Grand Canal conservation planning, including key issues like the identification of the core characteristic of China’s Grand Canal, value assessment and determination of the protection scope. Through reviewing, thinking and analyzing the previous accomplishments, the research will offer some advices for the similar world heritage conservation planning after.

  18. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  19. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  20. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  1. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  2. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  3. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. © 2014 Michigan

  4. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  5. Training Implications of Technological Change in Manufacturing in New Industrial Countries: The Case of Ireland. Training Policies Discussion Paper No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This report on Ireland is one in a series of studies for a research project designed to identify training and education policies pursued by governments and individual firms that have contributed to innovation, technological adaptation, and skill development in manufacturing. Part 1 describes Ireland's economic, social, and educational structure…

  6. Body Art: A Panel Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Peter; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…

  7. A discussion paper: Do national maternity policy reviews take account of the education and training of the future midwifery workforce? An example from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dr Jenny; Way, Dr Sue

    2018-03-30

    The development and provision of maternity services globally are continuing to receive much attention in order to improve care and safety for women and babies. In the UK national reviews of the maternity services have taken place, with local services taking forward specific pilot projects to support the implementation of policy recommendations. This paper argues that, in order to meet the requirements of change in maternity services, there also needs to be a prompt review of the education of student midwives in order to be confident that the workforce of the future is equipped to implement these changes successfully. Using changes to national policy in England, this paper raises the question of the need for flexible national education standards, to ensure a curriculum can meet the needs of the changing workforce without the need for constant revision of the curriculum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a new vision of economic policy: Discussion around the new paradigm proposed by David Romer in “Keynesian macroeconomics without the LM curve”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Leonardo Penagos Rozo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New Keynesians (NK refer to an advanced posture compared to the traditional paradigm of the IS-LM equilibrium, which, as a tool, satisfied economic policy explanations for the moment. The model had critics like be considered not to have microeconomic foundations, among others. Perhaps at the times presented: Keynes, in 1936, with the General Theory, Hicks, in 1937, with Mr. Keynes and the classics; Samuelson in 1948 and subsequent years, with his work Economy, it provided important elements in the balance. However, a new approach was needed for the Twenty-First Century, and it is the one proposed by David Romer. The purpose of this article is to make an initial review for understanding how some aspects of economic policy are linked as elements of economic growth.

  9. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  10. Vaccine Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    evidence “favors rejection” of the idea that either the measles- mumps-rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing vaccines cause autism (IOM...that the vaccines or preservatives or packaging might cause autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. One focus has been on thimerosal, a mercury...with the vaccinia virus that causes cowpox to provoke an immune response to protect against the smallpox virus. CRS-2 3A smallpox vaccine is available

  11. As políticas públicas brasileiras e a questão da Juventude (The Brazilian public policies and the youth issue Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13i2.0004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelimar Soares Bidarra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Após a rodada de realização das conferências da juventude no ano de 2011, o estudo em pauta, baseado em pesquisa bibliográfica, objetiva compreender de que forma a questão da juventude vem sendo inserida na agenda das políticas públicas brasileiras no curso das últimas décadas. Para isso, na parte inicial foram tecidas considerações teóricas sobre a compreensão de políticas públicas, o estabelecimento de pautas e como ocorre sua inserção (ou não na agenda das mesmas. Na segunda parte, discute-se o processo de inserção da questão da juventude na agenda de tais políticas públicas. As considerações finais encerram a reflexão e sumarizam o conteúdo da análise. Palavras-chave: Política Pública. Juventude. Direitos.  Abstract: After the occasion in the year 2011 that held the conferences for youth, the article at issue, based on literature research, aims to understand how the youth issue has been placed on the agenda of Brazilian public policies in the recent decades. In this regard, in the first part theoretical considerations were woven on the understanding of public policy, the establishment of guidelines and their integration(or not in the agenda. The second part discusses the process of inclusion of the youth issue on the agenda of such public policies. The final considerations close the discussion and summarize the content of the analysis.  Keywords: Public Policy. Youth. Rights.

  12. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  13. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  14. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  15. The Workload for the Structural Implementation of eDemocracy: Local Government Policy Issues Combined With the Policy Cycle and Styles of Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. (Martijn) Hartog; A.W. (Bert) Mulder

    2011-01-01

    Today, governmental bodies in many countries acknowledge ICT applications to be powerful tools for increasing involvement of citizens in public policy-making, and as such a sound investment in better public policy (OECD 2003: 9). Within the Dutch governmental bodies a study by Prof. Dr. Kickert

  16. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....

