WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy instruments employed

  1. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  2. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  3. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64 ......, the Netherlands and Sweden). And seven of the 15 countries in the E.U already have lower unemployment than the United States (the previous four plus Austria, Ireland and Luxembourg)....

  4. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  5. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens L

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  6. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies in Practice Rob at Work >> View more policies in practice UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Facebook Twitter RSS Email 200 Constitution Ave. NW Washington DC 20210 1-866-4- ...

  7. Optimising the effect of policy instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farme...... to policy instruments; farmers who focus on yield indicate less responsiveness to economic policy instruments. The results imply that it is important to implement a broad array of policy instruments to match different farmer rationales....

  8. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  9. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  10. The double voluntarism in EU social dialogue and employment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Leiber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the development of new modes of governance in EU employment and social policy over the past two decades. In this field, a number of innovations can be observed. First, with the Maastricht Treaty, the right to draw up legislation was given to European social partners. Second, with the European Employment Strategy and the Open Method of Coordination, new instruments of coordinating national policies were introduced to EU policy-making. Recently, the latter instrument was incorporated into the social dialogue. Hence, we contend that a double voluntarism takes places that not only delegates responsibility for social policy to the social partners but also relies on soft rather than on hard law.

  11. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  12. Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzdina, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.

  13. Network governance of active employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data......, this study aims to analyse the impact of the governance reform by assessing the initial experiences with the Local Employment Councils (LECs). The analysis shows that the LECs are relatively well-functioning and contribute to an effective and democratic governance of local employment policy. Furthermore...

  14. BULGARIAN EMPLOYMENT POLICY: PRIORITIES AND DIRECTIONS 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arabska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of labor market and employment policy in Bulgaria in contemporary dynamic conditions of social and economic life is in close relation to the European policies and programs and the needs of creating conditions for raising the level of employability of some special target groups on the labor market determined as the most vulnerable and needing particular measures of support. Current study makes analyses of priorities and directions in Bulgarian national employment policy for 2017 as set into the National action plan on employment considering a number of strategic and legislative documents on both national and European level. The general conclusions are focused on the systematization of actions and the importance of social dialogue.

  15. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  16. Policy Debate | Education and Employment Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mourshed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: These papers are contributions to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by McKinsey’s research team, the initial paper addresses the Education to Employment challenge. It is based on McKinsey’s study, which looked at skill development in 25 different countries and investigated education-to-employment initiatives. The authors claim that the most successful efforts are those where different stakeholders interact intensively and frequently. Employers need to get involved in education, and educators should play a bigger role in employment.The paper is followed by critical comments by two authors, Beatriz Cardoso, Executive Director of Laboratório de Educação, Brazil, and Shailaja Fennell lecturer at the Centre of Development Studies, University of Cambridge, UK.This debate can be pursued on the Journal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/423.

  17. Networks as Policy Instruments for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Pieter J.; Geerling-Eiff, Florentien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to compare the effectiveness of facilitated networks to other policy instruments for agricultural innovation. Design/ methodology/ approach: In an exploratory study of the Dutch agricultural policy context, we conducted semi-structured interviews with ten experts on networks and innovation. Policy…

  18. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  19. From Graduate Employability to Employment: Policy and Practice in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Sonal; Hristov, Dean; Reynolds, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current conceptualization of graduate employability and employment through the lens of policy, academia and practice in UK higher education. We examine the UK policy context that is shaping graduate employability and employment debates before enriching this conceptualization through a discussion of key…

  20. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  1. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  2. Evaluating environmental policy instruments mixes; a methodology illustrated by noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Miriam; Driessen, Peter P J; Runhaar, Hens A C

    2014-01-01

    Environmental policy is characterised by complexity, in causes and effects, resulting in various combinations of policy instruments. However, evaluating these policy instrument mixes and assessing their effectiveness is difficult because of a lack of methodological approaches. This paper therefore

  3. University-industry research collaborations in Canada: the role of federal policy instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Creso M Sá; Jeffrey Litwin

    2011-01-01

    Canada's research policy has aimed to facilitate technology transfer from universities and induce innovation in industry for the past three decades. This article examines the policy instruments currently employed by the federal government in Canada to stimulate university-industry research linkages. First, the article examines the national landscape of industry R&D and its interface with university research. Then, multiple policy instruments are identified, and their goals and functions are e...

  4. The role of fiscal instruments in environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Katri Kosonen; Gaëtan Nicodème

    2009-01-01

    Environmental protection is one of Europe's key values. The EU has set clear policy objectives to achieve its environmental goals. The EU has favoured market-based instruments, among which fiscal instruments to tackle the climate change problem. This paper takes a policy-making perspective and provides an overview of key issues on the role of fiscal instruments in energy and environmental policies. It describes fiscal instruments as cost-effective means to promote environmental goals and high...

  5. 29 CFR 825.700 - Interaction with employer's policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with employer's policies. 825.700 Section 825.700 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER... Bargaining Agreements on Employee Rights Under FMLA § 825.700 Interaction with employer's policies. (a) An...

  6. A REPERTOIRE OF INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED IN PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Maria PASCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Carl Rogers and Albert Ellis [1] [2], a new approach to psychological counseling is needed. Consequently, new and practical means to solve problems that ensue as part of the counseling process are required. From this point of view, this article aims at offering a range of alternatives to approach and involve the client (student in order to achieve the envisaged results of counseling. As such, it offers a concise repertoire of instruments that can be employed in psychological counseling.

  7. Flexible employment, economic insecurity and social policy preferences in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Dekker, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how flexible employment, particularly temporary and part-time employment, affect political support for social policy protection. Although their implications are a priori uncertain, the paper lays out how flexible employment conditions can be expected to generate various kinds of

  8. Employers and the Implementation of Active Labor Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bredgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.

  9. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  10. Is blending of energy and climate policy instruments always desirable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Flamos, A.; Grafakos, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the Energy and Climate Policy Interactions (ECPI) decision support tool for the qualitative ex-ante assessment of ten (10) combinations of energy and climate policy instruments addressing energy end users. This tool consists of four (4) methodological steps, where policymakers set preferences that determine the outcome of policy instruments interactions. Initially, interacting policy instruments are broken down in into their design characteristics, referring to parameters that describe functions of each instrument. Policymakers can express in a merit order the significance they attribute to these characteristics when designing a policy instrument. Evaluation criteria for assessing these instruments individually are used and policymakers can assign weights on them expressing their preferences. An overall assessment of combined policy instruments based on these steps have illustrated policy interactions added value per criterion and overall. The user of the tool takes useful insights as regards the most preferable combinations of policy instruments, the less preferable ones and those who are conflicting.

  11. Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) will support quality research, capacity development, and policy engagement, with a focus on inclusive growth in low-income developing countries. It will generate new knowledge and evidence relevant to the creation of jobs, productive employment for young people, ...

  12. Overcoming negative reactions of nonbeneficiaries to employment equity: the effect of participation in policy formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Michela, John L; Ferris, D Lance

    2011-03-01

    In 2 experimental studies, we examined a way to overcome nonbeneficiaries' resistance to employment equity (EE) policies-participation in formulating the policy. We operationalized participation in terms of instrumental versus noninstrumental voice and proposed that nonbeneficiaries would be more likely to support an EE policy when allowed instrumental participation in the policy's development. Further, we proposed psychological ownership as the mediating mechanism underlying the effects of instrumental participation. Study 1 examined participation effects for a gender-based EE policy and Study 2 for a race-based EE policy. As predicted, we found that nonbeneficiaries (men in Study 1; Whites in Study 2) in the instrumental participation condition expressed greater behavioral intentions to promote the policy (Studies 1 and 2) and were more likely to engage in a behavior promoting the policy (Study 2). We also found support for psychological ownership as the underlying mediating mechanism in both studies. Contributions to theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    and the transition rate into employment outside the local labour market, but decreases the transition rate into local employment. Thus, a decrease in current place utility decreases the overall job-finding rate if the local reservation wage effect dominates. We argue that dispersal policies on refugee immigrants...

  14. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  15. Fossil fuels, employment, and support for climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    We know that the costs of implementing various climate change mitigation policies are not uniformly distributed across individuals in society, but we do not know to what extent this unequal cost distribution influences public support for these various policies. This study shows that cost distribution is an important explanation for variations in public support for various climate policies. Using individual-level data on industry of employment and support for a range of climate policies, we find that those employed in the fossil fuel industry are less likely to support climate policies that are particularly costly to their industry, but are as likely as everybody else to support policies with lower costs to the industry. This finding challenges the traditional bifurcation between climate change "skeptics" and "acceptors." Furthermore, we find that opposition to renewable energy by large fossil fuel producers and consumers, identified in the political economy literature, is not uniformly found among these companies’ employees. The most important implication of this study for policy makers is that support for climate policies is sensitive to the compensation of exposed groups and stimulation of alternative avenues for employment. - Highlights: •Individual-level support for climate policy will depend on expected costs and opportunities. •Data from three large-scale Norwegian representative opinion surveys are used. •Those working in the oil/gas sector are less in favor of constraints on fossil fuel production. •In the same group, support for renewables is similar to that of the population at large. •Stimulating new avenues for employment is a necessary component of mitigation policy.

  16. Integrated Management of Migration, Employment, Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the paper states that national migration indicators are closely related with employment opportunities in that country. In addition, the management quality of migration and employment processes is an indicator of the national socio-economic policy competency, while management of these processes is the main purpose of intelligent adjustment of the national fiscal policy and government debt management. The author of the paper selected the formation of the system of quantitative indicators as the main objective of the paper. The system should allow employing government debt possibilities for the selection of proper fiscal policy in order to prevent the transformation of unemployment into the key reason of uncontrolled national inflation. This would be done by revealing the possibilities of fiscal policy to impact on the level and structure of unemployment. Recent globalisation processes and integration possibilities bring a lot of uncertainty to predetermined viability of theoretical assumptions as well as the adequacy of the applied quantitative methods. The paper uses the possibilities of stochastic optimisation and stochastically informed expertise pursuing the possibilities of integrated management of employment, migration processes, fiscal policy and government debt provisions.

  17. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    and the transition rate into employment outside the local labour market, but decreases the transition rate into local employment. Thus, a decrease in current place utility decreases the overall job-finding rate if the local reservation wage effect dominates. We argue that spatial dispersal policies on refugees...... are characterised by low average values of current place utility. Hence, the model predicts that dispersal policies increase the geographical mobility rates of refugees and, for a sufficiently large local reservation wage effect, decrease their job-finding rates....

  18. Interactions of White Certificates for energy efficiency and other energy and climate policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.

    2010-01-01

    The EU and its member states are developing their own policies targeting at energy supply, energy demand and environmental goals that are indirectly linked to energy use. As these policies are implemented in an already policy crowded environment, interactions of these instruments take place, which can be complementary competitive or self exclusive. As a starting point, we test White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement in the end-use sectors. Our main research questions are: (1) to provide a general explanatory framework for analyzing energy and climate policy interactions by employing suitable methods, and (2) to evaluate these methods and draw conclusions for policy makers when introducing White Certificates with other policy instruments stressing the critical condition that affect their performance. A core lesson is that when evaluating ex-ante instruments, a variety of economic and technological methods must be applied. Based on these methods, several endogenous and exogenous conditions affect the performance of White Certificates schemes with other policy instruments. Due to the innovative character of White Certificates and the uncertainty of hidden costs embedded into it, ex-ante evaluations should focus not only on the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, but on several other criteria which express the political acceptability and socioeconomic effects. We argue finally that White Certificates can make effective use of market forces and can assist in overcoming market barriers towards energy efficiency, and we expect that under certain preconditions, it can be integrated with other policy instruments and allows to achieve cost effectively multiple environmental objectives.

  19. Fiscal policy is still an effective instrument of macroeconomic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy, what has come to be known as “New Consensus in Macroeconomics”, downgrades the role of fiscal policy and upgrades that of monetary policy. This contribution aims to consider this particular contention by focusing on fiscal policy. We consider fiscal policy within the current “new consensus” theoretical framework, which views fiscal policy as ineffective, and argue that it deserves a great deal more attention paid to it than it has been recently. We review and appraise recent and not so recent theoretical and empirical developments on the fiscal policy front. The possibility of fiscal and monetary policy coordination is proposed and discussed to conclude that it deserves a great deal more attention and careful consideration than it has been given to in the past. Our overall conclusion is that discretionary application of fiscal and monetary policy in a coordinated and focused manner as a tool of macroeconomic policy deserves serious attention paid to it than hitherto.

  20. Trade Policy Reforms and Sectoral Employment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trade policy change concomitant with aggressive outward orientation was a major bedrock of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) adopted by Nigeria in 1986. Trade reform has clear implications for the overall economic performance, in terms of either employment creation or destruction as well as labour reallocation.

  1. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  2. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  3. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  4. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  5. Policy Instruments for Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Lorek, Sylvia; Bietz, Sabine

    , we focus on the “hot spots”: health, organic (as well as local and seasonal) food, greenhouse gas emissions, food waste and the “mind and markets” gap evident among consumers as a result of the modern food system. We propose a framework for tackling these issues using the four instrument types......, and to incentivise, enable, empower and motivate the actors along the food chain to engage in more sustainable production and consumption. In addition, governments can influence markets and mindsets by stimulating and supporting voluntary self commitments by businesses. Moreover, governments and public bodies can...... themselves act as role models and market makers by choosing, and hereby actively supporting, sustainable alternatives (green public procurement). Last but not least, nonregulatory “nudges” – such as defaults and smart choice architecture design – can be applied within a libertarian, paternalistic approach...

  6. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Timothy J. [Public Policy and Economics, University of Maryland Baltimore County (United States)

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  7. THE OMC IN THE EUROPEAN EMPLOYMENT POLICY: BRINGING SOCIALISATION IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matia Vannoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues in favour of a more thorough analysis of a specific set of dynamics taking place in the Open Method of Coordination (OMC, the latter being conceived as an informal organizational framework aimed at mutual learning (de Burca and Zeitlin, 2003 and policy change (Dolowitz and Marsh, 2000; Radaelli, 2000. The aim of this paper is to uncover the missing link between these two elements, which has hitherto been black -boxed by the literature. Theoretical tools from International Relations (IR theories (i.e. constructivist institutionalism are borrowed in order to circumvent such a fallacy. The premises are the same as the ones hitherto employed by scholars studying the OMC (e.g. Jacobsson, 2004: can norms and values assume a binding character even outside the ‘territorially bounded democratic government’ (Héritier and Lehmkuhl, 2008 and thus leading to policy change? If so, how does this phenomenon take place? Nevertheless, the approach is different, in that it builds on two closely interrelated factors: the concept of socialisation with its micro-processes (Johnston, 2001; Johnston, 2008 and the institutional characteristics of social environments (Rogowski, 1999. Accordingly, this paper will address the question: is the OMC in European employment policy a social environment conducive of socialisation?

  8. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  9. The Fabrications and Travels of a Knowledge-Policy Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This article sets forth the main elements of the conceptual framework for the overall approach to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) taken in this special issue. PISA is here examined as a (knowledge for policy) regulatory instrument made by intertwined cognitive and social practices, and involving multidirectional flows of…

  10. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be c...

  11. Fertility, Mothers' Employment and Family Policy - what kind of relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    are women's employment pattern, the level of support for mothers in reconciling work and caring obligations provided by family policies and the cultural norms prevailing in the various European countries. In the paper we first give a short overview of a number of recent studies of the relationship fertility......The aim of this paper will be to explain the differences in birth rates among European countries by analysing how the level of fertility is related to a number of dimensions of importance for the work-life balance in the European households. The dimensions included in our analysis of fertility...

  12. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  13. Policy Changes, Employment, and Single Parenthood in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Forssén

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The labor supply of mothers is in? uenced by womens preferences and labor market conditions, as well as by family policy packages which enable families to reconcile work and family life. This article deepens the understanding about why Finnish single mothers are facing higher unemployment risks than mothers in two-parent families. The main question is how the changes in the Finnish family policy system have affected the economic and labor market status of single mothers in the last part of the 1990s. Have the changes in family policy affected their entry / re-entry into the labor market? Or can these changes in employment rate be explained by mothers personal decisions. Single parents were more vulnerable compared to partnered mothers in parental leave reforms and in the Family reform package in 1994. Changes in the labor market have had an impact on the situation of mothers with small children. One group of mothers can enjoy the full provision of leaves, bene? ts and job security, but an increased share of mothers have become dependent on only basic bene? ts. In this respect, the inequality among mothers has increased.

  14. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  15. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  16. Policy, Citizenship and Governance: The Case of Disability and Employment Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Sarah; Marston, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Current discussions regarding the relationship between welfare governance systems and employment promotion in disability policy appeal to a rejuvenated neo-liberal and paternalistic understanding of welfare governance. At the core of this rationality is the argument that people with disabilities not only have rights, but also duties, in relation…

  17. Are developing countries ready for first world waste policy instruments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available . Without proper gate control and quantification of the amount of waste entering landfills, and billing for disposal, effective landfill taxes cannot be implemented. 4.2 Information instruments 4.2.1 Waste information systems Of the ten known waste... ECA 2004 NEMA Amendment Air Quality Act Gauteng Waste Regulations NWMSI Green Scorpions established Glass MoA Draft policy EIs Permitting function transfer Waste Bill SA Waste Information System Waste Tyre Regulations Plastic...

  18. The Value of Science Policy Internships to Interns and Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    My interns often look at me wide-eyed when I tell them to approach a Member of Congress at a congressional reception and introduce themselves. I understand their shock, as I once had the same experience. This presentation will look at the internship experience from the perspective of the intern and the employer, describing the value of the internship to each. I will detail my experience as an intern in the American Geosciences Institute Government Affairs Program, and my current position as the creator and hiring manager of the American Geophysical Union Public Affairs Department internship. This perspective will be augmented by information from recent AGU Public Affairs interns. Internships equate to experience, one critical and often underdeveloped component of a student or recent graduate's resume. Each of these internships offers the unique opportunity for students and recent graduates of geophysical science programs to immerse themselves in the science policy field, doing work alongside professionals and serving as an important part of their respective work environment. The networking opportunities and skills learned are highly valuable to those building their resumes and trying to break into the field - or simply figuring out what future career path to take. Scientific societies see value in investing in the next generation of scientific leaders and ensuring their perspective includes an understanding of science policy and the societal impacts of science. These internship experiences are often eye-opening and sometimes career-changing.

  19. Implementation of graduate employability skills SJT instrument in Universiti Utara Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz; Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Assessing graduate employability skills before they enter the job market is very important because if they are lacking certain skills, improvement can be made through the process of training. In this study, a valid and reliable new instrument for measuring graduate employability skills using Situational Judgement Test (SJT) approach was implemented. The instrument consisted of 12 items representing five employability skills namely communication skill, professional ethics & morality, entrepreneurial skill, critical thinking in problem solving and personal quality. The purpose was to obtain a norm score for each of these skills. A survey was conducted using the SJT instrument on 1012 Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) local undergraduate final year students. The norm score was generated by employing BCA bootstrap technique. Scores guideline was created based on three levels (low, moderate and high). The outcomes indicated that the students possessed moderate level of communicationskill, entrepreneurial skill, critical thinking in problem solving and personal quality but has high professional ethics & morality.

  20. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  1. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  2. What policies should be there for employment in urban areas of developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gugushvili, Alexi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines employment policies in urban areas of developing world. We follow traditional economic analysis and present the urban unemployment problem as an inequality of labour supply and demand on labour markets. The effects of demand-side and supply-side policies on informal urban employment are investigated through econometrical models. One or several variables are employed as crude proxies for every policy option. The dependent variable is informal urban employment as a per cent ...

  3. Expanding Decent Employment in Kenya: The Role of Monetary Policy, Inflation Control, and the Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin; James Heintz

    2007-01-01

    This IPC Country Study by Robert Pollin and James Heintz examines three policy areas related to monetary policies in Kenya: inflation dynamics and the relationship between inflation and long-run growth; monetary policy targets and instruments; and exchange rate dynamics and the country?s external balance. It concludes with five main policy recommendations

  4. State Employment Protection Statutes for Victims of Domestic Violence: Public Policy's Response to Domestic Violence as an Employment Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…

  5. 29 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth... COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.10 Employment policies relating to pregnancy... employment applicants or employees because of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions is in prima...

  6. Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan Bell, R.

    2003-01-01

    In their enthusiasm for efficiency over other values, the advocates for market-based instruments for environmental control have reversed the order in which environmental solutions are found. They have written their prescriptions without first doing a physical examination of the patient; in other words, they have first recommended environmental instruments and secondarily tried to bend institutions to support the already identified cure. The engine for environmental regulation consists of the institutions available country by country to carry out environmental policy. Institutional inadequacies such as low functioning legal systems, historical experience (or inexperience) with markets, distorting and often institutionalised corruption, and public acceptance certainly can be fixed. But changing these fundamentals can be a long and arduous process. Those who advise governments to adopt reforms for which the institutional basis does not yet exist put the cart before the horse, a costly mistake that directs weak countries in the direction of solutions they have little hope of implementing. Instead, the donors and advisors should be seeking alternative approaches, for example to encourage incremental improvements and pragmatic goals, by considering a transitional or tiered approach that will take into account existing capabilities and institutions, at the same time acknowledging that a long learning curve lies ahead with inevitably uneven implementation and slippage from time to time. Another approach would be to find examples of small, albeit imperfect, efforts that seem to be working and building on them. The long-term goal should be efficient solutions, but only the most developed countries should be encouraged to attempt difficult environmental policy instruments like taxation and emissions trading schemes

  7. Fuel taxes: An important instrument for climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article shows that fuel taxes serve a very important role for the environment and that we risk a backlash of increased emissions if they are abolished. Fuel taxes have restrained growth in fuel demand and associated carbon emissions. Although fuel demand is large and growing, our analysis shows that it would have been much higher in the absence of domestic fuel taxes. People often assert that fuel demand is inelastic but there is strong research evidence showing the opposite. The price elasticity is in fact quite high but only in the long-run: in the short run it may be quite inelastic which has important implications for policy makers. Had Europe not followed a policy of high fuel taxation but had low US taxes, then fuel demand would have been twice as large. Hypothetical transport demand in the whole OECD area is calculated for various tax scenarios and the results show that fuel taxes are the single most powerful climate policy instrument implemented to date-yet this fact is not usually given due attention in the debate

  8. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following: Employment...

  9. Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Higgins, Niall

    2001-01-01

    This study discusses in depth the youth unemployment "problem" and examines the various policy responses to it, including education and training, and active labour market policy. It emphasizes the need for adequate labour market information, policy monitoring and programme evaluation to help provide more and better-quality jobs for young people - while also offering specific recommendations and guidelines for this age group in industrialized, transition and developing countries, While anal...

  10. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    Do spatial dispersal policies on refugees promote their labour market outcomes? To investigate this we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugees subjected to the Danish spatial dispersal policy 1986....... These findings support dispersal policies. Second, on average geographical mobility had large, positive effects on the hazard rate into first job, suggesting that restrictions on placed refugees' subsequent out-migration would hamper labour market integration of refugees....

