WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy initiatives strategy

  1. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production.

  2. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  3. Policies and strategies. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1992-08-01

    Bangladesh has a population of nearly 108 million on a landmass of 143,998 sq km. The rate of population growth peaked at around 35 in the 1960s. The population increased from about 43 million in 1951 to 68 million in 1970 and to about 90 million in 1981. In 1976 a national policy for population control and family planning (FP) was announced which employed thousands of full-time field workers, and developed information, education, and motivation activities. The implementation strategy entailed the integration of health and FP, maternal child health (FP/MCH) service delivery systems at subdistrict (upazila) levels with a wide choice of contraceptive methods and expanded good quality services. Greater emphasis on MCH services included immunization, oral rehydration, and training of traditional birth attendants. Even if the goal of net reproductive rate of 1 is achieved by 2005, the population will rise to about 137 million by 2000. The Fourth 5 year Plan (1990-95) seeks to lower the growth rate from 2.15 in 1990 to 1.8% by 1995; to cut the crude birth rate of 34.5 live births/1000 people in 1990 to 30.1/1000 by 1995; and to reduce the crude death rate of 13.6/1000 population in 1990 to 11.9/1000 by 1995. The reduction of the total fertility rate from 4.30 in 1990 to 3.40 by 1995 would require increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate of 40% in 1991 to 50% in 1995. It is also planned to raise the number of the continuous users of contraceptives from 8.8 million in 1991 to 12.3 million acceptors by 1995. The government has been providing continuous institutional support to a network of FP clinics in rural areas which the Family Planning Board started to operate in 1965. The present field structure is composed of the division level (4 divisions in the country), district level (64 districts), upazila level (460 upazilas), and union level (4500 rural unions).

  4. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    (organizational, technical and legislative), and on future needs and waste arisings. The technical procedures proposed for the waste types in the country should be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable disposal option. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technological procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. Policies and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategy. The lead in making changes should be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy (waste management organization); but all relevant parties in the country should be involved and consulted in this process. (author)

  5. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country (organizational, technical and legislative). The technical solutions proposed for the remediation of sites in the country need to be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable end state. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technical procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. The policy and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategies. The lead in making changes is to be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy, but all relevant parties in the country are to be involved and consulted in this process

  6. Strategies and Policies for Space - Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, K.; Sridhara Murthy, K. R.; Sundararmiah, V.; Rao, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    Indian Space Program, which was established as government effort about three decades ago has become a major force in providing vital services for social and economic sectors in India in the fields of satellite telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological services and remote sensing of natural resources. Capabilities have been developed over the years, following a step-by-step process to develop and operate space infrastructure in India, including state-of-the-art satellites and satellite launch vehicles. In carrying out these developments, Indian Space Research Organisation, which is the national agency responsible for space activities under Government of India, develop policies and programs, which promoted industrial participation in variety of space activities including manufacture of space hardware, conduct of value added activities and provision of services involving space systems. Policy initiatives have also been taken recently to promote private sector participation in the establishment of Indian Satellite Systems for telecommunications. Strategic alliances have also been developed with international space industries for marketing of services such as remote sensing data. The paper traces evaluation of the policies towards development of industrial participation in space and future transition into commercial space enterprise. Policy issues concerning the national requirements vis-à-vis the international environment will also be discussed to analyze the strategies for international cooperation.

  7. European Union Fiscal Policy Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Eugen Radu

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy is a key component of economic policy, which, through taxation and taxation system aims to influence (stimulate) economic activity in the aggregate. It includes all measures relating to the amount and perceptions/use taxes in an economy.

  8. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  9. Decision Strategy Research and Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described

  10. Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons from the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines what we have learned and how we should change our thinking about monetary policy strategy in the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis. It starts with a discussion of where the science of monetary policy was before the crisis and how central banks viewed monetary policy strategy. It will then examine how the crisis has changed the thinking of both macro/monetary economists and central bankers. Finally, it looks how much of the science of monetary policy needs to be a...

  11. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia, CAIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Gartner estimates, due to increased variety, speed and data volume, by 2015 there will be a global demand of 4.4 million professionals for real-time analysis of data from sources with different structures, but only one third of the demand will be met. The purpose of this research is to identify possible solutions for improved academic results in the IT domain, considering the time management policies, the content and the student motivations, as well as the business strategy tendencies. These proposals are targeted toward meeting the IT specialists demand. The research is composed of two parts: the first explores the Romanian IT labour market characteristics, while the second investigates the academic education policies that can help mitigate deficiencies and attain higher performance. The deficiencies are identified through a series of statistical research and analysis based on national level databases, adopting a quantitative approach. The policies proposed are supported by a flow model developed considering the students' activity, motivation, traits and results, measured and analysed quantitatively.

  12. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moreland-Russell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers.

  13. An Examination of Two Policy Networks Involved in Advancing Smokefree Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2015-09-08

    This study examines smokefree policy networks in two cities—Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri—one that was successful in achieving widespread policy success, and one that was not. Descriptive social network analyses and visual network mapping were used to compare importance and contact relationships among actors involved in the smokefree policy initiatives. In Kansas City, where policy adoption was achieved, there was a higher level of connectivity among members, with network members being in contact with an average of more than five people, compared to just over two people for the St. Louis network. For both cities, despite being recognized as important, politicians were in contact with the fewest number of people. Results highlight the critical need to actively engage a variety of stakeholders when attempting city wide public health policy change. As evident by the success in smokefree policy adoption throughout Kansas City compared to St. Louis, closer linkages and continued communication among stakeholders including the media, coalitions, public health agencies, policymakers, and other partners are essential if we are to advance and broaden the impact of public health policy. Results indicate that the presence of champions, or those that play leadership roles in actively promoting policy by linking individuals and organizations, play an important role in advancing public health policy. Those working in public health should examine their level of engagement with the policy process and implement strategies for improving that engagement through relationship building and ongoing interactions with a variety of stakeholders, including policymakers.

  14. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  15. Analyst, Policy and Strategy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development policy of other countries, the shifting development discourse of non-government actors, and the changing international landscape for IDRC's work, Prepares analysis and advice in relation to specific developments in IDRC's policy and strategy environment, including the Canadian political and Parliamentary ...

  16. Strategies of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to close the growing gap between stagnant domestic production and expanding consumption China has sought to reform its energy sector and diversify both its energy mix and sources. Securing supplies from abroad has become a major drive of the country's foreign policy and China's aggressive pursue of energy security on the international scene has increasing become a major global concern [it

  17. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  18. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  19. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  20. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  1. Initialization strategies and diversity in evolutionary timetabling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E K; Newall, J P; Weare, R F

    1998-01-01

    This document seeks to provide a scientific basis by which different initialization algorithms for evolutionary timetabling may be compared. Seeding the initial population may be used to improve initial quality and provide a better starting point for the evolutionary algorithm. This must be tempered against the consideration that if the seeding algorithm produces very similar solutions, then the loss of genetic diversity may well lead to a worse final solution. Diversity, we hope, provides a good indication of how good the final solution will be, although only by running the evolutionary algorithm will the exact result be found. We will investigate the effects of heuristic seeding by taking quality and diversity measures of populations generated by heuristic initialization methods on both random and real-life data, as well as assessing the long-term performance of an evolutionary algorithm (found to work well on the timetabling problem) when using heuristic initialization. This will show how the use of heuristic initialization strategies can substantially improve the performance of evolutionary algorithms for the timetabling problem.

  2. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Taking Leadership in Initiating a Comprehensive US International Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kaetlyn

    2008-01-01

    A first step to ensuring that emerging school leaders possess the dispositions and skills necessary to be successful in a global community is for educational leaders to take initiative in moving toward a comprehensive Us International Education Policy. This article introduces possible steps to initiate such a policy.

  4. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  5. An analysis of policy to practice initiatives in Scotland: what are the key lessons learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Ziying; Macduff, Colin

    2016-09-01

    The study sought to identify and explain common issues and lessons arising from four national health policy initiatives related to nursing, midwifery and allied health professions (NMAHPs) in Scotland between 2005 and 2010. The Scottish government has been seeking effective practice developments in NMAHPs through enacting policy initiatives to improve patient care. Despite many of these initiatives being individually evaluated, no integrative systematic study has been undertaken to synthesise better understandings. Multiple case study design involving qualitative research was the main methodology. The study used purposive and snowball sampling and in-depth interviews to elicit the views of 24 stakeholders. This study enabled identification and explanation of key generic lessons such as internal policy alignment, good leadership and governance at all levels, effective communication, and sustainability linked to policy external alignment. Findings highlight the importance of strategy for internal policy alignment involving top-down and cross-sectional cooperation and appraising external policy alignment when progressing a sustainable policy initiative. At all levels, leadership is important to provide clear guidance, manage different expectations and enable understanding of initiatives for enactment. Analysis of such initiatives would be useful in preparing nurse managers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. United States policy initiatives in promoting the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.

    1996-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been successful in furthering efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate highly enriched uranium (HEU) from international commerce. Three key policy initiatives are underway to further promote the RERTR program. The first initiative is implementation of a new nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Under this policy, the United States will accept over the next 13 years research reactor spent fuel from 41 countries that have converted or plan to convert to use LEU fuels. The second initiative is to pursue cooperative efforts to expand the RERTR program to new regions of the globe, including Russia and China. The third initiative is to restart the advanced LEU fuels development program at the Argonne National Laboratory in order to increase the number of reactors that can convert to use LEU without significant detriment to their performance

  7. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  8. Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiuwei; Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the promotion of HPs (heat pumps) while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding EVs (electric vehicles). It is found that the conversion to HPs in the Nordic region relies on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, ...

  9. Regional climate change strategies and initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer, Emma RM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available that for the region to attain the objective of sustainable development, the harmonisation of political and socio-economic policies is necessary. The SADC approach to climate change has focused on both mitigation and adaptation to increased climate variability...

  10. Uganda cabinet approves policy initiated by IDRC grantee | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... The strong case for the use of fertilizers attracted the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) to finance a project supporting the Uganda Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry, and Fisheries (MAAIF) in the process of formulation and approval of the national fertilizer regulations, strategy, and policy.

  11. Commonalities in Educational Technology Policy Initiatives among Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitz, James E.; Azbell, Janet

    While education systems from nation to nation differ significantly according to national character and local requirements, developments in public policy initiatives regarding the use of technology in schools have followed similar patterns among nations as diverse as the United States, Great Britain, Denmark, Italy, Viet Nam, Germany, France,…

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  13. Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the promotion of HPs (heat pumps) while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding EVs (electric vehicles). It is found...... that the conversion to HPs in the Nordic region relies on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality...

  14. Bussines strategy or bussines policy management applied in modern firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea, C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the term widely used for all action levels of strategic management is that of strategy. For this reason, it is necessary to achieve a differentiation between corporate strategies (typical strategies, business strategies (with policies, operational strategies (business plans and operational strategies (programs and tactics.In the same context, strategies become the basis for the definition and implementation of policies, which differ by time horizon that is lower and their higher intake of detail. The latter are updated permanently, in order to remain set on, realistic, consistent with the changes that occur and detailing in concrete plans and programs as a logical scheme. So, strategic management is that management based on the application of strategies and policies with a view to setting and achieving goals.

  15. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  16. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  17. Strategy 2020 and the European Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity is an integrated concept, resulted from the combination of two fundamental elements flexibility and security. The strategy was recognized as one of the key objectives for European Labour markets in the context of the European Employment Strategy and Lisbon Strategy. The implementation of flexicurity can only be specific, taking account of national and regional characteristics in spite of the fact that all labour markets in Europe are faced with similar challenges.

  18. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana's health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddoh, Anthony; Akor, Samuel Akortey

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. This paper has examined the policy environment and the

  19. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana’s health insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has

  20. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  1. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  2. Area-based initiatives - Engines of planning and policy innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Norvig Larsen, Jacob

    a broader perspective on the achievements and outcomes of place-based initiatives. Many of these have functioned as important experimental seedbeds in which innovations in urban policy and organization of public decision-making have been tested. The papers seeks to clarify whether, in the long run, change......Area-based initiatives addressing issues of physical degradation, social exclusion, economic deprivation and lack of cohesion in urban regeneration areas have been promoted widely across Europe in the past two or three decades. Following this many evaluation studies have been completed....... Nevertheless, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the most important outcomes of place-based initiatives. Evaluations have mostly focussed on direct quantitative socio-economic indicators. These have often been quite insignificant, while other effects have been largely neglected. This paper proposes...

  3. T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  4. Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) Core Grant - Phase IV ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Established in 1996, Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) is an organization that coordinates a network of researchers that seeks to provide the Government of South Africa, civil society and the region with independent advice on economic policy, with a particular focus on trade and industrial issues. Earlier phases of ...

  5. MONETARY POLICY AND THE INFLATION TARGETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina V. MARCU căs. CIORAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy is a basic component of the economic policy. It has an important role in fulfilling the main objectives of the economic politics, which is: price stability, insurance of a balanced economic raise, full occupancy of human resources and the external payment balance stability insurance. Inflation is a negative thing affecting the economy both on short and long term. On short term, it erodes the purchasing power of currency and thus, it mostly affects the retirees and those with fixed incomes. On long term, inflation discourages the investments and the economic growth. The purpose of this paper consists in the revision and presentation of the specialized literature concerning the impact the monetary policy has on the main macro-economical variables, especially on inflation, in terms of influence of the monetary authority decision on economic and financial conjunction. It was found that the monetary authorities of any country can evaluate exactly the rhythm and the effects of their actions on the economy by understanding the mechanisms which the monetary policy uses to influence the economy.

  6. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  7. A Policy Analysis of Strategies to Manage Medical Holdovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tammie M

    2005-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of the Community Based Health Care Initiative (CBHCI) implemented to address the problems for Soldiers mobilized and deployed in support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom...

  8. Implementing health policy: lessons from the Scottish Well Mens policy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS policy initiative as a ‘real world’ case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the ‘rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. Methods and materials: A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a ‘policy problem’, (b interventions intended to address the problem, and (c anticipated policy outcomes. Results and conclusions: This analysis revealed four key themes: (1 ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2 behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3 uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4 a focus on intervention as outcome. This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  9. Strategy for energy policy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, T.

    2012-01-01

    UK Energy Policy is leading the world in showing how governments can effectively respond to the now widely accepted challenges of security of supply, low-carbon generation and pragmatic implementation. Confidence in the UK as place to invest in new nuclear is very high-there are already 3 developers who have between them already invested over 1 billion, 5 sites are planned to be developed and between 10 and 12 new reactors are planned to be built. To be clear, this is by far the largest commitment to new nuclear in the Western World and swamps in other countries. This achievement is a combination of vision, continuity, political consensus and a group of ministers and officials who are clear in the goals for the long-term sustain ability of an energy policy that will dramatically affect the lives of many generations to come. Recognising the multi-generational obligations and consequences of government policy's key to ensuring that this investment continues, together with the maintenance of the trust that investors have developed in the management of energy policy by the UK government. There is no doubt in the commitment of the UK government to delivering the safe, secure and low-carbon energy future of the UK. The opportunities for businesses and high-quality job creation are undoubted-all that now has to happen is for developers, reactor vendors, construction companies and communities to show how they can together deliver the cheapest form of low-carbon base load to time and to cost and to the benefit of local communities and the UK economy. the world is watching for the UK to show how it can be done. (Author)

  10. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  11. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  12. The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy Initiative: Findings From a Collaborative, Participatory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sheryl; D'Silva, Joanne; Hernandez, Carol; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Martinez, Jaime; Matter, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine." The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy initiative works to address this complex and challenging context. This article describes results of a participatory evaluation from 2010 to 2013 in four Minnesota Tribal Nations-three Ojibwe and one Dakota. Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy coordinators used their cultural knowledge to develop community-level strategies, identifying appropriate strategies from best practices on tobacco advocacy, while drawing on the strengths of their own sovereignty and sacred tobacco traditions. Tribal coordinators generated support for policy change by conducting culturally relevant education, engaging tribal members, and nurturing relationships. This approach resulted in norm changes, practices toward restoring traditional tobacco, informal policies, and tribal resolutions to advance smoke-free policies.

  13. Anti-Poverty Policy in Brazil, Concepts and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darana Carvalho de Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the debate about anti-poverty policy in Brazil and analyzes the relations between concepts of poverty and interventions adopted to address it. The article begins with a review of the principal conceptual approaches to poverty, based upon which it analyzes how policy strategies implemented in the country affect the multiple determinants of the situation. The paper is highlighted by a discussion of the effectiveness of universal and or focused strategies. It demonstrates that the difficulties in implementing policies based on an understanding of poverty as a multidimensional problem weaken the consolidation of criteria of social justice and disregard the potential for integrated policies to achieve these principles.

  14. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfen, F.J.; Wong, K.K.; Switick, D.M.; Shukla, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent Generic Flight System (GFS) updates have necessitated revisions in the initial startup and restart control strategies. The design changes that have had the most impact on the control strategies are the addition of the Auxiliary Cooling and Thaw (ACT) system for preheating the lithium filled components, changes in the reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods such that initial cold criticality is achieved with only a small amount of reflector movement following the withdrawal of the safety-rods, and the removal of the scram function from the reflectors. Revised control and operating strategies have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model, ARIES-GFS. The change in the total reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods has eliminated the need for the use of fast and slow reflector drive speeds during the initial on-orbit approach to criticality. The relatively fast removal of the safety-rods results in a near-critical condition so that the use of slow moving (single speed) reflector drives does not add significant time to achieve full power for the initial startup. The use of the ACT system (with its NaK trace-lines for preheating and auxiliary cooling) affects the main Thermoelectric Electro-Magnetic (TEM) pump startup and the time after a shutdown before freezing occurs in the main heat transfer systems

  15. A systematic analysis and comparison of warfarin initiation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Benjamin; Wang, Le; Gage, Brian F.; Horenstein, Richard B.; Limdi, Nita A.; Kimmel, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Randomized trials have reported inconsistent evidence regarding the effectiveness of algorithms that use genotypes to initiate warfarin therapy. The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial initiated therapy based on predicted maintenance doses, with a pharmacogenetic-guided algorithm in one study group and a clinically guided algorithm in the other. The European Pharmacogenetics of Anticoagulant Therapy (EU-PACT) consortium initiated therapy based on loading doses, with an algorithm-based prediction in one study group and a fixed-dose regimen in the other. To understand the differences between these trials, we compared the initial doses between alternative dosing algorithms (the pharmacogenetic-guided and clinically guided algorithms developed by Gage and colleagues and those developed by the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium), and between the COAG and EU-PACT dose-initiation strategies. Methods Secondary analysis of the COAG trial—a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (2009–2013)—conducted at 18 clinical centers in the United States, which included 1,010 adults initiating warfarin therapy, of whom 719 achieved maintenance dose. Results Among COAG participants, the distribution of initial doses differed between algorithms, but exhibited similar prediction accuracy for maintenance dose. However, had the COAG trial implemented the EU-PACT strategy, the 3-day initial dose would have been 4.8 mg greater among participants randomized to pharmacogenetic-guided dosing, but only 2.5 mg greater among participants randomized to clinically guided dosing (P<0.001). Conclusions Compared to the COAG trial, the EU-PACT trial used systematically larger loading doses in the pharmacogenetic-guided group and might have inadequately adjusted for clinical variability in warfarin dose requirements in the fixed-dose group. PMID:27383664

  16. china's competition for global talents: strategy, policy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... has also suffered from brain drain. Although the total return rate is now at around 30 percent, the U.S.. China's Creafivity Index by Region, 2008. Map by: Zara Matheson. Source: China Data Online http://chinadataonline.org. CHINA'S COMPETITION FOR GLOBAL TALENTS: STRATEGY, POLICY AND ...

  17. Youth Policies and Programmes. Strategies for Internationalization and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper reviews the key issues and methodologies involved in the effort to internationalize youth policies and programs so that the exchange of information and experience could provide useful ideas for others. Related general processes of knowledge transfer and dissemination and the more specific strategies involved in replication and…

  18. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Nurwidya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  19. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Dana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered, blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs, and building blocks (resources to develop programs. Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the

  20. Combination nicotine replacement therapy: strategies for initiation and tapering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Stephanie L; Myers, Mark G; Chen, Timothy C

    2017-04-01

    Several studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for patients who wish to quit smoking. However, there is limited guidance with respect to initiation and tapering of combination NRT. We attempt to review the evidence and rationale behind combination NRT, present the dosing used in combination NRT studies, and propose a step-down approach for tapering of combination NRT with integration of behavioral strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Formation of strategy and policy of banking credit operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic management of credit operations as the activities on credit strategies of banking institutions, the formation of goals, objectives, and the choice of methods to achieve them. The basis of this is the strategic management analysis of the factors affecting the lending operations, strategic planning, communication mechanisms of strategic and tactical decisions, monitoring the implementation of the strategy and timely adjustments. For the purpose of effective implementation of the developed strategy, the article argues that banks in modern conditions should develop their own internal credit policy which should cover the essential elements and principles of credit at these banks. The study determines that the credit policy is based on the factors determined by the amount of capital assets and loan portfolio, the structure of its clientele, specialization, location, presence of branch network, the situation in the money market.

  2. Renewable Energy Innovation Policy. Success Criteria and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy technology (RET) innovation involves new, improved processes, as well as strategies to accelerate RET development, ranging from breakthroughs with basic technology inventions and improved research, development and deployment (RDD) systems, to improved market mechanisms and commercialisation. In order to achieve RET innovation, a country needs to put in place the right policy approaches, frameworks, governance and policy instruments. This working paper was compiled to assist countries with policy development in order to strengthen renewable energy innovation, primarily through a discussion of design criteria for innovation policy frameworks. The report identifies broad success criteria for innovation policy in the sector and suggests strategic policy approaches to advance RET innovation in the context of constrained options, competition for resources, and national economic development goals. For renewable energy innovation policy regimes to be succeed, they must satisfy two broad criteria: (a) promotion of sustained multi-stakeholder engagement around an achievable, shared vision; and (b) appropriate positioning of a country or region to anticipate and benefit from renewable energy technology flows.

  3. 75 FR 28622 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U... Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U.S. Food and... relates to FDA's policies on disclosure of information to the public about FDA activities. FDA is...

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, I.

    2004-01-01

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning

  5. Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) - phase III | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Établi en 1996, le réseau de chercheurs de l'organisme Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) souhaite fournir au gouvernement de l'Afrique du Sud, à la société civile et à la région des conseils impartiaux en matière de politiques économiques, particulièrement celles portant sur les questions commerciales et ...

  6. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  7. Non-standard monetary policy of the ECB: Macroeconomic effects and exit strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momirović Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial phases of the global economic and financial crisis ECB reacted by lowering interest rates to a historic minimum. After the crash of Lehman Brothers and strengthening of financial tensions in the EU and later on the sovereign debt crisis in the euro zone, ECB was forced to search for resource in the non-standard monetary policy measures. The ECB non-standard monetary policy changed the structure and the balance sheet size, and through actions and undertaken measures in the crisis which is still ongoing, strives to conduct the policy of the anticipated long-term interest rate. This paper offers a review of the ECB non-standard policy measures applied and the manner in which monetary policy is spilling over on to the banking and the real sector, but also the effects of the balance sheet expansion on the effects of certain macroeconomic variables. VAR model shows that the effects of the ECB balance sheet expansion are having a positive impact on the macroeconomy effects, i.e. on the two variables, output and prices, and the economic growth. The long-term effects of the non-standard monetary policy implementation remain uncertain and bear the risk of resurrection of undesired financial shocks. The manner in which ECB can avoid the uncertainty of these policies, over a long-term, is to start with gradual 'narrowing down of the non-standard policy', e. to create prerequisite for an exit strategy.

  8. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  9. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  10. Toward Establishing an Arab Youth Policy Research Initiative | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team will set up sub-regional hubs that will: -stimulate research that offers solutions to young people's problems; -create an enabling environment for young policy-oriented researchers to develop and share their research; -provide training and mentorship for young researchers; and -promote informed policies ...

  11. Toward Establishing an Arab Youth Policy Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team will set up sub-regional hubs that will: -stimulate research that offers solutions to young people's problems; -create an enabling environment for young policy-oriented researchers to develop and share their research; -provide training and mentorship for young researchers; and -promote informed policies ...

  12. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: assessment of a medical center's policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lindsey; Alexander, Earnest; Duong, Minh-Tri

    2012-05-15

    The results of a hospital's initiative to evaluate and improve compliance with federally mandated risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) are presented. Food and Drug Administration approved REMS plans are required for more than 145 drugs, but clear guidance on strategies for achieving REMS compliance is lacking. As a first step toward determining the extent of REMS compliance at a large medical center, a systematic assessment was conducted to ascertain existing policies and procedures for the use of drugs subject to REMS requirements applicable in the inpatient setting. About 123 drugs with such "inpatient-applicable" REMS requirements were identified; of those, 10 had been ordered by hospital providers during a specified 18-month time frame and were included in the assessment of policies and procedures. The assessment revealed that the hospital lacked a formal REMS policy and had no REMS-compliant procedures in place for 7 evaluated drugs (ambrisentan, buprenorphine-naloxone, darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa, oxycodone controlled-release tablets, prasugrel, and pregabalin). Pursuant to the compliance assessment, new procedures to help ensure the safe use of those 7 drugs were developed, and REMS-focused educational programs, order-entry system enhancements, and drug storage modifications were implemented. Quality-improvement initiatives including staff education, incorporation of REMS requirements into existing policy, development of an electronic resource, and creation of a separate storage section for drugs subject to REMS were implemented at a large academic medical center to help ensure compliance with inpatient-applicable REMS requirements.

  13. The Places Toolkit for the Impact Assessment of Science Communication Initiatives and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This document has been created for the purpose of serving as an instrument for the measure of the impact of initiatives and policies within the area of science communication and scientific culture in general (SCIP: Science Communication Initiatives and Policies). The toolkit is part of the European...... project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science)....

  14. The Affordances and Constraints of Special Education Initial Teacher Licensure Policy for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Linda P.; Boveda, Mildred; Munoz, Lorena R.; Pugach, Marleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Initial licensure polices in special education were examined to determine how these policies support or hinder reform efforts to develop teacher education programs that prepare graduates for the increasingly complex needs of diverse students. Initial special education licensure policies are described with an emphasis on the differences across…

  15. Loose Coupling and Inhabited Institutions: Inclusion Policy and Teacher Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Deroche

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study uses interviews and participant observation to study how teachers negotiate inclusion policy in their everyday classroom interactions and strategies. Interviews consisted of two teachers and an educational assistant from one Northern Ontario classroom while participant observation was conducted for a period of seven weeks. Drawing from the framework of loose coupling and inhabited institution, this study finds that teachers actively negotiate policy in the face of classroom reality by drawing upon personal and social resources. Drawing from their previous experiences and some of their educational training they create, and implement strategies in dealing with learning diversity. Teachers felt enthusiastic about inclusion but their ideas ranged as to what it looked like; on top of their creativity in strategy making they also expressed the need for more resources and support to ensure the success of inclusion within their classrooms.

  16. Decommissioning nuclear power plants. Policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector. This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  17. Energy modelling platforms for policy and strategy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyner, I.

    2000-01-01

    The energy field has been dominated by 'hard' modelling approaches by researchers from engineering and economics discipline. The recent trend towards a more liberalised environment moves away from central planning to market-based resource allocation, leading to the creation and use of strategic tools, with much 'softer' specifications, in the 'system-thinking' tradition. This paper presents the use of system dynamics in a generalised way, to provide a platform for integrated energy analysis. Issues of modularity and policy evolution are important in the design of the modelling platform to facilitate its use, and reuse. Hence the concepts of a platform, rather than a model, has to be implemented in a coherent way if it is to provide sustained value for ongoing support to both government policy and corporate strategy. (author)

  18. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  19. Minerals objectives, policies and strategies in Botswana - analysis and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the present status of the minerals industry in Botswana and the effectiveness of that country's policies on minerals development and the achievement of national development goals. Botswana's mineral production increased (in constant 1979 dollars) from less than 1 million dollars per year in the late 1960s to 300 million dollars in 1979 and is expected to more than double by the mid-1980s. The author analyses the country's regime of mineral rights, the role of the private sector, negotiation of mining agreements and the implementation of national mineral exploration strategies. Diamonds are most important find. But uranium finds are expected to increase. (Auth.)

  20. Radwaste Management in Small Nuclear Country - National Policy and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Tomaz

    2014-01-01

    The lecture will briefly present the Slovene nuclear program and its legal framework focused on the radioactive waste management policy and strategy aspect. Slovenia is an example of small EU member state with small shared nuclear power program demonstrating safe, secure and efficient management of radioactive waste. Different principles of radioactive waste management will be discoursed; among others including: minimization of waste generation, the polluter pays principle, safe storage followed by final disposal and also new findings on research and development of storage, disposal and recycling of radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Athenian fiscal expansionary policy and peace versus war strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In the present essay, we develop at first a model of choice by actors to show how a society can take decisions on specific issues according to how flexible or rigid it is in new ideas and trends. Then, by utilizing game theory we explain how the Athenian society abandoned war in favour of a peace grand strategy during the second half of the 4th century BCE. To achieve this, two visionary Athenian policymakers Eubulus and Lycurgus introduced fiscal expansionary policy programs which proved ben...