  17. Mexican Americans' Educational Barriers and Progress: Is the Magic Key within Reach? PERSPECTIVAS: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice. Issue No. 5, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief is based on the edited book "The Magic Key: The Educational Journey of Mexican Americans from K-12 to College and Beyond" (Zambrana & Hurtado, 2015a), which focuses on the experiences of Mexican Americans in education. Drawing from an interdisciplinary corpus of work, the authors move beyond the rhetoric of progress…

  18. Social equity issues in the distribution of feed-in tariff policy benefits: A cross sectional analysis from England and Wales using spatial census and policy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, David; Daniels, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The feed-in tariff has become a popular policy instrument globally for deploying clean energy, often involving substantial public spending commitments. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to how payments made under this policy type get distributed across socioeconomic groups. This paper links information on individual domestic photovoltaic (PV) installations registered under the feed-in tariff for England and Wales, to spatially-organised census data. This makes it possible to observe which socioeconomic groups are benefitting most and least under the policy. Comparing the observed benefit distribution to a counterfactual distribution of perfect equality, a moderate to high level of inequality is found. Cross-sectional regressions suggest that settlement density, home ownership status, physical dwelling type, local information spillovers, and household social class shaped this outcome. Greater sensitivity to these factors in policy design could improve distributional outcomes under feed-in tariff policies in England and Wales, and beyond. - Highlights: • Feed-in tariffs are subsidies involving substantial public spending commitments. • Payment distribution under the feed-in tariff in England and Wales has been substantially unequal. • Linking policy data to spatial census data can measure the degree of inequality. • Policy design that is more sensitive to participants’ socioeconomic characteristics can improve distributional outcomes.

  19. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  20. Education Policy Rhetoric and Reality Gap: A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ng Pak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss why there is often a gulf of difference between policy rhetoric and reality. In particular, the paper seeks to explore issues with the policy rhetoric, implementation process and the lens through which reality is perceived, explaining why these issues can open up a policy rhetoric-reality gap. This article also…

  1. End-of-life care in the United States: policy issues and model programs of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Wiener

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: End-of-life care financing and delivery in the United States is fragmented and uncoordinated, with little integration of acute and long-term care services. Objective: To assess policy issues involving end-of-life care, especially involving the hospice benefit, and to analyse model programs of integrated care for people who are dying. Methods: The study conducted structured interviews with stakeholders and experts in end-of-life care and with administrators of model programs in the United States, which were nominated by the experts. Results: The two major public insurance programs—Medicare and Medicaid—finance the vast majority of end-of-life care. Both programs offer a hospice benefit, which has several shortcomings, including requiring physicians to make a prognosis of a six month life expectancy and insisting that patients give up curative treatment—two steps which are difficult for doctors and patients to make—and payment levels that may be too low. In addition, quality of care initiatives for nursing homes and hospice sometimes conflict. Four innovative health systems have overcome these barriers to provide palliative services to beneficiaries in their last year of life. Three of these health systems are managed care plans which receive capitated payments. These providers integrate health, long-term and palliative care using an interdisciplinary team approach to management of services. The fourth provider is a hospice that provides palliative services to beneficiaries of all ages, including those who have not elected hospice care. Conclusions: End-of-life care is deficient in the United States. Public payers could use their market power to improve care through a number of strategies.

  2. Discussion document on the ethical aspects of the allocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This document has been approved by the Council of the World Medical Association (WMA) for publication and distribution to the national member associations_ The document is not an expression of WMA policy, but is simply intended to stimulate reflection and discussion about the issues associated with allocation of health ...