  11. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  12. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part II: Empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    How do dispersal policies affect labour market integration of refugee immigrants subjected to such policy? To investigate this, we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugee immigrants subjected to ...

  13. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level...

  14. Globalisation and Governance: Educational Policy Instruments and Regulatory Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade, the economic, social, political and cultural effects of globalisation have been central topics of debate. Those who see globalisation as a combination of economic transactions and worldwide telecommunications tend to believe that its impact is profound, inasmuch as it is fundamentally altering the way in which we live and creating hybrid cultural styles. No country is immune from the effects of globalisation, and controversy continues to reign about its positive and negative consequences. The present study identifies and examines numerous challenges posed by globalisation and their implications for educational restructuring, with special attention being given to new forms of governance; the relation between the state, the market and civil society; and governmental policy instruments for education.

  15. Emission inventory: An urban public policy instrument and benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Avignon, Alexander; Azevedo Carloni, Flavia; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Burle Schmidt Dubeux, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Global concern with climate change has led to the development of a variety of solutions to monitor and reduce emissions on both local and global scales. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), both developed and emerging countries have assumed responsibility for developing and updating national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropic sources. This creates opportunities and incentives for cities to carry out their own local inventories and, thereby, develop air quality management plans including both essential key players and stakeholders at the local level. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of local inventories as an urban public policy instrument and how this type of local instrument may bring advantages countrywide in enhancing the global position of a country. Local inventories have been carried out in many cities of the world and the main advantage of this is that it allows an overview of emissions produced by different municipal activities, thereby, helps decision makers in the elaboration of efficient air quality management plans. In that way, measures aimed at the reduction of fossil fuel consumption to lower local atmospheric pollution levels can also, in some ways, reduce GHG emissions.

  16. Improving Youth Employment Policies in Francophone Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth employment initiatives in Africa Over the last two decades, African governments established employment agencies to help youth integrate into the labour market. ... This project will help promote measures to enhance African women's access to formal financial institutions; 70% of African women do not have access to ...

  17. A Simple Forecasting Model Linking Macroeconomic Policy to Industrial Employment Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    A study detailed further a model linking monetary and fiscal policy to industrial employment in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of four United States regions. The model was used to simulate the impacts on area and regional employment of three events in the economy: changing real gross national product (GNP) via monetary policy, holding the…

  18. Client Privacy and the School Counselor: Privilege, Ethics, and Employer Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Loren; Mehring, Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Notes that number of school counselors are confused about issues of confidentiality. Discusses issues of privileged communication, confidentiality, and employer policies. Concludes with section on law, ethics, employer policy, and the counselor. Provides six recommendations for school counselors to use in their day-to-day practice to avoid…

  19. Employment Policies for a Green Economy at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela Pociovălișteanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires ensuring economic growth and development in terms of environmental protection by providing a bridge between sustainable economic growth, improvement in human health, social justice, employment and environmental protection. Our paper aims to study the situation of green jobs at the European Union level and the relationship between environment and employment, by analysing the link between employment and environmental policies. It highlights the main trends recorded at the European Union level in the field of employment policy to promote green jobs for sustainable economic development. Although there is little effect from environmental policies on employment, the effects are positive, which shows that the relationship between environmental and employment policy should be continued and improved by measures taken at both the macro- and microeconomic levels.

  20. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  1. Rethinking EU Employment Policy; a legal and economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.S. van Duin (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Given the central role of the labour market in determining the welfare of citizens it is no wonder that governments aim for influencing the labour market process. The European Union has influenced and facilitated the labour market process by policies ranging from the

  2. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  3. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through the network, research teams from different countries compare and contrast policies and programs, promoting South-South learning. Increasingly, PEP is being called upon by international institutions like the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations ...

  4. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project supports work by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) to address labour markets, social protection, and entrepreneurship - three areas that are ... Le programme de recherche Croissance de l'économie et débouchés économiques des femmes (CEDEF) est une initiative de collaboration entre le CRDI, ...

  5. Youth Employment in Africa: New Evidence and Policies from Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Brixiova, Zuzana; Kangoye, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the 2007 and 2010 Swaziland Labor Force Surveys, this paper provides first systematic evidence on recent youth employment challenges in Swaziland, a small, land-locked, middle-income country with one of the highest youth unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first documents the various labor market disadvantages faced by the Swazi youth, such as high unemployment and discouragement, and how they changed from 2007 to 2010. A multinomial logit regression analysis is then carried ou...

  6. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  7. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  8. Virtual Instrument for an Automated Potentiometric e-Tongue Employing the SIA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel del Valle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the design, construction, and applications of an electronictongue (abbreviated e-tongue based on an array of potentiometric sensors employing theSequential Injection Analysis technique (SIA operated as a Virtual Instrument implementedin LabVIEW6.1TM. The system can use transient and stationary responses as the measuredinput information for e-tongues. The new concepts applied, lead to different advantages tobe obtained, such as complete automation, easy handling, saving time, reliability andmodularity.

  9. Developing and testing a positive theory of instrument choice: Renewable energy policy in the fifty American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocirlan, Cristina E.

    The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic

  10. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  11. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  12. Disability management: organizational diversity and Dutch employment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen; Haafkens, Joke A

    2010-06-01

    While Human Resource Managers (HRM) and line managers could play a significant role in the prevention of job-related problems and in promotion of early job-continuation, it is not clear wether the chronically ill workers are recognized as a group. Unlike some other groups, distinguished by gender, age or ethnicity, those with chronic illness are less distinct and may not be included in diversity management programs. The aim of this research is to address theory and evidence in literature about the topic, as well as to inquire whether chronic illness of the employees is 'visible' in practice. For desk research, we used a systematic search strategy involving medical, statistical, management, and social science databases (Web of Science, MedLine, Pub Med, Psych Info, etc.). Research results are based on case studies conducted with the managers and HRM of government and commercial organizations between March 2007 and October 2008 and between October 2008 and April 2009. These case studies were based on open interviews and focus group sessions (for human resource departments) which were consequently analyzed using thematical analysis. For group sessions, we used concept mapping to collect information from two groups of HRM professionals and managers. Secondary analysis included thematic and content analysis of 'best practice' organizations carried out by the Dutch organization Gatekeeper. We have discovered that the chronically ill employees are largely invisible to HRM practitioners, line managers who do not always have the right instruments for implementation of the European or national frameworks. Most practitioners are unaware of the impact of chronic illness in their organizations and in employees work life.

  13. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Millán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main results of the empirical research on self-employment dynamics —particularly entry and success— and discusses their possible implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. The main goal of this study is to promote a debate on this topic, encouraging conditional analyses that serve as guidance in the design of a policy agenda.

  15. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  16. Instruments as Empirical Evidence for the Analysis of Higher Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Emanuela; Seeber, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy implementation in Higher Education (HE) analysed through the evolution and transformation of policy instruments related to government funding and evaluation. We investigate how steering and governance tools have been put into action, in order to analyse how original policy rationales and justifications have evolved and…

  17. Innovation Policy of the European Union: Concept Strategic Update and Instruments Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Hassouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes formation of EU innovation policy and its conceptual update, which has strategic character and is concerned with the social and economic model change, determines differences between EU innovation policy and national politics and the forms of its implementation, detects major changes of EU innovation policy instruments, which were the result of support concept and innovation regulations change.

  18. School Board Policy as an Instrument of Empowering Leadership in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Curtis

    The role of school board policy as an instrument for empowering leadership is explored in this paper. Currently, the majority of policy handbooks are not designed to provide motivation or vision and are not part of an ongoing effort to create a congruence of district expectations. When policy becomes a statement of a school board's expectations…

  19. Monetary policy in South Africa : an instrument of the times

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. The aim of this study will be to analyse the functioning and evolution of the South African monetary policy system since the Second World War. We are particularly interested in how international events, developments and experiments have influenced and been influenced by changes in economic sentiment and insight and how this has moulded South African monetary policy into the system in operation at the present day. Moreover, this study will highlight the fact that monetary policy in So...

  20. Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.; Arasto, A.; Sijm, J.; Peck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers apply multiple policy instruments simultaneously in the climate and energy policy field at both EU and Member State levels. This creates interactions between instruments that can be complementary and synergistic but also conflicting. This article focuses on the interactions of climate policy instruments and their impact on biomass use. The objectives are to examine interactions of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) with the main national climate policy instruments and to identify the influence of these on biomass use. The work draws experiences from seven EU countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), with a special focus on Finland and Sweden. The analysis explores the effects of policy interactions and is based on an examination of literature, and interviews with biomass experts in research, industry and policy spheres. Results indicate that the combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass use, whereas the causal links to the EU ETS are difficult to assess separately. Policy impacts found include increased competition for biomass resources, changes in fuel mixes and a contribution to upward pressure on wood prices. Differences in these effects are linked to differing national policy mixes and energy-carrier portfolios – an example being the relative differences in the importance of peat to the energy mix in Finland and Sweden. Analysis and comparison of the effects in the selected countries can yield insight on how to improve the design of policy interventions that impact biomass use. This study confirms the importance of identifying interactions between policy instruments so as to recognise – and manage – synergies and conflicts. The development of more synergistic and coordinated policy instrument mixes would also be beneficial for the bioenergy field. -- Highlights: ► Combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass

  1. Food policy and equity in sub-saharan Africa: rural employment policy research programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai D; Smith L

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, conference paper on the impact of food policies on income distribution in Africa south of Sahara - discusses trends (1969-1980) and price policies relating to consumer prices of food and agricultural price; examines relationship between the prices of cash crops in the domestic market and the international market, and policy implications in the 1980s, etc. References. Conference held in Zimbabwe 1983 Aug-Sep.

  2. The impact of environmental policy instruments on the timing of adoption of energy-saving technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Soest, Daan P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main considerations in designing environmental policy is the impact of policy instruments on the timing of firms' investment decisions with respect to energy-saving technologies. This paper analyzes the impact of environmental taxes and quotas on the timing of adoption when (i) the rate at which new, improved energy-efficient technologies become available, is uncertain, and (ii) the investment decision is (at least partially) irreversible. We find that neither policy instrument is unambiguously preferred to the other when it comes to stimulating early adoption of new technologies. (author) (Environmental taxation; Command-and-control instruments; Dynamic efficiency; Stochasticity)

  3. EUROPEAN UNION SOCIAL AND EMPLOYMENT POLICY, A COMPONENT AND A MEANS OF ACHIEVING SOCIAL COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VASILESCU (DUMITRASCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Creating more and better jobs is one of the main goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The European Employment Strategy is designed to contribute to growth and jobs, labour mobility and social progress. But, European Union countries are developing in economic, social and political different environments, influenced by historical traditions, natural conditions, provision of inputs, the degree of implementation of technical progress and the quality of education of human factor. Therefore, each country, based on the level of their economic development, has developed a social and employment policy, in accordance with its concrete conditions of development. This is why we can state that social and employment policy is and will be, firstly, the individual issue of EU members. The promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions, proper social protection, dialogue between management and labour, the development of human resources are the common objectives of the EU and its Member States in the social and employment field. This paper seeks to underline the relation between social and employment policy, on one hand, and social cohesion, on the other hand, using a historical analysis of social and employment policy progress in time within the European Union.

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(12)-1 - Services in employ of wholly owned instrumentality of foreign government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21... Government and of instrumentalities thereof. (b) For purposes of this exception, the citizenship or residence...

  5. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  6. Willingness-to-pay and policy-instrument choice for climate-change policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchen, Matthew J.; Boyle, Kevin J.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates in support of a national climate-change policy that are comparable with the costs of actual legislative efforts in the U.S. Congress. Based on a survey of 2034 American adults, we find that households are, on average, willing to pay between $79 and $89 per year in support of reducing domestic greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions 17% by 2020. Even very conservative estimates yield an average WTP at or above $60 per year. Taking advantage of randomized treatments within the survey valuation question, we find that mean WTP does not vary substantially among the policy instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. But there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. Greater education always increases WTP. Older individuals have a lower WTP for a carbon tax and a GHG regulation, while greater household income increases WTP for these same two policy instruments. Republicans, along with those indicating no political party affiliation, have a significantly lower WTP regardless of the policy instrument. But many of these differences are no longer evident after controlling for respondent opinions about whether global warming is actually happening. - Highlights: ► First willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for actual national climate-change policy in the U.S. ► WTP does not vary among the instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. ► There are differences in the characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. ► No differences after controlling for opinions about whether global warming is actually happening

  7. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  8. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  9. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  10. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  11. Policy instruments for energy conservation: A multidimensional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of various forms of taxes, subsidies and regulations implemented to correct for market failures that may prevent energy savings. It builds on various approaches, with gradual complexity. First, a standard micro-economic model is developed to compare the static performances of these instruments. Second, the representation of consumer behaviour is strengthened in a model of the residential energy demand for space heating in France, which allows to identify the dynamic mechanisms by which instruments can correct for the main market failures. Third, an empirical evaluation of 'white certificate' schemes - tradable energy saving obligations imposed on energy operators - is made from the comparison between the British, Italian and French experiences, taking into account national institutions. The following conclusions can be drawn from these various approaches: (i) energy taxes, by encouraging both energy efficiency investment and sufficiency behaviour, are particularly effective; (ii) energy efficiency regulations have a significant impact on the diffusion of efficient technologies; (iii) subsidies to energy efficiency induce a large rebound effect; (iv) depending on the institutional environment in which they operate, white certificate schemes combine different properties of these instruments. Applied to the French residential building sector, the most effective combination of these instruments does not allow to reach the energy saving target set by the Government. (author)

  12. FISCAL POLICY - AN INSTRUMENT FOR ACHIEVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana HOLT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal policy construction developped at national level is focused on the maintenance of the macroeconomic stability process in order to achieve the nominal and real convergence criteria concerning the membership of the Romanian economy to the European Union integrated monetary space. The orientation of the fiscal national policy is subdue to some major constraints regarding her capacity of ensuring the external sustenance, of developping the non-inflation process, of forming and consolidating the financing resources necessary to the accomplishment of the post-adhesion engagements assumed by Romania as a member state of the European Union.

  13. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  14. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  15. Central bank instruments, fiscal policy regimes, and the requirements for equilibrium determinacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the monetary instrument choice for local equilibrium determinacy under sticky prices and different fiscal policy regimes. Corresponding to Benhabib et al.'s results for interest rate feedback rules [Benhabib, J., Schmitt-Grohé, S., Uribe, M., 2001. Monetary policy and

  16. Combining policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for selected countries. To comply with these reduction requirements, decision-makers may use market-based instruments on a national or international basis. This paper advocates the combining of national emission taxes with international trade of emission permits. As a numerical application, this paper analyses macro-economic impacts of such a strategy for Switzerland. (Author)

  17. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware of....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  18. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware of....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  19. 25 CFR 20.314 - What is the policy on employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.314 What is the policy on... does not comply with this section will not be eligible for General Assistance for a period of at least...

  20. Employers' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Policies on Hiring of Graduates of Online Dietetic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehpahlavan, Jaleh

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative explorative study explored dietetic employers' perceptions, attitudes, and policies regarding hiring of online dietetic graduates; how their perceptions were formed; and factors contributing to their development. Higher educational institutions and learners have embraced online education, evidenced by increased online program…

  1. New Mothers' Employment and Public Policy in the UK, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjoh, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between family-friendly policies and women's employment after birth of the first child in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan in the 1980s and the 1990s. Our econometric analyses use household panel data from each of the five countries: BHPS, GSOEP,

  2. Teaching the Dragon? The Diffusion of European Union’s Social and Employment Policies to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena; Weiguo, Yang; Mok, Ka Ho

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the extent to which we can trace the ideational spread of the European Union’s employment and social policies outside European borders, more specifically in China. Based on the analysis of labour market reforms in China between 2000 and 2012 and interview data obtained from

  3. [Physician payment mechanisms. An instrument of health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, G

    1994-01-01

    Payment mechanisms for physicians have always been subject of debate. The profession tends to prefer fee-for-services, while health care institutions prefer to pay doctors by salary or capitation. The definition of the payment mechanism is not an administrative decision, it is frequently the output of an intense political negotiation. Recently an increase in salaried physicians has been observed, even in countries where the profession is powerful. In nations like Mexico, where the State is the dominant actor, salary or capitation can be used as an instrument to encourage quality of care and better geographic distribution. In this paper, several country cases are reviewed.

  4. The impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages, and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The Nordic countries at the same time exhibit a remarkably high participation rate of mothers and a more moderate decline in fertility rates compared to other Western countries. This has been attributed to the fact that the welfare state model and, especially, the family friendly policies chosen...... in the Nordic countries are unique. In this paper we evaluate the impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages and children's well-being. We demonstrate that, although the `Nordic model' has been successful in boosting female employment, it is a costly solution. Furthermore, family......-friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression...

  5. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  6. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  7. A method for the deliberate and deliberative selection of policy instrument mixes for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen L. P. Mees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy instruments can help put climate adaptation plans into action. Here, we propose a method for the systematic assessment and selection of policy instruments for stimulating adaptation action. The multi-disciplinary set of six assessment criteria is derived from economics, policy, and legal studies. These criteria are specified for the purpose of climate adaptation by taking into account four challenges to the governance of climate adaptation: uncertainty, spatial diversity, controversy, and social complexity. The six criteria and four challenges are integrated into a step-wise method that enables the selection of instruments starting from a generic assessment and ending with a specific assessment of policy instrument mixes for the stimulation of a specific adaptation measure. We then apply the method to three examples of adaptation measures. The method's merits lie in enabling deliberate choices through a holistic and comprehensive set of adaptation specific criteria, as well as deliberative choices by offering a stepwise method that structures an informed dialog on instrument selection. Although the method was created and applied by scientific experts, policy-makers can also use the method.

  8. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.

  9. New environmental policy instruments to realize forest expansion in Flanders (northern Belgium): A base for smart regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossum, Van P.; Ledene, L.; Arts, B.J.M.; Vreese, De R.; Langenhove, Van G.; Verheyen, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current instrument mix, designs options for smart regulation and estimates the support base of new instruments for the forest expansion policy in Flanders (northern Belgium). The framework applied is a combination of theories on instrument choice (ICT), policy transfer and

  10. A Comprehensive Approach in Recruitment and Employment Policies for Faculty Members: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the field of human resource management have always emphasized on human work force as the most important strategic factor and the organization's most valuable asset and believe that effective management of human resources is the key to organizational success. Recruitment and selection are one of the aspects of human resource management that are of great importance and adopting appropriate policies in this area could provide the appropriate use of human resources. In universities and higher education institutions, faculty members are one of the major capitals and development and application of appropriate policies play a major role in their success. This study is based on critical review where relevant search terms were used to collect the studies using extensive and structured search of the databases. One hundred fifty titles were retrieved. Then, with purposive sampling, texts screening was conducted in three stages: A primary screening or title screening on the grounds that are associated with managing recruiting faculty members, B secondary screening performed based on study summary and introduction texts, and C tertiary screening: the texts were briefly studied and the texts were prioritized based on conceptual richness and related to contextual studies and irrelevant articles were excluded. Complete and in-depth study of the richest papers began. Forty-five articles and text were examined. The results suggest that in most universities management of recruiting faculty members is decentralized and based on the department. Findings show that policies such as reducing the use of tenure track, the long-term contracts, limiting the tenure to faculty of science, limiting tenure to higher levels of associate professor and design the diverse career paths and different forms of employment are of the policies that can be considered by university managers. The findings also suggest that universities can use flexible policies, such as

  11. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be ab...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis.......This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...

  12. The use of economic instruments for environmental policy: a half-hearted affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1995-01-01

    their use of economic instruments, but with a few exceptions it has been a somewhat half-hearted affair. Economic imstruments have often been applied on the basis of the principle of the least political resistance. Using Wilson's regulation theory (1980), this paper analyses how the costs and benefits......As a key to a more sustainable development the use of economic instruments for environmental policy has been on the agenda for about eight years. Despite of that, a recent OECD survey recorded only a modest increase in their use since the mid-1980s. In particular the Nordic counries have increased...... of regulations and particular policy-instruments affect the use and design of economic instruments. The outcome has been green taxes that are often fiscally biased , which are too low compared with the externalities they should price and which address the smaller rather than the larger polluters, granting...

  13. Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands. Inventory and options for extended use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Van Beukering, P.J.H.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the 'policy toolbox'. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector. Five economic instruments are specifically addressed: (1) Waste taxes; (2) Waste collection charges; (3) Taxes on raw materials and products; (4) Deposit-refund schemes; and (5) Subsidies and fiscal incentives. For each of these economic instruments, the study describes existing experiences (both in the Netherlands and abroad) and analyses the impact and feasibility of a variety of possible new applications. These case studies, which primarily serve as illustrations of the mechanisms and possible impacts, were selected so as to represent a wide range of instrument types, levels of intervention, positions in the value chain, and types of waste. Depending on the application area and data availability, the analysis is done by means of quantitative approaches (using general-equilibrium modelling and statistical analysis) or more qualitative approaches in which expert judgements are used.

  14. Policy Attribute Framing: A Comparison between Three Policy Instruments for Personal Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Yael; Capstick, Stuart; Poortinga, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experiment in the UK examined people's willingness to change energy consumption behavior under three different policy framings: energy tax, carbon tax, and personal carbon allowances (PCA). PCA is a downstream cap-and-trade policy proposed in the UK, in which emission rights are allocated to individuals. We hypothesized that due to…

  15. THE AIMS OF EMPLOYABILITY AND SOCIAL INCLUSION / ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP IN LIFELONG LEARNING POLICIES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Prokou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The argument of this article is that during the last two decades or so, in lifelong learning policies in Greece, priority was given to the confrontation of social exclusion that stems from unemployment and, thus, to the achievement of the aims of employability and social inclusion. EU funding and the relatively centralised character of the regulated part of adult/continuing education in Greece favoured the expansion of training programmes for the unemployed. As in the 1990s, so in the 2000s, ...