  2. Policy entrepreneurs and change strategies : Lessons from sixteen case studies of water transitions around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Sander; Huitema, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring

  3. Expanding the Proliferation Security Initiative: A Legal and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    13 Sharp, Walter G. “Proliferation Security Initiative: The Legacy of Operacion Socotora.” 16 Transnational Law and...Gregory S. Jones. U.S. Combat Commands’ Participation in the Proliferation Security Initiative: A Training Manual . Washington, DC: RAND National Defense

  4. Initiating A Collection Development Policy For Kumasi Polytechnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection development involves the activities of collection evaluation, selection of new materials, replacement of lost or damaged stock, deselection of older stock for either transfer to storage or disposal, and the handling of gifts. The aim of this article is to put together a collection development policy which will guide the ...

  5. Think Tank Initiative to host African Evidence Informed Policy Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Location: Radisson Blu Hotel. Elgon Road, Upper Hill. Nairobi,. Kenya. There is extensive evidence demonstrating that development research, when done effectively, can improve public policy and accelerate development progress. However, experience also indicates that in many African countries, data, ...

  6. EU climate change policy: the challenge of new regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, M.; Deketelaere, K. (eds.) [Institute for Transnational Legal Research - METRO, University of Maestricht (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    The book explores the current policy measures adopted by the EU in order to realise its Kyoto Protocol commitment and to prepare for further emission reductions after 2012. Contents: Part 1: Introduction, Part II: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Within the EU Part III: Energy and Climate Change Measures, Part IV: Good Governance for Climate Change: Reflections and Perspectives.

  7. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  8. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  9. Defining Moments in Policy Development, Direction, and Implementation in Irish Initial Teacher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of significant OECD documents on the development of Irish education policy, specifically teacher education policy, over the last half century. While other commentators have argued that Irish education has been predominantly influenced by policy developments in the UK, US or Europe, this paper identifies the OECD as a…

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  11. The politics of stem cell policy: ballot initiative in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kant

    2011-01-01

    In of November 2006, Missouri became the first state in the United States to pass a constitutional amendment designed to protect stem cell research in the state when voters approved a citizen-initiated ballot proposal known as Amendment 2. This article examines the juxtaposition of science, religion, politics, and economics surrounding the campaign by the supporters and the opponents of the ballot initiative. The outcome of Amendment 2 was also closely intertwined with the U.S Senate race in Missouri. The article also provides an analysis of the outcome of the ballot initiative through the use of county-level data.

  12. Developing policy analytics for public health strategy and decisions-the Sheffield alcohol policy model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel

    This paper sets out the development of a methodological framework for detailed evaluation of public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction to meet UK policy-makers needs. Alcohol is known to cause substantial harms, and controlling its affordability and availability are effective policy options. Analysis and synthesis of a variety of public and commercial data sources is needed to evaluate impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers and industry, so a sound evaluation of impact is important. We discuss the iterative process to engage with stakeholders, identify evidence/data and develop analytic approaches and produce a final model structure. We set out a series of steps in modelling impact including: classification and definition of population subgroups of interest, identification and definition of harms and outcomes for inclusion, classification of modifiable components of risk and their baseline values, specification of the baseline position on policy variables especially prices, estimating effects of changing policy variables on risk factors including price elasticities, quantifying risk functions relating risk factors to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and monetary valuation. The most difficult model structuring decisions are described, as well as the final results framework used to provide decision support to national level policymakers in the UK. In the discussion we explore issues around the relationship between modelling and policy debates, valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions. We reflect on the approach taken and outline ongoing plans for further development.

  13. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  14. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  15. State Strategies for Sustaining and Scaling Grades 9-14 Career Pathways: Toward a Policy Set for Pathways to Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Charlotte; Hoffman, Nancy; Loyd, Amy; Vargas, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This brief begins with a discussion of the composition of state leadership teams and organizing structures for supporting a Pathways to Prosperity Network initiative, and then describes effective strategies currently at play in the network states for jumpstarting work in the regions. It goes on to review state policies that support 9-14…

  16. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  17. DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    domestic biofuel plants and refineries. The Navy, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Agriculture plan to fund this initiative with $510...alcohol-to-jet, pyrolysis oils, and direct sugar to hydrocarbon, will continue in the future.21 Navy Biofuel Production Under the Defense Production...Energy, and the Department of Agriculture to support advanced drop-in biofuel plants and refineries to produce advanced biofuels that

  18. Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Brouwer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more important. This article analyzes policy making at the micro level, focusing on the behavior of policy entrepreneurs, which we understand here as risk-taking bureaucrats who seek to change policy and are involved throughout the policy-change process. Policy entrepreneurs have received a certain level of attention in the adaptive co-management literature and the policy sciences in past decades. Yet, the understanding of the actions they can take to facilitate policy change remains limited. This study addresses this gap in focusing on the strategies that policy entrepreneurs employ in their efforts to effect policy change. The article draws on both theoretical exploration and in-depth field research on water management in the Netherlands, which included a series of semi-structured interviews and a focus group with policy entrepreneurs. We conclude that policy entrepreneurs employ four types of strategies: (1 attention and support-seeking strategies, to demonstrate the significance of a problem and to convince a wide range of participants about their preferred policy; (2 linking strategies, to link with other parties, projects, ideas, and policy games; (3 relational management strategies, to manage the relational factor in policy-change trajectories; and finally, (4 arena strategies, to influence the time and place wherein decisions are made. Our study suggests that by employing these strategies when the "time is right," the development of policy streams and consequently their coupling can, to some extent, be influenced and steered. In other words, policy entrepreneurs can, to a degree, prepare for a window of opportunity and hence direct policy change.

  19. Minerals objectives, policies and strategies in Botswana - analysis and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J. (East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii (USA). Resource Systems Institute)

    1981-10-01

    This article examines the present status of the minerals industry in Botswana and the effectiveness of that country's policies on minerals development and the achievement of national development goals. Botswana's mineral production increased (in constant 1979 dollars) from less than 1 million dollars per year in the late 1960s to 300 million dollars in 1979 and is expected to more than double by the mid-1980s. The author analyses the country's regime of mineral rights, the role of the private sector, negotiation of mining agreements and the implementation of national mineral exploration strategies. Diamonds are most important find. But uranium finds are expected to increase.

  20. Sleep Medicine Education in India: Policy Initiatives of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of National academy of Medical Sciences in initiating policy for sleep education and research in India through the NAMS Regional symposium and its further dissemination through various academic research.

  1. Research Priorities in Subspecialty Palliative Care: Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Lynn F; Meier, Diane E

    2017-08-01

    Palliative care demonstrably improves quality of life for the seriously ill in a manner that averts preventable health crises and their associated costs. Because of these outcomes, palliative care is now broadening its reach beyond hospitals, and hospice care for those near death, to patients and their families living in the community with chronic multimorbidities that have uncertain or long expected survival. In this article, we address research needed to enable policies supportive of palliative care access and quality, including changes in regulatory, accreditation, financing, and training approaches in the purview of policy makers. Mr. K. is an 86-year-old male with multimorbidities, including severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulation therapy. He fell in his mobile home and was unable to reach the telephone to call for help. Six hours later, his neighbor found him lying on the bedroom floor in pain and confused, and called 911. On examination, he was found to have a cold blue foot complicated by a large hematoma. The vascular surgery service was consulted to evaluate Mr. K. for revascularization or amputation. Although Mr. K. had several risk factors complicating his candidacy for general anesthesia, the team thought the benefits of surgery would outweigh the risks. Mr. K's daughter agreed to surgery telling her father "the doctors know best." Mr. K. replied "I just want to be out of pain." Six months later, Mr. K. remains in a skilled nursing facility due to post-op complications, including pneumonia, worsened confusion, and the inability to recover to enough function to live safely at home. He now suffers from depression, cognitive deficits, and social isolation. His daughter has had to take on a second job because she is struggling to pay for his continued long-term care, which costs $6000 per month. Money she had saved for her own retirement and her

  2. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  3. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information and knowledge era; ICT development and industry are growing very fast and associated with huge procurement force. Today, the global society is facing serious challenges in improving environmental performance, particularly with climate change, global warming, and resource management. ICT industry is widely contributing to the global economy associating with innovation, invention and rapid development of almost all the aspect of human life. On other hand; ICT industry is responsible for global CO2 emissions. Global environmental problems are affecting directly many countries' energy and industrial policies. The rapid increasing of ICT usage means more energy consumption and more environmental problems and the estimated ICT consumption of energy will be about 15% of the total consumption worldwide in 2020. Therefore, many countries are establishing Green ICT policies which increase energy efficiency due to correspondence climate change. Therefore, governments especially in developing and Islamic countries need to adopt new strategic policies for efficient energy use in ICT. This study presents the current environmental problems related to green ICT and the efforts to solve it. Several studies have warning from the current energy consumption paradigm, based on newly changed ICT practices. This study provides guidelines for decision makers and ICT professionals to enhance their work toward green ICT and eliminating environmental problems. Islamic viewpoint on environment and its protection is considered since it offers comprehensive, stable, and fair viewpoint that is based on main Islamic sources; Quran and Sunnah. Hundreds of Quranic verses and prophet Hadiths clarify (directly or indirectly the right manner in dealing and protection of environment resources. This paper proposes a framework for strategy and policy statements of green ICT based on Islamic perspective to serve the world especially developing and Islamic countries

  4. Legal prison tattooing centers: viable health policy initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2010-01-01

    Tattooing exemplifies several important links between criminal justice systems, public health, custodial management, and the social organization and behavior of prisoners. This commentary examines the efficiency of setting up legal, prison-financed tattooing centers as a way of discouraging illicit tattooing and minimizing bloodborne disease transmission risks in prison settings. The author posits that the impact of legal prison tattooing centers is unlikely to be significant since less than 5 percent of bloodborne infectious diseases have been reliably attributable to tattooing, either in prison or in community settings. Behavioral studies indicate that prisoners at the highest risk of contracting bloodborne infections would probably not utilize legal prison tattooing services. Furthermore, such a service is likely to be very expensive relative to potential health benefits. Strategies focussed on reducing injecting drug use among prisoners will yield greater benefits for reducing bloodborne disease transmission per dollar spent compared with setting up legal prison tattooing parlors. Social marketing of temporary tattooing alternatives (eg, henna tattoos) to traditional illicit tattooing techniques in prison settings is potentially valuable, as temporary tattoos pose no infection risk and may also facilitate reduction in occupational and social stigma associated with many illicit prison tattoos.

  5. Strategies and Initiatives in Acculturation: Voices from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo-Arthur, Susan; Attah, Dzifa A.; Boafo-Arthur, Ama; Akoensi, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Culture shock and acculturation are salient aspects of any international study trip. Over the years, many institutions have devised several strategies to help international students transition to life in the host country. However, most of these strategies are insensitive to diverse cultural or country specifics. Drawing from Social Learning…

  6. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  7. Enacting Sustainable School-Based Health Initiatives: A Communication-Centered Approach to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices. PMID:21233442

  8. Initial infrastructure development strategies for the transition to sustainable mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetink, F.J.; Vooren, A. van der; Alkemade, F.

    2010-01-01

    Within the Dutch transition policy framework, the transition to hydrogen-based transport is seen as a promising option towards a sustainable transport system. One aspect of such transition processes that is emphasized in transition management is learning about user behaviour and preferences.

  9. Top-Management Decision Making and Strategies : An Approach to a Theory of Leadership-Initiated Strategies(General Contribution)

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 東久夫; Tokuo, FUJITA; 株式会社サトー; Sato Corporation

    2006-01-01

    The article clarifies the relationship between top-management decisions and strategies. Whereas prior theoretical treatments of top-management strategies are both logical and managerial, the author recognizes the ad hoc nature of top-management decisions, which rely upon intuition and inspiration, and proposes a theory of strategies that emerge through top-management leadership. This theory of leadership-initiated strategies sees a balance between leadership and management functions as essent...

  10. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-07

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  11. Study on Formulating Policy and Strategies for IAEA TC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Shin, J. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study is to provide recommendations for formulating adequate policy and strategies for IAEA-TC programme as being of a donor Member State and to guide directions to facing the challenges of changing the status from IAEA-TC recipient to donor country. In addition, this study gives recommendations and feedbacks to the IAEA-TC programmer: how it has contributed to nation's nuclear technology development in the past on one hand and how the country has contributed to it on the other. Besides, this study also conducted to identify the following impacts expected: termination of on-going National TC projects, discontinuation of TC-based technical advices, sponsored fellowship and scientific visits for capacity building opportunities, and limitation in participations of various regional projects due to termination of IAEA financial support. In terms of financial aspect, this study has also performed to assess the nation's annual financial contribution (Technical Cooperation (TC) Fund: 1,67 million dollars in 2008) by comparing the experiences of other OECD countries cases. In conclusion, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to develop appropriate measures in order to maximize the benefits for future national nuclear technology development and in addition, to explore the possibilities to extend the nuclear technology export market potentials

  12. Scaling-up energy conservation initiatives : Barriers and local strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doren, D.; Giezen, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation in residential and commercial buildings is considered a key challenge and opportunity for low-carbon urban development. In cities worldwide, energy conservation initiatives have been realized that demonstrate the social, financial, and environmental benefits that energy

  13. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  14. Strategy for a DOD Software Initiative. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Japan; b. Improving the use of energy and other resources; c. Coping with the problems of an Aged Society. 3. Increase productivity in low-productivity...international competition. 5. Assist in saving energy and resources. 6. Cope with an Aged Society. The Japanese fifth-generation system requirements are: 1...personnel to leave, in-depth mid-career or reneval /sabattical program Improve Office of Personnel Management policy, procedures, and standards for GS

  15. Energy policy. Developing strategies for energy policies in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Fowler, James A.; Kime, Barry R.; McLaughlin, Brian T.; Price, Margaret W.; Adams, Charles M.; Grace, Paul O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; McGee, William F.

    1990-06-01

    protection and economic growth. On April 2, 1990, DOE issued its interim report on the national energy strategy, which outlined goals for the strategy, obstacles to achieving the goals, and options for resolving these obstacles. Between April and December 1990, DOE plans to analyze the information in the interim report along with other data to develop energy strategy options. These options will be considered for inclusion in the strategy to be released by the President in January 1991. The effort to develop a national energy strategy is a step in the right direction toward addressing the nation's future energy needs and the environmental and budgetary implications that should be considered when developing energy policies

  16. Policies Supporting Innovation In The European Union In The Context Of The Lisbon Strategy And The Europe 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing globalization, global competition and rapid change the EU sees innovation and its commercialization as an effective way to build long-term global competitive advantage. Innovation policy is a link between research and technological development policy and industrial policy and makes it possible to create conditions conducive to bringing ideas to the market. It is also closely linked to other EU policies regarding e.g. employment, competitiveness, environment, industry and energy. This paper presents the evolution, conditions and objectives of the innovation policy of the European, and describes the main assumptions of the Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies. Additionally it indicates possible ways of assessing the measures undertaken within the above-mentioned policies and of determining the tools necessary to implement the strategies.

  17. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Legalization, Expertise, and Participation: Strategies of Compensatory Legitimation in Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hans N.

    1983-01-01

    Shows how the concept of legitimacy and, in particular, the theoretical construct of compensatory legitimation as a determinant of policy strategies may be useful for the comparative analysis of educational policy in advanced capitalist societies. Uses examples of educational policy in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States. (BRR)

  19. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  20. Evaluation of optimal monetary policy strategy in Romania in the context of fulfilment of convergence criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DAMIAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the euro currency implies the fulfilment of Maastricht convergence criteria, which implies a number of challenges for the macroeconomic policy mix, due to the existence of the conflict between them. The paper analyzes empirically the main monetary policy strategy in the context of euro in Romania.The results of the study show that inflation targeting is an optimal monetary policy strategy to achieve real and nominal convergence criteria.

  1. Policies and Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear and Radiological Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents the main elements of policies and strategies for decommissioning activities of nuclear and radiological facilities. It is intended to help in facilitating proper and systematic planning, and safe, timely and cost effective implementation of all decommissioning activities. The policy establishes the principles for decommissioning and the strategy contains the approaches for the implementation of the policy. The publication will be a useful guide for strategic planners, waste managers, operators of facilities under decommissioning, regulators and other stakeholders.

  2. Strategies for Impact: Enabling E-Learning Project Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Josephine; Evans, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to focus on institutional initiatives to embed e-learning in a university in Hong Kong, from 2006-12, through large-scale funding of 43 e-learning projects. It outlines the guiding principles behind the university's e-learning development and discusses the significance of various procedures and practices in project…

  3. Rainforest conservation as a strategy of climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansier, Dieter

    2011-11-01

    Tropical forest conservation in developing countries has repeatedly been highlighted as a new element in international climate policy. However, no clear ideas yet exist as to what shape such a conservation strategy might take. In the present paper, we would like to make some observations to this end. It is shown how projects in order to reduce CO(2)-emissions resulting from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can be integrated into a system of tradable emission rights in an industrialised country and which requirements ought to be fulfilled. Instruments are emission credits and emission allowances. Driving actors interested in emission rights through forest projects may be private investors or the rainforest state itself. The efficiency of the system depends on a great extent on a binding reference path for the tolerable emissions from deforestation, which has been agreed upon and adhered to by the rainforest country by means of a forest law aimed at limiting deforestation. Our considerations lead us to conclude that the national baseline approach with an appropriate contribution by the rainforest country coupled with a decentralised system with private investors seems the most viable option. Since additional burdens are imposed on the rainforest country to some extent, a compromise could consist of agreeing on a moderate deforestation path, which is harmonised with the benefits from the forest projects. Combining both programmes (offset credits and emission allowances) is particularly attractive because all participants, and especially the industrialised country, benefit from it. The industrialised country can expand its climate conservation programme without any additional costs to a certain degree.

  4. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  5. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  6. Are sustainable tourism policies and strategies working in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...

  7. Analysis of Ethiopia's national ICT policy and strategy: insights into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend shows that the national ICT policy need to focus broadly on core and emerging issues that are crucial for ICT ecosystem such as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is considered as key intervention in the policy.

  8. An analysis of policy success and failure in formal evaluations of Australia's national mental health strategy (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2017-05-30

    Heightened fiscal constraints, increases in the chronic disease burden and in consumer expectations are among several factors contributing to the global interest in evidence-informed health policy. The present article builds on previous work that explored how the Australian Federal Government applied five instruments of policy, or policy levers, to implement a series of reforms under the Australian National Mental Health Strategy (NMHS). The present article draws on theoretical insights from political science to analyse the relative successes and failures of these levers, as portrayed in formal government evaluations of the NMHS. Documentary analysis of six evaluation documents corresponding to three National Mental Health Plans was undertaken. Both the content and approach of these government-funded, independently conducted evaluations were appraised. An overall improvement was apparent in the development and application of policy levers over time. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to variations in evaluation approach according to Plan and policy lever. Tabulated summaries of the success and failure of each policy initiative, ordered by lever type, are provided to establish a resource that could be consulted for future policy-making. This analysis highlights the complexities of health service reform and underscores the limitations of narrowly focused empirical approaches. A theoretical framework is provided that could inform the evaluation and targeted selection of appropriate policy levers in mental health.

  9. A Policy Strategy for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Successful deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is critically dependent on comprehensive policy support. While policy plays an important role in the deployment of many low-carbon technologies, it is especially crucial for CCS. This is because, in contrast to renewable energy or applications of energy efficiency, CCS generates no revenue, nor other market benefits, so long as there is no price on CO2 emissions. It is both costly to install and, once in place, has increased operating costs. Effective, well-designed policy support is essential in overcoming these barriers and the subsequent deployment of CCS technology. This guide for policy makers aims to assist those involved in designing national and international policies around CCS. It covers development of CCS from its early stages through to wide-scale deployment of the technology. The focus is both on incentives for conventional fossil-fuel CCS and for bioenergy with CCS (BECCS).

  10. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  11. Broadband ICT policies in Southern Africa: Initiatives and dynamic spectrum regulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the broadband ICT policy initiatives in Southern Africa with a focus on the status and trends following the commission of ITU member states by the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003. The paper also presents...

  12. Evolving Policy Initiatives for Effective Vocational Technical Education in North Central Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombugus, Danjuma A.; Angbre, Francis Adams

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on evolving policy initiatives for effective Vocational Technical Education (VTE) on sustainable development. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was carried out in North Central Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The population for the study was 450 respondents (VTE teachers/lecturers, government officials,…

  13. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  14. Healthy Marriage Initiatives: On the Need for Empiricism in Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    The association between marriage and well-being has led to policies that promote marital interventions and discourage divorce. These include federal initiatives specifically targeting poor couples and couples of color. While there are many prospective studies on marriage that have informed some couple interventions, the studies that are included…

  15. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana innovation system in Nigeria. ... research institutes, both of which has developed many technologies aimed at improving the production of the crop and removing constraints posed by pest and diseases, marketing opportunities and perishability. Despite these ...

  16. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans......Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  17. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  18. Strategy at War: A Policy Left without Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobeto, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    .... The military means are not aligned with the political object. The history of strategic military theory demonstrates that the Clausewitzian relationship between the two must exist to achieve national objectives for foreign policy to succeed...

  19. Breast Cancer-Initiating Cells: Insights into Novel Treatment Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, Guido; Binda, Mara; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Daidone, Maria Grazia, E-mail: mariagrazia.daidone@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, Milan 20133 (Italy)

    2011-03-16

    There is accumulating evidence that breast cancer may arise from mutated mammary stem/progenitor cells which have been termed breast cancer-initiating cells (BCIC). BCIC identified in clinical specimens based on membrane phenotype (CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup −/low} and/or CD133{sup +} expression) or enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1{sup +}), have been demonstrated to have stem/progenitor cell properties, and are tumorigenic when injected in immunocompromized mice at very low concentrations. BCIC have also been isolated and in vitro propagated as non-adherent spheres of undifferentiated cells, and stem cell patterns have been recognized even in cancer cell lines. Recent findings indicate that aberrant regulation of self renewal is central to cancer stem cell biology. Alterations in genes involved in self-renewal pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, sonic hedgehog, PTEN and BMI, proved to play a role in breast cancer progression. Hence, targeting key elements mediating the self renewal of BCIC represents an attractive option, with a solid rationale, clearly identifiable molecular targets, and adequate knowledge of the involved pathways. Possible concerns are related to the poor knowledge of tolerance and efficacy of inhibiting self-renewal mechanisms, because the latter are key pathways for a variety of biological functions and it is unknown whether their interference would kill BCIC or simply temporarily stop them. Thus, efforts to develop BCIC-targeted therapies should not only be focused on interfering on self-renewal, but could seek to identify additional molecular targets, like those involved in regulating EMT-related pathways, in reversing the MDR phenotype, in inducing differentiation and controlling cell survival pathways.

  20. Breast Cancer-Initiating Cells: Insights into Novel Treatment Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Guido; Binda, Mara; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that breast cancer may arise from mutated mammary stem/progenitor cells which have been termed breast cancer-initiating cells (BCIC). BCIC identified in clinical specimens based on membrane phenotype (CD44 + /CD24 −/low and/or CD133 + expression) or enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 + ), have been demonstrated to have stem/progenitor cell properties, and are tumorigenic when injected in immunocompromized mice at very low concentrations. BCIC have also been isolated and in vitro propagated as non-adherent spheres of undifferentiated cells, and stem cell patterns have been recognized even in cancer cell lines. Recent findings indicate that aberrant regulation of self renewal is central to cancer stem cell biology. Alterations in genes involved in self-renewal pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, sonic hedgehog, PTEN and BMI, proved to play a role in breast cancer progression. Hence, targeting key elements mediating the self renewal of BCIC represents an attractive option, with a solid rationale, clearly identifiable molecular targets, and adequate knowledge of the involved pathways. Possible concerns are related to the poor knowledge of tolerance and efficacy of inhibiting self-renewal mechanisms, because the latter are key pathways for a variety of biological functions and it is unknown whether their interference would kill BCIC or simply temporarily stop them. Thus, efforts to develop BCIC-targeted therapies should not only be focused on interfering on self-renewal, but could seek to identify additional molecular targets, like those involved in regulating EMT-related pathways, in reversing the MDR phenotype, in inducing differentiation and controlling cell survival pathways

  1. A Justified Initial Accounting Estimate as an Integral Part of the Enterprise Accounting Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenych Tetyana H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is justification of the need to specify in the order on accounting policies not only the elements of the accounting policy itself but also the initial accounting estimates, which will increase the reliability of financial reporting and the development of proposals on improvement of the given administrative documents of the enterprise. It is noted that in recent years the importance of a high-quality accounting policy has increased significantly not only for users of financial reports but also for achieving the purposes of determining the object of levying the profits tax. There revealed significant differences at reflecting in accounting the consequences of changes in the accounting policy and accounting estimate. There has been generalized the information in the order on the enterprise accounting policy with respect to accounting estimates. It is proposed to provide a separate section in the order, where there should be presented information about the list of accounting estimates taken, about how the company will make changes in the accounting policy, accounting estimate as well as correct errors

  2. Public beliefs about the causes of obesity and attitudes towards policy initiatives in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Wardle, Jane

    2013-12-01

    To assess attributions for overweight and the level of support for policy initiatives in Great Britain. Cross-sectional. Respondents indicated their agreement (5-point scales: strongly disagree to strongly agree) to three potential causes of overweight (environment, genes, willpower) and five policies (free weight-loss treatment, taxing unhealthy foods, healthy lifestyle campaigns, food labelling, advertising restrictions). Data were collected as part of a computer-assisted, face-to-face Omnibus survey of adults (aged >15 years) from across Great Britain in April 2012 carried out by a market research company. A population-representative sample of British adults (n 1986). More people attributed overweight to the food environment (61 %) and lack of willpower (57 %) than to genes (45 %). Policy support was highest for healthy lifestyle campaigns (71 %) and food labelling (66 %), and lowest for taxing unhealthy foods (32 %). Food environment attributions were associated with higher support for all policies (P 0·01). Belief that overweight is caused by the food environment or genes – both seen as outside individual control – was associated with greater support for government policies to prevent and treat obesity. Improving awareness of the multiple causes of obesity could facilitate acceptance of policy action to reduce obesity prevalence.

  3. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  4. Make way for the climate. National adaptation strategy. The policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    The policy paper is a background document of the interdepartmental memorandum 'Make way for climate', in which the outline is described for a national strategy for adaptation to the consequences of climate change. [mk] [nl

  5. Free Education for Open Learning: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Invited Speech at the Moscow International Education Fair 2016, Moscow, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 15 April): "Free Education for Open Learning: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all"

  6. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health.

  7. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  8. Highlighting Energy Policies and Strategies for the Residential Sector in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhet, Hussain Ali; Ivy-Yap, Lee Lian

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an important catalyst for development. Malaysia is very fortunate to be endowed with oil reserves. However, these reserves are finite and not renewable. Being cognizant of this, the Malaysian government had implemented various energy policies and strategies to manage and safeguard its oil reserves for better energy security as well as to promote prudent use of energy. This paper aims to highlight the electricity sector in Malaysia and the various policies and strategies implemented ...

  9. A social relational approach to community-based ecotourism development: Policy intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rith, Sam Ol

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how policy intervention strategies facilitate or constrain the construction of positive social capital in a community-based ecotourism (CBET) context. It investigates CBET development policies in a specific Cambodian case study, explores implementation processes, assesses the level of social capital created, identifies the connections between social capital construction and development outcomes, and suggests how the policies contribute to social capital construction. The ...

  10. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Communication Strategies to Counter Stigma and Improve Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorder Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma; Pescosolido, Bernice; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-02-01

    Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research. One of the key conclusions of the forum was that communication strategies using personal narratives to engage audiences have the potential to increase public support for policies benefiting persons with mental illness or substance use disorders. Specifically, narratives combining personal stories with depictions of structural barriers to mental illness and substance use disorder treatment can increase the public's willingness to invest in the treatment system. Depictions of mental illness and violence significantly increase public stigma toward people with mental illness and are no more effective in increasing willingness to invest in mental health services than nonstigmatizing messages about structural barriers to treatment. Future research should prioritize development and evaluation of communication strategies to increase public support for evidence-based substance use disorder policies, including harm reduction policies-such as needle exchange programs-and policies expanding treatment.

  12. Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) - Phase III | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... organization believes to be its future needs (improved educational outcomes and enhanced capacity to undertake empirical policy impact assessment). As a result, TIPS will broaden its thematic agenda to include, in addition to trade analysis, the Real Economy Study and a program of work on the economics of education.