  3. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  4. What the public was saying about the H1N1 vaccine: perceptions and issues discussed in on-line comments during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, a vaccine was made available to all Canadians. Despite efforts to promote vaccination, the public's intent to vaccinate remained low. In order to better understand the public's resistance to getting vaccinated, this study addressed factors that influenced the public's decision making about uptake. To do this, we used a relatively novel source of qualitative data--comments posted on-line in response to news articles on a particular topic. This study analysed 1,796 comments posted in response to 12 articles dealing with H1N1 vaccine on websites of three major Canadian news sources. Articles were selected based on topic and number of comments. A second objective was to assess the extent to which on-line comments can be used as a reliable data source to capture public attitudes during a health crisis. The following seven themes were mentioned in at least 5% of the comments (% indicates the percentage of comments that included the theme: fear of H1N1 (18.8%; responsibility of media (17.8%; government competency (17.7%; government trustworthiness (10.7%; fear of H1N1 vaccine (8.1%; pharmaceutical companies (7.6%; and personal protective measures (5.8%. It is assumed that the more frequently a theme was mentioned, the more that theme influenced decision making about vaccination. These key themes for the public were often not aligned with the issues and information officials perceived, and conveyed, as relevant in the decision making process. The main themes from the comments were consistent with results from surveys and focus groups addressing similar issues, which suggest that on-line comments do provide a reliable source of qualitative data on attitudes and perceptions of issues that emerge in a health crisis. The insights derived from the comments can contribute to improved communication and policy decisions about vaccination in health crises that incorporate the public's views.

  5. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  6. Medium of Instruction Policies in Ghanaian and Indian Primary Schools: An Overview of Key Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.; Adinolfi, Lina; Hultgren, Anna Kristina; Buckler, Alison; Mukorera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries…

  7. An Examination of Internet Filtering and Safety Policy Trends and Issues in South Carolina's K-12 Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicks, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    School districts have implemented filtering and safety policies in response to legislative and social mandates to protect students from the proliferation of objectionable online content. Subject related literature suggests these policies are more restrictive than legal mandates require and are adversely affecting information access and…

  8. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  9. Maynard Participation in Alaska Forum on the Environment Panel Discussion on Increasing Input to the US National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Processes from Alaska, with Emphasis on Indigenous Peoples Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Nancy Maynard was invited by the Alaska Forum on the Environment to participate in a Panel Discussion to discuss (1) background about what the US NCA and International IPCC assessments are, (2) the impact the assessments have on policy-making, (3) the process for participation in both assessments, (4) how we can increase participation by Indigenous Peoples such as Native Americans and Alaska Natives, (5) How we can increase historical and current impacts input from Native communities through stories, oral history, "grey" literature, etc. The session will be chaired by Dr. Bull Bennett, a cochair of the US NCA's chapter on "Native and Tribal Lands and Resources" and Dr. Maynard is the other co-chair of that chapter and they will discuss the latest activities under the NCA process relevant to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Dr. Maynard is also a Lead Author of the "Polar Regions" chapter of the IPCC WG2 (5th Assessment) and she will describes some of the latest approaches by the IPCC to entrain more Indigenous peoples into the IPCC process.

  10. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  12. Energy and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current energy-environmental issues. Firstly, the environmental problems associated with energy production and use are briefly described. Secondly, the paper reviews the availability of technological solutions to environmental problems, focussing particularly on atmospheric emission control. Finally, it moves on to look at recent policy developments in some parts of the world. Since the paper is written from the perspective of an industrialized country, emerging policy issues in Europe, Japan, and North America receive the greatest attention, with a particular focus on Europe where greenhouse gases and the proposed carbon tax have received a particularly high priority. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the issues arising from the 1992 UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development) and implications for the diffusion of cleaner technologies from North to South. (author). 36 refs

  13. Data Confidentiality and Integrity Issues and Role of Information Security Management Standard, Policies and Practices - An Empirical Study of Telecommunication Industry in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Nabi, Syed Waqar; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmed; Haqqi, Bushra; Abid, Zahra; Alghathbar, Khaled

    The amount of data communications is increasing each day and with it comes the issues of assuring its security. This research paper explores the information security management issues with respect to confidentiality and integrity and the impact of Information Security Management Standards, Policies and Practices (ISMSPP) on information security. This research has been conducted on the telecommunication industry of Pakistan that was ranked 9th globally in 2009 in terms of subscription. The research methodology was case study based in which perceptions were gathered as well as thematic analysis of the interviews was done. The research focus is on breach of data integrity and confidentiality by the internal users in the industry and the perception of improvement, if any, of the data security due to implementation of security management policies and controls. The results show that information security measure are perceived to have a positive impact on reducing data confidentiality and integrity breaches but still falls short of what is required. It concludes that security policies might improve the situation provided, firstly, that the top managements takes information security seriously, and secondly, the non-technical human aspects of the issues are taken into consideration.