  16. From theory based policy evaluation to SMART Policy Design: Lessons learned from 20 ex-post evaluations of energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Harmsen, Robert; Nilsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of an in-depth ex-post analysis of 20 energy efficiency policy instruments applied across different sectors and countries. Within the AID-EE project, we reconstructed and analysed the implementation process of energy efficiency policy instruments with the aim to identify key factors behind successes and failures. The analysis was performed using a uniform methodology called 'theory based policy evaluation'. With this method the whole implementation process is assessed with the aim to identify: (i) the main hurdles in each step of the implementation process, (ii) key success factors for different types of instruments and (iii) the key indicators that need to be monitored to enable a sound evaluation of the energy efficiency instruments. Our analysis shows that: Energy efficiency policies often lack quantitative targets and clear timeframes; Often policy instruments have multiple and/or unclear objectives; The need for monitoring information does often not have priority in the design phase; For most instruments, monitoring information is collected on a regular basis. However, this information is often insufficient to determine the impact on energy saving, cost-effectiveness and target achievement of an instrument; Monitoring and verification of actual energy savings have a relatively low priority for most of the analyzed instruments. There is no such thing as the 'best' policy instrument. However, typical circumstances in which to apply different types of instruments and generic characteristics that determine success or failure can be identified. Based on the assessments and the experience from applying theory based policy evaluation ex-post, we suggest that this should already be used in the policy formulation and design phase of instruments. We conclude that making policy theory an integral and mandated part of the policy process would facilitate more efficient and effective energy efficiency instruments

  17. A qualitative evaluation of policy instruments used to improve energy performance of existing private dwellings in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Lorraine; Meijer, Frits; Visscher, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Climate change policies in the Netherlands recognise the importance of existing dwellings. Efforts to gain these energy savings are led at national level by policy instruments such as the Energy Performance Certificate, covenants, economic and information tools. These instruments reflect a policy style described as consensus based and incentivising. However, this approach has been subject to criticism with suggestions that alternatives are required. As a first step towards conceptualising alternatives previous evaluations and stakeholder interviews are used to assess instruments. Elements from the theory based evaluation method combined with concepts from policy instrument and energy policy literature form an evaluation framework. Results demonstrate weak impact of some key instruments. Underlying theories associated with instruments are often lost during implementation or remain unsubstantiated. Policy instrument and energy policy concepts are evident but are far from pervasive. Results show that current instruments are poorly equipped to forge a long-term energy saving strategy for existing dwellings. It is further demonstrated that complexity with existing dwellings is not only limited to frequently cited barriers but to the intricacies of designing and operating a well-orchestrated instrument mix. - Highlights: ► Instruments are evaluated using the theory based method and normative concepts. ► Lack of monitoring and evaluation data affects impact assessment. ► Impact and normative concepts are reflected in part in individual instruments. ► A coherent strategy that demonstrates impact and reflects concepts is absent. ► Results form a first step from which to conceptualise alternatives.

  18. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  19. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  20. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  1. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M. K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  2. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women’s employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Soomi; DUVANDER, Ann-Zofie; ZARIT, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women’s employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women’s employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and...

  3. Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

  4. Economic effects of clean indoor air policies on bar and restaurant employment in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Forster, Jean L; Erickson, Darin J; Lytle, Leslie A; Schillo, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies have been adopted by communities across the United States and internationally to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Concerns have been raised that banning smoking in workplaces, particularly in bars and restaurants, will result in severe, negative economic effects. Although objective studies have consistently found no significant economic effects from CIA policies, the concerns persist that CIA policies will negatively affect hospitality businesses. Employment in bars and restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota, was independently evaluated over a five-year period during which CIA policies were established in each city. An interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the short-, intermediate, and longer-term economic effects of the local CIA policies, accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry. The CIA policies were associated with an increase of three percent to four percent in employment for restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, after accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry. The CIA policies were inconsistent in their association with bar employment. A comprehensive CIA policy in Minneapolis was associated with an increase of five percent to six percent in bar employment, and St Paul had a one percent nonsignificant decrease in bar employment. The CIA policies continue to yield the best protection against workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for bars and restaurant employees and were not associated with large employment changes for the short or longer term in two urban Midwestern cities in the United States.

  5. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. IMPACT OF POLICIES AND PUBLIC FINANCING INSTRUMENTS ON R&D INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana SANDU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the Romania country review, produced as internal working papers for the research project “Monitoring and analysis of policies and public financing instruments conducive to higher levels of R&D investment”. The aim of the project is to serve as support for policy developments in Europe, notably in the framework of CREST activities. It is running by a consortium of 7 partners:· UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands, consortium leader·Technopolis (The Netherlands· PREST – University of Manchester (United Kingdom· ZEW (Germany· Joanneum Research (Austria· Wiseguys Ltd. (United Kingdom and INTRASOFT International (Luxembourg. Each country review provides expert’s view on the policy mix and its is to provide an exploratory analysis of the current policy mixes in place and detect the most important areas of interactions between instruments as well as new modes of policy governance that are particularly adapted (or detrimental for the building of policy mixes.

  7. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Conclusion to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Chris J; Shaw, William S

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Research of employer policies and practices to manage and prevent disability spans many disciplines and perspectives, and there are many challenges related to stakeholder collaboration, data access, and interventions. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the findings from a conference and year-long collaboration among a group of invited researchers intended to spur new research innovations in this field. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The conference goals were to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. In this paper, we summarize key points from the 6 resulting papers, compare them with an earlier 2005 conference on improving return-to-work research, and conclude with recommendations for further overarching research directions. Results/Conclusion In comparison with the 2005 conference, a greater emphasis was placed on organizational and social factors, employer roles and responsibilities, methods of implementation, non-clinical approaches, and facilitating stay-at-work as well as return-to-work. A special panel of employer consultants and representatives who were featured at the 2015 conference reinforced the importance of organizational culture, leadership style, and financial decision-making strategies at the employer level. Based on the conference proceedings, we recommend that future research in this area should strive for: (a) broader inclusion of workers and workplaces; (b) attention to multilevel influences in the workplace; (c) a focus on social as well as physical aspects of work; (d) earlier employer collaboration efforts; (e) more attention to

  8. Having a Say and Acting: Assessing the effectiveness of the European Employment Strategy as an intra-governmental coordinative instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariely López-Santana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As the European Union (EU has strengthened, scholars have emphasized the development of multilevel governance structures and the salience of subnational actors. With the launch of the Open Method of Coordination and the increasing development of non-binding regulations, we must re-consider the potential of this type of governance instrument to serve as an intergovernmental and intra-governmental coordinative mechanism; thus contributing to the development of multilevel governance structures. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the implementation of the European Employment Strategy and its potential to serve as an intra-governmental coordinative instrument. I argue that this non-binding instrument does informally (de facto influence intra-governmental relations in member states. In addition, subnational actors have transferred many of these soft principles to lower levels of government. These propositions are explored using data gathered in the EU, Spain, Belgium, and Sweden at both the national and the sub national levels.

  9. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent years, the pace of efforts

  10. HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES. PARTS III AND IV, LOOKING AHEAD TO THE POSTWAR ECONOMY AND THE CONCEPT OF FULL EMPLOYMENT IN CONGRESS. SELECTED READINGS IN EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER, VOLUME 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    THE SELECTED READINGS WERE COMPILED TO PROVIDE SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS WITH A BROAD BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE FORMULATION OF U.S. EMPLOYMENT POLICIES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. PARTS I AND II (VT 004 819) PROVIDE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM THE LATE 1920'S THROUGH THE GREAT DEPRESSION.…

  11. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  12. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  13. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing. Danish experiences with different policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K.; Haunstrup Christensen, T. (Aalborg Univ., Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    This report contains a memo written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy-efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent and relevant instruments concluding both on the results concerning the impact of the instruments especially on owners of single-family houses and on more general experiences with their implementation. Finally the memo concludes on the general lessons that can be learned from the Danish experiences. (Author)

  14. Socio-economic characteristics and the effect of taxation as a health policy instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Denver, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    in response to price changes, while it is mostly the middle-aged who exhibit price responsiveness in their demand for sugar. These groups are however not considered as key target groups for dietary regulation; thus tax instruments may be effective in improving diets on average, but the design......This paper analyses the quantitative effects of using economic instruments in health policy on the basis of price elasticities calculated from estimated demand systems. The nutritional effects of various taxation schemes are compared for households in different age groups and social classes....... Focusing on the consumption of saturated fats, fibre and sugar; it is generally found that the impact of price instruments is stronger for lower social classes than in other groups of the population. With regard to age groups, it is mostly the youngest that decrease their demand for saturated fat...

  15. Combining climate and energy policies: synergies or antagonism? Modeling interactions with energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar; Bibas, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the already present Climate and Energy package, the European Union (EU) plans to include a binding target to reduce energy consumption. We analyze the rationales the EU invokes to justify such an overlapping and develop a minimal common framework to study interactions arising from the combination of instruments reducing emissions, promoting renewable energy (RE) production and reducing energy demand through energy efficiency (EE) investments. We find that although all instruments tend to reduce GHG emissions and although a price on carbon tends also to give the right incentives for RE and EE, the combination of more than one instrument leads to significant antagonisms regarding major objectives of the policy package. The model allows to show in a single framework and to quantify the antagonistic effects of the joint promotion of RE and EE. We also show and quantify the effects of this joint promotion on ETS permit price, on wholesale market price and on energy production levels. (authors)

  16. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  17. Educating for a High Skills Society? The Landscape of Federal Employment, Training and Lifelong Learning Policy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Tara; Walker, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Government reports and documents claim that building a knowledge economy and innovative society are key goals in Canada. In this paper, we draw on critical policy analysis to examine 10 Canadian federal government training and employment policies in relation to the government's espoused priorities of innovation and developing a high skills society…

  18. Electoral impact of public policies Case Study: Elections as an instrument of civic participation in public policies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  20. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  1. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  2. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  3. Recovery of Large Angular Scale CMB Polarization for Instruments Employing Variable-Delay Polarization Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Marriage, T. A.; Wollack, E. J.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fixsen, D. J.; Harrington, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/ f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r= 0.01. Indeed, r less than 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  4. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chuss, D. T. [Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E Lancaster, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R., E-mail: Nathan.J.Miller@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  7. Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Iryna P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financial policy in the system of state regulation of economy under conditions of financial globalisation lies in formation of the model of financial relations, which would facilitate realisation of a complex of goals and tasks in the strategy of the society development; priorities of the financial policy should be determined on the basis of a complex approach in the context of formation of the financial policy concept with consideration of detection and analysis of exogenous and endogenous factors, which identify processes of the society development, and consideration of hierarchical components of the state system of priorities.

  8. A multi-criteria evaluation method for climate change mitigation policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konidari, Popi; Mavrakis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of climate change mitigation policy instruments. The method consists of: (i) a set of criteria supported by sub-criteria, all of which describe the complex framework under which these instruments are selected by policy makers and implemented, (ii) an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) process for defining weight coefficients for criteria and sub-criteria according to the preferences of three stakeholders groups and (iii) a Multi-Attribute Theory (MAUT)/Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) process for assigning grades to each instrument that is evaluated for its performance under a specific sub-criterion. Arguments for the selected combination of these standard methods and definitions for criteria/sub-criteria are quoted. Consistency and robustness tests are performed. The functionality of the proposed method is tested by assessing the aggregate performances of the EU emission trading scheme at Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. Conclusions are discussed

  9. The Role Of Modeling Assumptions And Policy Instruments in Evaluating The Global Implications Of U.S. Biofuel Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of current U.S. biofuel law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is to reduce dependence on imported oil, but the law also requires biofuels to meet carbon emission reduction thresholds relative to petroleum fuels. EISA created a renewable fuel standard with annual targets for U.S. biofuel use that climb gradually from 9 billion gallons per year in 2008 to 36 billion gallons (or about 136 billion liters) of biofuels per year by 2022. The most controversial aspects of the biofuel policy have centered on the global social and environmental implications of its potential land use effects. In particular, there is an ongoing debate about whether indirect land use change (ILUC) make biofuels a net source, rather sink, of carbon emissions. However, estimates of ILUC induced by biofuel production and use can only be inferred through modeling. This paper evaluates how model structure, underlying assumptions, and the representation of policy instruments influence the results of U.S. biofuel policy simulations. The analysis shows that differences in these factors can lead to divergent model estimates of land use and economic effects. Estimates of the net conversion of forests and grasslands induced by U.S. biofuel policy range from 0.09 ha/1000 gallons described in this paper to 0.73 ha/1000 gallons from early studies in the ILUC change debate. We note that several important factors governing LUC change remain to be examined. Challenges that must be addressed to improve global land use change modeling are highlighted.

  10. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; Rietbergen, M.; Van der Gaast, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency obligation under a white certificate scheme can make use of voluntary actions to enhance investments in innovative energy savings projects. Energy suppliers and other market parties can additionally or in parallel participate in voluntary agreements and set energy efficiency targets. For fulfilling their voluntary agreement target, these market parties can receive tax exemptions or receive white certificates that they can sell in the market. Transaction costs and baseline definition for demonstrating energy efficiency improvement deserve special attention. This policy can assist a country to enhance energy efficiency improvement while it stimulates innovation. Cost effectiveness can be higher than the case of stand-alone policy instruments, since more financing options are available for more expensive projects. Nevertheless, the added value of the scheme lies more in the implementation of innovative measures for enhanced energy efficiency. Furthermore, market parties can discover more business opportunities in energy efficiency and establish a green image; hence an integrated scheme should achieve higher political acceptability. (author)

  11. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  14. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  15. Education and Research Policy as an Instrument of Soft Power in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bolshova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper analyzes higher education and resarch policy in Germany as an important instrument in ensuring the competitiveness and influence of the state in the international arena. In today's global struggle for leadership Germany relies on "soft" and "smart" power («soft and smart power»: education, research, innovation and human capital. This article discusses the most important initiatives the federal government and lands in the past five years, aiming at strengthening the position of Germany as a world center of higher education and advanced research and the most attractive location for highly qualified specialists from around the world.

  16. Experience with agreements as an instrument in the climate policy; Erfaringer med avtaler som klimapolitisk virkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    This report discusses the experience with the use of agreements between industry and authorities in the climate and energy conservation policies in selected countries. The main purpose is to survey agreements in selected OECD countries and to evaluate the experience gained with this political instrument. Special emphasis is placed on Denmark and the Netherlands. The agreements are mainly aiming at energy conservation. In Norway, the agreements are at present primarily of relevance for emissions from the processing industries. But the experience gained in other countries on the practical realization of the agreements are relevant to Norway. 5 refs.

  17. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme 'International instruments for climate change policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van Beek, P.; Folmer, H.; Zhang, Z.X.; Blok, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Worrell, E.; Gupta, J.; Junne, G.; Van der Wurff, R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects implemented in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change are organised in several themes and sub-themes. Within the theme on Sustainable Solutions five projects are grouped under the heading International Instruments for Climate Change Policy. These five projects deal primarily with issues concerning the position of developing countries in the debate on limiting global CO2-emissions. They cover a broad spectrum of topics: international negotiation strategies, tropical deforestation, industrial energy conservation, national energy scenarios, emission guidelines. This contribution presents an overview of the objectives, methodologies and results of the projects and includes a critical evaluation of the potential relevance of the work for policy makers. 1 tab., 36 refs

  18. Woodfuel in Rwanda: Impact on Energy, Poverty, Environment and Policy Instruments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Mazimpaka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda’s geographical and socio-economic situations have shaped the energy situation and limited access to modern fuels. Woodfuel is the main source of energy for households and its trade a source of income and jobs in rural areas. Currently 85.2% of households’ land holding is less than 1 ha, insufficient to grow food and fuelwood for a household of the average size of 5.5 persons. Without well documented reports of the individual impact of each deforestation factor, woodfuels have been most blamed. This paper investigates how the current woodfuel industry impacts on energy, poverty and forests and analyses the woodfuel policy instruments. Considering woodfuel consumption under an only environmental or energy perspective has resulted in a search for a narrowly environmental or energy solution. Both failed to solve the problem of forest depletion. Current regulations limit the benefits traditionally derived from woodfuel commoditisation leading to a negative attitude towards policy instruments. The processes involved in producing charcoal and using it as a cooking fuel is inefficient and resource intensive. The barriers to large dissemination of improved cooking stoves include availability, relatively low cost of woodfuels, lack of improved stove diversity on the local market and weak government policy in regard to the woodfuel industry. Policies aiming to substitute or reduce woodfuel consumption, have not achieved the desired results and their implementations have not unarguably reduced deforestation. The paper recommends the community-based woodfuel production as sustainable management approaches to mobilise community support for sustainable forestry management and woodfuel production.

  19. Danish and Norwegian wind industry: The relationship between policy instruments, innovation and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buen, Jorund

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the role of policy instruments in stimulating long-term technological change in Danish and Norwegian wind industry. It concludes that although predictability has periodically been low, Denmark's broad portfolio of policies and measures has been well adapted to the different stages in the development of its wind industry. This has contributed to a high degree of innovation, successful establishment in niche markets, high degree of diffusion and establishment of domestic and international mass markets, and-in recent years-an increasingly successful replacement of senescent technology with new. The motivation of Norway's wind energy policies and measures-at least up until the late 1990s-has been to increase power supply rather than to stimulate industrial development and technological change. Policies and measures have been weaker than in Denmark; have been less stable over time; and stimulated the demand side much less. They have not sufficiently covered the wind industry's perceived needs on different stages in the development of new technology, and have not sufficiently stimulated continuous improvement, learning and new product development (dynamic efficiency) in industry. This has been part of the reason why there has been only a limited extent of innovation and diffusion of wind technology in Norway

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  1. Report mapping legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support, FRAME Deliverable 12.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churruca Muguruza, C.; Isa, F. G.; San José, D. G.; Fernández Sánchez, P. A.; Márquez Carrasco, C.; Muñoz Nogal, E.; Nagore Casas, M.; Timmer, Alexandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/351098852

    2014-01-01

    This report is devoted to the mapping of legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support. In particular, it highlights the EU´s human rights priorities in terms of themes and vulnerable groups in its external action based on a review of EU policy documents and

  2. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  3. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women’s employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Soomi; DUVANDER, Ann-Zofie; ZARIT, Steven H.

    2017-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women’s employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women’s employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women’s workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes. PMID:28163567

  4. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Leduc, Sylvain; Dotzauer, Erik; Schmid, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: → Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO 2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. → Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. → Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. → CO 2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. → Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO 2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  5. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  6. Municipal Risk Atlases in Mexico as policy instruments for territorial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxhelli Ruiz Rivera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH, which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry of Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as ‘vulnerability’, ‘affected systems’, ‘disturbances’ but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices.

  7. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  8. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  9. Pierre Muller's Concept of Referencing Applied to some Forced Displacement Public Policy Instruments in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jimena Holguín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This text presents how Pierre Muller's concept of public policy referencing is applied to some public policy instruments as analyzed during the 1994 - 2014 period when caring for displaced population. This period allowed the observation of an emergence of a series of images when caring for the displaced that, seen as a whole, make visible the complexity of this phenomenon in terms of public policy. This insofar as how it shows that discourses and actions when caring for the displaced population lack continuity even during the term of the incumbent government, which complicates the caring and restitution of rights processes. The changes in the reference frame (i.e. the collective imagination when caring for displaced population that resulted from the analysis: from a perspective of harm (CONPES 2804 dated 1995, to one of differential care (CONPES 2924 dated 1997; Then to one of specialized care (Law 387 dated 1997, to finally arrive at one of differential care (Law 1448 dated 2011.

  10. Module 3: Workplace Policy, Practice and Culture--Employer and Employee Perspectives. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The contents of this module have been prepared to address some of challenges associated with teaching about work-family issues from a human resource management and employment perspective. The goals of this module are: (1) To develop an understanding that work-family policies are part of a human resource management system and the employment…

  11. Local government austerity policies in the Netherlands : the effectiveness of social dialogue in preserving public service employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weske, Ulrike; Leisink, Peter; Knies, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The financial and economic crisis has led to fiscal austerity measures and reform policies in the Netherlands that have had a direct impact on municipalities. Decreased municipal budgets have forced municipalities to cut public services and lower the employment conditions of municipal employees. It

  12. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  13. Expansion planning of brazilian electric sector: institutional changes, new policies and new instruments for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.; Silva, W.A. da; Ricciulli, D.L.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian power supply industry has been in crisis for many years, particularly due to financial and institutional problems. There are many reasons for that, several of them from outside the industry. In this paper a diagnosis of the main elements of this crisis is worked out, in the context of the industry's expansion planning. Following, institutional changes, new policies and new instruments are proposed for this planning. The institutional setting, the demand studies, the demand side management, the supply optimisation, the rural electrification, the decentralized generation of electricity, the tariff structure, the ways of financing the industry, the technological advances, the social and environmental impacts and the integrated planning of the industry are discussed, together with the planning of the power supply industry interactions with the other energy supply industries and the rest of the economy. (author)

  14. Applying market-based instruments to environmental policies in China and OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth since the late 1970s has been a remarkable achievement, and is projected to continue. However, this prospect could be compromised by pollution of air, water, and land, the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, and the environmental impacts on public health. Air pollution associated with the use of coal for energy and industrial purposes is a particularly serious challenge in China, with important domestic and transboundary implications. This book presents papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and China's National Environmental Protection Agency on the application of economic instruments to control air pollution in China and OECD countries. It presents the state-of-the-air in this field, based upon contributions from Chinese and OECD country policy makers and experts

  15. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy Płatności obszarowe jako instrument polityki ochrony środowiska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  17. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends...... and the nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  18. Incentivizing wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel through financial policy instruments. An economic assessment for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stroemman, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a select set of financial incentive instruments that can be employed by the Norwegian government for encouraging early investment and production experience in wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) technologies as a means to accelerate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) stemming from road-based transport. We start by performing an economic analysis of FTD produced from Norwegian forest biomass at a pioneer commercial plant in Norway, followed with a cost growth analysis to estimate production costs after uncertainty in early plant performance and capital cost estimates are considered. Results after the cost growth analysis imply that the initial production cost estimates for a pioneer producer may be underestimated by up to 30%. Using the revised estimate we then assess, through scenarios, how various financial support mechanisms designed to encourage near-term investment would affect production costs over a range of uncertain future oil prices. For all policy scenarios considered, we evaluate trade-offs between the levels of public expenditure, or subsidy, and private investor profitability. When considering the net present value of the subsidy required to incentivize commercial investment during a future of low oil prices, we find that GHG mitigation via wood-FTD is likely to be considered cost-ineffective. However, should the government expect that mean oil prices in the coming two decades will hover between $97 and 127/bbl, all the incentive policies considered would likely spur investment at net present values ≤$-100/tonne-fossil-CO 2 -equivalent avoided. (author)

  19. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  20. Allergies And Asthma : Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Behrmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social jus- tice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assess- ment include: 1 whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health ben- efit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2 whether targeting initiatives towards particu- lar societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population seg- ments, and 3 whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article con- cludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol, which public health officials could replicate as a guide in actual, region-specific policy development.