  13. Benchmarking as a strategy policy tool for energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse to what extent benchmarking is a valuable tool in strategic energy policy analysis. First, the theory on benchmarking is concisely presented, e.g., by discussing the benchmark wheel and the benchmark path. Next, some results of surveys among business firms are presented. To

  14. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Policy and Practice Strategies for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jenni, Ed.; Rosch, Joel, Ed.; Smith, Shannon, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina Family Impact Seminars (NCFIS) include annual seminars, briefing reports and follow-up activities designed specifically for state policymakers, including legislators and legislative staff, the governor and executive branch staff, and state agency representatives. The Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University convenes the…

  15. Reviewing Strategies in/for ESD Policy Engagement: Agency Reclaimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2016-01-01

    In this response article, I draw on critical realist perspectives to engage with the argument put forward in Bengtsson's study, which sees agency as an ontological necessity for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) policy engagement. Bengtsson supports a notion of the logic of contingent action over the logic of power as dominance,…

  16. Evolving institutional and policy frameworks to support adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Cleaves

    2014-01-01

    Given the consequences and opportunities of the Anthropocene, what is our underlying theory or vision of successful adaptation? This essay discusses the building blocks of this theory, and how will we translate this theory into guiding principles for management and policy.

  17. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.

  18. A Model Strategy and Policy for Screening Firefighter Candidates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    ... and motivated by the desire to serve their community and country. Reasons for and evidence of the need for a new firefighter candidate screening strategy to support this new mission are addressed in this thesis...

  19. Eating at worksites in Nordic countries: national experiences and policy initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Arsky, Gunn Helene; Brandhøj, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of dietary habits of the employees and some experiments with healthier worksite eating schemes. Blue-collar employees, employees with working hours outside normal working hours and employees with shifting worksites are likely to be offered less organised and less healthy food schemes. Worksites experiments......Purpose - The article aims at reviewing national experiences and policy initiatives within worksite eating in four Nordic countries in order to compare the experiences and identify important lessons and needs for future research, experiments and governmental regulation. Design....../methodology/approach - The article is based on national reviews of analyses of worksite eating and initiatives regarding policy, research and experiments in relation to worksite eating. The national experiences are compared. Findings - The article shows awareness in all four countries about the role of the worksite in the shaping...

  20. 77 FR 28871 - Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1751-000] Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Renewable Power Strategies, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Promoting Peaceful Coexistence in Conflict-Ridden Cyprus: Teachers' Difficulties and Emotions towards a New Policy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2011-01-01

    The present paper looks at teachers' perceptions of difficulties and emotions about a recent policy initiative in the Greek-Cypriot educational system to promote peaceful coexistence. This policy initiative by the government sparked strong emotional reactions. This paper provides an in-depth understanding of the intersection between tensions at…

  3. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. A strategy different from France's: German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkohr, R.

    2013-01-01

    Shortly after the Fukushima accident, the German chancellor, Angela Merkel, announced a new course for the country's energy policy: nuclear power is to be fully abandoned by 2022, owing to a massive recourse to renewable sources of energy. The proclaimed goal is for renewable energy to make up 35% of the country's energy mix by 2035 and even 80% by 2050. This energy transition, though benefiting from a consensus, has run up against several difficulties: an unadapted electric power grid, the excessively high costs of investment, and exorbitant electricity rates for consumers.... Till now, this energy policy's basis principles have not come under question, but questioning are arising about the pace and cost of this transformation. (author)

  5. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    sexual initiation and HIV-negative status were significantly less likely to use religion as a coping strategy (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09–0.83). Conclusion History of forced sexual initiation and HIV status affected perception of events as stressors and use of specific coping strategies. Our study findings could inform best practice interventions and policies to prevent and address forced sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria and other countries. PMID:27163436

  6. Healthy Weight: Community Outreach Initiative. Strategy Development Workshop Report (Bethesda, Maryland, February 17-18, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Obesity Education Initiative (OEI) convened a two-day meeting to help develop a national public education outreach initiative to help reduce and prevent overweight and obesity in the United States. This Strategy Development Workshop, held on February 17-18, 2004, convened more that 70 public…

  7. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  8. Strategy making: strategic initiative implementation in the context of renewing a firm's sources of competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, Wladimir

    2008-01-01

    Strategic initiative implementation has evolved in recent years as a new and progressive form of strategy making. In this regard, strategic initiative implementation constitutes one of the central topics of strategic management regarding how firms can renew their most valuable sources of competitive advantage: the firm's idiosyncratic resources and knowledge base. Strategic management concepts and practical guidelines are still lacking on how strategic initiative implementation affects a ...

  9. Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... areas and two medium-scale research projects that will generate new evidence to inform Paraguay's integration strategy and employment policy. Throughout the process, CINVE and CADEP will exchange experiences on organizational strategies to minimize the adverse impacts of such unique historical opportunities.

  10. Crop-Livestock-Forestry Integration in Brazil: a sustainable agriculture strategy based on the concepts of Green Economy Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to transform the current production model through the organization of an agricultural system based on the concepts of crop-livestock-forestry integration (ICLF. We used the guidelines and concepts related to the Green Economy Initiative (GEI, a proposal of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP. Within this framework, the agricultural sector is identified as an important sector due to its strong connection with economic, social and environmental dimensions. We intend to demonstrate that the ICLF proposal is in line with aspects of sustainable agriculture, as proposed by GEI, and that it is an important strategy to increase production in a sustainable manner in Brazil. The adoption of GEI is a consistent strategy for the implementation of policies to promote sustainable development.

  11. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... as an area to be climate proofed. The CAP is under revision and will be reformed for the 2014-2020 period with the explicit objectives of strengthening the competitiveness and the sustainability of agriculture (EC). Climate change adaptation objectives are included in the proposal for a greening...... environmental objectives as well as fostering innovation and ensuring viable rural areas. This raises the question as to the strength of the mainstreaming mandate laid out in the Climate change adaptation strategy, particularly when policy objectives conflict or when they simply compete for attention. Thus...

  12. Investigating some strategies for construction of initial populations in genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsas Misevičius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Population initialization is one of the important tasks in evolutionary and genetic algorithms (GAs. It can affect considerably the speed of convergence and the quality of the obtained results. In this paper, some heuristic strategies (procedures for construction of the initial populations in genetic algorithms are investigated. The purpose is to try to see how the different population initialization strategies (procedures can influence the quality of the final solutions of GAs. Several simple procedures were algorithmically implemented and tested on one of the hard combinatorial optimization problems, the quadratic assignment problem (QAP. The results of the computational experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed strategies. In addition, these strategies are of quite general character and may be easily transferred to other population-based metaheuristics (like particle swarm or bee colony optimization methods.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v5i1.1277  

  13. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  14. A Policy Change Strategy for Head Lice Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kathleen; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to formulate an effective change strategy for head lice management in a group of five separate school districts within one county. Despite a desire to use evidence to support their practice, school nurses often encounter educational system barriers that prevent independent management of health conditions. The use of…

  15. The implementation of Health in All Policies initiatives: a systems framework for government action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankardass, Ketan; Muntaner, Carles; Kokkinen, Lauri; Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; Freiler, Alix; Oneka, Goldameir; M Bayoumi, Ahmed; O'Campo, Patricia

    2018-03-15

    There has been a renewed interest in broadening the research agenda in health promotion to include action on the structural determinants of health, including a focus on the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). Governments that use HiAP face the challenge of instituting governance structures and processes to facilitate policy coordination in an evidence-informed manner. Due to the complexity of government institutions and the policy process, systems theory has been proposed as a tool for evaluating the implementation of HiAP. Our multiple case study research programme (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods On International Case Studies - HARMONICS) has relied on systems theory and realist methods to make sense of how and why the practices of policy-makers (including politicians and civil servants) from specific institutional environments (policy sectors) has either facilitated or hindered the implementation of HiAP. Herein, we present a systems framework for the implementation of HiAP based on our experience and empirical findings in studying this process. We describe a system of 14 components within three subsystems of government. Subsystems include the executive (heads of state and their appointed political elites), intersectoral (the milieu of policy-makers and experts working with governance structures related to HiAP) and intrasectoral (policy-makers within policy sectors). Here, HiAP implementation is a process involving interactions between subsystems and their components that leads to the emergence of implementation outcomes, as well as effects on the system components themselves. We also describe the influence of extra-governmental systems, including (but not limited to) the academic sector, third sector, private sector and intergovernmental sector. Finally, we present a case study that applies this framework to understand the implementation of HiAP - the Health 2015 Strategy - in Finland, from 2001 onward. This framework is useful for helping to

  16. Area-based initiatives – engines of innovation in planning and policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Agger, Annika

    a broader perspective on the achievements and outcomes of place-based initiatives. Many of these have functioned as important experimental seedbeds in which innovations in urban policy and organization of public decision-making have been tested. The papers seeks to clarify whether, in the long run, change......Area-based initiatives addressing issues of physical degradation, social exclusion, economic deprivation and lack of cohesion in urban regeneration areas have been promoted widely across Europe in the past two or three decades. Following this many evaluation studies have been completed....... Nevertheless, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the most important outcomes of place-based initiatives. Evaluations have mostly focussed on direct quantitative socio-economic indicators. These have often been quite insignificant, while other effects have been largely neglected. This paper proposes...

  17. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  18. The Virtual Dental Home: Implications for Policy and Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Glassman, Paul; Harrington, Maureen; Mertz, Elizabeth; Namakian, Maysa

    2012-01-01

    Widely recognized problems with the U.S. health care system, including rapidly increasing costs and disparities in access and outcomes also exist in oral health. If oral health systems are to meet the “Triple Aim” of improving the experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing per capita costs of health care, new and innovative strategies will be needed including new regulatory, delivery, and financing systems. The virtual dental home is one such system.

  19. Old and New Policies in Dialogue: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Interpretations of a Peace-Related Initiative through Existing Policy Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at teachers' interpretations of a recent and controversial Greek-Cypriot policy initiative, which aimed to promote "peaceful coexistence" between the two rival communities in conflict-ridden Cyprus. Specifically, it focuses on the ways in which Greek-Cypriot teachers constructed the relation between the new policy for…

  20. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  1. Promoting Policy, Systems, and Environment Change to Prevent Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned From the King County Communities Putting Prevention to Work Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by

  2. Skipping Strategy (SS) for Initial Population of Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, M.; Nababan, E. B.; Sarim, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Initial population in job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an essential step to obtain near optimal solution. Techniques used to solve JSSP are computationally demanding. Skipping strategy (SS) is employed to acquire initial population after sequence of job on machine and sequence of operations (expressed in Plates-jobs and mPlates-jobs) are determined. The proposed technique is applied to benchmark datasets and the results are compared to that of other initialization techniques. It is shown that the initial population obtained from the SS approach could generate optimal solution.

  3. Strategies for enhancing the implementation of school-based policies or practices targeting risk factors for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Yoong, Sze Lin; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wyse, Rebecca J; Delaney, Tessa; Grady, Alice; Fielding, Alison; Tzelepis, Flora; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Parmenter, Benjamin; Butler, Peter; Wiggers, John; Bauman, Adrian; Milat, Andrew; Booth, Debbie; Williams, Christopher M

    2017-11-29

    consulted with experts in the field to identify other relevant research. 'Implementation' was defined as the use of strategies to adopt and integrate evidence-based health interventions and to change practice patterns within specific settings. We included any trial (randomised or non-randomised) conducted at any scale, with a parallel control group that compared a strategy to implement policies or practices to address diet, physical activity, overweight or obesity, tobacco or alcohol use by school staff to 'no intervention', 'usual' practice or a different implementation strategy. Citation screening, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias was performed by review authors in pairs. Disagreements between review authors were resolved via consensus, or if required, by a third author. Considerable trial heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. We narratively synthesised trial findings by describing the effect size of the primary outcome measure for policy or practice implementation (or the median of such measures where a single primary outcome was not stated). We included 27 trials, 18 of which were conducted in the USA. Nineteen studies employed randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs. Fifteen trials tested strategies to implement healthy eating policies, practice or programs; six trials tested strategies targeting physical activity policies or practices; and three trials targeted tobacco policies or practices. Three trials targeted a combination of risk factors. None of the included trials sought to increase the implementation of interventions to delay initiation or reduce the consumption of alcohol. All trials examined multi-strategic implementation strategies and no two trials examined the same combinations of implementation strategies. The most common implementation strategies included educational materials, educational outreach and educational meetings. For all outcomes, the overall quality of evidence was very low and the risk of bias was high for the majority of

  4. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Typical Policy and Strategy for a Country with a Small Amount of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The policy and strategy developed in this annex is an example of what might be established for a country with a small amount of radioactive waste to manage. It is based on the guidance provided in the main part of the report and elements have been selected from it to suit the requirements of a hypothetical country (Xland). In this country, radioactive waste arises from limited use of nuclear R and D facilities, e.g. a research reactor, and from the small scale use of radionuclides in industry and medicine. The country is assumed to have no nuclear power reactors or mining industries producing radioactive waste and no generation of NORM waste. It is assumed that national legislation exists in Xland to provide for protection from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It is also assumed that basic information on the radioactive sources and radionuclides in use and approximate estimates of existing and future waste amounts are available. The policy and strategy developed for Xland are simple and straightforward, and reflect the few types and small amounts of radioactive waste that have to be managed. For countries with a greater number of waste types and larger amounts of radioactive waste, additional policy and strategy elements would be needed. The example policy and strategy are only intended as an aid to persons engaged in the development of national policy and strategies on radioactive waste management. In a real situation, they would have to be developed on the basis of the circumstances in that country.

  6. From a lunar outpost to Mars: Science, policy and the U.S. Space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    The U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is aimed at the establishment of an outpost for humans on the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars. It also encompasses robotic missions to the Moon and Mars that will precede and perhaps accompany human presence. Science plays a dual role in SEI. First, many scientific questions must be answered to insure the health and safety of human explorers. Second, scientific investigations will be among the central objectives of human explorers. A substantial body of U.S. policy on SEI has been announced by President Bush. Its implementation is coordinated by the U.S. National Space Council under the Chairmanship of Vice President Quayle. That policy directs the early focus of SEI to be on technology development, including the identification of ``high leverage technologies,'' and the identification of alternative mission architectures. It also envisions international cooperation as an important beneficial aspect of SEI.

  7. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  8. Community Organizing for Healthier Communities: Environmental and Policy Outcomes of a National Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published

  9. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  10. Brazilian Human Rights Policy Strategy in the First Lula Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Lourenço de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political consequences of the general strategy that guided key federal human rights programs from 2003-2006. The first part of the text discusses issues considered to be central for a consideration of the trajectory of human rights in Brazil, beginning with the authoritarian regime (1964-1985. The objective is to locate the victories and defeats that marked attempts to affirm more advanced standards of promotion and protection of human rights in Brazilian society. The second portion analyzes the promotion of this agenda in the first government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The sources used were official government documents, texts organized by specific segments of civil society and academic articles. In conclusion, it presents the main impasses of this agenda and the criticisms of the economist visions that weaken the integrated concept of human rights that guide the essay.

  11. Central Banks Exit Strategies in Theory and Practice. The Case of the Polish National Bank's Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an attempt in discussing the pros and cons of central banks exiting from unconventional monetary policy strategies. Having in mind the latest international economic research concerning the optimal entrance and exit strategies of the zero interest rate policy, it is worth discussing the results of the contemporary central banks in preserving the financial system and supporting the real economy. The main aim of this paper is the assessment of the Polish central bank's low rate interest rates policy effectiveness and to find out its influence on the economy. The following research problem is discussed: should central banks use the exit strategy from zero interest rates and if yes, why and when. This task requires to put forward the following research hypothesis: too late implementation of the cycle of low interest rates by the National Bank of Poland does not help improvement of the Polish economy situation.

  12. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. DWAF water services IAM strategy positioned within the context of other major national IAM initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available with others, particularly with other national government departments. DWAF's efforts complement and are complemented by other national IAM initiatives. INTRODUCTION Two papers presented at the 2006 WISA Conference (Wall et al 2006; Manus et al 2006... of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) and South African Local Government Association (SALGA). DWAF's efforts complement and are complemented by other national IAM initiatives Among these are the National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy (approved...

  14. Medicare Policy Initiatives and the Relative Utilization of "Double-Scan" CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Jonathan A; Hemingway, Jennifer; Hughes, Danny; Silva, Ezequiel; Duszak, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Commonly called "double scans" by the media, combined pre- and postcontrast thoracic and abdominal CT examinations have been the focus of recent CMS policy initiatives. The aim of this study was to examine trends in the relative utilization of double-scan CT before and after 2006 legislation mandating relevant Medicare reporting initiatives. Medicare Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files from 2001 through 2012 were used to identify claims for thoracic and abdominal CT examinations. Double-scan rates by billing physician specialty and place of service were analyzed over time. Rates of double-scan CT between radiologists and nonradiologists were compared using t tests. From 2001 to 2006, double-scan rates for thoracic and abdominal CT examinations declined by 1.7% and 7.5% for radiologists, respectively (from 6.0% to 5.9% and from 22.6% to 20.9%) but increased by 15.8% and 23.6% for nonradiologists (from 5.7% to 6.6% and from 28.8% to 35.6%). From 2006 through 2012, double-scan rates declined by 42.3% and 35.2% (from 5.9% to 3.4% and from 20.9% to 13.5%) for radiologists but only by 31.8% and 8.1% (from 6.6% to 4.5% and from 35.6% to 32.7%) for nonradiologists. Double-scan rates were significantly lower for radiologists than nonradiologists for all years for abdominal CT (P scan rates followed legislation mandating CMS initiatives designed to reduce costs and radiation. For nonradiologists, double-scan rates were consistently higher and declined more slowly than those for radiologists. Medicare policy initiatives directed toward imaging utilization seem to influence behavior differently for radiologists compared with nonradiologists. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  16. Tongue Pressure Modulation for Initial Gel Consistency in a Different Oral Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Sumiko; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Funami, Takahiro; Ishihara, Sayaka; Ono, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background In the recent hyper-aged societies of developed countries, the market for soft diets for patients with dysphagia has been growing and numerous jelly-type foods have become available. However, interrelationships between the biomechanics of oral strategies and jelly texture remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of the initial consistency of jelly on tongue motor kinetics in different oral strategies by measuring tongue pressure against the hard palate. Methods Jellies created as a mixture of deacylated gellan gum and psyllium seed gum with different initial consistencies (hard, medium or soft) were prepared as test foods. Tongue pressure production while ingesting 5 ml of jelly using different oral strategies (Squeezing or Mastication) was recorded in eight healthy volunteers using an ultra-thin sensor sheet system. Maximal magnitude, duration and total integrated values (tongue work) of tongue pressure for size reduction and swallowing in each strategy were compared among initial consistencies of jelly, and between Squeezing and Mastication. Results In Squeezing, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both the magnitude and duration of tongue pressure over a wide area of hard palate, but tongue work for swallowing increased at the posterior-median and circumferential parts by modulating only the magnitude of tongue pressure. Conversely, in Mastication, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both magnitude and duration of tongue pressure mainly at the posterior part of the hard palate, but tongue work as well as other tongue pressure parameters for swallowing showed no differences by type of jelly. Conclusions These results reveal fine modulations in tongue-palate contact according to the initial consistency of jelly and oral strategies. PMID:24643054

  17. CEA's waste management policy and strategy. Lessons learned - 59201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'ava, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive wastes are generated during operation as well as during the decontamination and dismantling of CEA's nuclear facility/installation. The safe and responsible management of radioactive wastes at all stages is an essential requirement of the regulatory system. The management covers the whole sequence of operations starting with the generation of waste and ending with its disposal. The disposal here means discarding of waste with no intention for retrieval. It is important to note here that the safety principles and practices that are applicable during the operational phase are also applicable during the decommissioning phase. As the radioactive waste arising is an inevitable outcome of decommissioning work, all the regulatory requirements associated with decommissioning remain in force in waste management. This presentation deals initially with the regulatory standards related to the management of wastes. As the management of radioactive wastes inevitably includes treatment and conditioning of wastes, following treatment and conditioning of wastes, storage, transportation and eventual disposal are the logical outcome of the radioactive wastes, processes are at any time improved based on the feedback experience and the lessons learned. (author)

  18. The effect of policies regulating tobacco consumption on smoking initiation and cessation in Spain: is it equal across socioeconomic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Jaime; Abásolo, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In Spain, the Law 28/2005, which came into effect on January 2006, was a turning point in smoking regulation and prevention, serving as a guarantee for the progress of future strategies in the direction marked by international organizations. It is expected that this regulatory policy should benefit relatively more to lower socioeconomic groups, thus contributing to a reduction in socioeconomic health inequalities. This research analyzes the effect of tobacco regulation in Spain, under Law 28/2005, on the initiation and cessation of tobacco consumption, and whether this effect has been unequal across distinct socioeconomic levels. Micro-data from the National Health Survey in its 2006 and 2011 editions are used (study numbers: 4382 and 5389 respectively; inventory of statistical operations (ISO) code: 54009), with a sample size of approximately 24,000 households divided into 2,000 census areas. This allows individuals' tobacco consumption records to be reconstructed over five years before the initiation of each survey, as well as identifying those individuals that started or stopped smoking. The methodology is based on "time to event analysis". Cox's proportional hazard models are adapted to show the effects of a set of explanatory variables on the conditional probability of change in tobacco consumption: initiation as a daily smoker by young people or the cessation of daily smoking by adults. Initiation rates among young people went from 25% (95% confidence interval (CI), 23-27) to 19% (95% CI, 17-21) following the implementation of the Law, and the change in cessation rates among smokers was even greater, with rates increasing from 12% (95% CI, 11-13) to 20% (95% CI, 19-21). However, this effect has not been equal by socioeconomic groups as shown by relative risks. Before the regulation policy, social class was not a statistically significant factor in the initiation of daily smoking ( p  > 0.05); however, following the implementation of the Law, young people

  19. 78 FR 55091 - Fair Housing Initiatives Program-Fiscal Year 2013 Application and Award Policies and Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... on the Applications and Awards Procedures and Policies (AAPP) Guide, which can be found at: http... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Fair Housing Initiatives Program--Fiscal Year 2013 Application and Award Policies and Procedures--Solicitation of Comment AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal...

  20. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  1. Management and policy: political strategies and instruments of the risk types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Klinke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the risk classification is to gain an effective and feasible policy tool for the evaluation and the management or risks. The characterisation provides a platform for designing specific political strategies and measures for each risk type. The strategies pursue the goal to transform unacceptable into acceptable risks, i.e. the risks should not be reduced to zero, but they should be reduced to a level that routine risk management becomes sufficient to ensure safety and integrity. All strategies and respective measures are arranged according to priorities. In the normal case more than one strategy and more than one measure are naturally appropriate and necessary. If resources are limited, strategies and measures should be taken in line with the priority list. The following part lists the prior strategies and the prior measures recommended for each risk type. (authors)

  2. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  3. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Left behind in the return-to-work journey: consumer insights for policy change and practice strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzycki, Monica; Korzycki, Martha; Shaw, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined system barriers that precluded injured workers from accessing services and supports in the return-to-work (RTW) process. A grounded theory approach was used to investigate injured worker experiences. Methods included in-depth telephone interviews and the constant comparative method to analyze the data. Findings revealed that consumers experienced tensions or a tug-of-war between the RTW system, the health care system, and in accessing and using knowledge. Over time consumers reflected upon these tensions and initiated strategies to enhance return to function and RTW. Insights from consumer-driven strategies that might inform future policy change and promote positive service delivery for injured workers are examined.

  5. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  6. The effect of family policies and public health initiatives on breastfeeding initiation among 18 high-income countries: a qualitative comparative analysis research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubold, Amanda Marie

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of macro-level factors - welfare state policies and public health initiatives - on breastfeeding initiation among eighteen high-income countries. This study utilizes fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis methods to examine the combinations of conditions leading to both high and low national breastfeeding initiation rates among eighteen high-income countries. The most common pathway leading to high breastfeeding initiation is the combination of conditions including a high percentage of women in parliament, a low national cesarean section rate, and either low family spending, high rates of maternity leave, or high rates of women working part-time. The most common pathway leading to low breastfeeding initiation includes the necessary condition of low national adherence to the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. This research suggests that there is a connection between broad level welfare state polices, public health initiatives, and breastfeeding initiation. Compliance with the WHO/UNICEF initiatives depends on welfare regime policies and overall support for women in both productive and reproductive labor.

  7. An interoperable architecture and principles for implementing strategy and policy in operational processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's economy managers expect new strategies and policies to be implemented quickly. Yet practice shows that current systems are not able to implement changes within a short time frame. Nowadays a variety of technologies including semantic web services, business rules and software agents are

  8. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...

  9. Open Learning for Smart Education: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    keynote on Open Learning at the International IEEE EDUCON Conference 2016: I will speak about “Open Learning for Smart Education: Open educational policies, strategies and access for all”. This year EDUCON is taking place from 10th to 13th of April 2016 in Abu Dhabi. My questions of the keynote

  10. Climate change policy initiatives. 1995/96 update. Volume II: selected non-iea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA study details in a standard format the actions that twenty non-IEA countries are taking under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It provides information on the development of their national strategies to address greenhouse gas emissions, along with detailed data regarding such emissions from energy sources. The book summarises the positions of these countries in the international negotiations on the Convention, their efforts regarding emissions of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, and their present and planned policies relevant to emissions from the energy sector. Key data on each country's energy production and use are given, along with tables showing recent trends (through 1993) in energy demand and energy-related CO 2 emissions. Most country profiles also include information on relevant national studies. (author)

  11. Pathways to policy: Lessons learned in multisectoral collaboration for physical activity and built environment policy development from the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Mowat, David L; Keen, Deb

    2017-06-16

    The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer funded 12 large-scale knowledge to action cancer and chronic disease prevention projects between 2009 and 2016 through the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative. Two projects, Healthy Canada by Design (HCBD) and Children's Mobility, Health and Happiness (CMHH), developed policies to address physical activity and the built environment through a multisectoral approach. A qualitative analysis involving a review of 183 knowledge products and 8 key informant interviews was conducted to understand what policy changes occurred, and the underlying critical success factors, through these projects. Both projects worked at the local level to change physical activity and built environment policy in 203 sites, including municipalities and schools. Both projects brought multisectoral expertise (e.g., public health, land use planning, transportation engineering, education, etc.) together to inform the development of local healthy public policy in the areas of land use, transportation and school travel planning. Through the qualitative analysis of the knowledge products and key informant interviews, 163 policies were attributed to HCBD and CMHH work. Fourteen "pathways to policy" were identified as critical success factors facilitating and accelerating the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy. Of the 14 pathways to policy, 8 had a focus on multisectoral collaboration. The lessons learned from the CLASP experience could support enhanced multisectoral collaborations to accelerate the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy in new jurisdictions across Canada and internationally.

  12. The Malaysian Fifth Fuel Policy: Re-strategising the Malaysian Renewable Energy Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulud, A.L.; Saidi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The power industry is the most crucial and strategic sector for any country to achieve its vision. Due to the fast depletion and high cost of fossil fuel, this is now a threat to sustainable growth. Attention is now focused on renewable energies as an alternative. In Malaysia, renewable energy was included in the 8th Malaysia Plan (2000–2005) with a target of 500 MW out of the 20,000 MW total generation capacity. However, for the first 10 years (2000–2010) only 41.5 MW planting up has been achieved. This paper recommends strategies, implementation mechanism, and financial framework to ensure success of the initiatives. Some of the recommendations were currently being implemented such as the Green Technology Fund and the Fit-In-Tariff. In addition, this paper proposes the incorporation of a Malaysian Renewable Energy Development Board with wide legislative and executive powers, that would be a strong champion of the RE initiatives. Its primary function would be, inter alia, cross-ministry coordination, tariff fixation, regulating utilization of renewable biomass waste, institute fiscal incentives such as investment incentives, tax holidays, removal of barriers, and initiate government funded Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) initiatives.