  14. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Third Edition, Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    to Buddhist monks and nuns.7 Similarly, a sacred Jain text says, “One may not kill, ill-use, insult, torment, or persecute any kind of living being...While this power struggle illustrates direct conflict, how does the Congress routinely influence policy and strategy formulation in the national...logically flows from its appropriations role.7 The leaders of the foreign policy agencies routinely go to Capitol Hill to testify before various committees

  15. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  16. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  17. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.

  18. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented

  19. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Critical discussion of human factors areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  20. Ethical Issues in Editing Scholarly Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues that arise when serving as an editor of a scholarly journal. Suggests treating these issues using paradigm-based decisions; decisions based on personal sociological predilections and commitments; and reasonable referee-assignment policies. Notes how conflicts of interest inevitably accompanying such a position. (NL)

  1. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  2. Genomics for public health improvement: relevant international ethical and policy issues around genome-wide association studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and biobanks are at the forefront of genomics research and possess unprecedented potential to improve public health. However, for public health genomics to ultimately fulfill its potential, technological and scientific advances alone are insufficient. Scientists, ethicists, policy makers, and regulators must work closely together with research participants and communities in order to craft an equitable and just ethical framework, and a sustainable environment for effective policies. Such a framework should be a 'hybrid' form which balances equity and solidarity with entrepreneurship and scientific advances. A good balance between research and policy on one hand, and privacy, protection and trust on the other is the key for public health improvement based on advances in genomics science. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. University Education for Youth Empowerment: Policy/ Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy and management issues that inhibit quality university education for youth empowerment in Nigeria were discussed in this paper. These issues include access, gender disparity in enrolment, high enrolment growth, staff quality and quantity, funding, cultism and poor quality of infrastructure. Unless these issues are ...

  4. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  5. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  6. The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    The deficit with Mexico was the second largest—$47.5 billion.18 Trade Issues The 111th Congress faces a number of trade issues. Some of these...negotiations with participants in the Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) Agreement—Australia, Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. The... TPP , see CRS Report R40502, The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement, by Ian F. Fergusson and Bruce Vaughn. The Future of U.S

  7. Getting patent policy right: an introduction to a special issue on the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions.......An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions....

  8. Environmental policy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Pamela M.; Barnes, Ian G.

    2000-09-01

    The development of environmental policy, including the policy making process, is analysed from an historical perspective. The authors then examine implementation and enforcement and present a critical appraisal of the impact of environment policy throughout Europe. Key issues discussed include: trade and the environment, environmental protection and the maintenance of industrial competitiveness, agriculture and the environment, energy and environmental policy, transport and the environment, tourism and the environment. (Author)

  9. Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This

  10. The Issue of Research Graduate Employability in Australia: An Analysis of the Policy Framing (1999-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent knowledge economy discourse has direct implications for higher education policies and practices. It is expected that the higher education sector supports national economic competitiveness mainly through promoting scientific research, supporting technological transfer and innovation, and producing "knowledge workers" such as…

  11. Regulatory and policy issues for reuse and remanufacture of wood materials coated with lead-based paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Napier; Robert H. Falk; George B. Guy; Susan Drodz

    2005-01-01

    At present, there is no regulatory or policy guidance at the Federal level that permits, prohibits, or qualifies practice for salvaging and reusing building materials coated with lead-based paint (LBP). This paper describes the current regulations and standards relative to LBP in buildings (in particular LBP on lumber and timber products), LBP mitigation, and disposal...

  12. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice. 10 Year Anniversary Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    "Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning" (2013), the 10th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004, examines the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. In this 10th…

  13. Early Childhood Education: Building a Strong Foundation for the Future. AFT Educational Issues Policy Brief Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief provides the context and the research supporting the American Federation of Teacher's call for universal early childhood education. It focuses on the current challenges the nation faces in achieving such a program; and it includes the signs of progress, a description of what other industrialized countries are doing, the features…

  14. Environmental Consideration in Tax Policy Design

    OpenAIRE

    John Whalley

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal, which inevitably will involve the particular rather than the general. As a result, notions of neutrality which dominate current thinking on tax design will come ...