  1. Integrating Employment and Skills Policy: Lessons from the United Kingdom's New Deal for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rachel; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon interviews with key stakeholders including policy makers and providers of the flagship welfare reform programme--the New Deal for Young People, this article contributes to analysis and debate through an exploration of skills investment policy and practice in this key UK "welfare to work" programme. It concludes that the…

  2. Strategy and policy in mobilizing resources for employability enhancement (West Bengal, India)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Nibedita; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Gregar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Employability enhancement is a burning topic in present world. To sustain in this competitive world every human needs the capacity to adopt themselves through their own skills, efficiency and knowledge. This paper tries to investigate the prominence of employability and its current practices in that

  3. Getting Young People to Work: An Evaluation of Swedish Youth Employment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Bjorn; Wise, Lois Recascino

    1989-01-01

    The Swedish government guarantees young people jobs under two programs: Youth Opportunities and Youth Teams. Both rely largely on local authorities as employers of last resort. Smaller-scale schemes that offer incentives to employers who provide jobs to unemployed youth have also been tried. These programs have resulted in a marked decline in…

  4. Equal Opportunities between Men and Women and Gender Mainstreaming under the European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC – A New Policy Approach to Combat Gender Discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Braams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the development of the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming with regard to a new policy approach taken outside the traditional community method and to raise the question to what extent these policy instruments can be considered as a 'new tool' to combat gender discrimination. The European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC are two examples of an instrument outside the community method, which tries to increase the recognition of the gender dimension of the labour market and to improve the initiatives taken in the interrelated field of social inclusion of women by the use of 'soft' policy instruments and voluntarist procedures. The paper illustrates the development of the concept of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming under the EES and the OMC; more precisely, the paper seeks to demonstrate that the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming cannot be addressed by reference to harmonisation instruments exclusively, but need, due to the diverse approach towards gender equality on a national level, a decentralised approach as it is offered by the coordination instrument, which should be understood as a complementary tool of integration.

  5. Literature review on employment impacts of GHG reduction policies for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L.; Kampman, B.; Koopman, M.

    2012-07-15

    Recently a large number of studies have been published that claim accelerated uptake of electrical vehicles (EVs) and fuel efficient cars in the market for automotive transport may have positive employment benefits. A literature review on this issue has been undertaken by CE Delft, to investigate if it is possible to determine whether a large-scale switch to advanced powertrains would yield positive employment benefits. The key conclusion from the study is that employment benefits are likely to result from CO2 regulations.

  6. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  7. Between marketing and financial support : Dutch municipal policy instruments to improve the quality of private housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, M.; Meijer, F.; Visscher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock, of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs, including their energy quality. Dutch municipalities are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic policy instruments to seduce private homeowners

  8. 25 CFR 20.316 - What must a person covered by the employment policy do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.316 What... quit a job without good cause, you cannot receive General Assistance for a period of at least 60 days...

  9. Public policy, reporting and disclosure of employment and labour information by multinational enterprises (MNEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Urminsky, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Analyses the role of information in gaining a better understanding of the labour and employment effects of foreign direct investment (FDI). Outlines features of voluntary corporate reporting and of national reporting requirements in Belgium, France, and the United States.

  10. Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Reconciling Government Policy with Federal Law and the Constitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willson, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    ...), "Instructions for the Development and Submission of Federal Affirmative Employment Multi-Year Program Plans, Annual Accomplishment Reports, and Annual Plan Updates for FY 1988 through FY 1992" MD...

  11. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Vahid Shahidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel

  12. Evaluating the Impact of an Active Labour Market Policy on Employment: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cansino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Market Insertion Contract was an Active Labour Market Policy introduced in Spain. It was aimed at individuals who had difficulties entering the labour market, and it was introduced with the purpose of reducing the rate of unemployment. This article provides an estimation of the average impact that this contract had on the employability of individuals in the short and long term. A microeconomic analysis was carried out based on causal statistical inference by using propensity score matching and kernel and radial estimators. Data was taken from the most comprehensive database available, which is the Continuous Sample of Work Histories. Results are consistent with literature reports and show that the employability of participants was inferior to that of individuals with similar, temporary-type contracts. This research contributes to the literature by evaluating whether there was empirical evidence to support the political decision to revoke or replace this kind of direct employment programme.

  13. Laws, directives and policy instruments important for the development of the waste management system; Lagar, direktiv och styrmedel viktiga foer avfallssystemets utveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Karolina; Sundberg, Johan

    2010-01-15

    This report gives a survey and a description of present and future policy instruments that have been or will become important for the development of the waste management system. Policy instruments here refers to laws, directives, taxes/fees, national/local goals and other regulating measures that the society introduce to steer the development of the waste management system. This work can thus be used as a dictionary or a guideline for these measures. The investigation has two goals: 1. To give representatives of the Swedish waste management system a summary of important policy instruments for the future development of the waste management system. 2. To give Waste Refinery a summary of these policy instruments that can be used for the discussions of how the research within the centre should develop during stage 2. A large number of policy instruments have been found during the study. These instruments have been, most likely will become, or may become important for the development of the waste management system. Most of them are described in this report. The selection made is presented in Table 1. Focus for the selection has been policy instruments that are important for the research activities within Waste Refinery, meaning policy instruments that direct or indirect can change the use of thermal and/or biological treatment as well as techniques and methods supporting these treatment methods. [Table 1. Policy instruments that are presented in the report

  14. Individualism, instrumental reason and policy texts: some considerations from the perspective of contemporary political philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Rita; Martins, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    This article dialogues with Matthew Weinstein's paper named "NGSS, disposability, and the ambivalence of Science in/under neoliberalism", in which he explores the argument that at the same time the NGSS framework is largely identified with neoliberal discourse, it presents points of ambivalence and resistance within. In this dialogue, we focused on two topics that we believe are important for the discussion of the ambivalences highlighted in the author's argument, namely: the the social production of indifference as a consequence of the neoliberal ideology and the production of a version of science streamlined for the neoliberal technoscientific job market within the `neoliberal ecosystem'. Based on the thesis of the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor on ethics and on the concept of hybridism, we linked Weinsteins' analysis to issues related to individualism and instrumental reason, pointing out that it is possible that the ambivalences highlighted by Weinstein are, in fact, a component of neoliberal discourse. Nevertheless we agree that this kind of text presents loopholes that allows practices oriented for social change and for the improvement of democracies in progress. We conclude that for those who dedicate themselves to reflect upon educational strategies to cope with the hegemonic model remains the challenge of finding spaces and times in the curriculum in order to explore the gaps in policy texts and, more important, to promote the experience of democratic practices throughout the school communities.

  15. Capability and limits of EC policy and instruments for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.; Neumann, L.F.; Pastowski, A.; Ruhr, H.J. von der; Schreiber, F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this compilation of studies start from different points of view in their approaches towards describing the existing (or desirable) balance between centralised and decentralised frameworks and instruments of the EC policy for protection of the environment: A total harmonisation of environmental protection standards would be inconsistent with the principles of competition and, in terms of environmental protection, would rather foster a climate tending to be hostile to innovation. The impetus given by the EC in support of free mobility in the transport sector of the internal market on the other hand ought to be flanked by mandatory ecological standards. Adhering to the economic theory of federalism would mean to decide for a high degree of decentralisation, which in turn does not seem to be altogether appropriate in view of the large scope of impact of environmental damage and the mutual ecological dependence of EC member states. A more centralised regulatory competence has to be accompanied by correspondingly strong, democratic institutions in order to fulfill the principles of constitutional law. The priority given to the principle of subsidiarity in the compromise laid down in the Treaty of Maastricht needs to be given concrete shape [de

  16. Sovereign Wealth Fund investments in Europe as an instrument of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are new instruments of Chinese ‘Go Global’ strategy and the politics of maintaining raw materials and energy security. Europe has lured 60% of the total USD 27.3 billion invested by Chinese SWFs in the energy sector globally, which provokes the question as to how important SWF investments are in the political sense and what security concerns they bring. This paper is the first that presents a comprehensive picture of Chinese SWF investments in the European energy market and one of the very few papers about SWFs based on multiannual, comprehensive empirical data. The author argues that Chinese SWFs are different players on the energy market than private investors, could be potentially harmful for some European interests. By installing representatives on the company boards, China gains access to sensitive information that could be then transferred to Chinese competitors. Moreover, through its SWFs China could take control over energy companies or critical infrastructure and increase its political influence in European countries, making them more vulnerable to political pressure. Therefore, the European policy-makers should consider taking special steps to monitor and maybe limit Chinese SWFs expansion in the energy sector. - Highlights: • The energy sector account for almost half of Chinese's SWF investments in the EU. • SWFs should be treated differently on the energy market than private investors. • SWFs' representatives on company boards may create a conflict of interests.

  17. Latino Employment and Black Violence: The Unintended Consequence of U.S. Immigration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Edward S.; Barranco, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. immigration policies after 1965 fueled a rise in the Latino population and, thus, increased the competition for low-skill jobs. We examine whether Latino immigration and Latino dominance of low-skill industries increases black urban violence. Using city-level data for the year 2000, we find that (1. Latino immigration is positively linked to…

  18. Two Birds with One Social Policy Stone: Youth Employment and Regional Skills Shortages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Joanne; Bertone, Santina; Grace, Marty; Broadbent, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the Victorian State Government introduced the Regional Jobs Package (RJP)--a twelve-month pilot program that attempted to kill two social policy problems with one stone. The problems were youth unemployment and skills shortages in regional areas of Victoria, Australia. The intention of the RJP was to create a "win-win"…

  19. Diversity policy in employment and service provision: case study: Copenhagen, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2009-01-01

    Denmark is a welfare state in a rather pronounced form. It has inclusive policies, not only for its citizens but also for all legal residents. Equality and equal treatment are keywords in the political discourse. The city of Copenhagen follows the national model to a great extent, but also deviates

  20. The law, policy, and ethics of employers' use of financial incentives to improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Implementation of a disability management policy in a large healthcare employer: a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Cameron A; Skivington, Kathryn; Lay, Morgan; Lifshen, Marni; Etches, Jacob; Chambers, Andrea

    2017-06-17

    This study describes the process and outcomes of the implementation of a strengthened disability management policy in a large Canadian healthcare employer. Key elements of the strengthened policy included an emphasis on early contact, the training of supervisors and the integration of union representatives in return-to-work (RTW) planning. The study applied mixed methods, combining a process evaluation within the employer and a quasi-experimental outcome evaluation between employers for a 3-year period prior to and following policy implementation in January 2012. Staff in the implementation organisation (n=4000) and staff in a peer group of 29 large hospitals (n=1 19 000). Work disability episode incidence and duration. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of the implementation process were predominantly positive. Over the 6-year observation period, there were 624 work disability episodes in the organisation and 8604 in the comparison group of 29 large hospitals. The annual per cent change in episode incidence in the organisation was -5.6 (95% CI -9.9 to -1.1) comparable to the annual per cent change in the comparison group: -6.2 (-7.2 to -5.3). Disability episode durations also declined in the organisation, from a mean of 19.4 days (16.5, 22.3) in the preintervention period to 10.9 days (8.7, 13.2) in the postintervention period. Reductions in disability durations were also observed in the comparison group: from a mean of 13.5 days (12.9, 14.1) in the 2009-2011 period to 10.5 days (9.9, 11.1) in the 2012-2014 period. The incidence of work disability episodes and the durations of work disability declined strongly in this hospital sector over the 6-year observation period. The implementation of the organisation's RTW policy was associated with larger reductions in disability durations than observed in the comparison group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  2. 25 CFR 20.315 - Who is not covered by the employment policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.315 Who is not covered... Income (SSI) assistance A physician, psychologist, or social services worker certifies that a physical or.... L. 100-297 He/she is making satisfactory progress He/she was an active General Assistance recipient...

  3. The impact of maternal employment on children's adiposity: Evidence from China's labor policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young; Wang, Qing

    2017-12-01

    China has experienced a rapid growth in childhood adiposity in recent years. Although a large number of studies examine the effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in developed countries, only a few studies investigate the issue in developing countries. Moreover, existing studies tend to suffer from a potential endogeneity issue. We provide new evidence on the causal effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in China. We employ a difference-in-difference strategy that takes advantage of China's 1995 legislative change to labor regulations, which reduced the number of workdays from 6 to 5 days per week. Using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we compare children whose mothers are wage-earning employees to those whose mothers are self-employed because the reform only affected the former. Although maternal employment and childhood obesity in China exhibits the same positive association as in the United States, our difference-in-difference estimates present a different picture. We find that a reduction in the maternal labor supply led to children's weight gain. Further investigation reveals that the effect was stronger among children who were male, younger, in urban areas, and from households with low socioeconomic status. Our evidence suggests that a change in maternal behaviors was likely responsible for children's weight gain. In particular, a greater proportion of treatment group mothers cooked and also devoted more time to cooking after the reform, which led to an increased caloric intake by their children. Such weight gain was beneficial for children who were previously underweight but harmful to those who became overweight. The finding implies that additional maternal time at home likely has a different effect in China compared to the United States. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Instruments for the regional sustainable development in Albania - Instruments for supporting the implementation of regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjola Duli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a cross-cutting issue. The current approach to regional development in Europe is place-based, in which multidimensional analyses are carried out and strategies and policies developed in relation to territorially defined socio-economic and environmental factors. In our study we have largely followed this approach, looking at long-term changes in a wide set of development indicators across Albania. As a result several regional typologies are presented as well as broad recommendations for regional development policy formulation. Albania has two levels of governance: national, county (qarks and local (municipalities. Directly elected bodies exist at central and local levels. Qark councils consist of delegated representatives from local units. Albania’s territory is organized into 12 counties and 61 local government units. There are neither administrative nor self-governing regions in Albania corresponding to NUTS 21 level classification. Qarks are the equivalent of NUTS 3 level. Currently in Albania there is no clear definition of a development region. In general it is perceived that qarks can be considered an appropriate level at which regional development is analyzed, promoted and monitored. Although we have followed this concept, both due to data available and no better practical alternative, there are clearly other possibilities which could surface in the medium-term perspective, for example: NUTS 2 delineation for Albania could lead to a situation when development issues will become also relevant at the macro level – practically the number of NUTS 2 regions in Albania could vary between 2 and 3 unless the country is allowed to stay one region; Territorial and administrative reforms could lead to a much smaller number of LGUs both at the basic municipality level and the qark level, especially that from a general RD perspective some of the qarks represent very small units, both in terms of population and size of the

  5. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  6. Recent Trends in Youth Labour Markets and Youth Employment Policy in Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Niall O’Higgins

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature and characteristics of the youth labour market in Europe and Central Asia. The central concern is with the policy response to the substantial youth unemploymen problem emerging with the transition to the market in Central & Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA). After looking at general trends in youth labour markets, in particular the impact of the recessions and the rapid industrial restructuring which accompanied transition, the paper outlines recent devel...

  7. Evaluation of environmental policy instruments - a case study of the Finnish pulp and paper and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, M.; Lepola, J.; Mickwitz, P.; Palosaari, M.; Similae, J.; Sjoeblom, S.; Mulders, A.; Vedung, E.

    2002-01-01

    This research-based evaluation of environmental policy Instruments in Finland is focussed on regulatory instruments based on the Water Act, the Air Pollution Control Act and the Chemicals Act, on electricity taxation and on voluntary environmental management systems. The examined policy instruments have had several positive effects. They have directed major industrial point source polluters towards solving environmental problems. The transparency has been an important factor ensuring the success of the policy instruments and in avoiding the regulatory capture that could have thrived in a system largely based on negotiations between operators and authorities. The transparency has made it easy for Finnish firms to adopt environmental management systems and an open attitude to environmental reporting. The permit conditions have not directly resulted in innovations, but they have contributed to the diffusion of end-of-pipe technology and have contributed to innovations by expanding the market for environmentally better technical solutions. The permit systems have also indirectly contributed to innovations by creating a demand for environmental experts and environmental education. Networks have clearly developed as a consequence of and in response to regulatory instruments. These networks appear to have had their greatest significance prior to the permit procedures. The trend has been towards a greater emphasis of the communication in the networks prior to the presentation of an application in order to ensure a smoothly functioning permit process. In the networks contributing to innovations and the diffusion of innovations authorities have largely been outsiders, except when an innovation has become a de facto standard for permit conditions. The different kind of effects, the complexity of consequences and the uncertainties with respect to causes and effects mean that studies aiming at evaluating the overall worth and merit of an environmental policy instrument should

  8. Working Paper 175 - Youth Employment in Africa: New Evidence and Policies from Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Brixiova; Thierry Kangoye

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the 2007 and 2010 Swaziland Labor Force Surveys, this paper provides first systematic evidence on recent youth employment challenges in Swaziland, a small, land-locked, middle-income country with one of the highest youth unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first documents the various labor market disadvantages faced by the Swazi youth, such as high unemployment and discouragement, and how they changed from 2007 to 2010. A multinomial logit regression analysis is carried out to ...

  9. Evaluating the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems by comparing mental health policies in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada; Abanilla, Karen; Bauta, Besa; Huang, Keng-Yen

    2008-06-01

    Mental health is a low priority in most countries around the world. Minimal research and resources have been invested in mental health at the national level. As a result, WHO has developed the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to encourage countries to gather data and to re-evaluate their national mental health policy. This paper demonstrates the utility and limitations of WHO-AIMS by applying the model to four countries with different cultures, political histories and public health policies: Iraq, Japan, the Philippines and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. WHO-AIMS provides a useful model for analysing six domains: policy and legislative framework; mental health services; mental health in primary care; human resources; education of the public at large; and monitoring and research. This is especially important since most countries do not have experts in mental health policy or resources to design their own evaluation tools for mental health systems. Furthermore, WHO-AIMS provides a standardized database for cross-country comparisons. However, limitations of the instrument include the neglect of the politics of mental health policy development, underestimation of the role of culture in mental health care utilization, and questionable measurement validity.

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(12)-1 - Services in employ of wholly owned instrumentality of foreign government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal... purposes of this exception, the citizenship or residence of the employee is immaterial. ...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(6)-1 - Services in employ of United States or instrumentality thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue... exemptions from Federal taxation ineffectual as to the tax imposed by section 3301, see § 31.3308-1. (2...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3112-1 - Instrumentalities of the United States specifically exempted from the employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21... from taxation, unless such provisions grant a specific exemption from the tax imposed by section 3111...

  13. Assessing EU’s Transatlantic Regulatory Powers Using the Choice of Policy Instruments as Measurement of Preference Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Karl; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2015-01-01

    To what extent is the European Union exercising global regulatory power? This paper investigates this question through a comparative study of two significant global policy fields: data-protection and banking with a special focus on the preferences and choice of policy instruments. Of particular...... concern are the implications of the still present financial and economic crisis for global regulatory power. Both cases suggest that the actual role of the EU is more complex than either exercising or subject to global regulatory power. This concerns the relationship between the EU and the member states...

  14. RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Milligan, M.; Bazilian, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Denny, E.; Dillon, J.; Bialek, J.; O’Malley, M. [Ecar Limited (Ireland); Neuhoff, K. [DIW Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-04

    The RES-E-NEXT study identifies policies that are required for the next phase of renewable energy support. The study analyses policy options that secure high shares of renewable electricity generation and adequate grid infrastructure, enhance flexibility and ensure an appropriate market design. Measures have limited costs or even save money, and policies can be gradually implemented.

  15. The Employment Policy in the Mining Industry: A Critical Study on Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmi Mohsen; Sonia Zouari

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is devoted to test for the presence of gender discrimination of hiring, in one of the main important economy sector of Tunisia, which is the Tunisian mining industry in the Southwest inmate fully by the largest public mining Firm TPGC (1897), which is, in fact, the only industrial pole of employability of young scholars graduates in this region of the Tunisian mining Basin. The result of this study proves that is no equity between the two genders. The reason of this s...

  16. Immigration as a policy instrument for an economy with an aging population: A longer-run perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G.

    2014-01-01

    Population aging is a problem common to many countries: an increasing proportion of retired people, a decreasing proportion of working age, and resultant downward pressure on national product per capita. We explore longer-run aspects of immigration as a policy instrument in this context. We consider, by simulation, the importance of immigrant age distribution, proportion of child immigrants, productivity growth as an offset to aging, possible higher fertility, increased life expectancy, and g...

  17. The Lifelong Learning in the Field of Employment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hužovičová Mária

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of employment (or vice versa the rate of unemployment is an important indicator of economic maturity and quality of life in a particular country. Compared to other countries of the European Union, unemployment in the Slovak Republic is a serious problem. Improving the quality and the efficiency of Slovak educational institutions can be one of the ways how to struggle with this problem. The Slovak economy has been transformed from planned economy to market economy, and, therefore, retraining, re-educations and improvement (in the field of industry and services have been required. The Institute of Lifelong Learning is very helpful in this field. The article deals with shortcomings of the Institute of Lifelong Learning and it points out the reality leading to drawbackks. It also concerns the following possibilities, which might improve the current situation. In a theoretical analysis of the current state, we define the basic terms and problems in this field.

  18. Development courses and the choice of energy-environment policy instruments for fast-developing Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    In the first part, a contextual grid is built which aims at presenting the main impacts of development in developing countries. Some development trends, like energy consumption growth, environmental courses, economic growth and demographic development are analyzed. Then, a global modeling analysis of Kuznets' environmental curves and of development prospect is presented. The second part presents different types of policy instruments for environment protection, and the theoretical challenges and experience feedback of their implementation in OECD countries, in particular in the energy sector. It treats also of the energy-environment policy practices and of their environmental impacts on the economy, of the role of institutional factors in the environmental management in the fast developing Asian countries. The environmental management priorities in an integrated approach in these countries are presented and compared with environmental management experiences in the OECD countries. In the third part, the case study of the power industry sector in Vietnam aims at making an inventory of the emissions in a rapidly developing sector with important atmospheric emissions and at making a critical status of the evaluation instruments of environmental policies by comparing approaches based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' models. Finally, a model and a set of scenarios allowing to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of the setting up of a sectoral policy in a transition economy context are presented. (J.S.)

  19. An Instrument for a Legal Review of Public School Curriculum Policies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    The "Legal Audit Instrument for Public School Curriculum" described in this paper is intended for those making decisions in curricular matters. The instrument has been derived from court decisions that are based on the Federal Constitution, legislation, and regulations. Corresponding cases and provisions within each state will require…

  20. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  1. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-05-19

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  2. Summing up the parts. Combining Policy Instruments for Least-Cost Climate Mitigation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Meeting the enormous challenge of decarbonising world energy systems will require a rapid expansion of investment in clean technologies on a global scale. Mobilising these resources will be a daunting task, and it is important to undertake the transition at the lowest cost possible. This paper seeks to provide some guidance on climate change policy-making within real-world constraints, focusing on the justification of policies to supplement a carbon price, interactions between carbon pricing and supplementary policies, and management of these interactions to enable a least-cost policy response.

  3. Two Decades of E-Learning Policy Evolution at EU Level: Motivations, Institutions and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.; Roumell, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article records and documents the historical development of e-learning policies at EU level by conducting a discourse and content analysis of four key e-learning policy documents drafted and implemented by the European Commission over the past 20 years: "Learning in the Information Society: Action Plan for a European Education…

  4. Toward more effective regional networks: a multi-method study on top-down stimulated networks within the Dutch public-policy areas of education and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaster, E.