  13. Assessment of self-efficacy to employ self-initiated pornography use-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ethnic Division in Cyprus and a Policy Initiative on Promoting Peaceful Coexistence: Toward an Agonistic Democracy for Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2011-01-01

    This article uses as a point of departure for its analysis a recent educational policy initiative to promote peaceful coexistence in the context of ongoing ethnic division in Cyprus. It is argued that, although it seems as if the teaching of peaceful coexistence is a laudable initiative that can contribute toward unity and democratic…

  15. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  16. Anxiety and Coping Strategy Changes in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Initiating Fingolimod: The GRACE Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Thibault; Bungener, Catherine; Heinzlef, Olivier; Suchet, Laurent; Borgel, Florent; Bourdeix, Isabelle; Meite, Mohamed; Rerat, Karin; Chouette, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the changes in anxiety levels, and their relationship with coping strategies over the first four months of fingolimod treatment in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Data were collected at the inclusion visit (Visit 1) and 4 months later (Visit 2). We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess the level of anxiety and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations scale to assess the coping strategies used when engaged with stressful situations. The HADS anxiety scores were compared between Visits 1 and 2, according to the preferred coping strategy. At Visit 1, half of the 198 patients included were considered to be anxious (doubtful or in a certain way). The same proportion preferentially used an avoidance-oriented strategy and one-third preferentially used an emotion-oriented strategy. The mean HADS anxiety score decreased significantly (p = 0.001) at Visit 2 (8.1 ± 4.0) compared to Visit 1 (8.8 ± 4.3), particularly in the group of patients who used an emotion-oriented strategy (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the initiation of fingolimod in patients with RRMS is followed by a decrease of anxiety levels which vary according to the coping strategy used. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. From the Paralympics to public health: increasing physical activity through legislative and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwet, Cheri A; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience a disproportionate rate of chronic disease and are more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles than the general population. Multiple complex factors likely contribute to these disparities, including structural, socioeconomic and attitudinal barriers that impede broad participation of individuals with disabilities in health and wellness promotion programs. Public health initiatives aimed at mitigating these health disparities emphasize improved access to physical activity and sports opportunities. Given its visibility, the Paralympic Movement provides an opportunity to transform how society conceptualizes the relationship of disability to physical fitness. The Paralympics also serve as a catalyst for public health education and program development. Already, public policies and governmental regulations are expanding grassroots sports opportunities for youth and adults with disabilities, thus promoting inclusive opportunities for participation in physical activity. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. STRATEGIES FOR ACTION AND PUBLIC POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF THE THIRD DEGREE COOPERATIVES IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the impact of the Argentine cooperative entities representing the contemporary public policy. We present a case study of the two largest third-degree cooperatives in the country, discuss the goals and strategies in interactions with State agencies. The results of the actions of actors define goals and strategies that can be convergent and / or divergent. We conclude that the links have been built with the State federations selected characteristics of complementarily and cooperation in general. Also, the power to influence the organizations surveyed in the definition of public policies is not only equity, but mainly the political opportunities and the ability to inter-stakeholder alliances through collective strategies.

  19. Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders: The Catalan public policy initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  1. Green Development Status in Zhejiang Province and the City of Ningbo, China: Examination of Policies, Strategies and Incentives at Multiple Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshmehzangi, Ali; Deng, Wu; Zhang, Yun; Xie, Linjun

    2017-05-01

    China is undergoing the largest scale of urbanization in history and at an unprecedented pace. The construction and operation of buildings have inevitably brought severe pressures on resource conservation and environmental protection. China has initiated policies, strategies and financial incentive schemes at national level to address these issues. It is also seen that there is a growing interest in recent years at local government level in promoting green buildings. This paper will examine the current national policies, targets and standards and then discuss how these national initiatives are reflected at provincial and city level by taking Zhejiang Province and Ningbo City as case studies. A comparison between different levels of initiatives is conducted by reviewing incentive mechanisms, technological development and compliance requirements. It is concluded that the national initiatives may be not effective without local enhancement.

  2. Hybrid collaborative optimization based on selection strategy of initial point and adaptive relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai

    2015-01-01

    There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer

  3. Hybrid collaborative optimization based on selection strategy of initial point and adaptive relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai [Hohai University, Changzhou (China)

    2015-09-15

    There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer.

  4. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Intergovernmental health policy decisions in Brazil: cooperation strategies for political mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alcides S

    2007-05-01

    The advantages of established intergovernmental decision-making arenas for the implementation of health policies in decentralized settings are not well known. This paper presents the case of the joint health management committee, known as the Tripartite Committee, created to formalize intergovernmental decisions about the implementation of policies of the Brazilian Unified Health System. This paper adopts a descriptive approach for the strategic analysis of decision process among governmental actors from three federative levels, as well as of mechanisms for the negotiation of their interests in the formalization of health policy agreements. The roles and positions of governmental actors within the Tripartite Committee were analysed, together with the definition of decision agendas and strategies. The data come from normative documents and proceedings of the Tripartite Committee, interviews with their governmental actors and observations of their meetings. The distinct governmental actors from the Tripartite Committee employed cooperation strategies with permanent negotiations oriented towards interchanges and political mediation. The power of the federal Government is also pre-eminent for the constitution of decision agendas and in the shaping of negotiation processes and priorities. The Tripartite Committee formalized agreements between unequal administrative and political powers to ensure a systemic integration of governmental policies and a self-regulation of the political autonomies. There are some divergences within the governmental actors' interpretation of key policies and processes in this decision arena; the primacy of political or technical criteria as well as the applicability of laws or ad hoc norms. Although such cooperation strategies may slow down the decision-making process and render it more complicated, they also define more clearly areas of institutional responsibility and ensure a broader support from different levels of government for the

  6. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  7. Coping with hallucinated voices in schizophrenia: a review of self-initiated strategies and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhall, John; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark; Jackson, Henry J

    2007-05-01

    This article reviews the state of knowledge about strategies used by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to cope with hallucinated voices, and considers the role of coping in psychological treatments for persisting symptoms. The use of self-initiated ('natural') coping strategies appears almost universal amongst voice-hearers. These strategies are similar across cultures, and include diverse behaviours, only a minority of which is specific to hallucinations. Most strategies are reported by at least some users to be effective, but more sophisticated outcome studies are lacking. Some evidence for the efficacy of certain behavioural techniques of coping, for the manipulation of auditory input, and for strategies involving subvocalisation, is available from experimental studies. Therapeutic enhancement of natural coping strategies for persisting symptoms has demonstrated some efficacy, but its benefit for voices is unknown. Despite this, it has become an established part of some CBT interventions for psychosis. Further advances in knowledge and practice may come from utilisation of coping models in research, longitudinal and ideographic methods of study and a movement away from descriptive coping lists to investigations of coping styles, mechanisms of action, and the process of coping.

  8. Complementary Product Integration by High-Technology New Ventures: The Role of Initial Technology Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Nambisan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between complementary product integration and the initial technology strategy of a high-technology new venture. With customers placing considerable emphasis on cross-product integration, the success of a new venture is dependent as much on its ability to integrate its product with relevant complementary products as on the core product functionality itself. We identify three types of complementary product integration: value-added internal, add-on ...

  9. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  10. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as "industry bread", is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the produ...

  12. Building Knowledge Economies in Africa: A Survey of Policies and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other regions of the world, Africa is lagging in its drive toward knowledge-based economies. This study surveys the literature in order to highlight the policies and strategies with which African countries can accelerate their current drive towards knowledge economies. These are discussed in terms of the four pillars of the World Bank’s knowledge economy framework. They are the indices for: (i) education and skilled population, (ii) information and communication technology, (iii) ...

  13. CURBING CORRUPTION THROUGH TERTIARY EDUCATION IN INDONESIA AND JAPAN (Policy Analysis and Strategy)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrachman Assegaf

    2018-01-01

    Corruption has become a global issue, whereas almost every country, whatever tough or slight it is, got to fight against it. It means that none of single country in the world is corruption free, in spite of the Government’s struggles to eradicate corruption. This study analyzes anti-corruption policies and educational strategies enforced by Indonesian and Japanese Government. Data was collected through documentation and literature review, and to some extend, cultural behavior of both countrie...

  14. Pricing Policy on Business Performance: A Study on Organizational Strategy Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Alvarenga Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the relationship between different pricing policies and the results obtained with them within on Business Games. Beginning from a theoretical review that seeks to reunite concepts about pricing, policy and price definitions, it is proposed a model analysis of pricing decisions made by teams that participate in a Business Game. From the applying of this model on data collected in the game, it seeks to classify the pricing policies applied by the teams. Then the results are discussed and its relationship to literature is referred. There are also comments on the decision make default demonstrated by the teams participating in the game. The results obtained here confirm the literature, indicating the price policy as a helpful and valid tool to support marketing strategies. They also show the adhesion between the simulated environment in a Business Game and the features found in the real world, confirming the trend toward adoption of organizational strategy simulators as instruments in teaching and research in Administration.

  15. The implementation of California's tobacco tax initiative: the critical role of outsider strategies in protecting Proposition 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, E D; Traynor, M P; Glantz, S A

    2000-08-01

    Enacted in 1988, Proposition 99 increased California's cigarette tax by 25 cents per pack and allocated a minimum of 20 percent of the revenues to fund antitobacco education. Tobacco control advocates had used an initiative to secure the tax increase because the legislature had not increased the tobacco tax since 1967, even though public opinion polls showed that the tax was politically popular. Advocates, however, then had to return to the legislature to negotiate implementing legislation. Between 1989 and 1996, the legislature underfunded the Proposition 99 Health Education programs by over $273 million. This underfunding occurred because the public health groups failed to exercise power, ideas, and the leadership needed for legislative success. Even successful litigation against the governor failed to restore the programs. In July 1996, however, the underexpenditures stopped because the issue of the diversions received significant media and public attention. The tobacco control groups used a variety of outsider strategies, including paid advertising, free media, and a grassroots campaign, and the leadership of these groups, in addition to the lobbyists, got involved in the campaign to secure implementing legislation. Without ongoing public pressure, it is likely that policy changes created by tobacco tax initiatives will dissipate into something acceptable to powerful insider interests, such as the tobacco and medical service provider industries.

  16. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  17. Policy Debate | Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Initiative : What Can We Learn from its Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.In her article ‘Pay to Preserve: The Global Politics of Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Proposal’, published in DevPol’s special issue on  Energy and Development in 2011, Pamela L. Martin, Associate Professor of Politics at the Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, provided a favourable outlook on Ecuador’s innovative environmental governance mechanism. Accordingly, its unique potential lay in its objective of contributing towards sustainable development and social justice and in case of success, the author even predicted a possible replication in other developing countries. Despite its benefits, the initiative was abandoned in 2013. In this paper, Martin revisits the initiative and analyses the reasons for its failure, namely President Correa’s public pursuit of a Plan B, entering into negotiations with oil firms interested to explore the ITT reserves. Moreover, the initiative was in stark competition with the national REDD+ programme, the mainstream policy approach to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation against payments, which is being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC.Pamela L. Martin’s article is followed by a response by Dr. Imme Scholz, Deputy Director of the German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE. She examines why Germany, as the largest European donor, withdrew its support for the Yasuní-ITT Initiative.Readers who are intetested are invited to contribute to this policy debate on our blog .Download the whole

  18. Strategies of Dividend policy of the companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłoński Bartłomiej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the determinants of companies’ decisions about paying out dividends, which has been described in the Polish specialist literature, concentrates mainly on the dividends actually paid out. The research presented in the article refers to declarations of the companies included in their dividend policies. The aim of the article is to present an attitude to dividend policy exhibited by the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange. A particular attempt was made at identifying various formulas of constructing dividend policies by the companies and the declared conditions for dividend payments and their amounts. 118 dividend companies took part in the research and they were selected from among the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange in the years 2006-2012. The authors have analysed the dividend policy of the companies in terms of its components and the way it was formulated, as well as the determinants of decisions about dividend payments declared by the companies. The results of the analysis were referred to the types of strategies of the dividend policy presented in the specialist literature. The research results indicate that the boards of many companies do not consider formulating and publicising the principles of making dividend payments to be a relevant area of investor relations. The dividend policy of the companies is usually formulated too generally, with the use of general statements. Satisfying capital needs for the planned development processes appears to be a basic determinant of the distribution of profit, which is why residual dividend policy is prevalent in the analysed companies.

  19. Deduction of initial strategy distributions of agents in mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports the effort of deducing the initial strategy distributions (ISDs) of agents in mix-game models that is used to predict a real financial time series generated from a target financial market. Using mix-games to predict Shanghai Index, we find that the time series of prediction accurate rates is sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 2 who play a minority game, but less sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 1 who play a majority game. And agents in group 2 tend to cluster in full strategy space (FSS) if the real financial time series has obvious tendency (upward or downward), otherwise they tend to scatter in FSS. We also find that the ISDs and the number of agents in group 1 influence the level of prediction accurate rates. Finally, this paper gives suggestion about further research.

  20. Off-duty deviance: Organizational policies and evidence for two prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian D; Hoffman, Brian J; Bommer, William H; Kennedy, Colby L; Hetrick, Andrea L

    2016-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that organizations are increasingly concerned with employee off-duty deviance (ODD), yet management research has rarely investigated this type of deviant behavior. We define ODD as behaviors committed outside the workplace or when off-duty that are deviant by organizational and/or societal standards, jeopardize the employee's status within the organization, and threaten the interests and well-being of the organization and its stakeholders. Three studies are presented to better understand the relevance of ODD to modern organizations and then to understand potential approaches to reduce the incidence of ODD. The first study provides a qualitative review of publicly available ODD policies within the Fortune 500; the results showed that 13.4% of the Fortune 500 had a publicly available ODD policy, with the majority prohibiting criminal forms of ODD to protect the firm's reputation. The next 2 studies examine the efficacy of different approaches to reduce criminal ODD: policy adoption and personnel selection. In the second study, a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design showed a significant-albeit modest-reduction in criminal ODD following the adoption of a conduct policy. In the third and final study, a criterion-related validity design supported the predictive validity of general mental ability and prior deviance in predicting criminal ODD. This compendium of studies provides an initial empirical investigation into ODD and offers implications relevant to the deviance literature, policy development, and personnel selection. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. THE LINK BETWEEN THE LISBON STRATEGY AND THE COHESION POLICY OF THE EUROPEEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florentina CHIRILĂ,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Union, the Lisbon Strategy “has proved its worth”. Since its relaunch in 2005, more than 6.5 million jobs have been created in Europe and unemployment has fallen to the lowest level recorded in the last 25 years. All these great achievements have been purchased through the four priority areas sustained by the Lysbon Strategy, which are investing in people and modernising labour markets; energy and climate change; strengthening economic competitiveness; promoting knowledge and innovation. But which is the link between the Lisbon strategy and the regional policy as the KOK report emphasized? Which are the perspectives after 2013? are some of the question that the present paper examines, taking into account the results that have been registered in Romania and its regions so far.

  2. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  3. NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. The NIH is engaging the scientific community in the development of policies to improve the sex balance in research. The present, past, and future presidents of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, in order to encourage thoughtful discussion among scientists, pose a series of questions to generate ideas in three areas: 1. research strategies, 2. educational strategies, and 3. strategies to monitor effectiveness of policies to improve the sex balance in research. By promoting discussion within the scientific community, a consensus will evolve that will move science forward in a productive and effective manner. PMID:25780556

  4. The African Capacity Building Initiative: Toward Improved Policy Analysis and Development Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of the African Capacity Building Initiative is to build and strengthen local capabilities for policy analysis and development management in Sub-Saharan Africa. This report examines the nature and magnitude of the problem, which basically consists of a shortage of development management skills combined with weakness in the area of…

  5. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  6. CURBING CORRUPTION THROUGH TERTIARY EDUCATION IN INDONESIA AND JAPAN (Policy Analysis and Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrachman Assegaf

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has become a global issue, whereas almost every country, whatever tough or slight it is, got to fight against it. It means that none of single country in the world is corruption free, in spite of the Government’s struggles to eradicate corruption. This study analyzes anti-corruption policies and educational strategies enforced by Indonesian and Japanese Government. Data was collected through documentation and literature review, and to some extend, cultural behavior of both countries were observed. The research findings indicate several points: firstly, Indonesia has very complex socio-cultural background if compared to Japan. However, weak economic conditions, high levels of poverty, lack of political will, cultural orderly, honest and discipline attitudes, and a weak rule of law were found predominantly in Indonesia. Those conditions could be considered as a preceding background conducive to corruption behavior. Indonesia's anti-corruption policies enforced today is Act Number 31 of 1999 on Corruption Eradication, while the anti-corruption policy in Japan consist of several interrelated law compiled in Penal Codes (PC, Japan Unfair Competition Prevention Act (JUCPA, etc. Secondly, the implementation strategy for anti-corruption education in Indonesia is preventive, detective and repressive strategies. Meanwhile, Japan applies integrated strategies and approaches in whole socio-political, economic, cultural and education dimension. It is expected that the results of this study can contribute to the prevention and eradication of corruption in Indonesia more comprehensively, not only through legal means but education, especially higher education through internalization of moral and religious values of anti-corruption in all aspects of live.

  7. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Initiative to extend Medicare into Mexico: a case study in changing U.S. Health Care Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Ibarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the geo-political activities of interest groups, governments and multinational corporations involved in an initiative to extend Medicare to U.S. retirees residing in Mexico.  If the initiative to change the current Medicare policy succeeds, the relocation of Medicare-eligible populations from the U.S. to Mexico is likely to increase; the U.S. is expected to gain cost-savings for taxpayers on Medicare; Mexico can develop senior-housing and options for long-term care it currently lacks; and foreign-led multinational corporations will increase their profits and dominance, fostering even more privatization in Mexico’s health care sector. By exploring new issues about retirement migration and health this study seeks to gain knowledge about the phenomena in a number of areas.  First, the retirement migration of North Americans to Latin America is an under-studied phenomenon in the fields of social gerontology, migration research, and health policy studies.  Second, the Medicare in Mexico initiative is even less well-known among health policy scholars than the retirement migration phenomenon into Mexico. Yet this initiative is inherently international in scope and involves a number of US-based institutions and interest groups actively promoting the project from within Mexico. Thus, the initiative has important geo-political and socio-economic implications for reforming health care systems in the U.S. and Mexico.

  9. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  10. Risk management strategy for initiating nuclear desalination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full text:The Gulf countries are one of the most water short regions in the world, classified from the arid and semiarid regions. The average precipitation received is 100 mm/year which indicate very limited renewable water resources per capita and per hectare of irrigated land. The water resources in gulf countries not only continued under pressure, but also it drought from other factors such as increasing population and water demand for irrigation and industrial use. Furthermore, Rain is considered the only source of recharging the ground water in the gulf countries and its fall depends upon the storms that occur irregularly in respect of quantity or distribution year-round. While the countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. For solving their limitation to use fresh water and to develop and sustain their economy and development, they need to nuclear desalinations. Risk management strategy helps to reduce issues in initiating nuclear desalination plants. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to risk management strategy in the nuclear desalinations. However, this paper chiefly provides and introduces a new risk management methodology in the Gulf countries This methodology helps to highlight the critical factors and their consequences at nuclear desalinations. This paper is intended to reduce risks in using nuclear desalinations and increase opportunities. Also, the objectives of this paper are how to plan and initiate nuclear desalination plants in Gulf Countries. Consequently, the new methodology helps their sustainable water industry.

  11. Initial antifungal strategy does not correlate with mortality in patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, R; Scoppettuolo, G; Ventura, G; Fabbiani, M; Giovannenze, F; Taccari, F; Milozzi, E; Posteraro, B; Sanguinetti, M; Cauda, R; Fantoni, M

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) has increased over time, especially in medical wards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different antifungal treatment strategies on 30-day mortality in patients with Candida BSI not admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at disease onset. This prospective, monocentric, cohort study was conducted at an 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, Italy, where an infectious disease consultation team was implemented. All cases of Candida BSIs observed in adult patients from November 2012 to April 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to the initial antifungal strategy: fluconazole, echinocandin, or liposomal amphotericin B. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors significantly associated with 15-day and 30-day mortality. During the study period, 130 patients with candidemia were observed (58 % with C. albicans, 7 % with C. glabrata, and 23 % with C. parapsilosis). The first antifungal drug was fluconazole for 40 % of patients, echinocandin for 57.0 %, and liposomal amphotericin B for 4 %. During follow-up, 33 % of patients died. The cumulative mortality 30 days after the candidemia episode was 30.8 % and was similar among groups. In the Cox regression analysis, clinical presentation was the only independent factor associated with 15-day mortality, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and clinical presentation were the independent factors associated with 30-day mortality. No differences in 15-day and 30-day mortality were observed between patients with and without C. albicans candidemia. In patients with candidemia admitted to medical or surgical wards, clinical severity but not the initial antifungal strategy were significantly correlated with mortality.

  12. Injection Drug Users' Perceived Barriers to Using Self-Initiated Harm Reduction Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-08-01

    Increasing the frequency with which injecting drug users (IDUs) engage in self-initiated harm reduction strategies could improve their health, but few investigations have examined IDUs' perceived barriers to engaging in these behaviors. We interviewed 90 IDUs recruited from needle exchanges to assess: a) perceived obstacles to their use of two specific harm reduction strategies (i.e., test shots and pre-injection skin cleaning) designed to reduce two unhealthy outcomes (i.e., overdose and bacterial infections, respectively) and b) their use of other risk-reduction practices. The most frequently cited barrier for both test shots and skin cleaning was being in a rush to inject one's drugs. Other, less commonly cited barriers were strategy-specific (e.g., buying drugs from a known dealer as a reason not to do a test shot; not having access to cleaning supplies as a reason not to clean skin). Regarding other risk reduction practices, participants' most frequently reported using new or clean injecting supplies and avoiding sharing needles and injecting supplies. Some, but not all, of the barriers generated by participants in our study were similar to those frequently reported in other investigations, perhaps due to differences in the type of sample recruited or in the harm reduction behaviors investigated.

  13. The role of international development strategies in making regional development policies: Hokkaido as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Saunavaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, national governments and international institutions have both searched for ways to equalise disparities and revitalise lagging regions. Although ideas and examples of the most effective ways to achieve these goals originate in various places, their influence is inclined to permeate elsewhere. Therefore, the processes involved in policy transfers are highly relevant from the perspective of regional development. This study approaches these processes through the case study of post-war Hokkaido and pays special attention to the role of three international development strategies: the Tennessee Valley Authority model, the Growth Pole Theory and the Industrial Cluster Theory. As a result, this research shows the wide variety of agents involved in policy transfer, analyses the processes of incorporating exogenous ideas into regional development polices and demonstrates the variety of sources from which different agents can draw lessons.

  14. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) helped in introducing distortions in the policies. Efforts by all stakeholders, the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are essential to ensure that necessary conditions exist in meeting rice production. Key word: ...

  15. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  16. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  17. Business Model Canvas and Strategies to Develop Biodiesel Industry of PT. XYZ in Order to Implement CPO Supporting Fund Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Mustika; Rina Oktaviani; Sukardi Sukardi

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as one of the alternative eco-friendly fuels. Besides, the government also issued policy related to biodiesel that is CPO Supporting Fund (CSF) Policy. The aim of the research is to identify Business model canvas (BMC) biodiesel industry in PT XYZ and to know the strategies to develop business from biodiesel industry in line with the CPO supporting fund policy. The analysis tool used in this research is BMC, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM). The r...

  18. From frustration to integration : Action strategies for a better fit between knowledge and policy on the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Franke; van der Windt, Henny; Puente Rodriguez, Daniel; Floor, Judith; Van Enst, Wanda; Seijger, Chris; Giebels, Diana; Van Tatenhove, Jan; Runhaar, Hens

    2015-01-01

    The fit between knowledge and policy on the Wadden Sea can and must be improved. Such is the recommendation of an interdisciplinary group of Dutch researchers who since 2013 have been collaborating on action strategies for better knowledge-policy interactions. The idea that ‘more knowledge will

  19. Market strategies for climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still

  20. NATO STRATEGY AND POLICY IN THE CONFLICTS OF “THE ARAB SPRING”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е А Антюхова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the NATO strategy and policy in the conflicts of “the Arab spring”. New doctrinal purposes of the military-political block under the conditions of transformation of the world politics system are subjected to analysis. The special focus is on the development of political crises and conflicts in Libya and Syria and approaches of the North Atlantic Alliance to their settlement. The conse-quences of the NATO actions for the states of the Arab world are analyzed.

  1. Social Policy Strategies, Between Flexisecurity and Mobication on the European Union Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu POPESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Flexicurity should reduce the difference between employed people and people belonging to excluded categories. An essential objective is represented by the transition from the concept of flexicurity to the new strategy of mobication. Not least, EU needs to find the tools to implement this new strategy Prior Work: This change of perspective at the national level makes the object of this article. Currently employed people need assistance in order to be prepared and protected during the transition from one workplace to another. Results: Those who belong to currently excluded categories – including those who are unemployed, among which women, young people and immigrants predominate – need readily accessible ways to a workplace and starting grounds in order to allow for the progress towards stable contractual provisions. Value: We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this two concepts – both parts of the social policy made by the EU.

  2. Strategies for increasing the impact of research on human resoruces for health policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Taghreed; Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, WHO, Ginebra, Suiza. Scientist. MD. PhD.; Ghaffar, Abdul; Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, WHO, Ginebra, Suiza. MD. PhD.

    2011-01-01

    Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH) in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middle-income countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ...

  3. Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Developing Creativity Education in Four Asian Chinese Societies: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Lau, Sing

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to compare and contrast educational policies on creativity education in four Asian Chinese societies, namely mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. It establishes five criteria on creativity education policy, including policies regarding legislation on creativity education, definitions of creativity, standard…

  4. "Endovascular embolic hemispherectomy": a strategy for the initial management of catastrophic holohemispheric epilepsy in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima; Pearl, Monica S; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Chang, Taeun; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Gaillard, William D

    2017-03-01

    Conflicting challenges abound in the management of the newborn with intractable epilepsy related to hemimegalencephaly. Early hemispherectomy to stop seizures and prevent deleterious consequences to future neurocognitive development must be weighed against the technical and anesthetic challenges of performing major hemispheric surgery in the neonate. We hereby present our experience with two neonates with hemimegalencephaly and intractable seizures who were managed using a strategy of initial minimally invasive embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere. Immediate significant seizure control was achieved after embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere followed by delayed ipsilateral hemispheric resection at a later optimal age. The considerations and challenges encountered in the course of the management of these patients are discussed, and a literature review is presented.

  5. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  6. 77 FR 69819 - QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-354-000] QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Strategies Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  7. Social Optimization and Pricing Policy in Cognitive Radio Networks with an Energy Saving Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of wireless application results in an increase in demand for spectrum resource and communication energy. In this paper, we firstly introduce a novel energy saving strategy in cognitive radio networks (CRNs and then propose an appropriate pricing policy for secondary user (SU packets. We analyze the behavior of data packets in a discrete-time single-server priority queue under multiple-vacation discipline. With the help of a Quasi-Birth-Death (QBD process model, we obtain the joint distribution for the number of SU packets and the state of base station (BS via the Matrix-Geometric Solution method. We assess the average latency of SU packets and the energy saving ratio of system. According to a natural reward-cost structure, we study the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior of the energy saving strategy and use an optimization algorithm based on standard particle swarm optimization (SPSO method to search the socially optimal arrival rate of SU packets. By comparing the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior, we impose an appropriate admission fee to SU packets. Finally, we present numerical results to show the impacts of system parameters on the system performance and the pricing policy.

  8. Policy and governance to address depression and suicide in Bhutan: The national suicide-prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Gampo; Choki, Sonam; Jamphel, Kinga; Wangdi, Yeshi; Chogyel, Tandin; Dorji, Chencho; Nirola, Damber Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Suicide and mental disorders are a growing public health issue in Bhutan, due in part to a rapidly transitioning society. The burden of suicide has been recognized by the Royal Government of Bhutan and, as a result, it introduced the country's first ever national suicide-prevention plan in 2015. The 3-year action plan takes a holistic approach to making suicide-prevention services a top social priority, through strengthening suicide-prevention policies, promoting socially protective measures, mitigating risk factors and reaching out to individuals who are at risk of suicide or affected by incidents of suicide. This article documents Bhutan's policy and governance for addressing depression and suicide within the context of its national suicide-prevention strategy, examines progress and highlights lessons for future directions in suicide prevention. Since the endorsement of the 3-year action plan by the prime minister's cabinet, the implementation of suicide-prevention measures has been accelerated through a high-level national steering committee. Activities include suicide-prevention actions by sectors such as health, education, monastic communities and police; building capacity of gatekeepers; and improving the suicide information system to inform policies and decision-making. Suicide-prevention activities have become the responsibility of local governments, paving the way for suicide prevention as an integral mandate across sectors and at grass-root levels in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

  9. Psychological Science and Innovative Strategies for Informing Health Care Redesign: A Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948

  10. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  11. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  12. Brain death determination: the imperative for policy and legal initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru-Siika, Wangari; Clement, Meredith Edwards; Lukoko, Lilian; Nadel, Simon; Rosoff, Philip M; Naanyu, Violet; Kussin, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The concept of brain death (BD), defined as irreversible loss of function of the brain including the brainstem, is accepted in the medical literature and in legislative policy worldwide. However, in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) there are no legal guidelines regarding BD. Hypothetical scenarios based on our collective experience are presented which underscore the consequences of the absence of BD policies in resource-limited countries (RLCs). Barriers to the development of BD laws exist in an RLC such as Kenya. Cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity creates a complex perspective about death challenging the development of uniform guidelines for BD. The history of the medical legal process in the USA provides a potential way forward. Uniform guidelines for legislation at the state level included special consideration for ethnic or religious preferences in specific states. In SSA, medical and social consensus on the definition of BD is a prerequisite for the development BD legislation. Legislative policy will (1) limit prolonged and futile interventions; (2) mitigate the suffering of families; (3) standardise clinical practice; and (4) facilitate better allocation of scarce critical care resources in RLCs. There is a clear-cut need for these policies, and previous successful policies can serve to guide these efforts.