  15. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  16. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  17. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Smart grids-Smat cities "fashion" requires management plans of highly urbanized areas located over the Padanian floodplain, which are prone to diffuse pollution of both lands and urban sectors, mostly after the disasters caused by tremendous alluvial rains in January 2014, when shallow aquifers and agricultural matters could have increase pollution over wide territory. Moreover the urban expansion has affected areas previously used for industrial activity and in some cases such for landfills. When the loss of memory of previous activity prevails after urbanization, with health issues, ethical questions are inevitable, accompanied by social conflicts and economic impacts. The alluvial plains of active tectonic areas - as the Padania Valley - in additions to widespread "anthropogenic pollution" is suffering from widespread "natural pollution" of deep fluid sources - mainly methane - corresponding to areas prone to uprising gaseous brines, along faults. Some of them were partially activated during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. This noteworthy seismic sequence engaged discussion about the possible role of gas storages and hydrocarbons production or the simple/exploring drilling activity to trigger typical tectonic seismicity. The paper deepen this troubled communication strategy, their gaps and peculiar geopolicy case histories, to avoid the same strategy, in the future. On the other hand, gas burst or brine-gas-contamination in shallow aquifers, soils and indoor, should be studied by simple and cheap methods, by deepening stratigraphic gaps for the tectonics effects on sedimentation: natural processes should be recalled prior to recall anthropogenic causes, if any. Policy should be more responsible in state clearly the role of research in study infrastructures/processes, also when engaged by private companies, for sites selected by ministries mostly to star research: relevant gaps involves serious confusion in the public as regards responsibility and an exact

  18. European agriculture in 2020: long-term challenges, new public and private policies. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the contributions and discussions of different sessions which addressed the relationship of agriculture with different issues: climate change, energy, water, food security, common agricultural policy and structural adjustments, multi-functionality, risk management, competition policy

  19. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  20. The effects of national policy on refugee welfare and related security issues a comparative study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Jessica E.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The growing and persistent nature of today's protracted refugee situations pose significant threats to the host countries and regions that support these vulnerable people. While stateless, refugees fall under the protection of the international community and its laws. However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security re...

  1. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  2. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  3. Special Issue: Homelessness and Housing Insecurity in Higher Education--A Trauma-Informed Approach to Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Crutchfield, Rashida

    2017-01-01

    This monograph explores how homelessness intersects most social issues that marginalize individuals and negatively influence postsecondary completion, including poverty, foster care, and LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans*, queer/questioning, and others) discrimination. As becomes evident, students experiencing homelessness should be considered…

  4. Educational Policies for Integrating College Competencies and Workforce Needs: Cases from Brazil, Mongolia, Ukraine, and the United States. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Michael; Batkhuyag, Batjargal; Prates, Eufrasio; Prytula, Yaroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, the role of higher education in workforce development has emerged as a key issue around the world. Leading authorities inside and outside of government have begun questioning whether colleges and universities are preparing graduates with the competencies and skills necessary to compete in a dynamic global economy. As part of a…

  5. Helping Teachers to Help Children Living with a Mentally Ill Parent: Teachers' Perceptions on Identification and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibou-Nakou, I.

    2004-01-01

    The material presented here is based on a pilot European project (Daphne Project, 2000/EU funding, collaboration of Greece and England) regarding parental mental illness and children's welfare and needs (1).The presentation focuses upon the responses of a group of teachers working in primary education in relation to identification issues and…

  6. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  7. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  8. Minors or suspects? A discussion of the legal and ethical issues surrounding the indefinite storage of DNA collected from children aged 10-18 years on the National DNA Database in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansel, Charlotte; Davies, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    There are currently over 250,000 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years who have their genetic information stored on the National DNA Database. This paper explores the legal and ethical issues surrounding this controversial subject, with particular focus on juvenile capacity and the potential results of criminalizing young children and adolescents. The implications of the adverse legal judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in S and Marper v UK (2008) and the violation of Article 8 of the Convention are discussed. The authors have considered the requirement to balance the rights of the individual, particularly those of minors, against the need to protect the public and have compared the position in Scotland to that of the rest of the UK. The authors conclude that a more ethically acceptable alternative could be the creation of a separate forensic database for children aged 10-18 years, set up to safeguard the interests of those who have not been convicted of any crime.