    2015-01-01

    Regional networks have become a popular way for the Dutch central government to translate national ambitions into regional policies and actions. This thesis focuses on regional networks in the public-policy fields of education and employment, which consist of various actors, including schools, local

  5. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  6. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  7. PROPOSAL OF THE SOCIAL CONTRACT IN MANAGEMENT AS INSTRUMENT OF ANALYSIS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT RELATION. THE EXPERIENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Doina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The communication presents the partial results of a research proposing the social contract as a new instrument of analysis for the employment relation in a social context in change, such as the case of Rumania. Until then, the research which aimed at the employment relation which is formed between the employer and the employees widely appealed to the concept of psychological contract (Rousseau, 1989; 1995. The psychological contract, defined as the perception of the mutual obligations assumed by the employee and by the employer, benefited from a fashion effect in the 1990s, when the economic difficulties questioned the model of classic employment relation based on loyalty. However, most of the empirical works on the psychological contract are static studies, for the greater part elaborated by questionnaire, which do not allow to define the impact of the social context change on the evolution of the employment relation. Although certain studies are interested in a context of change (Dick, 2010, most of the past works describe the contents and the evaluation of the psychological contract in an unchanging social environment. Yet, we saw it in the case of the ex-communist countries or those of the Northern Africa, the change in the environment of the employment relation is more present than ever. Our communication proposes a research frame which would be more suited to the understanding of the employment relation in a society in change. To do it, we rely on the social contract in management, which we define as the ensemble of the norms and of the tacit laws existing in a society or a group given with regard to the relation of employment. The approach by the social contract presents the advantage of including multiple elements bound to a societal context, such as the laws, the national culture, the faiths shared by the business environment, etc. (Rousseau, 1995. It offers a new frame of analysis for the employment relation by suggesting that it is

  8. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms......The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational...... men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported...

  9. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  10. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  11. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  12. "Autos de Resistência" As an Instrument for Extermination Policy of the "Enemy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Leilane Fontes de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze, through the study of "autos de resistência", its tensions with social inequality. From the understanding of the processes of criminalization - through a Marxist perspective - it was possible to make some observations about the social construction of the "enemy" to then understand how works the extermination policy of these sectors of society. The police structures in the Brazilian context of the "war on drugs", play a key role in the policy of extermination of the "enemy", which is made possible by the "autos de resistência".

  13. Analysis of international and European policy instruments: pollution swapping . Task 2 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    This Report describes the results of Task 2 ‘Analysis of International and European policy instruments’. The aim of this task is to analyze the existing International and European policy instruments aiming at reducing emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere and nitrate to

  14. The URBAN programme and the European urban policy discourse: successful instruments to Europeanize the urban level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukes, M.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Community Initiative URBAN, explored in this article for seven countries in general and for two individual cities in the Netherlands in more detail, is a micro example of the ongoing struggle between European and national policy actors who contest each others’ authority. The programme,

  15. E-PR as an instrument of forming the foreign policy image of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of Ukraine's foreign policy. The article pays particular attention to the features of the websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic missions of Ukraine as an image-forming tool.

  16. The Impact of Policy Instruments on Soil Multifunctionality in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vrebos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems provide a range of benefits that are vital to human well-being. These benefits are dependent on several soil functions that are affected in different ways by legislation from the European Union, national, and regional levels. We evaluated current European Union soil-related legislation and examples of regional legislation with regard to direct and indirect impacts on five soil functions: the production of food, fiber, and fuel; water purification and regulation; carbon sequestration and climate regulation; habitat for biodiversity provisioning; and the recycling of nutrients/agro-chemicals. Our results illustrate the diversity of existing policies and the complex interactions present between different spatial and temporal scales. The impact of most policies, positive or negative, on a soil function is usually not established, but depends on how the policy is implemented by local authorities and the farmers. This makes it difficult to estimate the overall state and trends of the different soil functions in agricultural ecosystems. To implement functional management and sustainable use of the different soil functions in agricultural ecosystems, more knowledge is needed on the policy interactions as well as on the impact of management options on the different soil functions.

  17. Policy instruments for evolution of bounded rationality: Application to climate-energy problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, V.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how an evolutionary agent-based model can be used to evaluate climate policies that take the heterogeneity of strategies of individual agents into account. An essential feature of the model is that the fitness of an economic strategy is determined by the relative welfare of the

  18. Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Agus, F.; Dewi, S.; Purnomo, H.

    2014-01-01

    Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and

  19. Consistency of policy instruments. How the EU could move to a -30% greenhouse gas reduction target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Moltmann, S.; Escalante, D. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The report provides options for how to achieve a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, in the EU, from 1990 to 2020. The EU has agreed a set of goals (objectives) and related instruments for 2020. The most significant objectives are the 20% or 30% reduction of greenhouse gases (all emissions, both within and outside the Emissions Trading System), the 20% improvement of energy efficiency and the 20% of renewable energy use by 2020. The stringency of the instruments used to reach these goals, must be set carefully to ensure overall consistency. Particularly after the economic crisis of 2008/2009, the Climate and Energy Package has to be 'tuned' again to be fully consistent, e.g. fast take up of renewable energy and fewer emissions due to the recession may cause an over-allocation in the EU-ETS.

  20. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luethi, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.luethi@unisg.ch [University of St. Gallen, 9000 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Praessler, Thomas [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: > Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. > It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. > Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. > Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  1. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona; Boye, Katarina; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, "flexicurity" as practiced in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  3. Synergy effects of international policy instruments to reduce deforestation: a cross-country panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Solenn Leplay; Sophie Thoyer

    2011-01-01

    Localisation : Centre de documentation P. Bartoli, UMR LAMETA, Montpellier (S WPL 2011-01); Safeguarding tropical rainforests is one of the most important challenges for the future, particularly to mitigate climate change. The international community has actively sought international policy solutions to curb deforestation in tropical countries. Debt-for-nature swaps and certification of sustainable forest management have been implemented by NGOs. Some states are currently negotiating the impl...

  4. Experiences with policy instruments for the promotion of Renewable Energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Amsterdam Forum is the first meeting of the Sustainable Energy Forum, and was held in the WTC Amsterdam on 13 and 14 October 2005. Amsterdam Forum serves as an arena to discuss the latest EU policy developments in renewable energy and energy efficiency issues. This presentation discusses the incentives and the results of the incentives to support the development of renewable energy sources (mainly wind energy and biomass)

  5. Evaluation of Customer’s Creditworthiness as the Instrument of Corporate Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wodyńska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For many small and medium companies trade credit availability is a factor which determines their existence. Financial meaning of trade credit increases with freedom of its granting or taking. Trade credit is the most convenient way of financing activity, thats why stipulating terms and conditions of its granting to borrowers is a significant element of credit policy. The policy adopted by a company should indicate directions and sales barriers so that the firm can maintain and improve its market position. In order to evaluate customers creditworthiness, to specify repayment period, credit amount, rate of interest and repayment schedule (installments it is indispensable to establish an appropriate system. The key to success in granting a trade credit is selection of appropriate business partners. The system of customers verification should give an answer to the question whether the company with which we do business or we intend to do so in the future is creditworthy and the decision about allowing a trade credit should be a result of well thought out credit policy. The author of present article indicates basic methods and tools of contractor creditworthiness evaluation, and she also proposed a payers creditworthiness evaluation sheet, which can be applied to build such a system.

  6. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  7. Alternative Indicator of Monetary Policy Stance for Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovska, Magdalena; Georgievska, Ljupka

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a SVAR model which combines different monetary policy instruments to construct an alternative indicator of monetary policy stance in Macedonia. It employs the approach introduced by Bernanke and Mihov (1998) of isolating monetary policy shocks from the whole set of monetary policy instruments that otherwise react to real developments. The residuals from such VAR are cleaned from the central bank's reaction function and represent true monetary policy innovations. Furthermore...

  8. The precautionary principle as a provisional instrument in environmental policy: The Montreal Protocol case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • I examine whether a policy invoked under the Precautionary Principle can move beyond provisional status. • I review the certainty of conclusions based upon the Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. • There is high certainty that anthropogenic ozone depletion has health consequences in polar regions. • Current research focuses on long term projections of risk that perpetuates high uncertainty. • Establishment of a community to generate Assessments acts to perpetuate the period of uncertainty. - Abstract: Environmental studies identify possible threats to the health of the public or the environment when the scientific certainty of risk is low, but the potential cost is high. Governments may respond by invoking the Precautionary Principle, holding that scientific certainty is not required to take actions that reduce possible risk. EU guidelines suggest that precautionary measures remain provisional until sufficient scientific certainty is generated. Here I study the Scientific Assessments produced for the Montreal Protocol, and the scientific community that generates them, and ask whether a long-standing program of scientific investigation and monitoring can generate sufficient scientific certainty to move beyond dependence on the Precautionary Principle. When the Montreal Protocol was ratified, many scientists strongly suspected that anthropogenic substances like chlorofluorocarbons were depleting stratospheric ozone. Although the risk was uncertain, the perceived cost to public health of ozone depletion was high. A quarter century after formulating the Montreal Protocol, science can define the conditions for ozone depletion with great certainty, but uncertainty remains in determining the scale and distribution of the attributable increase in damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Organisations, such as NASA, and scientists that contribute to the Scientific Assessments comprise the community in which the scientific consensus of risk is

  9. Waste, recycling, and 'Design for Environment': Roles for markets and policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcott, Paul; Walls, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Households sometimes have two recycling options. Curbside recycling collections are convenient, but do not provide payment. Alternatively, payment might be available from 'reverse vending machines' or drop-off centers, but some transaction costs would be incurred. We examine policies to encourage efficient product design and recycling in a setting with these two recycling options plus the option of putting recyclables in the trash. We find value in having two parallel recycling options. Constrained optimal outcomes can be attained by combining a 'deposit-refund' with a modest disposal fee. Furthermore, producers should not be permitted to keep deposits, that are not claimed by consumers. (author)

  10. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  11. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  12. Taxes as a political instrument in the climate policy of some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, Sjur

    2000-06-01

    While the use of climate taxes in Norway has not been increasing much recently, many European countries have shown an increasing interest in taxing their factories. There is also increasing interest within the EU centrally for such ''green'' taxes. The report briefly reviews the use of green taxes in some European countries. The focus is on some of the ''green'' (and rich) nations within the EU, namely Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, as theses countries have had the most rapid increase in the use of taxis in their climate policies in the 1990s. In addition, Great Britain is also discussed, where the use of green taxes has recently been implemented as a climate policy. A main objective of the report has been to introduce a comparative perspective into the Norwegian debate on green taxes and climate. In Norway, some actors have described the attempts to go in for the use of taxes as a means towards the industry as distinctively Norwegian. The report concludes that taxes on the manufacturing industries are used increasingly often in important European countries. The report may also add background material to the current debate in Norway on gas power plants

  13. [Possibilities and limitations of fiscal policies as health instruments: taxes on harmful consumption. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Nicolás, Angel; Viudes de Velasco, Arántzazu

    2010-12-01

    This article discusses the possibilities of indirect taxation as a mechanism that alters the relative prices of goods and services and hence encourages citizens to adopt healthy lifestyles. We review the case of smoking and unhealthy diet. These two cases were chosen because these are the two lifestyle factors with the greatest impact on morbidity and mortality in Spain and because they highlight the possibilities of tax policy (smoking) and its limitations (unhealthy diet). After discussion of these issues, we recommend gradually increasing the level of the minimum special tax on cigarettes and avoiding erosion of its value by inflation, as well as aligning the level of the minimum special tax on fine cut tobacco with that borne by cigarettes, to avoid the already perceived shift of demand toward the former variety. The main recommendation for the case of unhealthy diet is to obtain a more solid evidence base than that currently available on the relationship between food prices and body mass index in Spain. The scarce evidence available for the USA nevertheless suggests that the possibilities of price-based policies to reduce the problems of overweight and obesity are highly limited. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Feebates: An effective regulatory instrument for cost-constrained environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kenneth C. E-mail: kjinnovation@earthlink.net

    2006-12-15

    A feebate can be described as an emissions tax combined with a refunded (i.e., negative) consumption tax, the balance of which can be either positive (a fee) or negative (a rebate) depending on how a taxed product's emissions performance compares to the industry average. A successful feebate-type policy is exemplified by Sweden's nitrogen oxide program, which has motivated power plant operators in Sweden to reduce NO {sub x} emissions far below levels achieved in the US and other industrial countries. A key to this success has been the fair and efficient manner by which the refund is distributed, and a similar approach could be applied to automotive vehicle feebates (for greenhouse gas reduction), making it possible to overcome limitations of political acceptability and greatly improve policy effectiveness. One such approach would distribute refunds in proportion to vehicle mass (rather than at a fixed rate per vehicle), so that the refund has at least an approximate correlation to vehicle utility and economic value. A second, alternative approach would apply separate feebates to multiple weight classes comprising limited, but overlapping, weight ranges, so that each feebate covers vehicles having similar transportation utility characteristics.

  15. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  16. Management and policy: political strategies and instruments of the risk types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Klinke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the risk classification is to gain an effective and feasible policy tool for the evaluation and the management or risks. The characterisation provides a platform for designing specific political strategies and measures for each risk type. The strategies pursue the goal to transform unacceptable into acceptable risks, i.e. the risks should not be reduced to zero, but they should be reduced to a level that routine risk management becomes sufficient to ensure safety and integrity. All strategies and respective measures are arranged according to priorities. In the normal case more than one strategy and more than one measure are naturally appropriate and necessary. If resources are limited, strategies and measures should be taken in line with the priority list. The following part lists the prior strategies and the prior measures recommended for each risk type. (authors)

  17. Climate Innovation Centres. A global instrument with local benefits. Policy brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Rivera Tinoco, R.A.

    2010-09-01

    A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalyzing climate technology research, development and market creation. What do technologies need to flourish and to contribute to sustainable economic development? Current research suggests that functioning markets, innovative capacities and the availability of appropriate technology in countries such as Ghana are key. In the climate negotiations, climate technology innovation centres, as well as an international network of them is in the process of agreement, providing opportunities for Ghana. This Policy Brief explains the considerations for a climate innovation centre in Ghana. It goes into the climate negotiations context, the practical choices for Ghana, gives examples of other countries, and outlines the next steps in the ECN Technical Assistance project.

  18. Health impact assessment as an instrument to examine the health implications of education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J; Gakh, M; Coughenour, C; Clark, S

    2017-04-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that can be used by public health professionals to examine the potential health effects of a policy, plan, program, or project that originates outside of the health sector. This article presents a case study of how an interdisciplinary team utilized an HIA to analyze the potential health impact of full-day kindergarten (FDK) on communities in Nevada. Case study. With stakeholder and community engagement, we conducted a multistage HIA that included qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, a review of existing literature, and projections. The team considered several pathways through which FDK could impact health in Nevada: (1) school performance; (2) physical development (physical activity and nutrition education); and (3) access to school-based meals and health screenings. Findings indicated that access to FDK could enhance opportunities for Nevada's children to harness school-based services, increase physical activity, and promote nutrition education. In addition, based on existing research that suggests relationships between (1) FDK attendance and 3rd and 5th grade math and reading standardized test scores and (2) 3rd and 5th grade test scores and high school graduation, as well as available state and national data, we estimated that access to FDK could increase high school graduation in Nevada by 499-820 students per year. This HIA demonstrated that access to FDK could impact both student and adult health in Nevada. Our engagement of public health professionals along with stakeholders and the community in the HIA process demonstrated that HIAs can be an important tool for public health professionals to examine the effects on community health of policies, programs, plans or projects that arise outside of the health sector. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Paula; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Low employment rates of chronically ill and disabled people are of serious concern. Being out of work increases the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which may further damage the health of these groups, exacerbating health inequalities. Macro-level policies have a potentially tremendous impact...... on their employment chances, and these influences urgently need to be understood as the current economic crisis intensifies. In Part I of this two-part study, the authors examine employment trends for people who report a chronic illness or disability, by gender and educational level, in Canada, Denmark, Norway......, periods of high unemployment have sparked a downward trend in employment for already marginalized groups who did not feel the benefits when the economy improved. Norway and Sweden have been better able to protect the employment of these groups than the United Kingdom and Canada. These contextual...

  20. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  1. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  2. Analysis: climate policy in the United States: what economic instrument for a carbon price signal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    At the time of his election as President of the United States, Barack Obama declared that 'We will make it clear to the world that America is ready to lead to protect our environment'. The 2050 objective of cutting CO 2 emissions by 80% compared to the 1990 level, as affirmed in the election campaign, will involve directing the market in accordance with a carbon price signal that includes the true cost of greenhouse gas emissions so as to establish a policy that is both effective and credible, i.e. likely to lead developing countries into the global effort. An emission allowance market, rather than a carbon tax, should therefore come into being. However, those who advocate the tax - more numerous in academic circles than among political decision-makers - are sharpening up their arguments. In particular, they identify the measures to be taken if we wish to attain an environmental objective and curb social inequalities. Similar arguments could serve as the basis for an international agreement that would strongly incite emerging countries to reduce their emissions while remaining equitable towards them. (author)

  3. A review of employment effects of European Union policies and measures for CO{sub 2}-emission reductions. Report of a study for WWF Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Nathani, C.

    1999-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a rough review of the likely employment effects of European Union policies and measures for CO{sub 2}-emission reductions. This review concentrates mainly on the so-called common and coordinated policies and measures. Furthermore, the analysis is restricted to presenting and systemising existing results on the effects of a CO{sub 2}/energy tax and putting forward a rather qualitative evaluation of the various sectoral policies discussed. The paper is organised as follows. In section 2, the economic impact mechanisms of climate protection policies are discussed. This allows the different arguments brought forward in the debate on the employment effects of CO{sub 2}-reduction policies to be systemised and evaluated. Section 3 presents some of the latest results on the macroeconomic effects of a CO{sub 2}/energy tax. The likely effects of the sectoral policies on the different economic impact categories are discussed in section 4. Conclusions are presented in section 5. (orig.)

  4. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  5. Um Instrumento para a Avaliação de Estressores Psicossociais no Contexto de Emprego An Instrument to Evaluate Psychosocial Stressors in the Employment Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os contextos onde se desenvolvem as atividades humanas apresentam características diferentes que têm importantes implicações no momento da elaboração e aplicação de procedimentos de avaliação. O contexto de emprego é muito importante para importantes setores de nossa população. Moos desenvolveu um marco conceitual sócio-ecológico no qual a relação, entre os acontecimentos vitais estressantes e as condutas adaptativas, encontra-se influenciada pelo sistema pessoal e contextual, os recursos da rede social e as respostas de avaliação e confrontamento. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um instrumento (IMPAL que mede o grau de mal-estar (excessivo, médio ou escasso que provoca fatos relacionados com: meio ambiente físico e organização do tempo de trabalho, fatores próprios da tarefa, mudanças tecnológicas, é aspectos institucionais e pessoais. Apresentam-se os resultados do impacto dos diferentes estressores na amostra estudada. Conclui-se que o instrumento elaborado mostrou sensibilidade na avaliação do impacto de estressores no contexto de trabalho, permitindo hierarquizar as áreas de origem dos acontecimentos estressantes.The contexts in which human activities occur show distinctive characteristics with important implications when evaluation procedures are developed and administered. The employment context is important for many people in our society. Moos has developed a socioecological conceptual frame in which the relationships among stressful events and adaptative behaviors are influenced by personal and contextual systems, social network resources, and evaluation and coping responses. The objective of this paper is to present an instrument (IMPAL that measures the degree of uneasiness (excessive, moderate, limited caused by events related to: physical environment at work, factors inherent to the task, organization of work time, institutional aspects, technological changes and personal aspects. Results of the

  6. JAPANESE MONOPOLIST COMPANIES – INSTRUMENTS OF THE 'NATIONAL POLICY'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Marius Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, this article discusses the problem of monopolistic Japanese companies, unique features among advanced countries, and perhaps worldwide. The japanese most ardent desire was always to reach and to overcome the Western, and, as a balanced development of all companies would have taken a long time, japanese policy makers decided to support only those with good performances, around them being concentrated all energies in the east Asian archipelago. Following these important efforts (from the State, small and medium companies, people, etc., as it is well known, Japan has succeeded, precisely by those holdings, to become a tough opponent for developed countries and even to overcome them, becoming the second global power behind the United States. The importance of this article derives precisely from the fact that these companies (Zaibatsu and later hondings were the driving force behind Japan's economic development, whether we talk about the period preceding the Second World War or the next one. Even if after the American occupation, it was wanted with at all costs their liquidation, holdings being considered as close to prewar militaristic power, after the American withdrawal from the archipelago, they were rebuilt as a Japanese principle, the foundation of Japanese reconstruction. The paper aims to embody the main dimensions on which these companies have arrived, as well as their structure, the relations between them, their organization. On the topic discussed, the literature contains more general issue of the Japanese economy, without being paid (at least in the contemporary period consideration to these main pillars of Japanese capitalism development. The main work in which they are giving increased attention is written at the end of the Second World War, thus the need for the additions concerning the next period is important. The authors’ contribution lies precisely in the synthesis of information that he provides, from

  7. Biomass polygeneration - technology state-of-the-art, systems and policy instruments; Bioenergikombinat - tekniktrender, system och styrmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina; Stripple, Haakan

    2007-09-15

    The development status of biofuel technologies and pellets has been reviewed, with focus on the possibilities for polygeneration with combined heat and power (CHP). Policy instruments important for the development of polygeneration plants have been analysed and interviews with potential stakeholders have been carried out. Fermentation of biomass for ethanol production, gasification and conversion to synthesis gas, biodiesel production from vegetable and animal oils, as well as anaerobic digestion for biogas production are examples of common biofuel technologies. Some of these are commercially available whereas others require further development. Substantial research and development is also spent to develop new technologies for biofuel production. Biofuel production can often benefit from integration with CHP resulting in increased efficiency and energy balances. The potentials for integration vary between different biofuels, but the most common options are integration with respect to the raw material, heat demand, waste heat and waste products. The integration potential for pellets is mainly associated with the raw material and the heat demand for drying of the raw material. Integration of biofuel and/or pellets production with CHP might increase the potential for power production since a new heat customer is provided the whole year around. The heat demand for some biofuels and for pellets can be covered by district heating, whereas some biofuels require steam. Policy instruments can strongly influence the development of biofuels and thereby has a potential to affect the incentives for investments in polygeneration. From a climate point of view, it can be argued that biomass is better used for emission reductions in other sectors where higher reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved to a lower cost. However, there are other driving forces that motivate increased use of biofuels, such as security of supply, need of revised agriculture policy and reduction of

  8. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  9. Innovative approaches in European sustainable consumption policies: assessing the potential of various instruments for sustainable consumption practises and greening of the market (ASCEE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubik, F.; Scholl, G.; Biedenkopf, K.; Kalimo, H.; Mohaupt, F.; Söebech, Ó.; Stø, E.; Strandbakken, P.; Turnheim, B.

    2009-01-01

    The report summarises the outcomes of the project "Assessing the potential of various instruments for sustainable consumption practices and greening of the market" (ASCEE). The scope of the ASCEE project was to consider the latest trends in policies supporting sustainable consumption and production

  10. Modelling a district heating system: Introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skoevde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power

  11. Employing a CGE model in analysing the environmental and economy-wide impacts of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo, Masoud; Othman, Jamal

    2017-04-15

    The impact of global warming has received much international attention in recent decades. To meet climate-change mitigation targets, environmental policy instruments have been designed to transform the way goods and services are produced as well as alter consumption patterns. The government of Malaysia is strongly committed to reducing CO 2 gas emissions as a proportion of GDP by 40% from 2005 levels by the year 2020. This study evaluates the economy-wide impacts of implementing two different types of CO 2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia using market-based (imposing a carbon tax) and command-and-control mechanism (sectoral emission standards). The policy simulations conducted involve the removal of the subsidy on petroleum products by the government. A carbon emission tax in conjunction with the revenue neutrality assumption is seen to be more effective than a command-and-control policy as it provides a double dividend. This is apparent as changes in consumption patterns lead to welfare enhancements while contributing to reductions in CO 2 emissions. The simulation results show that the production of renewable energies is stepped up when the imposition of carbon tax and removal of the subsidy is augmented by revenue recycling. This study provides an economy-wide assessment that compares two important tools for assisting environment policy makers evaluate carbon emission abatement initiatives in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. How will changes in health insurance tax policy and employer health plan contributions affect access to health care and health care costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Buchanan, J L

    To understand how changes in federal taxation of and employer contributions to health insurance benefits affect the decisions of firms to offer insurance, the willingness of households to purchase different health plans, and the resultant health expenditures. Economic policy simulation. Secondary data analysis. A total of 18,343 sampled families (representing 77 million total families throughout the United States) with a working household head from the 1988 Current Population Survey who were not covered by either Medicare, Medicaid, or CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services) insurance. One intervention limits the amounts of tax-free employer contributions to health insurance premiums to 80% of our estimate of the base plan in the market and assumes that employer contributions will also be limited to this maximum. A second intervention eliminates the favorable tax treatment of employer-paid premiums altogether and assumes that employees will pay the full price of insurance. Change in the number of working families offered employment-based insurance, change in insurance plan choice, and change in medical spending. Capping the favorable tax treatment and employer contributions decreases the number of families offered employment-based insurance by approximately 91,000, increases the number of families selecting the least generous insurance plan from 20% under the current situation to 33%, and reduces overall health spending by less than 2%. By eliminating the tax exemption altogether, the number of families offered employment-based insurance decreases by approximately half a million families, the number of families selecting the least generous plan goes from 20% to 40%, and overall spending falls by about $16 billion. Eliminating the tax subsidy and limiting employer-paid contributions to the low-cost plan substantially increases the number of low-income uninsured under a voluntary insurance system, decreases overall spending only

  13. Economic aspects of enegy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien

    1979-01-01

    In analysing more particularly the case of France, the authors show how an appropriate energy policy may be an instrument in the fight against inflation and how it may, in particular through development of nuclear energy, ensure the compatibility which is sough after among growth, employment and external balance. Also to be appreciated is the exent to which energy policies are constantly increasing their importance as an essential aspect of economic, monetary and social policy [fr

  14. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich administ......We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  15. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Key Words: Employment Challenge, Employment Policy, Kenya. 1.0 Context ... Fiscal Measures. √. ×. √. Source: own elaboration based on government documents. Key: √- policy measure present; ×- policy measure not present ..... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta (1963–1994); Oman.

  16. Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  18. The Issue of Research Graduate Employability in Australia: An Analysis of the Policy Framing (1999-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent knowledge economy discourse has direct implications for higher education policies and practices. It is expected that the higher education sector supports national economic competitiveness mainly through promoting scientific research, supporting technological transfer and innovation, and producing "knowledge workers" such as…

  19. Price Discrimination and Public Policy in the U.S. College Market. Employment Research Newsletter. Volume 23, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The federal government has made a policy choice to share Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) information with colleges. This arrangement has been viewed as an administrative detail by students, parents, policymakers, and even economists. The results of this study demonstrate that this seemingly unimportant administrative detail is…

  20. Scenarios for the use of GHG-reduction instruments - how can policy-instruments as carbon emission trading and tradable green certificates be used simultaneously to reach a common GHG-reduction target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing in the EU, a number of member states have to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. To achieve these reductions various policy-instruments - national as well as international - are on hand. Two international instruments are emphasized in this paper: tradable quotas for limiting carbon emissions and tradable green certificates for promoting the deployment of renewable energy technologies. In the analyses of these two instruments two main questions are considered: (1) Will there be any international trade in green certificates, if no GHG-credits are attached to them? (2) Will it make any difference if the EU sets the targets to be achieved by the two instruments or alternatively the individual member countries do? An incentive-analysis in which four scenarios are set up and discussed is performed for the EU member states. The main conclusion is that if no GHG-credits are attached to the green certificates there seems to be limited of no incentives for a permanent international trade in certificates. On the other hand, if GHG-credits are attached to the certificates an efficient international trade will take place regardless of whether the EU or the member countries fix the quotas. Thus, the use of international instruments as tradable green certificates and tradable emissions permits will not lead to an optimal GHG-reduction strategy unless GHG-credits are attached to the certificates. (author)

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(5)-1 - Services in employ of an instrumentality of the United States specifically exempted from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance... general exemptions from Federal taxation ineffectual as to the employer tax imposed by section 3111, see...

  2. The nature and the scope of the global economic crisis’ impact on employment trends and policies in South East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Qerim Qerimi; Bruno S. Sergi

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the global economic downturn, its nature and impacts on the state of employment in the region of South East Europe. As the financial crisis spilled over into the real sector, its effects, with varying magnitude, ranging from relatively consequential to devastating, were such that inescapably impacted lives across the planet, with the poorest as the most vulnerable and marginalized bearing a particularly heavy burden. The crisis has had disproportionate im...

  3. The nature and the scope of the global economic crisis’ impact on employment trends and policies in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qerim Qerimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the global economic downturn, its nature and impacts on the state of employment in the region of South East Europe. As the financial crisis spilled over into the real sector, its effects, with varying magnitude, ranging from relatively consequential to devastating, were such that inescapably impacted lives across the planet, with the poorest as the most vulnerable and marginalized bearing a particularly heavy burden. The crisis has had disproportionate impacts on social and economic rights and well-being of specific groups of people, in particular, women and children, migrants and minorities. Limited to the context of South East Europe, this paper’s main thrust is to explore what impact the global financial crisis has exerted on the employment and poverty trends across the region. It thus seeks to delineate the extent to which unemployment and, where applicable, poverty trends have been affected by the crisis. Nevertheless, participation and employment rates can differ, as they do in many of these countries in question, according to gender, level of education, age or urban/rural origin. The crisis’ ensuing social gap and its scope shall be particularly observed. The referenced data mainly originate from such authoritative agencies as the World Bank, IMF, ILO as well as national bureaus of statistics.

  4. [Employment of People with Mental Disorders in Terms of the Policies Developed by the European and International Institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Laurène

    Objectives The aim of this article is to present an overview of the reflections led by various European and international organizations on the employment of people with mental disorders.Methods This study is based on data from websites of international organizations and interviews taken place with a disability specialist at the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and members of the European Commission.Results Unlike the French law of 11 February 2005 which refers expressly to psychic disability, this notion is not explicitly dedicated by various European and international legal rules. However, these standards like the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have adopted the contemporary model which presents disability as the result of an interaction between person and environment. Thus they acknowledge that disabled people include people suffering from mental disorders because in the person's environment, a psychiatric impairment could lead to limitations of activities or restrictions of social participation that constitute a situation of disability of psychiatric origin. Therefore, the legal mechanisms often do not provide appropriate answers to the characteristics of psychiatric disability.Besides, negative attitudes, stereotypes and discrimination towards people with a psychiatric disability are still observed in the workplace, in spite of intensified anti-discrimination legislation.This study inventories the different proposals to remedy to substantial barriers to the employment of people with a psychiatric condition. In the European Union's strategy for increasing the employment of these persons, particular consideration is given to put forward a series of key recommendations to improve practices of reasonable accommodation in the workplace. Nonetheless, it must be emphasized that it is necessary to conceive adequate measures in order to take into account the changeability and the unpredictability of mental disorders. Indeed

  5. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwahl, Frederik; Mongelli, Ignazio; Delgado, Luis [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Edificio Expo, c/Inca Garcilaso s/n, 41072 Seville (Spain); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), L7,1, 68161 Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  6. Coercion: A Credible and Capable United States Military Instrument of Power Key to Future US Foreign Policy Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-17

    Rubintstein, Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader: Presidential Speeches with Commentary (New York: M.E. Sharp, 2000), 166...Research Service, Kosovo: Review and Analysis, 4. 27 Alvin Z. Rubintstein, Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader...Rubintstein, Alvin Z., Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader: Presidential Speeches with Commentary. New York: M.E. Sharp

  7. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  8. Policy preferences and the diversity of instrument choice for mitigating climate change impacts in the transport sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stead, D.

    2017-01-01

    Different policy approaches and responses to common environmental challenges, such as climate change, exist between countries, and sometimes even within countries. This situation arises because public policy-makers are not only driven by concerns of theoretical purity but are also influenced by a

  9. Education Policy Influence Efficacy: Teacher Beliefs in Their Ability to Change Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) this study sought to understand how teachers view themselves as educational policy actors and to construct an instrument that measures teacher beliefs about their aptitude to advocate for changes in educational policy. This study employed a sequential explanatory design, characterized by quantitative data…

  10. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  11. Determinants of Informal Employment: A Case of Tanzania's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policies suggested that can enhance creation of decent employment are; improving financial services through risk mitigation, credit information dissemination and outreach to MSEs; enhancing and rationalizing earnings in the economy; and improving the quantity and quality of education as an enabling instrument.

  12. FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE, A STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND PRACTICE, PHASE 3--EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN SELECTED NEWLY DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANNA, PAUL R.; LUCAS, GERARD

    FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE FORMER FRENCH COLONY, THE CONGO, WAS INVESTIGATED WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS UPON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY. TWO VERY SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WERE STUDIED--(1) THE TRANSFER OF FORMAL, FRENCH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS TO AN AFRICAN SETTING FOR THE PURPOSE OF PERFORMING NORMATIVE FUNCTIONS PRESCRIBED BY THE SOCIETY…

  13. Political motives in climate and energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Dalen, Hanne Marit; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-07-01

    Standard economic theory provides clear guidance on the design of cost-efficient policy in the presence of imperfect markets and externalities. However, observed policies reveal extensive discrepancies between principles and practise. Based on interviews with core politicians from the Norwegian parliament, we investigate causes for the lack of cost efficiency in climate and energy policy. We find that politicians agree with the notion of cost efficiency in principle, but rather than ascribing efficient instruments directed at specific policy goals, they include concerns for industrial and regional development, income distribution and employment in the environmental policy design. Lacking insight in the functioning of economic instruments and perceptions of a non-binding budget constraint also violate the requirements for efficient policy decisions. The findings point to the role of economists and social scientists to communicate the functioning of complex instruments. Improved compensation procedures could help reduce the politicians' incentives to undermine efficiency in order to avoid unwanted distributional effects.(Author)

  14. Marital Violence and Women's Employment and Property Status: Evidence from North Indian Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); A. Chhachhi (Amrita); M. Bhattacharyya (Manasi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and

  15. Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020. Economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries. Pre2020 climate policy ambition. Draft version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Nadine; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; Day, Thomas; Healy, Sean; Schumacher, Katja; Duscha, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research paper is to analyse the current efforts of country activities towards the 2020 2 C target, in order to identify best practices and their possible impact on emission reduction in 2020. A first scan of policies in countries with high greenhouse gas emissions and countries with remarkably ambitious climate change mitigation strategies (see Table 1) revealed that thematic areas with notable coverage in domestic climate policy are: general strategies and targets, renewable energy support schemes for electricity, product standards and codes for energy efficiency in buildings, and direct subsidies and fuel quotas for renewables in Transport. From this, along with initial indications of mitigation potential, we identified four areas where ambition could be significantly enhanced by 2020.

  16. LEGISLATIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AID IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION AS THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STATE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Demydenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes normative documents according to which economic incentives can become state aid, ways of developing European and national policies that allow the allocation of state aid for environmental protection and protected areas, and the promotion of biodiversity conservation on legal grounds.

  17. The fiscality, tool of an energy policy; La fiscalite, instrument d'une politique de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    This report studies how the fiscality can be an adapted tool for the implementing of the french energy policy. The term fiscality designates here the fiscality of the energy production, consumption and use in the industrial fabrication processes. An evaluation of the french fiscality and the analysis of this accounting are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  19. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France; Politique publique d'environnement et efficacite economique: permis negociables ou instrument reglementaire pour la maitrise de la pollution atmospherique: une approche comparative Etats Unis/France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cros, Ch

    1998-12-15

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  20. Bone marrow solid core biopsy needle: a critical assessment of the utility, benefits and limitations of the instruments employed in current day haematology and oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Anwarul

    2017-12-07

    The optimal clinical evaluation of the bone marrow requires an examination of air-dried and well-stained films of the aspirated tissue along with a histopathological evaluation of adequately processed and properly stained core biopsy specimens. A bone marrow evaluation can be essential in establishing a diagnosis, determining the efficacy of treatment in haematological disorders and to monitor haematological status of patients following bone marrow/stem cell transplantation. It is also an essential component of the staging process for newly diagnosed malignancies. Currently available bone marrow aspiration needles are quite satisfactory and if properly used provide good-quality specimens for morphological evaluation. However, if a bone marrow core biopsy is concerned, several needles are currently in use but not all of them provide good-quality biopsy specimens for histological evaluation or are user friendly. We have compared the recently introduced Moeller Medical single use bone marrow core biopsy needle with the Jamshidi needle with marrow acquisition cradle (CareFusion), J-needle (Cardinal Health) and OnControl device (Vidacare). It is concluded that the Moeller Medical needle system has definite advantages over others and is recommended for routine use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Youth Employment and Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Discusses youth employment and unemployment in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States; the trends, causes, consequences, policy goals, and specific measures needed to resolve problems. (SL)

  2. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This policy employs central bank's control of the supply of money as instrument for achieving desired economic goals. Ridhwan, DeGroot, Henri, Nijkamp and Rietveld (2010) studied the impact of monetary policy on economic development in some economies using vector autoregressive (VAR) models and ...

  3. Türkiye’de İşsizliğin Nedenleri: İstihdam Politikaları Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme(Reasons of Unemployment in Turkey: An Assessment On Employment Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal reasons of unemployment problem in Turkey, discuss policies put forward for the solution of this problem and to determine which employment policies would be more suitable in order to resolve the problem of unemployment. In accordance with this purpose, first of all reasons of unemployment in Turkey will be put forward in the frame of literature research on this issue. Then, policies which have been applied since 1960 for the decrease of unemployment and enhancement of employment opportunities will be analyzed and to what extent they have been efficient will be discussed. According to research results, it is possible to consider unemployment in Turkey under three main reasons. The first reason is stated to be structural problems, the second reason is high labor cost and thirdly it is expressed that growth which does not create employment causes unemployment. However; most of the time employment policies are not regarded as efficient for decreasing unemployment. In this respect, active and passive policies shall be developed in the frame of recommendations.

  4. Experience with agreements as instruments in climate policies - phase II; Erfaringer med avtaler som klimapolitisk virkemiddel - fase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, a project has been done to study the use of agreements as an environmental instrument. The subjects discussed in this report are (1) a mapping and assessment of the recently established system for agreements in Germany between the authorities and the industry on reduced CO{sub 2} emission, (2) a mapping and assessment of the status of agreements in the European Community, (3) an updating of the development of the agreements in New Zealand and Denmark and (4) an assessment of issues in the agreement between the Dutch authorities and the Sep group of electricity companies on reduced SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions that are relevant for Norway. The emphasis is on the new German agreement system. Attention is also given to the agreement system in New Zealand because it comprises some of the sectors that are relevant for agreements in Norway. 7 refs.

  5. China’s Employment Crisis – A Stimulus for Policy Change? Chinas Beschäftigungskrise - Antrieb für einen Politikwechsel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Schucher

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the face of severe job problems, China’s government has adopted a huge stimulus package in a bid to achieve eight per cent economic growth, which is said to guarantee at least enough jobs for the new entrants to the labour market. The real situation, however, will be much grimmer than statistics indicate. Unregistered groups like unemployed rural migrants, job-searching college graduates, laid-off workers and others together with the officially registered unemployed and the new market entrants could add up to 42 million altogether, while even the most optimistic estimates say only around 15 million new jobs could be created in 2009. Nevertheless, the stimulus package demonstrates an at least temporary shift in economic policy from capital-intensive to labour-intensive growth. Additionally, the new initiatives to boost social-security spending could help to address the grievances of the most vulnerable groups in the labour market. The Chinese government’s reaction to the emerging employment crisis once again demonstrates the often underestimated adaptability of China’s leadership. Angesichts der ernsthaften Beschäftigungskrise hat Chinas Regierung ein großes Konjunkturpaket verabschiedet, das helfen soll, acht Prozent Wirtschaftswachstum zu erlangen. Es wird angenommen, dass dieses Wachstum wenigstens genügend Arbeitsplätze für die neu auf den Arbeitsmarkt drängenden Personen garantiert. Die tatsächliche Situation jedoch wird viel ernster sein, als es die Statistiken voraussagen.

  6. [Effect of using an instrument for continuous evaluation of nursing quality in terms of employment satisfaction and of their affective implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Blandine; Fontanaud, Nelly; Pronost, Anne-Marie

    2010-09-01

    Medical staff are directly concerned by improving the quality of care. The goal of this study is to assess qualitatively the effects of the application of a Global Assessment Instrument for the Quality of Care on thirty nurses divided in two groups: an experimental group--who participated in the IGE-QSI--and another "witness" group--who participated in another project. The theory developed with the research involves the affective implication and satisfaction at work. Affective implication is the emotional attachment of the employee vis-a-vis the hospital. Satisfaction at work is a positive answer of the worker to their professional environment. The results of the research show that satisfaction in the workplace could be the result of professional experience and maturity. Hence, there could be a link between personal values and attitude that could encourage the implication of the staff in management. Responsibilities, recognition and the feeling of belonging to a group are part of the positive incentives and help develop management objectives.

  7. International exhibitions as an instrument of domestic cultural policy: how Baroque art came to be honoured in socialist Czechoslovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 1960s the artistic tradition of the Baroque period in Bohemia had gained new acceptance and the established schema for interpreting its history had been revised. This essay asks how it came to this turn. It therefore pursues, on the one hand, the sequence of events in its most important stages and, on the other hand, sketches the gradual reinterpretation of Baroque art as ‘popular’ cultural legacy or at least one compatible with the State’s postulated self-image as a ‘society of the people’. It is argued that this approach to Baroque art derived from a synergy of deliberate strategies of cultural policy and discursive adaptations. The study, moreover, presents a case study for how largely scholarly conceptions and models of interpretation can be dependent on extra-scholarly circumstances and interests – which should by no means be regarded as specific to socialist or communist regimes.

  8. Policies and instruments for the promotion of the export sector in Japan: Key elements for the economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Francisco Torres García

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravaged by war and submitted during the first years by the Supreme Commander Allied Powers, led by General McArthur of the U.S., Japan in 1950 implemented a policy of economic recovery. Over the years, this economy has been considered a peculiar case of economic growth and development. The diversification of international relations under the pillar of economic restructuring has enabled a more favorable insertion in international markets to an economy that even in a deep recession, remains high competitiveness. Thus, the promotion of Japanese exports was made possible by the combination of state intervention and private sector efficiency, which showed a great ability to tune their industrial development.

  9. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  10. Harnessing the private health sector by using prices as a policy instrument: Lessons learned from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L; Kumar, Ankit; Roubal, Tomas; Colombo, Francesca; Lorenzoni, Luca

    2018-03-29

    Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private health sector in South Africa has fundamentally changed the structure of health care delivery. A mutually reinforcing ecosystem of private health insurers, private hospitals and specialists has grown to account for almost half of the country's spending on health care, despite only serving 16% of the population with the capacity to pay. Following years of consolidation among private hospital groups and insurance schemes, and after successive failures at establishing credible price benchmarks, South Africa's private hospitals charge prices comparable with countries that are considerably richer. This compromises the affordability of a broad-based expansion in health care for the population. The South African example demonstrates that prices can be part of a structure that perpetuates inequalities in access to health care resources. The lesson for other countries is the importance of norms and institutions that uphold price schedules in high-income countries. Efforts to compromise or liberalize price setting should be undertaken with a healthy degree of caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Manwel

    2010-01-01

    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  12. Consequences and Policy Implications for University Students Who Have Chosen Liberal or Vocational Education in Canada: Labour Market Outcomes and Employability Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zeng; Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Analyses suggest that the Canadian labor market favors vocational over liberal graduates with regard to employment status, income, job security, and job satisfaction. However, findings also indicate a surprising lack of difference between liberal and vocational graduates in their employability skills. Employers were nevertheless more likely to…

  13. An Evaluation of Urban Renewal Policies of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwen Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal is a pragmatic approach in the sustainable urban development of urban areas, and has now become an essential strategy for most metropolises in China. The question of how urban renewal can best be realized has gained the attention of urban planning researchers looking to formulate practical evidence-based urban renewal policies through policy instruments. This paper analyzes the urban renewal policies of Shenzhen, a pioneer city in China in the promulgation of urban renewal legislation. In doing so, an analytical framework is established by focusing on three main policy instruments, along with several sub-instruments within them. Shenzhen’s five main urban renewal policies, issued between 2009 and 2016, are analyzed through this framework. Content analysis and pattern-matching is used in the review and analysis of the data. The results show that “Environment” side policies tend to be the most widely applied by the Shenzhen municipal government. Additionally, “Regulation Control” and “Goal-planning” policies are the two instruments most frequently adopted as sub-instruments. Moreover, it is found that the application of “Supply” side polices and “Demand” side polices needs be strengthened. These findings identify the types of urban renewal policies currently employed in China and provide a clear understanding of the current policy priorities, with suggestions and insight into further urban renewal policy initiatives for Shenzhen and beyond.

  14. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opschoor, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Research Award: Employment and Growth

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    IDRC's Employment and Growth program supports policy-oriented research that generates new insights and options for promoting policies that facilitate inclusive growth. This is growth that enhances access of the poor to opportunities and reduces inequalities. Women's economic empowerment and youth employment are ...

  16. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  17. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules § 301-75.3 What governing...

  18. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  19. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  20. Measuring effects: roads to success in rehabilitation : how to measure re-employment policies in The Netherlands? : proceedings of the conference, September 13, 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.L. de

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this conference was to present an overview of research and evaluation of effects of labour market policy in different western countries and discus the importance of this research. The conference is also meant to stimulate more international, high quality research on active labour market

  1. Historical overview of development policies and institutions in the Netherlands, in the context of private sector development and (productive) employment creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazimierczuk, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the Dutch development cooperation policies for the years 1949-2015 with particular attention for private sector development (PSD). Over the years, poverty alleviation, private sector development and security have been dominant focus areas of Dutch development cooperation, with PSD

  2. Employing Policy and Purchasing Levers to Increase the Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Community-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Settings: Reports from Single State Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci R.; Kovas, Anne E.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    State public health authorities are critical to the successful implementation of science based addiction treatment practices by community-based providers. The literature to date, however, lacks examples of state level policy strategies that promote evidence-based practices (EBPs). This mixed-methods study documents changes in two critical…

  3. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  4. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it......’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased...... personal approach is proposed in the agenda of employability. And ensure a wide range of offers, that appeal to multiple and differentiated personal and professional approaches to employability....

  5. Economic analysis and policy implications of farm and off-farm employment : a case study in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2000-01-01

    The central item of this research is the impact of off-farm employment and income on farm households and agricultural production. The interaction between farm and non-farm activities, the adjustment of labor demand and supply, the performance of the labor market, and wage determination are

  6. New Office Technology and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, David

    1980-01-01

    Shows that there are potential problems associated with technological change which demand both serious analytical treatment and the development of sophisticated industrial and social policies. Discusses the office sector, office technology, employment, and trade unions. (CT)

  7. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  8. Analyzing alternative policy instruments for the irrigation sector : an assessment of the potential for water market development in the Chishtian Sub-division, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strosser, P.

    1997-01-01


    The increasing scarcity of water and financial resources has made the economic dimension of water an important element of irrigation sector policies. Water pricing is the means traditionally used to incorporate economic issues into irrigation sector policies. More recently, water markets

  9. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  10. Empirical evidence in the analysis of the environmental and energy policies of a series of industrialised nations, during the period 1960-1997, using widely employed macroeconomic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here--covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations--seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their respective environmental effects. Moreover, by using PPPs, it has been possible to propose a more detailed cross-country analysis for the different international situations

  11. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  12. Youth Employment and Job Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Tad

    A policy that addresses youth unemployment with monetary expansion for similar fiscal policies is criticized as compounding the problem, and alternative solutions are offered. Accordingly, a brief look at youth labor market characteristics, pertinent labor market theory, and the present industrial distribution of employed youth is offered. A…

  13. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  14. Innovation, Industry Evoluation and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of articles on the links between innovation, the evolution of industry and employment. These relations provide the building blocks of a new industrial policy. The articles are included in Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment

  15. Opening Doors: Employing the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Lydia

    The handbook is intended to help employers understand barriers to employment of disabled people. Barriers are examined, including attitudinal, physical (architectural, transportation, site, and equipment), policy and practice barriers (interviewing and recruiting), and communication barriers. Suggestions and guidelines for dealing with the…

  16. A survey instrument for measuring vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathchandra, Dilshani; Navin, Mark C; Largent, Mark A; McCright, Aaron M

    2018-04-01

    Accurately measuring vaccine acceptance is important, especially under current conditions in which misinformation may increase public anxiety about vaccines and politicize vaccination policies. We integrated substantive knowledge, conceptualization and measurement expertise, and survey design principles to develop an instrument for measuring vaccine acceptance across the general public. Given this broad goal, we expect our novel instrument will complement, rather than replace, existing instruments designed specifically to measure parents' vaccine hesitancy. Our instrument measures five key facets of vaccine acceptance: (1) perceived safety of vaccines; (2) perceived effectiveness and necessity of vaccines; (3) acceptance of the selection and scheduling of vaccines; (4) positive values and affect toward vaccines; and (5) perceived legitimacy of authorities to require vaccinations. We report results of analyses demonstrating the reliability and validity of this instrument. High Cronbach's alpha values for five sub-scales and for the full scale indicate the instrument's reliability, and the consistent performance of expected predictors (i.e., trust in biologists, conspiratorial ideation, and political ideology) demonstrates the instrument's construct validity. Further, scientific reasoning increases vaccine acceptance among liberals but decreases vaccine acceptance among conservatives, which is consistent with motivated cognition. Also, trust in biologists has a stronger positive effect on vaccine acceptance among conservatives than among liberals, signaling a potentially promising means to reduce political polarization on vaccines and increase vaccine acceptance across the general public. We end by identifying key ways that public health researchers, science studies scholars, and health practitioners may employ the full (or short) version of our vaccine acceptance instrument. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriilidis, Georgios; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA) drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM) into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO) long-standing directives. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. A 12-point 'Policy Empowerment Index' (PEI) is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally 'supportive' of constituent empowerment, although several 'directive' features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation. Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  18. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  19. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality, acco...... decrease as students progress through higher education. While we find evidence for this hypothesis, we also show in multivariate models that the reduction of inequality in the student labour market is explained by prior differences between social origin groups.......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  20. International migration policies: conceptual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, M M

    1987-01-01

    Kritz reviews national concepts and policies of migration. She examines how nation-states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policies for permanent, temporary, and illegal migrants are examined for selected countries. While the traditional permanent immigration countries--Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US--continue to admit large numbers of permanent migrants, they are also admitting growing numbers of temporary migrants. Other countries, in Europe and the developing world, have different migration histories and use other approaches to admit foreigners--migrants are generally admitted on a temporary basis for work or other purposes. Growing numbers of these temporary migrants, however, do become long-term or permanent settlers, and the distinction between permanent and temporary migration policies becomes a short-term legal one rather than a long-term sociological one. Governments have been seeking those policy instruments that would allow them to improve control over who enters and settles in their territories, and temporary migration policies are the measures to which they are turning. While increasing restriction characterizes the policy stance of most countries toward international migration, this does not necessarily mean that the number of migrants entering is declining. Kritz argues that the concepts employed by countries in their immigration policies frequently do not correspond to the reality, making it necessary to examine the actual context.

  1. Illegal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  3. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  4. Legal Consequences of Employer Discharge Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The employment contract is sometimes misunderstood by both employees and employers. Drafters of employee manuals, policies, and procedures should be aware that the nature of the at-will employment relationship can be transformed into a binding employment contract by the words and phrases chosen. In this article, the author uses the case of Eric,…

  5. Governance by green taxes: Implementing clean water policies in Europe 1970 - 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of economic instruments for environmental policy in four European countries. The study employs data from national and international sources for an ex post evaluation of the effects of economic policy instruments in the clean water programs of Denmark, France, Germany...... for the implementation of public policies; on the other hand it provides some unexpected findings regarding the significance of the institutional context for the design and operation of market-based instruments. It is argued that institutionalized practices of public policy making influenced the specific design...... to the significance of taking into account the institutional setting of the design and operation of market-based instruments, an observation with both theoretical and practical implications....

  6. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; Juhola, Sirkku; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report (2014) has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example,....... This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level......., more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation...... and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization) exist...

  7. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  8. Implementing Local Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Actions: The Role of Various Policy Instruments in a Multi-Level Governance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable focus, e.g., in the fifth IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report (2014 has been trained on why adaptation and mitigation have not been developed more than at present, with relatively few local government actions taken compared with, for example, more discursive policy agreement on the importance of the issue of climate change. Going beyond a focus on general limits and barriers, this comment suggests that one important issue is that climate change has not yet been sufficiently integrated into the state regulative structure of legislation and policy-making. A comparison between three cases suggests that local developments that are not supported in particular by binding regulation are unlikely to achieve the same general level of implementation as issues for which such regulative demands (and thereby also requirements for prioritization exist. This constitutes an important consideration for the development of adaptation and mitigation as policy areas, including on the local level.

  9. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Frantz, Janet E

    2005-01-01

    Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD) was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies. PMID:15771781

  10. Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Janet E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both the US and Japan, the patient isolation policy for leprosy /Hansen's disease (HD was preserved along with the isolation facilities, long after it had been proven to be scientifically unnecessary. This delayed policy termination caused a deprivation of civil liberties of the involuntarily confined patients, the fostering of social stigmas attached to the disease, and an inefficient use of health resources. This article seeks to elucidate the political process which hindered timely policy changes congruent with scientific advances. Methods Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model. Results From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care. Conclusion Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies.

  11. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Innovating job activation by involving employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Paul; van Berkel, Rik

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of innovative employer-oriented activation policies, which aim to influence employers’ willingness to hire or possibly train and guide the unemployed. These policies may focus on responsibilities with regards to activation, which offer services to employers or

  14. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  15. Energy levy and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mooij, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The employment in the Netherlands seems to be relatively vulnerable for an energy levy compared to other European countries. Therefore, implementation of an energy levy because of the environment demands a supporting policy for the employment. This can be realized by using the yield of the levy totally for the decrease of the tax burden on labour. An unbalanced distribution of incomes between the working population and the unemployed population must be taken for granted. Based on the general equilibrium model ENTAX (ENvironmental TAXation) for a small economy a number of factors, which can impact the cost effectiveness of a regulating energy levy, are discussed. Six countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom) are compared regarding these factors. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  16. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  17. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  18. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  19. The Revista Médica project: medical journals as instruments of German foreign cultural policy towards Latin America, 1920-1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act with relative freedom from the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. In this context the Hamburg doctors Ludolph Brauer, Bernhard Nocht and Peter Mühlens created the Revista Médica de Hamburgo (as of 1928 Revista Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana), a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and occasionally in Portuguese), to increase German influence especially in Latin American countries. The focus of this article is on the protagonists of this project, the Hamburg doctors, the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved.

  20. Pro-employment budgeting in China : linking employment to national and local budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiangwei; Zhang, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    A series of case studies has been launched to better understand how to efficiently link employment objectives to budget allocations and expenditures. This Working Paper is the first of the series. The experience of China is interesting for three main reasons: the employment strategy promotes an employment-friendly economic development model; since 2002; a system to finance employment policies has been efficiently functioning; and the 2008 Employment Promotion Law established an employment fun...

  1. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  2. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  3. MONETARY POLICY AND PARALLEL FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy is one of the economic policy "tools" through which it acts on the currency demand and supply in the economy. The importance of monetary policy results from its primary objective - price stability, plus limiting inflation and maintaining internal and external value of the currency. Responsibility for achieving these objectives rests with the Central Bank, which has a monopoly in the formulation and the implementation of monetary policy targets. Price stability is the primary objective of monetary policy and also the central objective of economic policy, alongside with: sustainable economic growth, full employment of labor force, balance of external payments equilibrium. To achieve these overall objectives of economic policy, monetary policy acts through currency as an instrument of action and it represents the overall action exercised by the monetary authority to influence economic development and to ensure price stability. In economic processes numerous factors emerge to the sale or purchase of capital available for a shorter or longer period and to achieving their aspirations of maximize capital gains, they are negotiating, they are confronting and agreeing within specific market relationships. The entirety of relations between various economic issues, enterprises and individuals, between them and the banking intermediaries, as well as the relationship between banks and other credit institutions on the transfer of cash money as specific form of debt and fructification of capital, form capital markets or credit markets. These markets are carved up according to the nature and purposes of the participants.

  4. The policy-relevancy of impact assessment tools: Evaluating nine years of European research funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podhora, A.; Helming, K.; Adenauer, L.; Heckelei, T.; Kautto, P.; Reidsma, P.; Rennings, K.; Turnpenny, J.; Jansen, J.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, the European Commission has employed the instrument of ex-ante impact assessments (IA) to help focus its policy-making process on implementing sustainable development. Scientific tools should play an essential role of providing the evidence base to assess the impacts of alternative

  5. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  6. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  7. Comparative study of linkage between environmental policy instruments and technological innovation: Case study on end-of-life vehicles technologies in Japan and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Yabar, Helmut; Nozaki, Noriko; Niraula, Baburam; Mizunoya, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    A growing population and urbanization is a challenge for finite natural resources. Without strict regulation to recycle, recover and reuse resources, waste is discarded with no value. Every year throughout the world, more than twenty-five million vehicles turn into end-of-life vehicles (ELV) and most of their valuable resources end up in landfill sites. This research analyses the effect of regulation on ELV innovation for additional recovery of resources in Japan and EU nations using patent data as a proxy. The analysis determines the statistical difference in patent activity before and after regulations were enacted in the case studies. The relevant data on ELV technologies was gathered for the period 1985-2013. The study suggests that in general environmental regulation in Japan drove innovation and reveals that environmental policy in Japan was more effective in enabling innovation compared to EU nations. Specifically, the results from these developed countries can be used by the rapidly growing developing countries in automobile manufacturing like China for amendment of their ELV regulation accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  9. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  10. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  11. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  12. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  13. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  14. CO2 Tax or Fee as a Single Economic Instrument for Climate Protection Policy Promoting Renewable Energy Sources and Enhancing Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Horvath, L.; Jelavic, B.; Juric, Z.; Kulisic, B.; Vuk, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the current implementation of the policy to reduce CO 2 emissions through four practically independent processes: energy market, emission market, support for renewable energy sources through feed-in tariffs (FIT) and support scheme for enhancing energy efficiency. The conclusion is that in this system, some elements of which appear to be controversial, it is not possible to reach the goal - a radical reduction of CO 2 emissions by 80% in total and 95% in electricity production until 2050, which the EU has set as emission reduction targets for this period. Therefore, a new system is now proposed that is based on a single objective function, CO 2 emissions. The process would be managed through taxes or fees on CO 2 , while the raised revenues would be returned to projects aimed at reducing CO 2 emissions, projects for enhancing energy efficiency, renewable energy sources projects and projects reducing emissions from fossil fuels. The paper outlines the basis of the concept of CO 2 tax or fee as a key measure to stimulate the lowering of emissions and gives an analysis of the impact of different rates of tax or fee on CO 2 emissions on the energy price. A critical analysis of the new model's impact on development of renewable energy sources and on improving energy efficiency in buildings was carried out. Also, there is an analysis of the impact of the new model on transport development. The introduction of the new model should clear the energy market from administrative limitations and privileged positions of renewable sources and should bring all back in the frame of market economy, no matter what source of energy for production of electricity we are dealing with. One limitation to the new model is translation of the current situation in to the new system, especially in the field of renewable energy sources and their protected position under the already concluded long-term contracts. The paper also elaborates the basis for the

  15. How do employers cope with an ageing workforce?: Views from employers and employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How age-conscious are human resource policies? Using a survey of Dutch employers, we examine how employers deal with the prospect of an ageing work force. We supplement our analysis with an additional survey of Dutch employees to compare human resource policies to practices. Results show that a small minority of employers are taking measures to enhance productivity (training programmes or bring productivity in line with pay (demotion. Personnel policies tend to 'spare' older workers: giving them extra leave, early retirement, or generous employment protection: older workers who perform poorly are allowed to stay, whereas younger workers under similar conditions are dismissed.

  16. International law as a political instrument in the case of Kosovo (1999-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper E. Bergink

    2010-01-01

    The article attempts to integrate international law and international relations by analysing how law works within international politics. In international relations, the instrumentalist theory poses that states rationally employ international law as a foreign policy instrument. Analysing the case of Kosovo from 1999 to 201...

  17. Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Katz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act is aimed, according to the author, at assisting those in the labour arena (employers, managers, labour relations practitioners, union officials, and students to develop a practical understanding of the Employment Equity Act (hereafter, the Act.

  18. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  19. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  20. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  1. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  2. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubach, K.

    1982-01-01

    For better understanding of the specification for seismic instrumentation of a nuclear power plant, the lecture gives some fundamental remarks to the seismic risk in the Federal Republic of Germany and to the data characterizing an earthquake event. Coming from the geophysical properties of an earthquake, the quantities are explained which are used in the design process of nuclear power plants. This process is shortly described in order to find the requirements for the specification of the seismic instrumentation. In addition the demands of licensing authorities are given. As an example the seismic instrumentation of KKP-1, BWR, is shown. The paper deals with kind and number of instruments, their location in the plant and their sensitivity and calibration. Final considerations deal with the evaluation of measured data and with plant operation after an earthquake. Some experience concerning the earthquake behaviour of equipment not designed to withstand earthquake loads is mentioned. This experience has initiated studies directed to quantification of the degree of conservatism of the assumptions in the seismic design of nuclear power plants. A final garget of these studies are more realistic design rules. (RW)

  3. Employment and Growth | Page 24 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Upgrading Lebanese Economic Analytical Capacity. Language English. Read more about Promoting Research for Policymaking under Decentralization in Peru (CIES). Language English. Read more about Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana.

  4. Use of the Environment and Policy Evaluation and Observation as a Self-Report Instrument (EPAO-SR) to measure nutrition and physical activity environments in child care settings: validity and reliability evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S; Mazzucca, Stephanie; McWilliams, Christina; Hales, Derek

    2015-09-26

    Early care and education (ECE) centers are important settings influencing young children's diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. To better understand their impact on diet and PA behaviors as well as to evaluate public health programs aimed at ECE settings, we developed and tested the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation - Self-Report (EPAO-SR), a self-administered version of the previously validated, researcher-administered EPAO. Development of the EPAO-SR instrument included modification of items from the EPAO, community advisory group and expert review, and cognitive interviews with center directors and classroom teachers. Reliability and validity data were collected across 4 days in 3-5 year old classrooms in 50 ECE centers in North Carolina. Center teachers and directors completed relevant portions of the EPAO-SR on multiple days according to a standardized protocol, and trained data collectors completed the EPAO for 4 days in the centers. Reliability and validity statistics calculated included percent agreement, kappa, correlation coefficients, coefficients of variation, deviations, mean differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), depending on the response option of the item. Data demonstrated a range of reliability and validity evidence for the EPAO-SR instrument. Reporting from directors and classroom teachers was consistent and similar to the observational data. Items that produced strongest reliability and validity estimates included beverages served, outside time, and physical activity equipment, while items such as whole grains served and amount of teacher-led PA had lower reliability (observation and self-report) and validity estimates. To overcome lower reliability and validity estimates, some items need administration on multiple days. This study demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity evidence for use of the EPAO-SR in the field. The self-administered EPAO-SR is an advancement of the measurement of ECE

  5. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  6. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  7. How Full is Full Employment? : How Tools and Not Theory Explained Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    The post-war debate on full employment policy was blurred and unclear since the concept of full employment itself was theoretically unclear and un-operational. Unable to theoretically determine the unemployment level of full employment, economists tried to find more empirically based ways to

  8. Academics' and Employers' Perceptions about Responsibilities for Employability and Their Initiatives towards Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of preliminary research into how Portuguese academics and employers perceive the responsibility of different higher education stakeholders-students, teaching staff, higher education institutions, employers, and policy-makers-for developing graduate employability. The study was conducted 8 years after the…

  9. Workforce Skills in the Eyes of the Employers : Results of the Georgia STEP Employer Skills Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the results of the recently completed employer skills survey, and to discuss their policy implications. The analysis finds that there is a skills shortage in Georgia despite high unemployment. It is difficult for employers, especially in the modern sector, to find workers with the required skills. Employers demand not only ‘hard’ technical skills, b...

  10. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able...

  11. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  12. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  13. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  14. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  15. Global Employer and Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Global employer and business associations at the peak level are neglected in research, but this paper argues that it is possible to develop collective action and represent interests in many policy fields through these encompassing entities, and they add to other forms of global business...... coordination. This study analyses all the global peak associations (International Chamber of Commerce, International Organisation of Employers, World Chambers Federation, Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD, B20 Coalition, World Economic Forum and World Business Council for Sustainable...... implications for our understanding of global politics where new approaches are needed to analyse the institutionalisation of business interests....

  16. Financial Literacy and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Cumurovic, Aida; Hyll, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between financial literacy and self-employment. We use established financial knowledge-based questions to measure financial literacy levels. The analysis shows a highly significant correlation between self-employment and financial literacy scores. To investigate the impact of financial literacy on being self-employed, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on information on economic education before entering the labour market and education of ...

  17. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  18. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  19. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  20. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  1. Employability Skills: The Demands of the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janice A.; Lafleur, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Employability Skills Profile, critical work abilities identified by Canadian employers, was rated by 24 secondary teachers in Ontario. Personal management skills were rated most important, followed by academic and teamwork skills. Teaching of these skills was informal--absorbed through classroom policies and management practices. (SK)

  2. Enhancing youth employability in Zambia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Read the brief, Enhancing youth employability: Zambia (PDF, 764 KB); Read full report, Youth employment challenges in Zambia: A statistical profile, current policy frameworks and existing interventions (PDF 1.71 MB); For a visual representation of the key findings see the infographic poster (PDF, 282 KB).

  3. Ghana Youth Employment Program Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Ulzen-Appiah, Ato; Avura, Francis Babongte

    2016-01-01

    This youth employment inventory has been compiled to improve the evidence base for making decisions about how to address the problem of youth unemployment or youth who are not in education and not participating in the labor market in Ghana. Policy makers who are considering measures to help young people make the transition into the labor market and obtain decent work are hampered by a lack ...

  4. Stabilization policies for the tourist sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few decades, tourism has increasingly been included in economic policies at all levels. Not surprisingly, the tourism sector is highly satisfied with this development: the inclusion in economic policies can be taken as an indication of its acceptance as a respectable player - on equ...... is that the business environment has a decisive impact on the turbulence. This article offers a taxonomy of specific policy instruments according to the latter philosophy.......Over the past few decades, tourism has increasingly been included in economic policies at all levels. Not surprisingly, the tourism sector is highly satisfied with this development: the inclusion in economic policies can be taken as an indication of its acceptance as a respectable player - on equal...... terms with other types of business operations. However, despite the general acceptance and approval of the contribution of tourism to the economy and employment, policies seem to neglect certain characteristics of the tourist trade. This article examines a critical issue: the turbulence caused by exits...

  5. BRAND POLICY INSTRUMENTS:CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRANDEQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Dumitriu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempted to establish the contributions of brand elements to the brand equity. Building brand equity is realized and is based on a series of visible elements, easy to recognize and to remember by the public. A name, a symbol, a slogan are just a part of the visible elements of the brand meaning. The brand elements are a shortcut of clients’ perception regarding the brand utility and brand image, suggesting some benefices of performance and competence. The brand elements that...

  6. Instruments for public environment policies: The negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, S.; Squillacioti, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The negotiation starts from the postulate that environmental conflicts are a standing datum in the future of our societies. Environmental instance is based in deep and not reversible manner inside the attitude and value changes and, consequently, inside the quality of life. The different hopes about the environmental consequences constitute an internal element of democratic development and it is not thinkable to ignore or neglect these diversities. With regard to this last point the inadequacy of the present legal systems must be underlined. They are constructed to settle a controversy about 'the facts' and not about 'the values'. Often some environmental disputes may last quite a few years without facing the real essence of the question. The environmental negotiation intends as a 'consensual approach' that should give more possibilities for the conflict solution. It is based on the presupposition to create the terms for final result. In comparison with the legislative acts, the direct negotiation table permits a best exploration of options and a best mobilization of technical competencies. At last, because the negotiators should live together on the basis of obtained agreement, they will have more sensibility for the problems attached to the application than the laymen, for which the process ends with the publication of the law. The strongest argumentation in favor of environmental negotiation is that it is more difficult to avoid the substantial questions as well as often happens inside the legislative acts. (author)

  7. Financing as an instrument of public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J

    1988-01-01

    The Word Bank Study "Financing Health Services in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Reform" is centered on a thesis of decreased government responsibility for financing health services. The study points out that more basic medical services are needed for the poor, but the aged and increased urbanization are forcing the application of more finances into hospitalization services. The World Bank study incorrectly assumes that the above problem is due to an epidemiologic polarization of rich vs. poor and that the only benefits from curative medicine are private, not societal, benefits. The proposal stemming from these assumptions financially separates curative from preventative services, regardless of its proven costliness and inefficiency. The 4 suggested specific World Bank reforms are: 1) charging fees for the use of health services; 2) provision of insurance or other risk coverage; 3) effective use of nongovernment resources, i.e. private practices, midwives; and 4) decentralization of government health services. These are interesting, although imperfect, solutions to the pressing problem of health care finance. The largest issues may be problems from the fragmentation of health services, cost inflation, and lack of effective controls--issues that are not dealt with in the World Bank study.

  8. Economic benefits of employment transportation services : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    This report examines the benefits that accrue from employment transportation services implemented as a result of changes in welfare policy, namely the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. Employment transp...

  9. A new approach in measuring graduate employability skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz; Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-06-01

    Globalization makes graduate recruitment for an organization becomes more complex because employers believe that a holistic workforce is the key success of an organization. Currently, although graduates are said to possess specific skills but they still lack of employability skills, and this lead to increment of training cost either by government or even employers. Therefore, graduate level of employability skills should be evaluated before entering work market. In this study, a valid and reliable instrument embedding a new approach of measuring employability skills was developed using Situational Judgment Test (SJT). The instrument comprises of twelve (12) items measuring communication skill, professional ethics and morality, entrepreneurial skill, critical thinking in problem solving and personal quality. Instrument's validity was achieved through expert opinion and the reliability (in terms of stability) was based on the Chi-Square for homogeneity test. Generally, the instrument is beneficial to graduates, employers, government agencies, university, and workforce recruitment agencies when evaluating the level of employability skills.

  10. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  11. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  12. Employment Challenges in Kenya | Omolo | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the employment challenge in Kenya. It focused on the past employment creation interventions adopted by the country over time, their outcomes and the status of the country's employment policy. Kenya's employment challenge is manifested in terms of a 12.7 per cent open unemployment rate, 21 per ...

  13. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  14. The Employability of Young People in Spain: The Mismatch between Education and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Minguez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects the ambiguous concept of employability and its use as an instrument to fight against youth unemployment. Generally, this concept refers to educational capital which workers acquire to enhance their possibilities of being employed and productive, without taking into account factors, such as sex, nationality, the social class…

  15. Co-benefits of climate policies: a potential keystone of climate negotiations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassen, Christophe; Guivarch, Celine; Lecocq, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the challenges related to the assessment of co-benefits of climate policies underpinned by the implementation of multi-objective policies which seek synergies between climate policies and other development objectives (poverty alleviation, employment, health etc.). The analysis highlights the increasing interest in co-benefits in the latest 5. IPCC report, in particular by integrated models. Nevertheless, the quantified evaluation of co-benefits is still confronted to several methodological limitations which reduce the scope of co-benefits, particularly at the global level. In a growing context of climate-development approaches in climate negotiations, this article insists on the need to also assess co-benefits of other policies which induce a significant part of GHG emissions. Considering climate policies focused only on Greenhouse Gases emissions reduction limits the range of policy instruments to carbon taxation, tradable carbon emissions permits or dedicated mitigation and adaptation funds. This also hinders the integration of climate objectives in non-climate policies. Analyzing impacts of development policies on Green Gases emissions in the form of co-benefits requires to broaden the range of policy instruments and to take into account other drivers of emissions such as land dynamics. Including these mechanisms in integrated models therefore represents new scientific frontiers for integrated models in the coming years

  16. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  17. Nuclear reactor instrumentation at research reactor renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Pellionisz, P.

    1981-10-01

    The paper overviews the state-of-the-art of research reactor renewals. As a case study the instrumentation reconstruction of the Finnish 250 kW TRIGA reactor is described, with particular emphasis on the nuclear control instrumentation and equipment which has been developed and manufactured by the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. Beside the presentation of the nuclear instrument family developed primarily for research reactor reconstructions, the quality assurance policy conducted during the manufacturing process is also discussed. (author)

  18. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  19. INTANGIBLE ASSETS THROUGH THE COHESION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTANGIBLE ASSETS THROUGH THE COHESION POLICY Roth Anne-Marie-Monika West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Intangible assets in general and intellectual capital in particular are important to both society and organizations. It can be a source of competitive advantage for business and stimulate innovation that leads to wealth generation. Technological revolutions, the rise of the knowledge-based economy and the networked society have all led to the same conclusion that intangibles and how they contribute to value creation have to be appreciated so that the appropriate decisions can be made to protect and enhance them. The Cohesion Policy represents the main EU measure to ensure a balanced and sustainable growth in Europe by promoting harmonious development and reducing the regional disparities. The general objective of the paper is to highlight the important role of the Cohesion Policy in the development of intangible assets. The objectives and the instruments of the Cohesion Policy are designed to support programs on regional development, economic change, enhanced competitiveness and territorial cooperation through the European Union, to develop human resources and employability. Keywords: intangible assets, intellectual capital, Cohesion policy, development; JEL Classification: O43, G32, D24, O34

  20. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program.

  1. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  2. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  3. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers' strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed.

  4. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  5. An Exploratory Study to Determine the Need for a Program of Research on the Policy Implications of Illegal Immigration for Youth Employment in the Unted States. Final Report, August 1978 through March 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Arlene P.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge of the impact of illegal immigration on youth unemployment and to analyze its policy relevance. Data collection methods included source identification and review; interviews with theoreticians, scholars, and administrators; and coordination of information on illegal immigration impact with…

  6. Employment services and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherba, R Thomas; Coxe, Kathryn A; Gersper, Beth E; Linley, Jessica V

    2018-04-01

    This qualitative study of over 800 participants focused on the employment experiences of consumers of substance abuse treatment programs to provide a better understanding of what employment services are offered and what needs treatment agencies have in the area of employment services, examining barriers and facilitators from both the consumer and provider perspectives. Data were collected via a mixed research methodology of focus groups and surveys from July 2015 through June 2016 in a large Midwestern U.S. state. Employment is a challenge for persons with substance use disorders. Only a quarter of this study's large sample of substance abuse treatment consumers reported being cur-rently employed; and of those consumers who reported no current employment, greater than half reported that their current unemployment was due to their substance use. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment face many challenges in obtaining and maintaining employment. Treatment providers identified several barriers to implementation of employment services. They named an array of resources as needed, including increased funding for supportive employment programs and staff appropriate to the delivery of employment services. Some providers believed employment services to fall outside of their scope of practice. Data generated through this study may inform policy to invest resources in employment services within substance abuse treatment settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  8. The effects of the Employment Tax Incentive on South African employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Leibbrandt, Murray; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    South Africa's Employment Tax Incentive, launched in 2014, aimed to address low youth employment by reducing the cost of hiring young workers. We make use of anonymized tax administrative data from the 2012-2015 tax years to examine the effect of the Incentive on youth employment. We match firms claiming the subsidy with similar firms not claiming the subsidy and observe their hiring behaviour before and after the implementation of the policy. We find no statistically significant impact on yo...

  9. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  10. MONETARY POLICY BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS. EVIDENCE FROM INFLATION TARGETING COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Plescau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to review the monetary framework and instruments adopted by the inflation-targeting countries in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2005-ownwards. We employ a qualitative approach and develop a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in the conduct of monetary policy after the 2008 financial crisis. The results highlight that the central banks in our sample have adjusted their policy in order to counteract the effects of the financial crisis and adopt different instruments to fulfill this aim. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, we offer a review of the literature regarding the adjustments in the monetary policy after the crisis and their effectiveness. Second, we make a comparative analysis between countries with respect to the path of monetary policy from conventional to unconventional and assess the (potential way back.

  11. Is maternal employment related to childhood obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children of working mothers may spend more time in the care of others, whose childcare quality may vary substantially. While a majority of US studies support this hypothesis and have clear policy implications,...

  12. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  13. Estimation of transmission mechanism of monetary policy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bungin Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission mechanism of monetary policy recently has been subject to several studies in Serbia. The so called 'black box' of monetary policy is investigated with aim to identify the effects of transmission channel in environment where exchange rate has a dominant role in central bank operations. Therefore, it is a challenge to approach this problem in inflation targeting regime where key interest rate is expected to prevail as a main policy instrument. The study employs unrestricted Vector Autoregression model for estimating significance of exchange rate and interest rate channel. As expected, exchange rate has far more stronger influence on inflation, even though there are some signs of interest rate channel existence. Introducing Euribor as endogenous variables in VAR system displayed important impact on real variables.

  14. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  15. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  16. Employment Opportunities for the Visually Impaired in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey study examined current employment status of visually impaired individuals in Ghana. It looked at some of the factors that militate against the successful employment and sustainability of individuals with visual impairment in the country. It reviewed some policies that relate to employment of persons with disability ...

  17. Graduate Employability: A Review of Conceptual and Empirical Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some of the dominant empirical and conceptual themes in the area of graduate employment and employability over the past decade. The paper considers the wider context of higher education (HE) and labour market change, and the policy thinking towards graduate employability. It draws upon various…

  18. Measuring the impact of employment services centres in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using a randomized controlled trial approach, it will provide a better understanding of the impact of ESCs on employability, employment quality, and perceived employment satisfaction of these job seekers. The study aims to provide practical and policy-relevant results in Lebanon as well as other countries in the region.

  19. South Asian Labour and Employment Report: Promoting Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The 2014 India Employment Report and the 2015 South Asian Employment Report will present policy options to promote growth and employment. Researchers will document and review evidence on labour and social ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances ...

  20. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  1. Texas Instruments : Veiligheid is niet iets om over te stemmen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijswijk, M. van; Pennekamp, E.

    1990-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt het VGW-beleid bij Texas Instruments beschreven. Hiertoe zijn interviews gehouden met B. Veekamp, hoofd opleidingen bij Texas Instruments Holland BV (TIH) en de J. Stapel, voorzitter van de VGW-commissie. Occupational health and safety policy of Texas Instruments Holland B.V.

  2. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....

  3. Income, employment and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Siahaan, Freddy

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the labor market outcomes of people who have attempted suicide or thought about suicide. We used micro-level data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 2001-2002 to examine the effects of suicidal behavior on income and employment. The data provide a representative sample of the U.S. population, with its primary purpose to provide information on alcohol use disorders for the civilian non-institutionalized population aged 18 and over. The data include employment, income, and other socioeconomic and demographic information on respondents. Since the survey included 43,093 people, the data include a large number of respondents who attempted suicide or thought about committing suicide. We estimated earnings regressions and logit and ordered logit employment regressions. We used methods of IV estimation as well as two stage linear probability models to address potential endogeneity of suicidal behavior while estimating regressions separately by sex, since there are significant differences in suicide rates, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation between men and women. We find that suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are negatively related to personal income and the probability of employment. The effects differ by sex. Men and women who attempted suicide had mean earnings lower by 16 and 13 percent, respectively. This amount reflects the combined effect of suicidal behavior and mental illness. With instrumental variable regression, the magnitude of the effects becomes larger-for example, as much as 50 percent decrease in the income of males who attempted suicide. Thoughts of suicide negatively affect income but to a smaller extent. Logit and ordered logit regressions indicate that attempted suicide reduces the probability of fulltime employment by over 20 percentage points for men and approximately 17 percentage points for women. People who engaged in suicidal behavior reported significantly

  4. A comparison of bioenergy policies and institutional frameworks in the rural areas of Emilia Romagna and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavicchi, Bianca; Bryden, John M.; Vittuari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between bioenergy, rural development and related innovation processes in two case studies (Emilia Romagna in Italy—and Norway), for a better understanding of the impacts of different policy regimes on bioenergy innovation. Regional innovation systems theory is used to explain the results emerging from the case studies and to identify the presence of potential elements for innovation. We used policy and relevant literature analysis and a grounded approach based on semi- structured interviews of relevant actors involved in the local bioenergy system. The main findings show that the case studies present consistent differences in terms of policy instruments and socio-political dynamics. Emilia Romagna has major weaknesses and threats that hinder innovation, but some positive potential elements for the future. Norway presents stronger local elements for innovation within local bioenergy systems, such as the employment of local resources and knowledge, but critical market and policy features that threaten further innovation developments. The conclusion draws on the comparative analysis to discuss policy implications of the study. - Highlights: • We compare policies and institutional frameworks which regulate bioenergy systems. • We use the SWOT analysis to evaluate the results of the case studies. • Emilia Romagna has major systemic weaknesses. • Norway has local elements for innovation but policy weaknesses. • Policies and policy instruments should be decentralised

  5. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  6. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  7. Youth and the Workplace: Perspectives for the Coming Decade, 1979. Hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session, on To Examine the Transition from School to Work and Explore the Nature of Youth Employment and Unemployment to Gauge the Conditions, Trends, and Problems Likely to Affect Federal Labor and Human Resources Policy in the 1980's. October 23 and 24, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Proceedings are presented of hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources (1) to examine the transition from school to work and explore the nature of youth employment and unemployment and (2) to gauge the conditions, trends and problems likely to affect federal labor and human resources policy in the 1980s. Among those testifying…

  8. Employment of the Disabled in Large Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabby, Rami

    1983-01-01

    Large corporations are in a unique position to employ the disabled, but they sometimes lack the motivation to do so. The author discusses elements of a corporate policy for the disabled, ways of formulating and disseminating it, assignment of responsibility, changes in management attitudes, and the special case of the multinational company.…

  9. Employment and Growth | Page 37 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Can Small and Medium Enterprises Participate in Greener Production? Language English. Read more about Toward Establishing an Arab Youth Policy Research Initiative. Language English. Read more about Courts, Networks, and ...

  10. Employment and Growth | Page 45 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy Research on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Language English. Read more about Child Support, Poverty and Gender Equality in the Caribbean - Phase II. Language ...

  11. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...

  12. Addressing Youth Employment Through Micro- and Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing Youth Employment Through Micro- and Small-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia ... This project aims to provide solid evidence on whether the Ethiopian government's efforts are helping youth, who is benefiting and who is not, and how policies ... GrowInclusive : la plateforme tant attendue est en construction.

  13. Employment and Growth | Page 16 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Can Inclusive Growth Also Be Green? Language English. Read more about Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean. Language English. Read more about Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay. Language English.

  14. Low activated incore instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  15. Leveraging Employer Practices in Global Regulatory Frameworks to Improve Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Saleh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Work is an important part of life, providing both economic security and a forum to contribute one’s talents and skills to society, thereby anchoring the individual in a social role. However, access to work is not equally available to people with disabilities globally. Regulatory environments that prohibit discrimination and support vocational training and educational opportunities constitute a critical first step toward economic independence. However, they have not proven sufficient in themselves. In this article, we aim to infuse deeper consideration of employer practice and demand-side policy reforms into global policy discussions of the right to work for people with disabilities. We begin by documenting the employment and economic disparities existing for people with disabilities globally, followed by a description of the international, regional, and local regulatory contexts aiming to improve labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Next, we examine how policies can leverage employer interests to further address inequalities. We discuss employer policies and practices demonstrated in the research to facilitate recruitment, hiring, career development, retention, and meaningful workplace inclusion. The goal of the article is to synthesize existing international literature on employment rights for people with disabilities with the employer perspective.

  16. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  17. Solid Waste Management Consortium: An Instrument of Integration and Promotion of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allexandre Guimarães Trindade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is a historic vulnerability of Brazilian society, that even with the during of National Policy of Solid Waste, Law n. 12.305/2010, the country faces major challenges, for its management. In this sense, the present article aims to demonstrate, by the method of dialectical approach that the management intercropped is the most suitable instrument to promote integrated management desired by Law n. 12.305/2010. This is a tool creates an integrated governance in actions of urban development, toward improving the quality of life, employment and income generations, expense savings, social participation and environmental justice.

  18. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  19. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  20. Panorama of explicit carbon pricing instruments around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    In September 2016, I4CE updated its database on carbon pricing policies and published a panorama of explicit carbon pricing policies. This panorama presents an implementation timeline, a world map and a table that together, provide information on the jurisdictions that have implemented or plan to implement explicit carbon pricing policies, the type of instrument chosen, the sectors covered and the carbon prices

  1. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  2. Youth-Education-Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Willard; And Others

    The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…

  3. Homosexual Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in homosexual activism regarding employment problems in both the public and private sector are analyzed. Focus is on the law governing private employment, where homosexuals are afforded the least legal protection against discrimination. Available from: the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California 95053. (LBH)

  4. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  6. EU rural policy reform (1997-1999): between politics and policy learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jonny Trapp

    2006-01-01

    EU rural development policy is gaining in relative significance as the "second pillar" of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Its substance - objectives and instruments - is still under development. This article explores the contribution of so-called "policy learning" by the European Commission...... to the 1997-1999 revision of EU rural development policy...

  7. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  8. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online ...

  9. Teaching Strategies and Gender in Higher Education Instrumental Studios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates instrumental music teaching strategies in higher education settings, in order to identify those employed and their frequency and context of use. An instrument- and gender-balanced sample of 24 lessons from five institutions was analysed using a researcher-designed observational instrument. The results reveal the…

  10. The Role of Regional Innovation Systems (RIS in Translating R&D Investments into Economic and Employment Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Filipe Ferreira Moutinho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the so-called “European Paradox” shows that increasing Governmental R&D Investment is far from being a ‘panacea’ for stagnant growth. It is worth noting that Governmental R&D Investment does not have a statistically significant impact on employment, indicating the need to assess the trade-offs of policies that could lead to significant increases in government expenditure. Surprisingly, Governmental R&D Employment does not contribute to ‘mass-market’ employment, despite its quite important role in reducing Youth-Unemployment. Despite the negative side-effects of Governmental R&D Employment on both GVA and GDP, University R&D Employment appears to have a quite important role in reducing Unemployment, especially Youth-Unemployment, while it also does not have a downside in terms of economic growth. Technological Capacity enhancement is the most effective instrument for reducing Unemployment and is a policy without any downside regarding sustainable economic development.

  11. Beyond technology-push and demand-pull: Lessons from California's solar policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The scale of the technological transformation required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 'safe' levels while minimizing economic impacts necessitates an emphasis on designing climate policy to foster, or at least not impede, environmental innovation. There is only a weak empirical base for policy-makers to stand on regarding the comparative innovation effects of various climate policy options, however. Empirical scholarship in environmental innovation is hindered by the complexity of both the innovation process and the interactions between the dual market failures of pollution and innovation that are in play, and it appears that the field would benefit from the structure provided by a common lexicon. This paper focuses on the issues related to policy categorization in this field; these issues have received little attention in the literature despite their importance to making insights gained from empirical studies generalizable. The paper reviews the origins, strengths, and weaknesses of the dominant policy typology of technology-push versus demand-pull instruments. Its primary contribution, however, is to assemble a comprehensive chronology of solar policy in California and its impacts on innovation, where known, and then use this as a basis for building a new policy categorization that takes advantage of the intuitive resonance of the dominant typology, while encompassing the broader range of policy instruments that are employed in practice in order to stimulate environmental innovation. The most noteworthy aspect of the new categorization is that it introduces a third category of environmental innovation policy instrument that focuses on improving the interface between technology suppliers and users. This reflects developments in the economics of innovation literature as well as considerable evidence in the domain of distributed solar energy technologies that opportunism by some of the actors that work at this interface can be a barrier to innovation

  12. Switzerland. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment. Based on national data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is characterised by a number of specific factors, which are: (1) the federal structure of the country and its direct democracy; (2) the subsidiarity principle, which calls for state regulation as a last resort after private initiatives have failed; (3) its economic structure with a dominant services sector and little heavy industry; and finally (4) the growing influence of EU policymaking. Energy policy is a split responsibility between the federal state and the twenty-six cantons. Federal energy policymaking has been strengthened in recent years (in matters such as standards and labels), chiefly by means of the 1998 Energy Law and its subsequent amendments. In other domains such as buildings, cantons have clung to their prerogatives and merely consented to harmonised regulations and standards. In many instances, the federal state sets a minimum standard (like e.g. for feed-in tariffs), leaving it to cantons to pursue more generous policies. A sizeable portion of the federal SwissEnergy programme is allocated to co-financing cantonal programmes and projects. The efficiency of energy policies and programmes has improved over the last few years owing to stricter monitoring and harmonisation, but large disparities among cantonal policies prevail. Some indicators, such as per capita energy efficiency spending, highlight the scope for action in laggard cantons. Under Swiss direct democracy, any law, even those passed by parliament, may be subjected to a popular verdict. This has happened to seven energy-related items since 2000, including pro-renewable proposals, which were defeated. This underscores the importance of communication of energy policy matters. According to polls, Swiss people tend to have become less concerned with environmental issues in recent years. But climate change, as it manifests itself in receding glaciers, devastating floods and landslides, has sharpened the public's receptiveness for the cause of sustainable energy. This

  13. Cost effectiveness of rural development programme instruments in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    support (e.g. 10 million €/year) for the respective instruments, and in turn assess the geographically distributed effects on farm income and employment, on production, value-added and employment in related upstream and downstream industries, on income and employment in the municipalities, and on a number...... of environmental indicators, such as land use, nitrogen run-off, pesticide use, etc. Results of the analysis suggest that some of the instruments in the programme have some of the desired effect on income and employment, but for most of the considered instruments, these effects are not particularly beneficial...

  14. Analysing policy interactions for promoting energy efficiency in the Hellenic sectors of buildings and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Popi KONIDARI; Mrs. Anna FLESSA; Ms. Aliki-Nefeli MAVRAKI; Ms. Eleni-Danai MAVRAKI

    2016-01-01

    Policy interactions are important parameters for the successful implementation of policies, measures and policy instruments. The parallel implementation of a number of policy instruments has the potential to create synergies or conflicts that maximize or prevent the achievement of their anticipated outcomes. This paper analyses three cases of policy interactions between two policy instruments for promoting even more the energy efficiency outcomes in Greece for two sectors, buildings and trans...

  15. The economics of subnational carbon policy interactions and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fadli

    An integrated, nationwide carbon policy is essential to achieve US environmental targets relating to carbon emissions. The carbon policy literature is loaded with qualitative analysis of the implications or mechanisms of an integrated emissions market across the US, but current quantitative studies do not offer solutions regarding the interactions of coexisting US regional emission markets and other policy instruments. Therefore, this dissertation attempts to answer three fundamental concerns about US carbon policy. The second chapter analyzes the welfare implications of different relative stringencies of cap-setting under a proposed integration of two emissions markets, considering the attributes relevant to each market. The third chapter extends this market integration analysis by adding an intertemporal feature to analyze the consequences of integrating existing emission markets in the US (i.e., California and RGGI). The fourth chapter examines the adverse economic implications of adopting several overlapping carbon policy instruments to regulate carbon emissions in a region. The second and third chapters employ a simple structural model with a stochastic variable to account for uncertainties in emissions. The fourth chapter utilizes a static general equilibrium framework based on IMPLAN data for California to comprehensively evaluate the reactions of the state-wide economy to various carbon policy settings. In general, the results show that integrating existing emissions markets could generate both positive and negative effects on economic welfare. The positive effects result from gains from trading permits, while negative results come from perverse second-best interactions. Policymakers are expected to carefully consider the factors and attributes of all regions prior to setting their policy targets and designing an integrated system of carbon reduction.

  16. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  17. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  19. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  20. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described