  13. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  15. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  16. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    development of behavioral patterns that make organizations and policies sensitive to stakeholders (Ashley and ... effective innovation system facilitates flow of information and mutual partnerships between actors. Rice production ... marketing with non transfer of actual costs to consumers. There was protection of elite.

  17. Development of the Policy Advocacy Behavior Scale: Initial Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Linda Plitt; Shields, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary trends in social service delivery systems require human service agencies to engage in greater levels of advocacy to reform structures and protect programs that serve vulnerable populations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the policy advocacy behavior of nonprofit human service agencies.…

  18. Analysing key influences over actors' use of evidence in developing policies and strategies in Nigeria: a retrospective study of the Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Ezumah, Nkoli; Das, Mahua; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C

    2016-04-12

    Evidence-informed policymaking has been promoted as a means of ensuring better outcomes. However, what counts as evidence in policymaking lies within a spectrum of expert knowledge and scientifically generated information. Since not all forms of evidence share an equal validity or weighting for policymakers, it is important to understand the key factors that influence their preferences for different types of evidence in policy and strategy development. A retrospective study was carried out at the national level in Nigeria using a case-study approach to examine the Nigerian Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health (IMNCH) strategy. Two frameworks were used for conceptualization and data analysis, namely (1) to analyse the role of evidence in policymaking and (2) the policy triangle. They were used to explore the key contextual and participatory influences on choice of evidence in developing the IMNCH strategy. Data was collected through review of relevant national documents and in-depth interviews of purposively selected key policy and strategic decision makers. Thematic analysis was applied to generate information from collected data. The breadth of evidence used was wide, ranging from expert opinions to systematic reviews. The choice of different types of evidence was found to overlap across actor categories. Key influences over actors' choice of evidence were: (1) perceived robustness of evidence - comprehensive, representative, recent, scientifically sound; (2) roles in evidence process, i.e. their degree and level of participation in evidence generation and dissemination, with regards to their role in the policy process; and (3) contextual factors such as global agenda and influence, timeline for strategy development, availability of resources for evidence generation, and lessons learnt from previous unsuccessful policies/plans. Actors' preferences for different types of evidence for policy are influenced not only by the characteristics of evidence itself

  19. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy; Die Strategie des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien. Eine Untersuchung der Preissetzungsstrategie des EEGs aus Sicht einer evolutorisch-kybernetischen Theorie der Wirtschaftspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  20. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Policy strategies for an emergent technology: Lessons from the analysis of EV-policy in 8 North- European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Steen (Martijn); R.M. Van Schelven; P. Van Deventer (Peter); M. van Twist (Mark); R. Kotter

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents data from a comparative study of EV-policies in 8 different North-European countries, that maps out all of the policies of these countries (and a range of regions and cities) that target passenger vehicles (PHEV and BEV), chargers (home, private, public; level 1-3),

  2. MARKETING MIX POLICIES IN FMCG CASE-STUDY: THE ADVERTISING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA BOBEICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between selected marketing mix elements in the area of FMCG. It discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern research into, for example in the case of FMCG Companies, the marketing policies as well as customer relationship tactics shows that another approach to marketing is required. It proposes a conceptual framework in which marketing elements are related to the dimensions of brand equity and brand awareness. It also presents a case study deriving from advertising strategies of FMCG Companies showing that the change in advertising spending is related to changes in market share, changes in product plans and changes in the number of competitors modified by the number of customers, their concentration and the size of the advertising budget.

  3. 5G Development in China: From Policy Strategy to User-Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5G encompasses the development of various key wireless communication technology standards. The development entails both technological advancement and social interaction. This paper analyzes 5G development and its significant shift from a strategy policy to a user-oriented development showing the coplay of technology and society in China. Based on this theory, relevant proposals are recommended for future technical development and industrial regulation. Also, to increase the throughput and spectrum efficiency, channel assignment and load balance are considered. A hybrid routing protocol TOHRP (tree-based and on-demand hybrid routing protocol and a distributed channel assignment algorithm LBCA (Load Based Channel Assignment in the multichannel environment are proposed and they solve the traditional problem of (1 waste of spectrum and (2 self-interference. The computer-simulated experiment shows that the algorithm improves the performance.

  4. How can we bring public health in all policies? Strategies for healthy societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New scenarios are emerging in the European and worldwide context: the ageing of society, the climate changes, the increasing of health inequalities and the financial crisis. In this context, the scientific community and the decision-makers agree on the role of health in all policies (HiAP strategy in improving the population’s health. The HiAP takes into account factors not strictly related to health but with important health consequences. To bring public health in all policies a change is needed, but there are some obstacles to overcome: for instance, the lack of evidence regarding the governance tools and frameworks for HiAP, the difficulty of convincing stakeholders and producing a cultural change in the political positioning of decision-makers. Consequently, it is necessary: i to implement stronger and responsible decision-support approaches, such as health impact assessment and health technology assessment; ii to encourage and coordinate all relevant sectors in playing their part in reducing health gaps within the European Union; iii to strengthen cooperation and make better use of existing networks and existing public health and related institutions. The final aim will be to monitor the impact of the health determinants in order to promote the effective implementation of HiAP approach.

  5. An Initial Look at the Utility of Social Media as a Foreign Policy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a widely cited example of the art of the possible was exemplified by Target’s ability to predict the pregnancy of a teenage girl before her father...foreign policy 13 Casey Chan, “Did Chick-fil-A Pretend to Be a Teenage Girl on Facebook...Gizmodo, 25 July 2012. http://gizmodo.com/5928926/chick+fil+a-got-caught-pretending-to-be-a-fake- teenage -girl- on-facebook 7 professionals

  6. Choice of Contract Type and Other Policy Initiatives for Reducing Contract Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Government pursuant to the copyright license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Sep 2011]. Choice of Contract Type and Other Policy...2 1. The Weapon System Franchise Model ..........................................................2 2. The Agency Problem and...contract types. The analyses looking at serial production for MDAPs (the first area above) were performed in the context of the “weapon system franchise

  7. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Third Edition, Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    to Buddhist monks and nuns.7 Similarly, a sacred Jain text says, “One may not kill, ill-use, insult, torment, or persecute any kind of living being...While this power struggle illustrates direct conflict, how does the Congress routinely influence policy and strategy formulation in the national...logically flows from its appropriations role.7 The leaders of the foreign policy agencies routinely go to Capitol Hill to testify before various committees

  8. Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: a qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in other public health areas. © 2014

  9. Changing Policy Framing as a Deliberate Strategy for Public Health Advocacy: A Qualitative Policy Case Study of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Context Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. Methods We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Findings Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Conclusions Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in

  10. National strategy for suicide prevention in Japan: impact of a national fund on progress of developing systems for suicide prevention and implementing initiatives among local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David

    2013-10-25

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  12. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  13. Diversionary Foreign Policy in Authoritarian States: The Use of Multiple Diversionary Strategies by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilic B. Kanat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversionary theory of war has been considered one of the most contested theories that link domestic and external conflicts. Thus far scholarship in this field has focused on one-time single diversionary attacks, which led to the temporary deflection of attention from domestic problems to external ones. This study intends to bring revisions to the assumptions in the center of diversionary theory and demonstrate these through a well-known but underutilized case. This article intends to show that leaders have not one single option but rather a repertoire of different foreign policy actions in their possession to divert the attention of domestic public. In addition to the use of force, leaders can also use the threat to use force and other less violent means to create a rally round the flag effect. Secondly, this study will show that, unlike the presumptions of the previous studies, leaders can use multiple different diversionary strategies within a short period of time if the initial diversionary action does not create intended outcomes and if they are still willing to use externalization to boost his approval rating and divert public attention from present problems. These two contributions to the theory will be demonstrated in the case of Saddam Hussein’s attacks to Kuwait and Israel during the first Gulf War.

  14. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    trips and only need cars for occasional trips, i.e., grocery or other shopping , as a taxi, or if their final destination is beyond walking distance...Lovaas. 2012. Fighting Oil Addiction : Ranking States’ Gasoline Price Vulnerability and Solutions for Change. NDRC Issue Paper. Natural Resources...Transportation Strategies Study- Phase I. Hawaii Energy Policy Forum. College of Social Sciences Tenth Annual HEPF Legislative Briefing on Clean

  15. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Policy initiatives for change and innovation in basic education programmes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kadingdi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an historical perspective, the recent history of educational policy making in Ghana, as it relates to the provision of basic education, is examined. Three periods or phases are identified corresponding to the situation prior to Independence, the period between 1951 and 1986 and the reforms instituted in 1987 and the years that followed. Despite the willing cooperation of various donor agencies and the availability of resources, progress has been limited. The policy and contextual reasons for this comparative lack of progress are examined in turn. The paper concludes with what can be learnt from these attempts at reform and suggests that, whilst the issues involved are complex, greater attention needs to be focused on the training and support of teachers in their classroom role rather than focusing on the provision of resources. Helping teachers to understand the desired changes in their practice and the need to make pupils independent learners, coupled with reforms of teacher training and support, and the nature and quality of teacher continuing professional development, can all be seen as key ways in which further progress may be made

  17. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  18. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Drummond, Mark A.; Homer, Collin G.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Knick, Steven T.; Kosovich, John J.; Miller, Kirk A.; Owens, Tom; Shafer, Sarah L.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Southwest Wyoming's wildlife and habitat resources are increasingly affected by energy and urban/exurban development, climate change, and other key drivers of ecosystem change. To ensure that southwest Wyoming's wildlife populations and habitats persist in the face of development and other changes, a consortium of public resource-management agencies proposed the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), the overall goal of which is to implement conservation actions. As the principal agency charged with conducting WLCI science, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a Science Strategy for the WLCI. Workshops were held for all interested parties to identify and refine the most pressing management needs for achieving WLCI goals. Research approaches for addressing those needs include developing conceptual models for understanding ecosystem function, identifying key drivers of change affecting WLCI ecosystems, and conducting scientific monitoring and experimental studies to better understand ecosystems processes, cumulative effects of change, and effectiveness of habitat treatments. The management needs drive an iterative, three-phase framework developed for structuring and growing WLCI science efforts: Phase I entails synthesizing existing information to assess current conditions, determining what is already known about WLCI ecosystems, and providing a foundation for future work; Phase II entails conducting targeted research and monitoring to address gaps in data and knowledge during Phase I; and Phase III entails integrating new knowledge into WLCI activities and coordinating WLCI partners and collaborators. Throughout all three phases, information is managed and made accessible to interested parties and used to guide and improve management and conservation actions, future habitat treatments, best management practices, and other conservation activities.

  20. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  1. Features of the Japanese national dementia strategy in comparison with international dementia policies: How should a national dementia policy interact with the public health- and social-care systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Nakashima, Taeko

    2014-07-01

    The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of the Japanese national government announced a "Five-Year Plan for Promotion of Measures Against Dementia (Orange Plan)" in September 2012. This article described features of the Japanese dementia strategy in comparison with international dementia policies. An international comparative study was implemented on national dementia policies to seek suggestions for Japanese national strategy. The study consisted of a bibliographical survey, a field survey, and an online case vignette survey in several countries. The Japanese health- and social-care system had multiple access points in the dementia care pathway, as did Australia, France, South Korea, and the Netherlands. Contrary to Japan, a simplified access point was observed in Denmark, England, and Sweden. The Orange Plan aimed to establish specific health-care services, social-care services, and the coordination of agencies for persons with dementia. However, fragmentation remains in the dementia care pathway. The national government should examine fundamental revisions in health, social-care services, and advocacy in joint initiatives with Alzheimer's Association Japan to improve the national dementia strategy. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  3. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...... that the DDPC recommendation gives rise to a discussion on differing perceptions of relevance. The same definition can be used for both direct and indirect effects depending on interpretation. Documented evidence for an effect is desirable in the form provided by the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy...

  4. Indian Energy Policy and Strategy: Pre- and Post-Copenhagen 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Shenoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanIndia is an extraordinarily diverse democratic country with one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is the world’s sixth largest consumer of energy. Interest in its energy policies and strategies is escalating due to their huge impact on geopolitical relations, global energy prices and climate change. Its current per capita energy consumption and GHG emission values are low; however, these are bound to increase if it continues on the path of development that the West has followed. If India is to ‘leapfrog’ the already well-trodden path to one that ensures sustainable development, it is imperative for the country to redefine its development paradigm in order to ensure inclusive growth. Unsustainable subsidies, poor reform implementation, distorted energy prices and inadequate investment in renewables are some of the major constraints that the Indian government needs to re-examine so as to increase energy security and provide a framework for transition to a low-carbon economy. In addition to innovative energy policies such as the National Solar Mission, the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency and the National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, India needs to adopt a framework for decoupled growth, which we consider as an increase in the quality of life for its citizens without an increase in environmental damage. Since 2008 India has demonstrated that it is serious about changing its growth pattern and moving towards clean energy alternatives. However, this vision will not be fully realised unless the global North provides technical and financial assistance to collectively mitigate the adverse impact of global warming and subsequent climate change.

  5. Addressing Health Disparities from Within the Community: Community-Based Participatory Research and Community Health Worker Policy Initiatives Using a Gender-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Ralls, Brenda; Guymon, Anna; Garrett, Teresa; Eisenman, Patricia; Villalta, Jeannette; Tavake-Pasi, O Fahina; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Digre, Kathleen; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie

    2017-10-17

    The Coalition for a Healthier Community for Utah Women and Girls (CHC-UWAG) focused on addressing obesity-related health disparities impacting Utah women of color using community-based participatory research, a gender-based approach, and culturally sensitive health promotion activities delivered through community health workers (CHWs). A randomized trial of low vs. high intensity wellness coaching by CHWs was initiated. During this process, numerous policy issues emerged and were tracked. We present a case study illustrating how we identified, tracked, and engaged with emerging policy initiatives. Between September 2011 and August 2017, policy initiatives addressing obesity-related disparities among Utah women and girls were identified, tracked in a shared document, and updated regularly. Policies were classified by level (organizational, local, and statewide) and by focus (healthy eating, active living, and promotion of community health workers). CHC-UWAG engagement with policy work was also documented and tracked. Broad dissemination of study findings generated interest in the role of CHWs in addressing obesity. Partnering community-based organizations implemented policies focused on healthy eating and physical activity. Barriers to the broader use of CHWs in Utah were addressed in policy initiatives including the formation of a Utah Public Health Association Section for CHWs and a statewide CHW Coalition with involvement of CHC-UWAG members. The regular solicitation of information about policy initiatives resulted in successful policy tracking and engagement in policy work. The utilization of a gender-based approach helped illuminate the impact of emerging policies on the health of women and girls. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. An Evidence-Based Project Demonstrating Increased School Immunization Compliance Following a School Nurse-Initiated Vaccine Compliance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Wendy; Roberts, Jill C.

    2016-01-01

    During the 2012-2013 school year, only 66% of students at a Northern Indiana High School were in compliance with school immunization requirements. We report here successful implementation of evidence-based, time, and cost-effective methods aimed at increasing school immunization compliance. A three-stage strategy initiated by the school nurse was…

  7. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  8. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  9. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  10. Accessibility appraisal of integrated land-use/transport policy strategies: more than just adding up travel time savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Zondag, Barry; de Jong, Gerard; de Bok, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We examine the accessibility benefits associated with some land-use policy strategies for the Netherlands that anticipate on expected climate change. A disaggregate logsum accessibility measure using the Dutch national land-use/transport interaction model TIGRIS XL is used to compute changes in

  11. Progress with the national infrastructure maintenance strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy was approved by Cabinet in August 2006. This strategy sets overarching policy for sector-based initiatives, and describes the framework for a coordinated programme of actions. Simultaneous...

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  13. Health policy strategies for the treatment of obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Karaouli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phenomenon of obesity has nowadays become an epidemic, as it seems to greatly affect the populations of both developed and developing countries. General issues involving the evaluation of the phenomenon, its consequences and the health policies that can be used to confront it, are discussed.Objectives: The objectives of this paper were to critically discuss and analyze the relation between obesity and major diseases of the western societies such as cancers and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore its aim was to demonstrate the direct relation between various prevention strategies and the reduction of the phenomenon.Method: An online search in Medline, Pumed and the Cochrane Database of peer-reviewed Systematic Reviews and meta-analysis was conducted. Retrieved studies were screened to meet certain inclusion criteria, i.e. relevance, significant meanings in correspondence with this paper’s objectives and of interest to an international health-professional readership.Results: There is a clear demonstration of the direct relation between obesity and a series of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and coronary disease. Obesity also seems to be directly related to an increased incidence of caesarian sections and gestational diabetes mellitus. Reduced smoking rates during pregnancy and an increased time of breastfeeding seem to have a protective role. The importance of physical training, of a “healthy nutritional model” adopted by the parents, and of the Mediterranean diet are shown to be fundamental in the confrontation of the phenomenon. Additionally, family doctor interventions, cognitivebehavioral therapy and internet-mediated actions seem to sufficiently aid in its prevention.Conclusion: There is a clear proof that certain primary and secondary prevention strategies along with the the increase of health-concience in communities may lead to the decrease in the rates of obesity and its undoubtfully harmful consequences.

  14. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Mitchell N; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haas, Romi; Lane, Haylee; Haines, Terry P

    2017-11-14

    It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles) met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles) were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A unidirectional, hierarchal flow was described from (1

  15. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell N. Sarkies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. Methods An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Results After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A

  16. At a cultural crossroads: lessons on culture and policy from the New Zealand DISABILITY STRATEGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings and lessons from a year-long outcome evaluation of Objective 11 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy (NZDS): promote the participation of disabled Măori. It also looks at the larger implications for the creation of culturally appropriate and effective policy for indigenous peoples with disabilities. Data were drawn from 34 semi-structured interviews conducted with ministry officials, service provider organisations, Măori consumers with disabilities and caregivers to Măori consumers. Common themes included issues surrounding the effectiveness of the NZDS and the conflict between indigenous worldviews framed within a mainstream service paradigm. Themes unique to specific interview groups covered areas such as accountability structure design, perceived levels of cultural competency, collaboration across sectors and information exchange. Despite its shortcomings, the NZDS provides several pertinent lessons regarding the provision of culturally appropriate, effective disability services, including increased coordination and collaboration, workforce development (such as staff training and increased indigenous service provider resources), increased information distribution and increased community engagement. Early implementation of these actions allows indigenous peoples with disabilities to participate in society while fully acknowledging their heritage.

  17. Strategy of the Polish policy in the final phase of the Second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shvab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of strategy formation of the Polish government, which was in emigration, during the Second World War in the period of the eastern front approaching to the Polish borders, are found out in the article. The author confirms that the success of the Red Army made London government to rise a question about the Polish eastern border and legitimacy of London government on the liberated territories. Both questions did not have the solution in the way of traditional Polish policy. Joseph Stalin expected concession in the issue of the eastern border instead of loyalty to the London government. But Polish government did not accept accomplished facts. The ambassadors Stanislav Kot, later Tadeush Romer negotiated and insisted on returning of the western Ukrainian and Byelorussian lands. They proposed military cooperation with the Polish Home Army, which supposed to be strong enough for diversionary acts. After the battle of Stalingrad victory and that resonance, which it had made in the world, Stalin refused from such cooperation, he thought that Poland was too weak partner. Stalin continued the escalation of the relations, he consciously stopped all diplomatic relations, flatly refused to continue discussion about borders and changed the way of discussion about the legitimacy of the authentic authority in Poland.

  18. Innovative Strategy in Shrimp Potiguar: Asymmetries Power Generation and Implications for Policy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Baldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the technological trajectory and the actors – public and private - political behave in the carciniculture network (cultivate of shrimp in the federal estate of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was based on both embeddedness and cluster policy approach. The case study was based on bibliographic, archives, and empirical data, whose primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried on with 10 members of different organizations from carciniculture sector in the period 2009-2010, as well as interviews already conducted in the area since the year 2005. These data were submitted to content analysis with longitudinal and descriptive approach. Along the technological trajectory of the cluster we highlighted opportunities and limits for innovative strategies generated by asymmetries of power and ability to influence actors in the network. We highlight the relationship between 'power network' and 'links established with public actors' as well as the implications for innovation along the trajectory generated by a more or less state interference.

  19. Supply Chain Strategies for Quality Inspection under a Customer Return Policy: A Game Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the quality inspection strategies in a supplier–buyer supply chain under a customer return policy. This paper primarily focuses on product quality and quality inspection techniques to maximize the actors’ and supply chain’s profits using game theory approach. The supplier–buyer setup is described in terms of textile manufacturer–retailer supply chain where quality inspection is an important aspect and the product return from the customer is generally accepted. Textile manufacturer produces the product, whereas, retailer acts as a reseller who buys the products from the textile manufacturer and sells them to the customers. In this context, the former invests in the product quality whereas the latter invests in the random quality inspection and traceability. The relationships between the textile manufacturer and the retailer are recognized as horizontal and vertical alliances and modeled using non-cooperative and cooperative games. The non-cooperative games are based on the Stackelberg and Nash equilibrium models. Further, bargaining and game change scenarios have been discussed to maximize the profit under different games. To understand the appropriateness of a strategic alliance, a computational study demonstrates textile manufacturer–retailer relation under different game scenarios.

  20. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  1. Smart Specialization Strategy and its Operationalization in the Regional Policy: Case Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Kaivo-oja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, smart specialization is an important concept in regional policy. Its primary aim is to achieve inclusive and sustainable economic growth. There is a lack of convenient region specific measures to operationalize smart specialization startegies (S3. The purpose of the paper is to find “indices of smart specialization” on a regional level. We propose indices that are based on (1 the rate of industrial diversification, (2 revealed comparative advantage and (3 regions’ overall relative specialization. In the empirical part, we analyze smart specialization in Finland using structural data provided by Statistics Finland for seventy sub-regions (LAU1 and 24 sub-industries in manufacturing. These industries are the most important for exports, productivity, and regional economic performance for a small country. The following indices are used in empirical evaluations: Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI for regional diversity, Balassa-Hoover Index (BHI for revealed comparative advantage, and Region’s Relative Specialization Index (RRSI for aggregate regional specialization differences. The concept of smart specialization is related to these measures. Index analyses reveal that many growing sub-regions have similar comparative advantages. This means inter-regional synergy, and it enables opportunities for strategic cooperation between regions. To develop smart specialization strategies for Europe’s regions, we need these kinds of empirical knowledge-based management tools and planning approaches.

  2. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Fassil; Letebo, Mekitew; Bane, Abate

    2016-08-11

    Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees' responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful categories. The World Health Organization (WHO) global

  3. Chronic viral hepatitis: policy, regulation, and strategies for its control and elimination in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassil Shiferaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis. The objective of this study is to examine the current level of response to viral Hepatitis B & C in Ethiopia with the aim to bring identified gaps to the attention of relevant stakeholders and policy makers. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative study was based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 key informants from health facilities, health offices, pharmaceutical companies, regulatory bodies, professional association and blood bank units. Participants were selected purposively based on their role in the national hepatitis response. The investigators also reviewed available policy and strategy documents, standards of practice and surveys, and paid visits to pharmaceutical premises to check the availability of antiviral drugs. Thematic analysis was employed to make sense of the data. During the data analysis process, all the authors critically read the materials, and data was triangulated by source, interpreter view and thematic perspective to ensure accurate representation and comprehensiveness, and validation of the interviewees’ responses. Once each investigator reviewed the data independently, the team reached a common understanding of the scope and contexts of the information attained. Data were subsequently reduced to key concepts, and case stories were taken with successive revisions. The key concepts were later coded into most basic meaningful

  4. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  5. Concept of Multilingualism as Strategy of Language Policy and Foreign-Language Education in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Korotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the language policy of the European Union (EU in the field of lobbying the concept of multilingual Europe is considered. In this research the didactic aspects of the policy of multilingualism are accented, and also the results of the approbation of policy of multilingualism in the educational theory and practice of the EU are analyzed.

  6. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR [boiling water reactor] in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed

  7. The effectiveness of a 'Code Red' transfusion request policy initiated by pre-hospital physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne E; Hunter-Dunn, Ceri; Lyon, Richard M; Lockey, David; Krogh, Charlotte L

    2016-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of mortality and serious morbidity. Recent approaches to life-threatening traumatic haemorrhage have emphasized the importance of early blood product transfusion. We have implemented a pre-hospital transfusion request policy where a pre-hospital physician can request the presence of a major transfusion pack on arrival at the destination trauma centre. This study was performed to establish whether three simple criteria (1) suspicion or evidence of active haemorrhage (2) systolic BPpre-hospital 'Code Red' transfusion request accurately identified seriously injured patients who required transfusion on arrival at hospital. Prospective evaluation of all pre-hospital 'Code Red' requests over a 30-month period (August 2008-May 2011) was performed for patients transported to a major trauma centre. Mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, hospital mortality, and use of blood products were recorded. Patients were followed up to hospital discharge. 176 'Code Red' activations were made in the study period. 129 patients were transported to the Trauma Centre. Mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma in 39 (30%) cases, road traffic collision in 58 (45%), falls in 18 (14%) and 'other' in 14 (10.8%). Complete data was available for 126 patients. Of the patients reaching hospital, 20 died in the emergency department or operating theatre, 22 died following admission and 84 survived to hospital discharge. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 29.1. (range 0-66). Overall, 115 (91%) of the patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital received blood product transfusion after arrival in hospital. Eleven patients did not receive any blood products following hospital admission. In patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital, mean packed red blood cell transfusion in the first 24-h was 10.4 unit (95% CI 8.4-12.3 unit). The use of simple pre-hospital criteria allowed physicians to successfully identify trauma patients with severe injury and a requirement for

  8. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  9. Individuals Matter: Exploring Strategies of Individuals to Change the Water Policy for the Tisza River in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Werners

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a novel interpretation of the introduction of floodplain rehabilitation and rural development into the water policy for the Tisza River in Hungary. It looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they used to bring about water policy change. Five strategies are explored: developing new ideas, building coalitions to sell ideas, using windows of opportunity, playing multiple venues and orchestrating networks. Our discussion on the importance of each strategy and the individuals behind it is based on interviews, group discussions and a literature review. The international and political attention sparked by a series of floods, dike failure and a major cyanide spill, which preceded national elections, opened a window of opportunity for launching ideas. A new regional coalition successfully introduced floodplain rehabilitation into the water policy arena. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of a responsible civil servant who recognizes a new policy idea at an abstract level and a credible regional coalition that advocates the new idea regionally.

  10. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Alan P.; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Beech, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the de...

  11. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East and the American strategy of “system containment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Georgievitch Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of forming and implementation of foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI in the Middle East (Iraq, the Syria-Lebanese-Palestinian zone, Egypt, Gulf States and Yemen in the conditions of transformation of forms and methods of implementation of Washington’s strategy of “system containment” of the IRI are analyzed. Special attention is paid to identification of potential of IRI as one of leaders of the Middle East region. The main stages, the directions and implementation methods of strategy of “system containment” of the IRI as triangle complex of political, economic and military measures, performed by the USA and their allies for rendering multilateral pressure upon Tehran in order to change its foreign policy and the State power in the country, are shown. Change of a foreign policy line and approaches of Tehran to the solution of regional problems is considered in the context of escalation of pressure upon Iran from the USA and the states of the West. It is analyzed what forms and methods of the foreign policy and foreign economic activity implementation were used by Iran in the situation of increased political and economic risks, connected with toughening of the international and unilateral sanctions. In the conclusion, efficiency evaluations of Middle Eastern dimension of the Iranian foreign policy during the considered period are given and the tendencies of development of the situation around the IRI, that allow us to make the forecast for the medium term, are allocated.

  13. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies

    2003-07-01

    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  14. Adaptation strategies to climate change in the Arctic: a global patchwork of reactive community-scale initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic regions have experienced and will continue to experience the greatest rates of warming compared to any other region of the world. The people living in the Arctic are considered among most vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change ranging from decline in natural resources to increasing mental health concerns (IPCC 2014 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). A meta-analysis study by Ford et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104005) has assessed the volume, scope and geographic distribution of reported in the English language peer-reviewed literature initiatives for adaptation to climate change in the Arctic. Their analysis highlights the reactive nature of the adopted policies with a strong emphasis on local and community-level policies mostly targeting indigenous population in Canada and Alaska. The study raises concerns about the lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the success rate of the existing policies and the need for long-term strategic planning in adaption policies spanning international boundaries and including all groups of population.

  15. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, J. Michael [ORNL; White-Horton, Jessica L. [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [NNSA

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  16. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  17. Strategy of the Romanian Public Information Policy in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Manole, Felicia; Paunescu, Aurelia; Petran, Catalina; Chiper, Livia

    1998-01-01

    In the framework the Romania's nuclear power program the first Romanian NPP has been built at Cernavoda and the Unit 1, based on a CANDU type reactor, was commissioned on December 2, 1996. The start of the entire nuclear program in Romania, some 20 years ago, was a high level government decision with no public hearing or acceptance, either, but obviously based on economic and political considerations. After 1990 favorable and unfavorable articles in the mass media, most of them lacking of technical background, had led to distorted and false perception of information. The strategy of public information policy in the nuclear field should be guided by the following facts: a) the public perception of the nuclear energy problems in general, and of nuclear power, in particular, is deeply deformed by the ignorance in the domain; b) first of all the public fears for its health menaced by radiation and radioactive wastes; c) the public due not know the actual dimension and potential of the Romanian industry in this field, the qualitative progress brought about by the implementation of the nuclear program in the Romania's economy; d) the public vulnerability when exposed to the mass media which, owing to its rush towards sensational or due to the lack of knowledge in the field, rather often have launched simple, unfounded speculations. The paper presents the basic principles which are underlying the public information program and lists suggestions for the future activity concerning: A - the educational programs addressed to young people; B - development of computer-assisted educational programs; C - the relationship with mass media; D - accomplishing an adequate information through publications; E - organizing and/or participating in exhibitions displaying nuclear power development; F - advertising actions related to promotion of Unit 2 - 5 project at Cernavoda NPP

  18. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tapia-Conyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM, or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL. However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should

  19. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-02-20

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals-about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  20. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the development and spread of resistance and to this end it has three strategic aims, namely to improve knowledge and understanding of resistance, to conserve and steward the effectiveness of existing treatments and to stimulate the development of new antibiotics, diagnostics and novel therapies. This article reviews the antimicrobial stewardship activities included in the strategy and describes their implementation and evaluation.

  1. Summing up the parts. Combining Policy Instruments for Least-Cost Climate Mitigation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Meeting the enormous challenge of decarbonising world energy systems will require a rapid expansion of investment in clean technologies on a global scale. Mobilising these resources will be a daunting task, and it is important to undertake the transition at the lowest cost possible. This paper seeks to provide some guidance on climate change policy-making within real-world constraints, focusing on the justification of policies to supplement a carbon price, interactions between carbon pricing and supplementary policies, and management of these interactions to enable a least-cost policy response.

  2. Strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation of road pricing packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Isaksson, Karolina; Macmillen, James

    2014-01-01

    In the transport policy domain, as in other highly-contested spheres of public policy, it is commonplace for certain policy measures to emerge as promising only to then remain unimplemented. Road pricing is one example of a theoretically well-developed transport policy measure that has proven...... for the formulation and implementation of politically-contentious road pricing packages-addressing issues of measure combination, flexibility, legitimacy, communication, timing and organisational dynamics. While acknowledging the primacy of broader external and contextual issues, the conclusion is that taking...

  3. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  4. Evidence on anti-malarial and diagnostic markets in Cambodia to guide malaria elimination strategies and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phok, Sochea; Lek, Dysoley

    2017-04-25

    Understanding Cambodia's anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to address malaria elimination activities. From August 17th to October 1st, 2015, a cross sectional, nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted in Cambodia. A census of all public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among 180 communes. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and microscopy. A total of 26,664 outlets were screened, and 1303 outlets were eligible and interviewed. Among all screened outlets in the public sector, 75.9% of public health facilities and 67.7% of community health workers stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and a first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Among anti-malarial-stocking private sector outlets, 64.7% had malaria blood testing available, and 70.9% were stocking a first-line ACT. Market share data illustrate that most of the anti-malarials were sold or distributed through the private sector (58.4%), including itinerant drug vendors (23.4%). First-line ACT accounted for the majority of the market share across the public and private sectors (90.3%). Among private sector outlets stocking any anti-malarial, the proportion of outlets with a first-line ACT or RDT was higher among outlets that had reportedly received one or more forms of 'support' (e.g. reportedly received training in the previous year on malaria diagnosis [RDT and/or microscopy] and/or the national treatment guidelines for malaria) compared to outlets

  5. U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1981-1990): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    90) CONTRIBUTIONS TO WAR TERMINATION U.S./ALLIES • Strategy successful • Global coalition intact • Strategic reserve intact • Industrial base intact...parliaments US, foreign academia Capitol Hill US defense industry Programs & acquisition  Fleet exercises Global War Games CNO SSG  JSPS pubs, esp JSCP...Strategy (1982-90) Why so influential? (II) Embedded firmly within Navy internal PPBS processes (CPAMs) Smooth segue from Planning (OP-06-led

  6. ESL Elementary Teachers' Use of Children's Picture Books to Initiate Explicit Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khaiyali, Al Tiyb S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension instruction has been recognized as a key factor in developing any reading and literacy program. Therefore, many attempts were devoted to improve explicit comprehension strategy instruction at different school levels and fields including EFL and ESL. Despite these efforts, explicit comprehension instruction is still drought…

  7. Sustainable Development Strategies: : what roles for informal economy initiatives in the Post-2015 SDGs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul; Cörvers, R.; de Kraker, J.; Kemp, R.; Martens, P.; van Lente, H.

    2016-01-01

    Powerful and continuing processes of globalization hold implications for the capacities of different sectors to contribute to well-being. Conventional thinking is nevertheless still focused on top-down strategies that seek to include and integrate people and places into the global capitalist

  8. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  9. 76 FR 2428 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI) Working Group provide leadership in establishing the...: Risk Management Methods & Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology (details at http... posted online in response to challenge questions from July 13-August 15, 2010, at the NNI Strategy Portal...

  10. Energy efficiency of office equipment - Proposal for a policy mix for Germany with an in-depth analysis of labelling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    Research under contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) identified a considerable energy saving potential fielding the area of office equipment. In this paper, a proposal for a policy mix is presented with the goal to increase energy efficiency by market-transformation in this sector. This was worked out by order of the UBA. Pending EU legislation like the Procurement Directive and the proposal for Eco-Design Directive have been considered. An in-depth analysis for labelling schemes for office equipment is provided with respect to the future of the Energy Star process, specifically the continuation of the Energy Star-cooperation between the U.S.EPA and the EU. Preliminary results gained after literature enquiry and interviews of experts were discussed during a workshop at the German Federal Environmental Ministry in September 2004. Our proposal for a policy mix includes: public procurement, efficiency labelling, training and education, energy management in public and private institutions, mandatory minimum standards, marketing. The demand for high efficient appliances should initially be boosted by green procurement to trigger market transformation. In the field of efficiency labelling, we first analyse the shortcomings of previous strategies. On this basis, we propose a two level-strategy for Germany: 1. The Energy Star process with improved structures shall act as a widely compliable labelling minimum standard. 2. An information programme about high efficient appliances ('quality-programme') should be established basing on existing structures (Energy Star, GEEA, TopTen) to minimise transaction costs

  11. Prevalence of Physical Activity Policies and Environmental Strategies in Communities and Worksites: The Iowa Community Transformation Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason D; Nothwehr, Faryle

    2016-01-01

    This study describes results of community and worksite assessments of physical activity policies and environmental strategies in 26 Iowa counties. Community coalition members completed the Community Health Assessment and Group Evaluation tool. The study explored findings using descriptive statistics and examined rural-urban differences in two of the five assessed sectors: community and worksites. Lower community scores (ie, needing improvement) were found for complete streets, bicycle use, and street calming. Higher scores (ie, identified strengths) were found for land use plans, maintain parks, and sidewalks Americans with Disabilities Act compliant. Worksites scored lower on promote stairwells, encourage non-motorized commuting, and implement activity breaks but higher on subsidize gym membership and provide area for physical activity. No rural-urban differences were found. Results identify opportunities to enhance community and worksite policies and environmental strategies to increase physical activity.

  12. The Problems of Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy and the Demand-Side Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation

  13. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  14. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimizing a Lipshitzian function. The branch and bound technique is a well-known solution method, and the key components for this are the subdivision scheme, the bound calculation scheme, and the initialization. For Lipschitzian optimization, the bound calculations...... are based on the sampling of function values. We propose a branch and bound algorithm based on regular simplexes. Initially, the domain in question is covered with regular simplexes, and our subdivision scheme maintains this property. The bound calculation becomes both simple and efficient, and we describe...... reserved....

  15. Strategy; Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Francois Loos, Minister of Industry, explains the French energy policy in the frame of Europe. ONERC is a French public body in charge of defining a national strategy against climate changes. It submits its first strategic elements to the Government. (authors)

  16. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to:1. describe the impact of such strategies on childcare service staff knowledge, skills or attitudes;2. describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies;3. describe any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children;4. examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. We searched the following electronic databases on 3 August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS. We also searched reference lists of included trials, handsearched two international implementation science journals and searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). We included any study (randomised or non-randomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. The review authors independently screened abstracts and titles, extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias in pairs; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. Heterogeneity across studies precluded pooling of data and undertaking quantitative

  17. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  18. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    during most of the 19th century , for example, and riverine warfare during most of its history (except for the American Civil War, the Vietnam War...Select a caveat DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and...Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty- first Century Peter M. Swartz January 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract

  19. Discursive "Policy Logics" of Mergers in US Higher Education: Strategy or Tragedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sandria S.

    2011-01-01

    Mergers are part of the historical fabric of US higher education. However, the current economic recession and other policy issues have experts and academicians predicting an increase in higher education mergers in the USA. Consequently, this study analysed the discursive "policy logics" surrounding merger negotiations in US higher…

  20. Implementing nationally determined contributions: building energy policies in India’s mitigation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Tan, Qing; Gupta, Ashu; Patel, Pralit

    2018-03-01

    The Nationally Determined Contributions are allowing countries to examine options for reducing emissions through a range of domestic policies. India, like many developing countries, has committed to reducing emissions through specific policies, including building energy codes. Here we assess the potential of these sectoral policies to help in achieving mitigation targets. Collectively, it is critically important to see the potential impact of such policies across developing countries in meeting national and global emission goals. Buildings accounted for around one third of global final energy use in 2010, and building energy consumption is expected to increase as income grows in developing countries. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study finds that implementing a range of energy efficiency policies robustly can reduce total Indian building energy use by 22% and lower total Indian carbon dioxide emissions by 9% in 2050 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Among various policies, energy codes for new buildings can result in the most significant savings. For all building energy policies, well-coordinated, consistent implementation is critical, which requires coordination across different departments and agencies, improving capacity of stakeholders, and developing appropriate institutions to facilitate policy implementation.

  1. Towards adaptive management: examining the strategies of policy entrepreneurs in Dutch water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.; Biermann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more

  2. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  3. E-Waste In Bangladesh: Evaluating The Situation, Legislation And Policy And Way Forward With Strategy And Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventory, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  4. The National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative: Strategy in Action: Building the Cybersecurity Workforce in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) has achieved particular success in operationalizing the National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative (HEWI) in Maryland around cybersecurity. Leveraging its membership of corporate CEOs, university presidents, and government agency leaders, BHEF partnered with the University System of Maryland to…

  5. A guide to the translation of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy into improved care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; FitzGerald, J Mark; Levy, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    published. This report is intended to draw on this experience and assist with the translation of asthma guideline recommendations into quality programmes for patients with asthma using current knowledge translation principles. It also provides examples of successful initiatives in various socioeconomic...

  6. Development of a tiered screening strategy for a molecular-initiating event: thyroperoxidase inhibition (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses illustrate that some molecular-initiating events (MIEs) for thyroid disruption, including thyroperoxidase (TPO) inhibition, are not evaluated by current ToxCast/Tox21 high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. A novel HTS assay for TPO inhibiti...

  7. Accelerating the transition to low-carbon cities : Strategies for scaling-up local initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doren, D.

    2018-01-01

    As centres of energy consumption and innovation, cities can play an important role in combatting climate change. In cities worldwide, low-carbon initiatives are realized by pioneers that demonstrate that climate mitigation can be reconciled with urban development needs. Examples incude the creation

  8. PUBLIC POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF A COUNTRY . CASE OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia BUŞMACHIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of concepts applied in the decision - making process aims to investigate the functioning of mechanisms to develop and implement the central public administration policies. A modern decision - making process includes the whole procedure of decision making: setting the priorities of public policies, choosing options, instruments of public policy implementation, developing and adopting the respective legislative and normative acts, funding to implement these policies, conducting implementation actions and monitoring the impact of public policy decisions. Often the decision - making process in public administration is interpreted as a simple organization of the information and documents circuit. Therefore there arises the need to analyze the concept of decision making and propose solutions to improve it.

  9. [Essential therapeutic strategies for acute pancreatitis--guidelines for initial treatment and their significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Koichi

    2004-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a disease with a wide variety of pathophysiologies, ranging from mild to severe condition. In about 80% to 90% of cases, acute pancreatitis presents as a mild inflammation with low morbidity and mortality, self-reversing to normal condition within 3-4 days. However, the natural course of severe pancreatitis progresses into SIRS and necrosis of the pancreas and its surrounding tissue. And infection of the necrotic tissue develops in sepsis and organ failures. Therefore, the initial management for acute pancreatitis would significantly contribute on the early prognosis. The first step includes not only diagnosis but also initial treatment according to etiological assessment and severity stratification. The summarization of initial management revealed as follows: monitorings of temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, urine output volume, abdominal pain etc, and treatments of cardio-pulmonary care with sufficient fluid resuscitation, pain control, resting of pancreas etc. As the treatment of the initial management after initial onset, the significances of nasogastric tube drainage, prophylactic use of broadspectrum antibiotics, continuous infusion of protease inhibitors, use of H2 receptor antagonists, control by enteral nutrition and so on have been discussed. And also the indications of total parenteral nutrition, selective digestive decontamination and the efficacies of peritoneal lavage, continuous hemodiafiltration and continuous arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and antibiotics have been reviewed. For those events, the evidences were collected by a systemic search of MEDLINE and Japan Centra Revues Medicina. And then practical recommendations were also graded and introduced to provide a framework for clinitians to manage acute pancreatitis as a guideline. This paper described a part of those recommendations.

  10. Tumor initiating cells and chemoresistance: which is the best strategy to target colon cancer stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, Emanuela; Tesori, Valentina; Casalbore, Patrizia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  11. A proposed strategy for research misconduct policy: A review on misconduct management in health research system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Considering the proposed strategy, regarding the strengths and weaknesses, utilization of evaluation tool can be one of the best strategies to achieving the prospective of health research papers by 2025.

  12. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  14. Global Strategy Choices (GSC) : Prognosis and Strategic Planning for European Foreign and Security Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej; Kettle, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The European Security Strategy (ESS) is currently being reformulated. This working paper puts forward a new methodological approach in the construction of global strategies for stakeholders in the international system. It makes the case that contemporary strategy formulation (including the ESS)

  15. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Lum-Kwong, Margaret Moy; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal o...

  16. Species interactions within a fouling diatom community: Roles of nutrients, initial inoculum and competitive strategies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    to sound devices, electronic units, cables and other instruments intended for underwater research. In the process of fouling, bacteria and diatoms are the initial colonizers of any substrata immersed in seawater (Cooksey et al., 1980). The source... on various types of natural as well as artificial substrates where they tend to settle and develop into a biofouling community. These diatom communities are responsible for a major input of energy in the form of reduced carbon to the surface (Cooksey et al...

  17. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  18. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  19. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity": Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-07-20

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and

  1. Accomplishing Water Strategy Policies in Hospitals: The Role of Management Information Systems and Managerial Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are using more sophisticated and comprehensive management information systems to implement multiple strategic policies towards water cost saving and water quality enhancement. However, they do not always achieve the intended strategic goals. This paper analyzes how managerial styles interact with sophisticated management information systems to achieve different water strategic priorities. How proactive vs. reactive managerial styles moderate the effects of management information systems on water cost saving and water quality enhancement is analyzed. Relationships are explored using data collected from 122 general services directors in Spanish public hospitals. The findings show a positive effect of sophisticated management information systems on the achievement of water policies focused on cost saving and quality enhancement. Results also show a different moderated effect of managerial styles; thus, sophisticated management information systems with a proactive managerial style facilitate managers to achieve better water quality policies rather than water cost saving policies.

  2. Policies and strategies that govern the management of audio-visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    visual materials in the member states of the East and Southern Africa Regional Branch of theInternational Council on Archives (ESARBICA). The paper examines the extent to which national archives in ESARBICA apply archival policies and ...

  3. Foreign Policy and a State's Hierarchy of Needs: DOD and the New Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olwell, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    ....' First, fascist aggression sought world domination, and war resulted. Then, the security of the United States was clearly tied to blocking the spread of communism through a national policy of containment...

  4. Tumor Initiating Cells and Chemoresistance: Which Is the Best Strategy to Target Colon Cancer Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Paldino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs. In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  5. Managing networks in the public sector: A theoretical study of management strategies in policy networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klijn, Erik-Hans; Koppenjan, Joop; Termeer, Katrien

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPublic policy usually develops in complex networks of public, quasi-public and private organizations. It is now generally accepted that these networks set limits to the governance capability of the administration. A good deal less is known about the opportunities which policy networks offer for tackling social and administrative problems. This article deals with the way network management enables government organizations to benefit from networks. Building on the theoretical concep...

  6. Is climate change-centrism an optimal policy making strategy to set national electricity mixes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Reyna, Janet L.; García-Torres, Samy; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of climate-centric policies on other environmental impacts is uncertain. • Analysis of changing electricity grids of Peru and Spain in the period 1989–2013. • Life Cycle Assessment was the selected sustainability method to conduct the study. • Policies targeting GHG reductions also reduce air pollution and toxicity. • Resource usage, especially water, does not show the same trends as GHG emissions. - Abstract: In order to combat the threat of climate change, countries have begun to implement policies which restrict GHG emissions in the electricity sector. However, the development of national electricity mixes should also be sensitive to resource availability, geo-political forces, human health impacts, and social equity concerns. Policy focused on GHG goals could potentially lead to adverse consequences in other areas. To explore the impact of “climate-centric” policy making on long-term electricity mix changes, we develop two cases for Peru and Spain analyzing their changing electricity grids in the period 1989–2013. We perform a Life Cycle Assessment of annual electricity production to catalogue the improvements in GHG emissions relative to other environmental impacts. We conclude that policies targeting GHG reductions might have the co-benefit of also reducing air pollution and toxicity at the expense of other important environmental performance indicators such as water depletion. Moreover, as of 2013, both countries generate approximately equal GHG emissions per kWh, and relatively low emission rates of other pollutants compared to nations of similar development levels. Although climate-centric policy can lead to some positive environmental outcomes in certain areas, energy policy-making should be holistic and include other aspects of sustainability and vulnerability.

  7. "The lobbying strategy is to keep excise as low as possible" - tobacco industry excise taxation policy in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) claim they wish to develop and secure excise systems that benefit both governments and the profitability of the companies themselves. The objective of the paper is to use the case of Ukraine, with its inconsistent history of excise tax changes in 1992-2008, to explore tobacco industry taxation strategies and tactics, and their implications for governmental revenues. Methods Details of tobacco industry policy on tobacco taxation in Ukraine were obtained by searching tobacco industry internal documents and various published reports. Results Even before entering the market in Ukraine, TTCs had made efforts to change the excise system in the country. In 1993-1994, TTCs lobbied the Ukrainian Government, and succeeded in achieving a lowering in tobacco tax. This, however, did not produce revenue increase they promised the Government. In 1996-1998, Ukrainian authorities increased excise several times, ignoring the wishes of TTCs, caused significant growth in revenue. Due to TTCs lobbying activities in 1999-2007 the tax increases were very moderate and it resulted in increased tobacco consumption in Ukraine. In 2008, despite the TTCs position, excise rates were increased twice and it was very beneficial for revenues. Conclusions The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes provisions both on tobacco taxation policy and on protection of public health policy from vested interests of tobacco industry. This paper provides arguments why tobacco taxation policy should also be protected from vested interests of tobacco industry. TTCs taxation strategy appears to be consistent: keep excise as low as possible. Apparent conflicts between TTCs concerning tax structures often hide their real aim to change tax structures for competing interests without increasing total tax incidence. Governments, that aim to reduce levels of tobacco use, should not allow

  8. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demouth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal......) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI...

  9. Initiation and Termination of Massive Transfusion Protocols: Current Strategies and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John C; Sappenfield, Joshua W; Smith, Robert S; Kiley, Sean P

    2017-12-01

    The advent of massive transfusion protocols (MTP) has had a significant positive impact on hemorrhaging trauma patient morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, societal MTP guidelines and individual MTPs at academic institutions continue to circulate opposing recommendations on topics critical to MTPs. This narrative review discusses up-to-date information on 2 such topics, the initiation and termination of an MTP. The discussion for each begins with a review of the recommendations and supporting literature presented by MTP guidelines from 3 prominent societies, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American College of Surgeons, and the task force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the main components within those recommendations. Societal recommendations on MTP initiation in hemorrhaging trauma patients emphasize the use of retrospectively validated massive transfusion (MT) prediction score, specifically, the Assessment of Blood Consumption and Trauma-Associated Severe Hemorrhage scores. Validation studies have shown that both scoring systems perform similarly. Both scores reliably identify patients that will not require an MT, while simultaneously overpredicting MT requirements. However, each scoring system has its unique advantages and disadvantages, and this review discusses how specific aspects of each scoring system can affect widespread applicability and statistical performance. In addition, we discuss the often overlooked topic of initiating MT in nontrauma patients and the specific tools physicians have to guide the MT initiation decision in this unique setting. Despite the serious complications that can arise with transfusion of large volumes of blood products, there is considerably less research pertinent to the topic of MTP termination. Societal recommendations on MTP termination emphasize applying clinical reasoning to identify patients who have bleeding source control and are adequately

  10. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  11. Modes of Governing and Policy of Local and Regional Governments Supporting Local Low-Carbon Energy Initiatives; Exploring the Cases of the Dutch Regions of Overijssel and Fryslân

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beau Warbroek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarly attention shows increasing involvement of local low-carbon energy initiatives (LLCEIs in governance and policy, in particular in relation to innovations regarding low-carbon energy and energy efficiency. The future perspective of active citizenship in the production of locally generated low-carbon energy is largely dependent on the existing institutional and policy frameworks and settings. Subnational governments, in particular, can have a prominent role in this process by engaging in institutional adaptation and policy innovation. The central research question of this paper is: In what ways do local and regional governments innovate in governing to respond to the emergence of LLCEIs? The research question is answered by comparing two case studies: the Dutch regions of Overijssel and Fryslân. We have conceptualized a meta-governing approach of experimentation, characterizing the innovations in governing that emerge when governments respond to the emergence of LLCEIs. We specifically focus on two capacities that subnational governments can use to enhance their governing capacity vis-à-vis LLCEIs and which substantiate the experimental meta-governance mode: institutional adaptation and policy innovation. We then formulated hypotheses that specify the expected policy innovations and institutional adaptations employed vis-à-vis LLCEIs. Data collection involved in-depth interviews and use of secondary data. The results show that a balancing process of authoritative and enabling modes of governing particularly characterized the type of policy innovations that were developed and the institutional adaptations that took place. Both provinces govern LLCEIs at arm’s length and issue significant capacity-building strategies that vary in terms of their conditions. Municipalities, however, incline towards impromptu and opportunistic responses, some of them having lasting effects by patching up existing institutional settings, others

  12. A review of national policies and strategies to improve quality of health care and patient safety: a case study from Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Fadlallah, Racha

    2017-08-16

    Improving quality of care and patient safety practices can strengthen health care delivery systems, improve health sector performance, and accelerate attainment of health-related Sustainability Development Goals. Although quality improvement is now prominent on the health policy agendas of governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), progress to date has not been optimal. The objective of this study is to comprehensively review existing quality improvement and patient safety policies and strategies in two selected countries of the EMR (Lebanon and Jordan) to determine the extent to which these have been institutionalized within existing health systems. We used a mixed methods approach that combined documentation review, stakeholder surveys and key informant interviews. Existing quality improvement and patient safety initiatives were assessed across five components of an analytical framework for assessing health care quality and patient safety: health systems context; national policies and legislation; organizations and institutions; methods, techniques and tools; and health care infrastructure and resources. Both Lebanon and Jordan have made important progress in terms of increased attention to quality and accreditation in national health plans and strategies, licensing requirements for health care professionals and organizations (albeit to varying extents), and investments in health information systems. A key deficiency in both countries is the absence of an explicit national policy for quality improvement and patient safety across the health system. Instead, there is a spread of several (disjointed) pieces of legal measures and national plans leading to fragmentation and lack of clear articulation of responsibilities across the entire continuum of care. Moreover, both countries lack national sets of standardized and applicable quality indicators for performance measurement and benchmarking

  13. Planning assumptions and implementing strategies for co-operative print storage initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sandler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article recounts some of the major decision points addressed by the library directors on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC in their efforts to establish a shared print repository for journal back-files widely held across CIC libraries. In 2011, the directors committed to co-invest in a centralized strategy to aggregate 250,000 volumes at Indiana University (IU, with potential for the project to expand over time to address other library formats (i.e. monographs and encompass other storage host-sites. A focus of the article is an assessment of the costs of such projects, and the potential return on the investments being made by the CIC libraries.

  14. Assistive-as-Needed Strategy for Upper-Limb Robotic Systems: An Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, I. M.; Sidek, S. N.; Yusof, H. Md; Baarath, K.; Majeed, A. P. P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Stroke is amongst the leading causes of deprivation of one’s ability in carrying out activities of daily living. It has been reported from literature that, the functional recovery of stroke patients are rather poor, unless frequent rehabilitative therapy is assumed on the affected limb. Recent trends of rehabilitation therapy have also shifted towards allowing more participation of the patient in the therapy session rather than simple passive treatments as it has been demonstrated to be non-trivial in promoting neural plasticity to expedite motor recovery process. Therefore, the employment of rehabilitation robotics is seen as a means of mitigating the limitations of conventional rehabilitation therapy. It enables unique methods for promoting patient engagement by providing patients assistance only as needed basis. This paper attempts on reviewing assist-as-needed control strategy applied on upper-limb robotic rehabilitation devices.

  15. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  16. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  17. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  18. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  19. Cost Containment for Higher Education: Strategies for Public Policy and Institutional Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William Brand

    This book discusses long term strategies for cost containment for higher education that are currently in use or could be employed. Some of the strategies discussed are applicable at various levels of government, some relate to interinstitutional arrangements and some are options of the individual institutions. The chapters are as follows: (1)…

  20. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  1. THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ON THE LIMITATION OF IMPORT CATTLE TO COMPANY’S STRATEGY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF MAINTAINING COMPANY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhendra A.V.H.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the company's strategy in order to maintain the company's performance as a result of import cattle quota restriction. The policy of import cattle restriction imposed by the Indonesian government certainly has a significant impact on cattle importing companies, especially PT Karunia Alam Sentosa Abadi (KASA, Lampung - Indonesia. PT Karunia Alam Sentosa Abadi (KASA enforces various-new business strategies to maintain the company performance from quota import policy. The results of the study show that there are several strategies applied by the company such as Volume to Performance Strategy, Average Daily Gain (ADG improvement, Marketing Network Evaluation, Leasing Company Facilities, and Daily Workforce Reduction.

  2. The Trichoptera barcode initiative: a strategy for generating a species-level Tree of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Paul B.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Beet, Clare R.; Bennett, Kristi R.; Blahnik, Roger J.; Bonada, Núria; Cartwright, David; Chuluunbat, Suvdtsetseg; Cocks, Graeme V.; Collins, Gemma E.; deWaard, Jeremy; Dean, John; Flint, Oliver S.; Hausmann, Axel; Hendrich, Lars; Hess, Monika; Hogg, Ian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Malicky, Hans; Milton, Megan A.; Morinière, Jérôme; Morse, John C.; Mwangi, François Ngera; Pauls, Steffen U.; Gonzalez, María Razo; Rinne, Aki; Robinson, Jason L.; Salokannel, Juha; Shackleton, Michael; Smith, Brian; Stamatakis, Alexandros; StClair, Ros; Thomas, Jessica A.; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Ziesmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding was intended as a means to provide species-level identifications through associating DNA sequences from unknown specimens to those from curated reference specimens. Although barcodes were not designed for phylogenetics, they can be beneficial to the completion of the Tree of Life. The barcode database for Trichoptera is relatively comprehensive, with data from every family, approximately two-thirds of the genera, and one-third of the described species. Most Trichoptera, as with most of life's species, have never been subjected to any formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we present a phylogeny with over 16 000 unique haplotypes as a working hypothesis that can be updated as our estimates improve. We suggest a strategy of implementing constrained tree searches, which allow larger datasets to dictate the backbone phylogeny, while the barcode data fill out the tips of the tree. We also discuss how this phylogeny could be used to focus taxonomic attention on ambiguous species boundaries and hidden biodiversity. We suggest that systematists continue to differentiate between ‘Barcode Index Numbers’ (BINs) and ‘species’ that have been formally described. Each has utility, but they are not synonyms. We highlight examples of integrative taxonomy, using both barcodes and morphology for species description. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481793

  3. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  4. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger Initial Run-2 Strategy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00378953; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10^34cm^ -2s-1, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. In these conditions single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we utilised faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques. In Run II topological criteria can now be applied already at the first trigger level, due to the addition of the L1 topological. This makes it possible to use detail...

  5. The Trichoptera barcode initiative: a strategy for generating a species-level Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Frandsen, Paul B; Holzenthal, Ralph W; Beet, Clare R; Bennett, Kristi R; Blahnik, Roger J; Bonada, Núria; Cartwright, David; Chuluunbat, Suvdtsetseg; Cocks, Graeme V; Collins, Gemma E; deWaard, Jeremy; Dean, John; Flint, Oliver S; Hausmann, Axel; Hendrich, Lars; Hess, Monika; Hogg, Ian D; Kondratieff, Boris C; Malicky, Hans; Milton, Megan A; Morinière, Jérôme; Morse, John C; Mwangi, François Ngera; Pauls, Steffen U; Gonzalez, María Razo; Rinne, Aki; Robinson, Jason L; Salokannel, Juha; Shackleton, Michael; Smith, Brian; Stamatakis, Alexandros; StClair, Ros; Thomas, Jessica A; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Ziesmann, Tanja; Kjer, Karl M

    2016-09-05

    DNA barcoding was intended as a means to provide species-level identifications through associating DNA sequences from unknown specimens to those from curated reference specimens. Although barcodes were not designed for phylogenetics, they can be beneficial to the completion of the Tree of Life. The barcode database for Trichoptera is relatively comprehensive, with data from every family, approximately two-thirds of the genera, and one-third of the described species. Most Trichoptera, as with most of life's species, have never been subjected to any formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we present a phylogeny with over 16 000 unique haplotypes as a working hypothesis that can be updated as our estimates improve. We suggest a strategy of implementing constrained tree searches, which allow larger datasets to dictate the backbone phylogeny, while the barcode data fill out the tips of the tree. We also discuss how this phylogeny could be used to focus taxonomic attention on ambiguous species boundaries and hidden biodiversity. We suggest that systematists continue to differentiate between 'Barcode Index Numbers' (BINs) and 'species' that have been formally described. Each has utility, but they are not synonyms. We highlight examples of integrative taxonomy, using both barcodes and morphology for species description.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Strategy Evaluation for Cavity Flooding during an ESBO Initiated Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional depressurization and cavity flooding are two important measures in current severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs. An extreme scenario of an extended station blackout (ESBO, when electric power is unavailable for more than 24 hours, actually occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi accident and attracted lots of attention. In an ESBO, the containment spray cannot be activated for condensation, and, thus, cavity flooding will generate a large amount of steam, which, ironically, overpressurizes the containment to failure before the reactor vessel is melted through. Therefore, consideration of these conflicting issues and the ways in which plants operate is crucial for strengthening the strategies outlined in SAMGs. In this paper, the effects of intentional depressurization and cavity flooding in an ESBO for a representative 900 MW second-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR are simulated with MAAP4 code. Diverse scenarios with different starting times of depressurization and water injection are also compared to summarize the positive and negative impacts for accident mitigation. The phenomena associated with creep ruptures, hydrogen combustion, corium stratification, and cavity boiling are also analyzed in detail to strengthen our understanding of severe accident mechanisms. The results point out the facility limitations of second-generation PWRs which can improve existing SAMGs.

  7. Initiating therapeutic relaxation in Britain: a twentieth-century strategy for health and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, a British charity, Relaxation for Living, was established “to promote the teaching of physical relaxation, to combat stress, strain, anxiety and the tension of modern life, and to reduce fatigue”. This article explores the origins and development of “physical relaxation” techniques and ideologies, starting in the interwar period, and the development of practical, therapeutic, social and cultural frameworks necessary for such an organization to come into being in 1970s Britain. It traces how relaxation was reconstituted as a scientifically-based skill that could be learnt and taught, imbued with therapeutic value for combating and preventing specific physical ailments and enhancing individual health and wellbeing. The article explores how relaxation techniques gained currency among particular demographic and clinical groups, ranging from middle-class, child-bearing women to middle-aged, “coronary-prone” men. This analysis highlights the role that relaxation practitioners played in both creating and responding to demand for individualistic health-management strategies, many of which have shaped contemporary health and wellbeing agendas. This article is published as part of a collection entitled “On balance: lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing”. PMID:27563437

  8. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Moy Lum-Kwong, Margaret; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex

    2008-12-10

    Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs) and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC) and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150 community pharmacists across the 11 communities

  9. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  10. Drop the Salt! Assessing the impact of a public health advocacy strategy on Australian government policy on salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Kennington, Sarah; Neal, Bruce; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to encourage the Australian government to take action to reduce population salt intake. The objective of the present research was to assess the impact of the Drop the Salt! campaign on government policy. A review of government activities related to salt reduction was conducted and an advocacy strategy implemented to increase government action on salt. Advocacy actions were documented and the resulting outcomes identified. An analysis of stakeholder views on the effectiveness of the advocacy strategy was also undertaken. Settings Advocacy activities were coordinated through AWASH at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney. All relevant State and Federal government statements and actions were reviewed and thirteen stakeholders with known interests or responsibilities regarding dietary salt, including food industry, government and health organisations, were interviewed. Stakeholder analysis affirmed that AWASH influenced the government's agenda on salt reduction and four key outputs were attributed to the campaign: (i) the Food Regulation Standing Committee discussions on salt, (ii) the Food and Health Dialogue salt targets, (iii) National Health and Medical Research Council partnership funding and (iv) the New South Wales Premier's Forum on Fast Foods. While it is not possible to definitively attribute changes in government policy to one organisation, stakeholder research indicated that the AWASH campaign increased the priority of salt reduction on the government's agenda. However, a coordinated government strategy on salt reduction is still required to ensure that the potential health benefits are fully realised.

  11. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the

  12. Point Climat no. 22 'Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is laying the initial foundations for a European agricultural climate policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has had a very small climate component since 1992. The recent inclusion of green payments and the climate risk management tools proposed for the CAP for the period beyond 2013 illustrate the European Commission's willingness to expand this climate component. Furthermore, there is little mention of the agricultural sector in the tools rolled out by the European climate policy, particularly those derived from the 2009 'Climate and Energy' Package. Therefore, even if this autumn's parliamentary debate results in the reform proposals being diluted, the post-2013 CAP could nevertheless become a principal tool for a common EU climate policy in the agricultural sector

  13. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  14. Argumentative Strategies in the Action of Compensation for Moral Damages: a Study of an Initial Petition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the semiolinguistics theory, this work intended to investigate initial petition involving a claim for compensation for moral damages in consumer relations, verifying how the dimensions of the features of logos and pathos were used by lawyers to persuade the judge that the claim for compensation was valid. This study also aimed to investigate which socio-discursive imaginaries were expressed in these speeches. We came to the conclusion that the notion of communication contract is very striking and guiding in these speeches. It was also found a predominance of the dimension of logos and a regularity in the use of techniques from this dimension. We also found that the patêmica order arguments also had a great importance in the argumentation, as being the moral damage connected directly to the emotional shock of the applicant for the violation of his rights, the argument based only on the logos would be somewhat consistent. It was clear that the lawyer’s voice comes from the collectivity with which he shares values and principles.

  15. Role of preliminary registry data in development of a clinical trial for an innovative device: a small but integral piece of a health policy initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, D.R.; Vries, J. de; Blanc, R.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a national health policy at a macro level involves the integration of a series of health initiatives across a spectrum of activities, including clinical care. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a new medical device ultimately evolves to testing in humans. The pathway to a formal

  16. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  17. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  18. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and

  20. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  1. An Examination of Policies, Programs, and Strategies that Address Bullying in Virginia Public School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orobko, Angela Kowitz

    2009-01-01

    Bullying incidents in schools are getting more attention since the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999 in Littleton, Colorado. Many national and state policies have been enacted since that fateful day. In Virginia, legislation passed by the 1999 General Assembly (section 22.1-208.01) required local school boards to establish a…

  2. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  3. A Decision Support System for integrated tourism development: Rethinking tourism policies and management strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bousset, J. P.; Skuras, D.; Těšitel, Jan; Marsat, J. B.; Petrou, A.; Fiallo-Pantziou, E.; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2007), s. 387-404 ISSN 1461-6688 Grant - others:-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Integrated tourism * policy formulation * participatory approaches * simulation models * decision support system Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  4. Enacting Effective Climate Policy Advice: Institutional Strategies to Foster Saliency, Credibility and Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anja; Pregernig, Michael; Reinecke, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This article asks how scientific advisory institutions (SAIs) in climate policy strive towards effectiveness. Our analysis is grounded on the assumption that effectiveness is not passively experienced but is deliberately enacted by SAIs. We draw on a widely used set of criteria, namely saliency, credibility and legitimacy (SCL). Based on an…

  5. Tracking progress toward EU Biodiversity Strategy targets: EU policy effects in preserving its common farmland birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gamero, A.; Brotons, L.; Brunner, A.; Foppen, R.; Fornasari, L.; Gregory, R. D.; Herrando, S.; Hořák, D.; Jiguet, F.; Kmecl, P.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lindström, Å.; Paquet, J. Y.; Reif, J.; Sirkiä, P. M.; Škorpilová, J.; van Strien, A.; Szép, T.; Telenský, Tomáš; Teufelbauer, N.; Trautmann, S.; Van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Vermouzek, Z.; Vikstrøm, T.; Voříšek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 395-402 ISSN 1755-263X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Agricultural intensification * Agrienvironmental schemes * Bird monitoring * Birds directive * Common agriculture policy * Natura 2000 * SPA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 7.020, year: 2016

  6. Regional integration and Brazilian Foreign Policy: Strategies in the South American space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present, based on theoretical studies of integration, the evolution of this process in Latin America and, most recently, in South America. Based on these studies, the goal is to analyze the role played by Brazil in the process, which defines as priorities of its foreign policy a regional and global framework for its international action that is based on both cooperation and power projection.The research has been conducted based on theories of integration, an historical background on Latin American integration and in Brazilian foreign policy, through its contemporary agenda. The answer was based on a comparative agenda and in a bibliographical critical analysis of the research material.The main findings of the paper point out that Latin American integration has specific features linked to the economic, political and stragetic realities of the continent that show the limitations of some theories applied to the European process, also that it depends on Brazilian foreign policy actions, that still sees the region as instrumental to its interests. So, Brazil sometimes fail to fulfill some requisites of integration that are essential to sustain its projects. Therefore, there is a cycle of enlargement and deepening of regional integration process in this political space that point out to the need of a more sustained compromise of Brazilian foreign policy towards these projects. If Brazil continues not to sustain these projects, they will lose momentum and significance once more, increasing power asymmetries in the region.

  7. Exploring policy strategies for mitigating HFC emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    The growing demand for cooling throughout the world, possibly increased by global climate change, requires the implementation of policies to mitigate the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and refrigerant use in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector. This article aims

  8. Children and Environment: A UNICEF Strategy for Sustainable Development. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This policy review discusses the impact of environmental degradation on the health and well-being of children and women. It analyzes ways in which environmental threats such as deforestation, atmospheric pollution, and global warming add to the environment of ill health, malnutrition and ignorance to perpetuate the cycle of poverty. The review…

  9. Development and selection of operational management strategies to achieve policy objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Rockmann, C.; Aanesen, M.; Armstrong, C.; Quesne, Le W.; Bloomfield, H.; Hal, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform of the EU Common Fisheries Policy in 2002, effort has been devoted to addressing the governance, scientific, social and economic issues required to introduce an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in Europe. Fisheries management needs to support the three pillars of

  10. Co-evolution of industry strategies and government policies: The case of the brazilian automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, R.G. (Roberto Gonzalez); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and

  11. The strategy of a european health policy of the who member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The policy of Health for All is a challenge by the World Health Organization to its Member States to ensure each citizen an e conomically and socially productive life . The Regional Office for Europe created an expanded version of this policy, known as European Health for All, which urged each Member State to alter its policies to achieve the targets set out therein. This policy calls for more equity and social justice in health, for prevention of disease and promoting health and quality of life and for improving the human environment. One of the most important items is the call for delivering quality of care for everyone, by using a clear system for measuring the outcomes of care. Quality of care must apply equally to all parts of the cycle, from health promotion, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. For quality development and assurance in the area of imaging and the role of dosimetry, the Health for All set a goal of ensuring optimal outcome from available resources. To reach this goal, it is necessary to set standards for guiding health outcome indicators in order to systematically assess health technologies

  12. Strategies for addressing climate change: policy perspectives from around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Sathaye, J.A.; Craig, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is intrinsically global. Accordingly, effective responses require global coordination. While limited policies have been adopted, notably for phasing out chlorofluorocarbons, there is no clear consensus as to what to do about other greenhouse gases. In this paper, we survey attitudes and policy responses among the nations of the world. Public opinion surveys are consistent in showing that considerable sensitivity to environmental issues exists virtually everywhere. On the other hand, there is acute awareness that other issues, especially economic development, can conflict with global climate-change mitigation goals. In such a state of uncertainty there is a strong argument to be made for implementing policies which are good ideas independent of greenhouse-gas considerations. There is also good reason to expand research. What is feasible depends strongly on present and changing attitudes of the citizens of the world, and of their governments. It is thus critical to follow closely the evolution of attitudes. The kind of work summarized in this paper needs to be updated on a continuing basis, and the results made available routinely to the global policy community. We conclude our review with several recommendations for research designed specifically to reduce uncertainty about costs and institutional issues relating to responses to global climate change. (author)

  13. Desenvolvimento do estudo: estratégia inicial Developing a study: initial strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Xerfan Nahas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são discutidas a elaboração do estudo e a redação do projeto. Os possíveis motivos que levam à rejeição de um artigo, como o foco do periódico, a redação do artigo e erros de gramática são considerados. São descritos os passos iniciais de um estudo científico como a escolha da idéia, o levantamento de artigos e a seleção dos trabalhos principais disponíveis na literatura. Após a discussão em grupos sobre o objetivo do estudo e seus métodos ("brainstorm", o projeto é desenvolvido e seus itens (Introdução, Objetivo, Métodos, Protocolo, Referências e Cronograma são analisados.In this article the preparation of a scientific paper and its project are described. The possible reasons that lead to rejection of an article such as the proper focus of the chosen journal, its writing and mistakes in the grammar are considered. The initial steps of a scientific paper such as the choice of an idea, literature search, and the selection of related articles are described. After a group discussion about the purpose of the paper and its methods (brainstorm, the project is described and its items (Introduction, Objective, Methods, Protocol, References and Chronogram are analyzed.

  14. Development Planning & Policies under Mahalanobis Strategy: A Tale of India’s Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Asim K. Karmakar

    2013-07-01

    In the above backdrop the present paper gives a short review of Mahalanobis strategy of development planning in the context of the then India’s dilemma: dynamic industrialization and static agriculture.

  15. Policy initiatives by the Government of India to accelerate growth of nuclear installed capacity in the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    When examined from the point of view of the size of its population and economy, India is not well endowed with energy resources. Studies done by the Department of Atomic Energy indicate that even after exploiting full potential of every available source of energy including nuclear energy, India needs to continue to import energy resources. In this backdrop, an initiative was launched by Government of India to open up international civil nuclear commerce so as to enable India to access natural uranium from international market and to set up nuclear reactors in technical cooperation with other countries. International civil nuclear trade is governed by guidelines of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and its guidelines, as they were, required all nuclear materials and facilities in the recipient country, other than those identified as Nuclear Weapon States in the Treaty for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to be under Comprehensive Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The civil nuclear initiative of the Government of India involved having a dialogue with several NSG members; negotiating agreements of cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy with France, Russia and USA; formulating a plan separating certain nuclear facilities and a timetable for offering them, in a phased manner, to IAEA for implementation of safeguards; and negotiating an India-specific safeguards agreement with IAEA. As a result of all these steps, the guidelines for civil nuclear cooperation were modified by the NSG on 6th September 2008 to facilitate nuclear trade with India without the condition of Comprehensive Safeguards. India has since been able to import uranium and dialogue is ongoing with France, Russia and the USA to set up, with their technical cooperation, light water reactors at selected sites. To facilitate international civil nuclear trade, a policy resolution has also been issued and The Civil Nuclear Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 is under

  16. Cleantech Venture Investors and Energy Policy Risk: An Exploratory Analysis of Regulatory Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bürer, Mary Jean; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The energy industry is a typical example of a heavily regulated industry, and particularly large incumbent energy firms have developed significant expertise in non-market strategies (or corporate political activity). New entrants to the energy industry, such as clean energy technology ventures, are also exposed to regulatory risk (and opportunity), but they do not have the means to engage in non-market strategies to a similar extent as large incumbent firms. On the other hand, the success of ...

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of New York City Health Policy Initiatives in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Lovasi, Gina S; Madsen, Ann; Van Wye, Gretchen; Demmer, Ryan T

    2017-09-01

    Beginning in 2002, New York City (NYC) implemented numerous policies and programs targeting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Using death certificates, we analyzed trends in NYC-specific and US mortality rates from 1990 to 2011 for all causes, any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke. Joinpoint analyses quantified annual percent change (APC) and evaluated whether decreases in CVD mortality accelerated after 2002 in either NYC or the total US population. Our analyses included 1,149,217 NYC decedents. The rates of decline in mortality from all causes, any CVD, and stroke in NYC did not change after 2002. Among men, the decline in ACVD mortality accelerated during 2002-2011 (APC = -4.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.1, -3.4) relative to 1990-2001 (APC = -2.3%, 95% CI: -3.1, -1.5). Among women, ACVD rates began declining more rapidly in 1993 (APC = -3.2%, 95% CI: -3.8, -2.7) and again in 2006 (APC = -6.6%, 95% CI: -8.9, -4.3) as compared with 1990-1992 (APC = 1.6%, 95% CI: -2.7, 6.0). In the US population, no acceleration of mortality decline was observed in either ACVD or CAD mortality rates after 2002. Relative to 1990-2001, atherosclerotic CVD and CAD rates began to decline more rapidly during the 2002-2011 period in both men and women-a pattern not observed in the total US population, suggesting that NYC initiatives might have had a measurable influence on delaying or reducing ACVD mortality. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Co-evolution of Industry Strategies and Government Policies: The Case of the Brazilian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and interdependence between industry and the country’s economy. To this end, we draw upon literature on institutions and co-evolution to understand the industry footprint over a 50-year period, as well as its relationship with changes in government policies. This study generates new insights on institutional and co-evolution political perspectives by showing that the rules of the game are not only the making of the government, but are also the result of interdependencies between industry and government.

  20. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Mix of Accountancy Policy and Tax Strategy in Company’s Financial Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Marciniak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of legally possible accountancy methods may influence entrepreneurs real economic situation as well as their ability to perform in the future. This article presents an introduction to the problems of decision dilemmas in the area of balance law. A future result-oriented approach to the accountancy policy requires devising a method which would help choose an optimal variant among the least risky ones. Since a choice dilemma deals with future and uncertain events, it is necessary to apply statistical analysis with its rules of inference. Because of the changing environment, this issue poses a complex decision problem in conditions of uncertainty. It, therefore, means that the rules of probability theory need to be used in the inference process. With subjective probability it is then possible to calculate the value of expected profits and define the risk of the variants within the discussed accountancy policy.

  2. Policy learning through strategic intelligence: the American small business innovation research program (SBIR) and British small business research initiative (SBRI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padilla, P.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation policy involves using policy instruments to achieve societal goals. In order to learn from both past and foreign experiences, scholars and practitioners very often value sources of knowledge about these instruments. This dissertation deals with the role of Strategic Intelligence in both

  3. Decentralisation policy as recentralisation strategy: forest management units and community forestry in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sahide, M.A.K; Supratman, S; Maryudi, A; Kim, -Y.S; Giessen, L

    2016-01-01

    Critical political analyses on decentralisation policies have revealed that such approaches may not achieve their formal goal, and might even support centralisation efforts. A number of previous studies on decentralisation separated the analyses of administrative process from the analyses of political power of administrative actors across levels of government. Using bureaucratic politics theory, this article presents close examinations of both process and power relations reconfigured by decen...

  4. Between practice, policy and politics: Music therapy and the Dementia Strategy, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Neta; Farrant, Camilla L; Pavlicevic, Mercédès

    2017-04-01

    Does current music therapy practice address the goals encapsulated in the UK Department of Health document, Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy (the Dementia Strategy) published in 2009? A survey elicited the views of clients, family members, music therapists, care home staff and care home managers, about this question by focusing on the relationship between music therapy and the 17 objectives outlined in the Dementia Strategy. The results showed that the objectives that are related to direct activity of the music therapists (such as care and understanding of the condition) were seen as most fulfilled by music therapy, while those regarding practicalities (such as living within the community) were seen as least fulfilled. Although the responses from the four groups of participants were similar, differences for some questions suggest that people's direct experience of music therapy influences their views. This study suggests that many aspects of the Dementia Strategy are already seen as being achieved. The findings suggest that developments of both music therapy practices and government strategies on dementia care may benefit from being mutually informed.

  5. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of anatomic characteristics and initial biventricular surgical strategy on outcomes in various forms of double-outlet right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemain, Olivier; Belli, Emre; Ladouceur, Magalie; Houyel, Lucile; Jalal, Zakaria; Lambert, Virginie; Ly, Mohamed; Vouhé, Pascal; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Surgical management of various forms of double-outlet right ventricle uses a variety of approaches depending on the underlying anatomic form. In this study, we sought to determine the risk factors of mortality and reoperation in those with double-outlet right ventricle undergoing biventricular repair, according to anatomic characteristics and initial surgical strategy. Between 1992 and 2013, 433 patients were included in the study. Double-outlet right ventricle was classified as double-outlet right ventricle with subaortic ventricular septal defect associated with subpulmonary obstruction in 33% of patients (n = 141), with subaortic ventricular septal defect without subpulmonary obstruction in 30% of patients (n = 130), with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect in 32% of patients (n = 139), and with noncommitted ventricular septal defect in 5% of patients (n = 23). Three types of repairs were performed: (1) intraventricular baffle repair, n = 149 (34%); (2) intraventricular baffle repair with right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, n = 163 (38%); and (3) intraventricular baffle repair with arterial switch operation, n = 121 (28%). Thirty-day overall mortality was 7.4%. Early reoperation was needed in 6% of the cases. Early mortality was higher in the intraventricular baffle repair with arterial switch operation group (P = .01). Survival at 10 years was 86.2%, and freedom from reoperation at 10 years was 61.4%. At last follow-up (median, 5.7 years; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-6.6), mortality and reoperation rates were similar in the different surgical strategy groups. Late reoperation and late mortality were significantly higher in the double-outlet right ventricle with noncommitted ventricular septal defect group (P outlet right ventricle with noncommitted ventricular septal defect were at higher risk for reoperation and mortality. Intraventricular baffle repair with arterial switch operation was the surgical strategy in patients at

  7. COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS, FUNCTIONS, EMPHASIS IN GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr BOZULENKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the objective reasons stipulating the substantial potential of commercial activity in Ukraine, which is characterized by increasing competition. Taking into account the results of scientists-economists’ research and other sources the essence and peculiarities of the characteristics of commercial enterprise are considered. The main functions of commercial enterprises: economic, industrial and technological, external economic, social are characterized. The determination of commercial enterprises by different characteristics depending on the factors of their operation is given. It is noted that recently on-store retailing as an alternative to commercial enterprise has been increasingly getting importance. The attention is focused on the need to take into consideration the aforementioned features and characteristics of commercial enterprise while developing strategy of its promising economic development using marketing techniques. The essence of the term “strategy” and the possibility of using different kinds of development strategies of commercial enterprise as a non-dated plan of specific activities covering a long period are considered. Operating, investing, market economic strategy, strategy of diversification and differentiation, often used in the activity of commercial enterprise are analyzed. It is proved that the development of such a strategy should be carried out taking into account the socioeconomic situation of the region in which commercial enterprise is located. The article highlights the features of the socio-economic development of Chernivtsi Oblast, changes which have recently occurred in the field of commercial activities. Current trends in the regional economy are defined. Based on the results of the development of trade in the studied region, it is conceptually shown that for a medium-term perspective the strategy for perspective economic development of commercial enterprise should be stabilizing

  8. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro......CHP units with the national energy systems has been analysed. Our main findings are that net metering would be an appropriate tool to support FC based microCHP in Denmark, whereas a price premium would be the preferable tool in France and Portugal. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC...

  10. ASPECTS OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR CYBER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina ARMENCHEVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and prosperity of mankind greatly depend on an innovative, safe and reliable Internet that, of course, will keep evolving. Cyber space must be protected from incidents, misuse and abuse. Handling the increasing number of threats to cyber security is a challenge that national security and the trend in the international environment face. This makes taking fast and adequate measures at national, European and international level a must. Changing national security strategies and adopting new cyber security strategies are a part of these measures.

  11. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  12. Nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity in rural communities: a systematic review of the literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Larissa; Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-04-30

    Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the "COCOMO" strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.

  13. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  14. Nutrition and physical activity in child care centers: the impact of a wellness policy initiative on environment and policy assessment and observation outcomes, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-05-23

    The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Significant improvements to total nutrition (P environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P environment (P policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings.

  15. Post-Cold War Russia/West relations: U.S. Foreign policy initiatives, sources of friction, and prospects for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Lasica, Kristen Anne.

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes U.S. foreign policy initiatives toward Russia between 1993- 2000. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace and cooperation between historically adversarial blocs, The key to creating this system was immediate, full-fledged Russian inclusion. Yet due to remaining Cold War-biases and misaligned U.S. policies, Russia has ...

  16. Business Model Canvas and Strategies to Develop Biodiesel Industry of PT. XYZ in Order to Implement CPO Supporting Fund Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Mustika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered as one of the alternative eco-friendly fuels. Besides, the government also issued policy related to biodiesel that is CPO Supporting Fund (CSF Policy. The aim of the research is to identify Business model canvas (BMC biodiesel industry in PT XYZ and to know the strategies to develop business from biodiesel industry in line with the CPO supporting fund policy. The analysis tool used in this research is BMC, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM. The research results in identifying BMC of PT XYZ is customer segment that the company serves in the form of domestic as well international customers. The value the company offers is biodiesel quality that is in accordance with SNI standard and the distribution is at the company’s cost; the relationship built with the customers is by communities and co-creation; the marketing network through stock exchanges and commodity exchanges; the revenue obtained from selling biodiesel and the price difference between biodiesel and solar from BPDPKS; the company’s resources are human resource, raw material resource, and financial resource; the main activities carried out by the company is CPO process to become biodiesel and sale; the company’s partners are GAPKI, BPDPKS and APROBI; the cost structure is operational cost, workers’ salary, and CPO levy fund. Furthermore, the strategy to develop biodiesel industry in line with the rapid increase of competitiveness is to increase the biodiesel production capacity and communication improvement and CRM to improve customers’ service.Keywords: biodiesel, CPO supporting fund (CSF, levy fund, vegetable oil (BBN, business model canvas (BMC

  17. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    is found in Poland and Spain than is found in Denmark and the United Kingdom include: non-compliance with the EES predating the introduction of the strategy; relatively weak labour market performance; lack of consensus among the main actors in the labour market; Europeanization; and strong economic...

  18. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  19. Policy and Strategies for ESL Pedagogy in Multilingual Classrooms: The Classroom Talk Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Shalina; Balfour, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a specially designed programme of communicative strategies on English second language (ESL) development in a scaffolded case study that set out to promote teacher-guided, constructive learner talk in the outcomes-based education arts and culture classroom. The programme was implemented in a multilingual secondary…

  20. A review of policy-relevant strategies and interventions to address ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on alcohol intervention strategies likely to be effective in a country like South Africa. It begins with an appraisal of the latest data on the burden of harm associated with the misuse of alcohol, globally, regionally and in South Africa. The main part of the paper comprises a critical analysis of a broad array of ...

  1. Couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing in an antenatal clinic in Lusaka, Zambia: lessons for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musheke, Maurice; Bond, Virginia; Merten, Sonja

    2013-03-14

    Couple HIV testing has been recognized as critical to increase uptake of HIV testing, facilitate disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, improve access to treatment, care and support, and promote safe sex. The Zambia national protocol on integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) allows for the provision of couple testing in antenatal clinics. This paper examines couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing at a public antenatal clinic and discusses policy and practical lessons. Using a narrative approach, open-ended in-depth interviews were held with couples (n = 10) who underwent couple HIV testing; women (n = 5) and men (n = 2) who had undergone couple HIV testing but were later abandoned by their spouses; and key informant interviews with lay counsellors (n = 5) and nurses (n = 2). On-site observations were also conducted at the antenatal clinic and HIV support group meetings. Data collection was conducted between March 2010 and September 2011. Data was organised and managed using Atlas ti, and analysed and interpreted thematically using content analysis approach. Health workers sometimes used coercive and subtle strategies to enlist women's spouses for couple HIV testing resulting in some men feeling 'trapped' or 'forced' to test as part of their paternal responsibility. Couple testing had some positive outcomes, notably disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, renewed commitment to marital relationship, uptake of and adherence to treatment and formation of new social networks. However, there were also negative repercussions including abandonment, verbal abuse and cessation of sexual relations. Its promotion also did not always lead to safe sex as this was undermined by gendered power relationships and the desires for procreation and sexual intimacy. Couple HIV testing provides enormous bio-medical and social benefits and should be encouraged. However, testing strategies need to be non-coercive. Providers of

  2. An innovative strategy to increase a professional workforce: the fast track initiative for health visitors in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Lynn; Barriball, K Louise; Bliss, Julie; Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2016-04-01

    Fast tracking is one strategy that organizations use to ameliorate workforce shortfalls by attracting new recruits, and accelerating their skills development and experience. In response to the Government's target of rapidly expanding the number of health visitors in England's National Health Service, the fast track initiative was launched to recruit newly qualified (fast track) as well as experienced (standard entry) nurses and midwives onto health visiting programmes. This paper evaluates the fast track initiative, from the perspective of fast track and standard entry students, practice teachers and health visitor managers. A mixed methods design was used comprising a questionnaire survey (n = 71 students), semi-structured interviews (n = 37 students), telephone interviews (n = 13 managers) and six focus groups (n = 24 practice teachers). Data were collected between April 2012 and July 2013. Descriptive statistics, t-tests and the Pearson Chi-square test were used to analyse the quantitative data. The qualitative data were analysed thematically. Motivations for health visiting as a career choice were similar for fast track and standard entry students, with career progression and interest in health promotion being key motivators. There was consensus that personal qualities and characteristics were more important than experience or qualifications. However, fast track students were significantly less confident about their public health competencies in leadership and management (p communication (p  0.5). Fast tracking offers a useful recruitment strategy in order to expand the health visitor workforce, but longitudinal research is needed to confirm benefits such as retention and career trajectories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Language policy and cultural strategy: joint task of the main social patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The individual and social need to preserve and defend our mother tongue as part of a holistic culture, requires as an essential condition to learn about the responsibility for society as a whole and particularly for each speaking subject, which presupposes a language policy to disseminate whose essence is not there behind the doors of the Royal Academy of Language, voice of the rapid development of communication as a linguistic phenomenon par excellence. In this regard, this study focuses, with the certainty that in the hands of all is "to secure" the part that corresponds to each one.

  4. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  5. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  6. Improving tobacco-free advocacy on college campuses: a novel strategy to aid in the understanding of student perceptions about policy proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S; Chapp, Christopher B; Henley, Whitney B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their positions of support and opposition and to inform the development of effective messaging strategies. In January 2012, 1,266 undergraduate students from a midwestern university completed an online questionnaire about smoke-free campus policies. Responses were coded and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and chi-square, independent-samples t tests, and binary logistic models. Most students who supported a smoke-free policy considered environmental or aesthetic conditions, whereas most opponents used personal freedom frames of thought. Supporters viewed smoking policies in personal terms, and opponents suggested means-ends policy reasoning. Taken together, points of reference and emotions about proposed policies provided insight about participants' perspectives to help inform effective policy advocacy efforts.

  7. Comparison of arterial spin labeling registration strategies in the multi-center GENetic frontotemporal dementia initiative (GENFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Petr, Jan; Thomas, David L; De Vita, Enrico; Cash, David M; van Osch, Matthias J P; Golay, Xavier; Groot, Paul F C; Ourselin, Sebastien; van Swieten, John; Laforce, Robert; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Borroni, Barbara; Galimberti, Daniela; Rowe, James B; Graff, Caroline; Pizzini, Francesca B; Finger, Elizabeth; Sorbi, Sandro; Castelo Branco, Miguel; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Masellis, Mario; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    To compare registration strategies to align arterial spin labeling (ASL) with 3D T1-weighted (T1w) images, with the goal of reducing the between-subject variability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images. Multi-center 3T ASL data were collected at eight sites with four different sequences in the multi-center GENetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative (GENFI) study. In a total of 48 healthy controls, we compared the following image registration options: (I) which images to use for registration (perfusion-weighted images [PWI] to the segmented gray matter (GM) probability map (pGM) (CBF-pGM) or M0 to T1w (M0-T1w); (II) which transformation to use (rigid-body or non-rigid); and (III) whether to mask or not (no masking, M0-based FMRIB software library Brain Extraction Tool [BET] masking). In addition to visual comparison, we quantified image similarity using the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC), and used the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test. CBF-pGM outperformed M0-T1w (CC improvement 47.2% ± 22.0%; P Masking only improved the M0-T1w rigid-body registration (14.5% ± 15.5%; P = 0.007). The choice of image registration strategy impacts ASL group analyses. The non-rigid transformation is promising but requires validation. CBF-pGM rigid-body registration without masking can be used as a default strategy. In patients with expansive perfusion deficits, M0-T1w may outperform CBF-pGM in sequences with high effective spatial resolution. BET-masking only improves M0-T1w registration when the M0 image has sufficient contrast. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:131-140. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Web Strategy to Convey Marine Biogeochemical Feedback Concepts to the Policy Community: Aerosol and Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Menzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited understanding of the climate system imposes upon policy makers an intimate reliance on results from Earth System Models (ESMs. However, climate simulations are necessarily incomplete since many strong channels through planetary scale biology and geochemistry remain too complex or poorly comprehended to include. This paper presents and describes an interactive, public domain website detailing the role of two marine biogeochemical (mBGC feedback loops currently excluded from many ESMs (www.marinefeedbacks.com. Every page on the website includes images or videos to foster engagement with its technically challenging content. Simultaneously, fundamentals of the natural science involved are reinforced. The site includes subsections of the following nature; background information, executive summaries for each feedback type, detailed descriptions of the chemical mechanisms, climate change impact, and recommendations for future research. The information provided is firmly grounded in the technical literature but is designed specifically for accessibility to non-scientists. Particular targets for the material are the next-generation of decision makers and those framing the international climate agenda. It is hoped that a site with tailored pedagogical value may contribute to well informed policy formulation and legislation.

  9. Insulin therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: strategies for initiation and long-term patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barag, Steven H

    2011-07-01

    Effective glycemic control is essential to minimize the long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is well documented that many patients spend prolonged periods outside of the optimal glycemic range. The use of insulin is important to effectively control the disease process in patients with T2DM. Even so, resistance to insulin use among patients and healthcare providers often limits initiation and intensification of insulin therapy. With the increasing prevalence of T2DM across all socioeconomic strata, an expanded viewpoint of early and sustained insulin use is crucial to enhance glycemic control in patients. To manage the effects of T2DM on cardiovascular disease in the aging population, physicians can promote insulin therapy as an affordable and effective treatment option. The author reviews beliefs and myths about the use of insulin in the management of T2DM and discusses strategies to overcome barriers to initiation of insulin therapy in the primary care setting.

  10. Market and Policy in Argentina: Exploring the Non- Market Strategies and Government in A Hybrid Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Simone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nature of non-market strategies in the case of expanding business in Argentinian.  Result of the enquiry presents a new conceptual framework that allow us to understand the Argentine reality in a proper manner. The full investigation suggests that in other countries the non-market strategies are being studied, without establishing a discipline. Academic material and specific courses have been developed in the business schools of the universities, but, except in specific and small cases, there is no research field and cases developed in Argentina. The expanded research hypothesis argues that companies in Argentina do not understand how to approach the political decisions of the State of hybrid political regimes in matters that concern them. Companies focus on market logic without understanding the logic of "non-market" environments.

  11. Privatization and Restructuring of State and Collective Farms: Policy Environment and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Meyers; Natalija Kazlauskiene

    1994-01-01

    Issues, choices, and strategies in the transformation of collective and state farms in transition economies are explored. Analysis includes how other reforms have an impact on the transition in farming systems and farm structure. Economic forces to direct the changing structure of farming to the maximum extent possible should be allowed. The role of the government is to create an appropriate legal, economic, and institutional environment for the transition process to be carried out successfully.

  12. The State of Western Research on Soviet Military Strategy and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    34 Ritz - Carlton theory," which speculates about the sort of caricature untutored Soviet analysts 41 might form of the American "threat" were they to be...notion, it may warrant reexamination in coming years as the Soviets strive to diversify their employment concepts and allow room for greater adaptability...34 It was completed as a concept development effort under the Project AIR FORCE National Security Strategies Program. With modest revisions, it will

  13. “Silk Road” as foreign policy discourse: The construction of Chinese, Japanese and Korean engagement strategies in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Dadabaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of the evolution of the Japanese, Chinese and South Korean narratives of the Silk Road, this paper argues that the content and the nature of these Silk Road strategies changed with time and the international environment. Thus, this paper claims that, the notion of the Silk Road has changed from a static concept of a historical trade route into a product of social construction of a number of powerful states – strategies that are constantly shaped, imagined and re-interpreted. In this sense, the Silk Road is not a foreign policy doctrine but rather a discursive strategy of engagement that largely exists in the realm of narration. This narration is also a matter of social construction that is subject to change depending on the international environment of the country (China, Japan, Korea, etc. that produces such narratives, context of a receiving region, the alternative narratives that compete for wider international acceptance and the country's vision of “self” and the “other” in the international context.

  14. Unpacking “Health Reform” and “Policy Capacity”; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Legge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building.

  15. High- Versus Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis: Demographics, Clinical Outcomes, and Effects of the Initial Aortic Valve Replacement Strategy on Long-Term Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Kanamori, Norio; Murata, Koichiro; Kitai, Takeshi; Kawase, Yuichi; Izumi, Chisato; Miyake, Makoto; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Kato, Masashi; Hirano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shintaro; Inada, Tsukasa; Nagao, Kazuya; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yasuyo; Yamane, Keiichiro; Toyofuku, Mamoru; Ishii, Mitsuru; Minamino-Muta, Eri; Kato, Takao; Inoko, Moriaki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Komasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Hotta, Kozo; Higashitani, Nobuya; Kato, Yoshihiro; Inuzuka, Yasutaka; Maeda, Chiyo; Jinnai, Toshikazu; Morikami, Yuko; Saito, Naritatsu; Minatoya, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable debate on the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LG-AS), defined as aortic valve area strategy: n=977, and conservative strategy: n=1120) with high-gradient severe aortic stenosis (HG-AS) and 1712 patients (initial AVR strategy: n=219, and conservative strategy: n=1493) with LG-AS. AVR was more frequently performed in HG-AS patients than in LG-AS patients (60% versus 28%) during the entire follow-up. In the comparison between the initial AVR and conservative groups, the propensity score-matched cohorts were developed in both HG-AS (n=887 for each group) and LG-AS (n=218 for each group) strata. The initial AVR strategy when compared with the conservative strategy was associated with markedly lower risk for a composite of aortic valve-related death or heart failure hospitalization in both HG-AS and LG-AS strata (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.37; P strategy was associated with a better outcome than the conservative strategy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.59; P strategy was associated with better outcomes than the conservative strategy in both HG-AS and LG-AS patients, although AVR was less frequently performed in LG-AS patients than in HG-AS patients. The favorable effect of initial AVR strategy was also seen in patients with LG-AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm. Unique identifier: UMIN000012140. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [Regionalization as a strategy for the definition of homicide-control public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mônica S Monteiro de; Silva, Bráulio Figueiredo Alves da; Assunção, Renato M; Beato Filho, Cláudio Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the spatial distribution of homicide rates in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from the Ministry of Health Mortality Information System (SIM/MS) from 1996 to 2000. Population data used to calculate rates were also obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Minas Gerais has a large territory, so the study used a recently developed statistical methodology implemented in the SKATER software to generate homogeneous spatial clusters. The technique obtained 24 spatial clusters, in which municipalities with similar homicide rates were aggregated. Using these results, the authors discuss the possible creation of "public security administration areas" that would allow the implementation of public policies aimed at controlling and diminishing homicides in municipalities with similar characteristics for this type of crime.

  17. Optimizing pricing and ordering strategies in a three-level supply chain under return policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori-daryan, Mahsa; Taleizadeh, Ata Allah

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops an economic production quantity model in a three-echelon supply chain composing of a supplier, a manufacturer and a wholesaler under two scenarios. As the first scenario, we consider a return contract between the outside supplier and the supplier and also between the manufacturer and the wholesaler, but in the second one, the return policy between the manufacturer and the wholesaler is not applied. Here, it is assumed that shortage is permitted and demand is price-sensitive. The principal goal of the research is to maximize the total profit of the chain by optimizing the order quantity of the supplier and the selling prices of the manufacturer and the wholesaler. Nash-equilibrium approach is considered between the chain members. In the end, a numerical example is presented to clarify the applicability of the introduced model and compare the profit of the chain under two scenarios.

  18. Prescription drug samples--does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, K E M; Sketris, I; Tett, S E

    2003-08-01

    Prescription drug samples, as used by the pharmaceutical industry to market their products, are of current interest because of their influence on prescribing, and their potential impact on consumer safety. Very little research has been conducted into the use and misuse of prescription drug samples, and the influence of samples on health policies designed to improve the rational use of medicines. This is a topical issue in the prescription drug debate, with increasing costs and increasing concerns about optimizing use of medicines. This manuscript critically evaluates the research that has been conducted to date about prescription drug samples, discusses the issues raised in the context of traditional marketing theory, and suggests possible alternatives for the future.

  19. The US radon problem, policy, program and industry: achievements, challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    US radon research, policy and programs have stalled since their start in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In 2005, more homes had radon above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Level than anytime in history since more homes were added to the housing stock that had indoor radon concentrations exceeding 150 Bq m -3 than had been mitigated. Funding for the US radon program has declined two-thirds from 1997 to 2007. Despite impressive goals for radon reduction, EPA lacks sound progress indicators especially in new construction radon control systems. School radon reduction has been at a standstill since the early 1990's. There has been no significant radon risk reduction in low-income sectors of the population. There is need for effective partnerships between the public and private sectors of the US radon professional communities as well as with the international programs and professionals. (authors)

  20. Money-back guarantee warranty policy with preventive maintenance strategy for sensor-embedded remanufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ammar Y.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2018-01-01

    In today's global environment, technology is constantly evolving. Being able to stay up-to-date with the very latest technological advances can be extremely hard to accomplish. As a result of these changes and developments in technology, which often come unexpectedly, consumers are frequently tempted to update their devices to the very latest model. The result is that the life cycle of a product is becoming shorter and shorter than before. Manufacturers attempt to respond to consumers' concerns involving environmental issues as well as the more governmentally stringent environmental legislations by establishing facilities which include the minimization of the totality of waste relocated to landfills by recovering materials and components from returned, or End-Of-Life products and reuse them to build a remanufactured product, and/or novel components. With the rapid growth of interest in remanufactured products' market, offering warranty for remanufactured products and components is becoming a necessity for remanufacturer in order to meet customers' requirement and as a marketing mechanism. During that process, maintenance policies are of great importance in order to reduce the warranty cost on the remanufacturer. In this paper, an optimization simulation model for remanufactured items sold with one-dimensional non-renewing money-back guarantee (MBG) warranty policy is proposed from the view of remanufacturer, in which, an End-Of-Life product is subjected to upgrade action at the end of its past life and during the warranty period, preventive maintenance actions are carried out when the remaining life of the product reaches a pre-specified value so that the remanufacturer's expected profit can be maximized. Finally, a numerical example and design of experiment analysis are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  1. Establishment of a strategy of circular economy increasing the well-being of society: comparison of two national policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalioujny Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a new paradigm of sustainable development, establishing new ways of societal progress and success based on the concepts other than only economic growth and material wealth. Sustainable development suggests that the wellbeing of the society depends, among other, on clean and healthy environment, and on the mutual interaction of human beings realized in new models of economics and behaviour. This article describes a new model of economics based on the interaction of environmental protection and economic efficiency, the model of circular economy (CE. The paper compares two different macro-economical approaches integrating the CE model into national economy strategies. The existing CE instruments and mechanisms are explored demonstrating the results of such policy application at meso- and micro- levels.

  2. Policy initiatives, culture and the prevention and control of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, T Alafia; Guell, Cornelia; Legetic, Branka; Unwin, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    To explore interactions between disease burden, culture and the policy response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) within the Caribbean, a region with some of the highest prevalence rates, morbidity and mortality from NCDs in the Americas. We undertook a wide ranging narrative review, drawing on a variety of peer reviewed, government and intergovernmental literature. Although the Caribbean is highly diverse, linguistically and ethnically, it is possible to show how 'culture' at the macro-level has been shaped by shared historic, economic and political experiences and ties. We suggest four broad groupings of countries: the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM); the small island states that are still colonies or departments of colonial powers; three large-Spanish speaking countries; and Haiti, which although part of CARICOM is culturally distinct. We explore how NCD health policies in the region stem from and are influenced by the broad characteristics of these groupings, albeit played out in varied ways in individual countries. For example, the Port of Spain declaration (2007) on NCDs can be understood as the product of the co-operative and collaborative relationships with CARICOM, which are based on a shared broad culture. We note, however, that studies investigating the relationships between the formation of NCD policy and culture (at any level) are scarce. Within the Caribbean region it is possible to discern relationships between culture at the macro-level and the formation of NCD policy. However, there is little work that directly assesses the interactions between culture and NCD policy formation. The Caribbean with its cultural diversity and high burden of NCDs provides an ideal environment within which to undertake further studies to better understand the interactions between culture and health policy formation.

  3. Physical Activity–Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; O’Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity–related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity–related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were “enhance infrastructure supporting walking” (n = 11) and “increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity” (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity–related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the

  4. Physical Activity-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Perry, Cynthia K; Sumrall, Jasmin C; Patterson, Megan S; Walsh, Shana M; Clendennen, Stephanie C; Hooker, Steven P; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin V; Heinrich, Katie M; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-07

    Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity-related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were "enhance infrastructure supporting walking" (n = 11) and "increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity" (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity-related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  6. Pioneering Renewable Energy in an Economic Energy Policy System: The History and Development of Dutch Grassroots Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteman, M.I.; Kooij, H.J.; Wiering, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The first grassroots initiatives for renewable energy in The Netherlands were a small number of wind cooperatives that developed in the 1980s and 1990s. After a few years without developments, new initiatives started emerging after 2000, and after 2009 the movement boomed, growing from around 40 to

  7. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  8. Diplomatic strategies around FOCALAE: emerging platform for Latin American policy of China Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ren-rang Chyou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The People's Republic of China has always followed a policy of no alignment, even with its neighbors of the Southeast Asian region. But since every rule has an exception, the People's Republic of China changed its position in 1990, by joining the core of the Asian Region, in an action interpreted as remuneration for the support received in favor of its legal status, and for the political support to the principle of the "One China" In time, the financial Asian crisis has created a bi-polar development, with the Southern countries still under the influence of the financial sequels of the crisis, and the Northern ones, as the People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong attaining evident economic achievements. With the financial crisis, Beijing was invited to participate in the Asian Forum of BOAO, under the political clout of the "ASEAN+3" group. The People's Republic of China also actively cooperates in the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC, in order to project a "southern political sphere", able to act as a fence around the Capitalist World Axis, under the leadership of USA. The People's Republic of China, after gaining the desired success in the BOAO by projecting the image of "a China in peaceful emergence", has been able to come out as the leader of the Southeast Asian region, and also has managed to focus the international attention in the FEALAC. Nowadays, everybody tries to understand the real intentions of China in this forum. Does China look at it as a mere negotiation forum for South to South relations or it wants to turn it into a replica of the BOAO, to use it as a tool to influence Latin America?

  9. A smarter plan? A policy comparison between Great Britain and Ireland's deployment strategies for rolling out new metering technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The Irish and British governments have recently mandated the replacement of domestic gas and electricity meters with smart meters. Their deployment strategies differ based on the extent to which deregulation of the gas and electricity market has been successful. A broad debate has been held on the various assumptions justifying the cost-benefit analyses and the permutations of these assumptions. What has been paid less attention is to what end is a smart meter being employed towards. A corollary research question is whether the deployment plan is targeting the correct sector. If the purpose is to introduce automated meter reading across the housing sector then a better strategy would be to legislate for accurate monthly bills, as in Sweden. Allowing suppliers to have greater flexibility will likely reward rather than stifle the design of competition. If the purpose is to manage demand then it may be that it's working with complex tariffs and not the meter per se that counts. The high consuming end-use categories and profile classes would be better placed for that exercise. Innovation theory also supports the targeting of new innovations to larger consumers, allowing metering innovations to proceed along historical trajectories. - Highlights: ► Irish and British metering policies conflate demand management and accurate billing. ► Demand management would be better focused on the high consuming building sectors. ► Accurate billing would be best served by legislation, as was the case in Sweden

  10. Antibiotic discovery throughout the Small World Initiative: A molecular strategy to identify biosynthetic gene clusters involved in antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth; Sloan, Tyler; Aurelius, Krista; Barbour, Angela; Bodey, Elijah; Clark, Brigette; Dennis, Celeste; Drown, Rachel; Fleming, Megan; Humbert, Allison; Glasgo, Elizabeth; Kerns, Trent; Lingro, Kelly; McMillin, MacKenzie; Meyer, Aaron; Pope, Breanna; Stalevicz, April; Steffen, Brittney; Steindl, Austin; Williams, Carolyn; Wimberley, Carmen; Zenas, Robert; Butela, Kristen; Wildschutte, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production. During the 2015 fall semester at Bowling Green State University, students isolated 77 soil-derived bacteria and genetically characterized strains using the 16S rRNA gene, identified strains exhibiting antagonistic activity, and performed an expanded SWI workflow using transposon mutagenesis to identify a biosynthetic gene cluster involved in toxigenic compound production. We identified one mutant with loss of antagonistic activity and through subsequent whole-genome sequencing and linker-mediated PCR identified a 24.9 kb biosynthetic gene locus likely involved in inhibitory activity in that mutant. Further assessment against human pathogens demonstrated the inhibition of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of this compound, thus supporting our molecular strategy as an effective research pipeline for SWI antibiotic discovery and genetic characterization. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. AN ASSESMENT OF THE POLICIES CONCERNING THE EU SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Weiszenbacher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has been now for more than 15 years, at the center of the objectives of the EU, being already enshrined in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. The basic concern of this now ubiquitous term is to assure the current generation’s demands will be fulfilled without endangering the needs of upcoming generations, sustainability being a key factor that affects both the financial market and the overall economy. The European Union has addressed this issue by developing a long term strategy, taking into account both economical, social, environmental and global governance factors and identifying seven key interrelated issues regarding climate change and clean energy, transport, consumption and production, the management and conservation of natural resources, public health, social inclusion and global poverty. This paper aims to present an overview of the current situation of the key challenges and their intersectoral measures and to determine the progress made in this area as well as to identify the key issues that offer the greatest amount of improvement and to recommend possible solutions to the aforementioned challenges. The methodology will benefit from data obtained and sampled from the Eurostat monitoring report, thus providing an accurate and transparent impartial analysis.

  12. The effect of PHEV battery range distributions on competitiveness: Implications for design strategy and energy-efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sten; Jonson, Emma (Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Electric vehicles have the potential to contribute to increased energy efficiency. However, competition is fierce among designs, energy carriers, and powertrains; electric vehicles must be economically viable from a consumer point of view. Batteries are still expensive; short of a breakthrough, the energy battery will constitute a considerable share of the vehicle cost for the foreseeable future. Economically efficient battery use is therefore very important. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) constitute a response to this efficiency requirement. PHEVs rely on a relatively small battery, while still allowing a considerable share of the driving to be powered by electricity. In previous studies, we investigated optimal battery sizes, from the individual consumer's perspective. In reality, only a limited number of battery sizes will be available. Understanding the relationship between a limited choice of battery sizes and the potential for PHEVs should be of value to car manufacturers, in constructing battery range strategies, as well as to policymakers, in formulating policies for encouraging the introduction of electric vehicles. Here we investigate this relationship by analyzing how various battery range strategies influence PHEV viability, efficiency, and potential. We use a data set on car use from a mid-size Swedish town covering 201 individual cars for 100 days. The results are presented in terms of the possible loss in net revenue, electrification potential, and energy efficiency for different distributions of battery ranges, which reflect a limited number of optimized sizes and a modular design. We apply our analysis to current conditions and a range of possible future techno-economic and recharging conditions, making it possible to estimate the importance of the different strategies in a variety of future scenarios. For instance, for a single fleetoptimized battery, the estimated loss in average net revenue is up to 30 % of the battery cost, the

  13. The Commission White Paper on a Strategy for a Future EU Chemicals Policy: the view of European companies of American parentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montfort, Jean-Philippe

    2003-04-01

    After years of good service, EU legislation on chemicals is currently subject to a major review. This process, initiated by the Council of Ministers at Chester in April 1998, will soon lead to new legislative proposals. In the meantime, a review of the Commission's White Paper on "Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy," published in February 2001, clearly shows that the regulatory landscape in this area will be significantly reshaped and that a new burden will be imposed on industry to demonstrate that the production and use of chemicals indeed conform to high standards of protection of human health and the environment. In the view of industry, on both sides of the Atlantic, while the objectives of the proposed reform can be supported, the measures proposed in the White Paper to implement these objectives are not properly balanced and will lead to substantial societal and economic drawbacks, unless significant adjustments are made. The purpose of this article is to present the pitfalls and difficulties of the reform as they are perceived by the EU Committee of the American Chamber of Commerce in Brussels, an organization that regroups about 150 European companies of American parentage, belonging to a broad range of European business sectors, including producers and users of chemicals. In view of the transatlantic and cross-business character of its membership, the EU Committee offers a different perspective on the debate.

  14. Behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and climate change policy: baseline review for the garrison institute initiative on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the increasing scientific certainty that the earth's climate is warming and that human activity is partially responsible, public willingness to take steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions seems to be decreasing. How can the scientific consensus as to the urgency of the climate change problem be conveyed to the general public in such a way as to support greenhouse gas abatement policies and to actually change behavior? This essay explores the standard economic approach to environ...

  15. NASA's Carbon Cycle OSSE Initiative - Informing future space-based observing strategies through advanced modeling and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L.; Sellers, P. J.; Schimel, D.; Moore, B., III; O'Dell, C.; Crowell, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are critically needed to improve understanding of the contemporary carbon budget and carbon-climate feedbacks. Though current carbon observing satellites have provided valuable data in regions not covered by surface in situ measurements, limited sampling of key regions and small but spatially coherent biases have limited the ability to estimate fluxes at the time and space scales needed for improved process-level understanding and informed decision-making. Next generation satellites will improve coverage in data sparse regions, either through use of active remote sensing, a geostationary vantage point, or increased swath width, but all techniques have limitations. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these approaches and their synergism have not previously been examined. To address these needs, a significant subset of the US carbon modeling community has come together with support from NASA to conduct a series of coordinated observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), with close collaboration in framing the experiments and in analyzing the results. Here, we report on the initial phase of this initiative, which focused on creating realistic, physically consistent synthetic CO2 and CH4 observational datasets for use in inversion and signal detection experiments. These datasets have been created using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS) to represent the current state of atmospheric carbon as well as best available estimates of expected flux changes. Scenarios represented include changes in urban emissions, release of permafrost soil carbon, changes in carbon uptake in tropical and mid-latitude forests, changes in the Southern Ocean sink, and changes in both anthropogenic and natural methane emissions. This GEOS carbon `nature run' was sampled by instrument simulators representing the most prominent observing strategies with a focus on consistently representing the impacts of

  16. The concept of «soft power» in the context of strategy of foreign policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korotkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the basic principles and conceptual approaches to the concept of «power». Modern globalizational processes in the world (political, economic influence the emergence of new concepts of power. The basic theoretical concepts of international relations ­ «hard power» and «soft power» and the possibility of using them in  ukrainian foreign policy are under consideration. The causes of emergence of the «soft power» concept is studied in the article. Among the mentioned causes we examine the end of «Cold War» and formation of multipolar international system. It brings us to the changes of the nature of the power itself and makes the strategy of «soft power» more potential. The attention is drawn to the relevance of the essence of the «soft power» concept and possibility of its usage in  ukrainian foreign policy, in its political scientific discussions. The annexation of the Crimea in 2014 and the military conflict with Russia influenced the future implementation of this concept. The potential of the «soft power» concept in Ukraine is already exhausted. The «Orange Revolution» in 2004 and «Revolution of Dignity» in 2014 are the symbolic events of modern Ukraine and the main tools of the «soft power». These events formed a positive image of Ukraine in Europe. It is necessary to restrict (financially and informationally the usage of this concept and give priority to the «hard power». Concept of «soft power» is only effective in the countries with significant military and economic potential. The events in Ukraine show that in order to ensure its national security for the ‘second­tier’ states the development of its own military force should be on a priority basis.

  17. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization.

  18. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  20. Systematic Management of Change Is the Key to Successful Staff Development. An Initial Study of the Bloomfield Public Schools Staff Development Project. Teacher Essentials, Styles & Strategies (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Nicholas; Morris, Harold

    Confronted by a maturing staff, lower teacher turnover rates, declining enrollments, and more sophisticated instructional methods, the Bloomfield (New Jersey) Public School District adopted an ambitious staff development initiative in 1983. This paper describes the planning and implementation strategies used to launch Bloomfield's Teaching…