  9. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  10. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  11. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan’s long-term care policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Morikawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to the long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care. Methods: This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care. Results: Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas. Conclusions: Japan’s experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures.

  12. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan’s long-term care policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Morikawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to the long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care.Methods: This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care.Results: Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas.Conclusions: Japan’s experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures.

  13. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  14. Asset disposal: follow company policies or follow the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J

    1991-05-01

    Several ethical issues can arise in disposing of assets. The proper management of these issues involves awareness of the applicable laws and development of policies and enforcement that respect those laws. Several examples of appropriate policy, following classical management principles, served to document the points under discussion.

  15. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  16. On the Issue of Regional Policy in the Sphere of Ecological Safety (Based on the Documents Concerning the Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza I. Mantaeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional government should provide ecological safety in order to ensure stable social and economic development of the country. The article outlines theoretical approach and recommendations on practice concerning ecological issues, investigates state policy aiming to preserve nature and analyses sources of threat to ecological safety in the region. The modern paradigm of the country’s and region’s development is characterized by the combination of ecological and economic policy. The ecological policy providing measures for efficient use of natural resources, their protection and restoration is implemented in the economic strategy of highly developed countries and encourages stable social and economic development of the country and the region. Some researchers assert that Russia’s most regions do not possess sufficient resources necessary to implement structural shifts which can eliminate the main threats to ecological safety. The Republic of Kalmykia can be included into this list. It is rich in natural resources but they are not restored due to the lack of regulation for efficient consumption. The main concerns of the republic are water supply, desertification, and pollution of atmosphere, waste disposal, and protection of wildlife and environment, preservation of hunting ground, forest management. The republic generates no electricity so it is delivered by neighboring regions. The republic should use the renewable ways of producing energy which can contribute to the energy and ecological safety and can attract new investment funds. There is an urgent need for stricter state regulation to ensure socioeconomic development and ecological safety in Kalmykia.

  17. Non-medical sex-selective abortion in China: ethical and public policy issues in the context of 40 million missing females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly growing imbalance of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in China since the late 1980s demonstrates that, despite an extensive official prohibition, sex-selective abortion has been widely practised there in the past two or three decades. Given the reality of 30-40 million missing females, China has a more challenging set of ethical and social policy issues to be addressed regarding sex-selective abortion than is the case in Western and many other countries. This article is based on a search and review of Chinese and English-language literature, including several very recent books in Chinese on the imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in China. It also draws on first-hand information gathered from the author's extensive fieldwork on Chinese views and experiences of abortion. The current female deficit is a real and serious problem in China-not a 'false alarm' as earlier alleged. It is a direct consequence of the widespread practice of sex-selective abortion and is chiefly caused by the strong socio-cultural preference for sons in China. Chinese academics-demographers and medical ethicists-in general agree with the official position that sex-selective abortion is morally wrong and should be legally prohibited. Some critical voices, mainly in the English-language literature, have asked whether coercive state intervention in this area is ethically justifiable. Another controversial question is whether and to what degree China's ambitious and rigorous population control programme, widely known as the 'one child' policy, is a contributing factor to the phenomenon of millions of missing females. Much further research on the ethical and social policy issues surrounding sex-selective abortion in the Chinese context needs to be done. Systematic quantitative and in-depth qualitative sociological investigations into Chinese people's attitudes toward the subject, and the role of medical professionals, are long overdue.

  18. Balanced Harvest in the Real World. Scientific, Policy and Operational Issues in an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.M.; Bianchi, G.; Charles, A.; Kolding, J.; Rice, J.; Rochet, M.J.; Zhou, S.; Delius, G.; Reid, D.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Atcheson, M.; Bartley, D.; Borges, L.; Bundy, A.; Dagorn, L.; Dunn, D.; Hall, M.; Heino, M.; Jacobsen, B.; Jacobsen, N.S.; Law, R.; Makino, M.; Martin, F.; Skern-Mauritzen, M.; Suuronen, P.; Symons, D.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the Ecosystem Approach has entered the fishery harvesting discussions both from fishery perspectives (Reykjavik Declaration; FAO 2003 Annex to the Code of Conduct and from the principles of the Ecosystem Approach adopted by the CBD in 1995. Both perspectives establish the need to

  19. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis...... pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures...

  20. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident