WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy impact analysis

  1. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  2. Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of monetary policy on financial asset returns, with particular reference to stocks. The minimum discount rate and an index based on the direction of change in discount rate were used as monetary policy proxies. The analysis was done using a multi-association model of which ...

  3. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  4. Using Contribution Analysis to Evaluate the Impacts of Research on Policy: Getting to "Good Enough"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L.; Kernoghan, Alison; Stockton, Lisa; Montague, Steve; Yessis, Jennifer; Willis, Cameron D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing societal impacts of research is more difficult than assessing advances in knowledge. Methods to evaluate research impact on policy processes and outcomes are especially underdeveloped, and are needed to optimize the influence of research on policy for addressing complex issues such as chronic diseases. Contribution analysis (CA), a…

  5. Analysis of National and EU Policies Supporting CSR and Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke; Anastasiadis, Stephanos

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the place of governmental policies in encouraging and supporting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and their effectiveness therein. By: Moon, Jeremy - Slager, Rieneke - Brunn, Christoph - Hardi, Peter - Steen Knudsen, Jette - 2012 The very...... but it is also increasingly explicit in government policies (Matten and Moon 2008). In other words, it is not simply that government policies structure the environment in which companies choose to behave responsibly or otherwise, but also that policies are precisely designed to encourage such behaviour...... society organizations); to mandate (e.g. for accounting or reporting standards). However, the trajectories between and combinations of these policy types also vary among countries (see below). Collectively they tend to reflect broader trends in new governance which stress participation, networks...

  6. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  7. The Development of a Multisource and a Systematized Database for Economic and Policy Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ec. Filippo Oropallo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ISTAT is involved in various EU projects with the objective of "supporting the Lisbon objectives, EU governance and the process of national policy coverage with the best EU-wide and national policy impact and evaluation analyses". Existing knowledge on policy impact analyses is approximate. The "facts" on the impact of policies are charted only at the aggregate level and with a high degree of approximation. Macro indicators have well-known pitfalls and drawbacks. Understanding how policies affect economic performance and developing better indicators to gauge their effects is central to endow the EU with a set of efficient and fair policies. The gap in European knowledge and capacity for Policy Impact Analysis is patent. The DIECOFIS EU-FP5 project has taken up the challenge of reducing this gap in the field of taxation. Results have been quite encouraging and have open new vistas for future work. Particularly notable has been the development of a system of micro-founded indicators, based on factuals and counterfactuals, estimated through micro-simulation models. This has led to the current utilization of such a tool in the ex-ante microsimulation of the effects of several reforms of corporate taxation

  8. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Obesity prevention advocacy in Australia: an analysis of policy impact on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emily; Hughes, Roger; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-06-01

    To explore obesity policy options recommended by stakeholders and identify their impact on individual autotomy. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. A content analysis of submissions to the Australian Government's Inquiry into Obesity was conducted. Each recommendation was categorised by its impact on autonomy, according to existing frameworks. Chi-square test for independence was used to explore the association between autonomy and stakeholder support defined as frequency of recommendation. The extent of support for a policy option was significantly associated with impact on autonomy (pautonomy were least frequently recommended in every setting; but more likely in schools (27%) than other settings (autonomy were most widely recommended (46%). Stakeholders advocated policy options that enhance individual autonomy to a greater extent than those that diminish autonomy. Implications for public health: Targeting obesity policy options that enhance rather than diminish autonomy may be more politically acceptable across most settings, with the exception of schools where more restrictive policy options are appropriate. Re-framing options accordingly may improve leadership by government in obesity policy. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Yamasaki, Sakura

    2009-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the data of a previous study on the policy impact of antinuclear, ecology, and peace movements in three countries with the aim of replicating its findings. Our goal is to see whether using a different analytical technique will yield similar results. The previous study used a regression approach to time-series analysis. Here, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to analyze the previous study’s data. Specifically, we test the two main hypotheses based on the joi...

  11. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2011 - part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - estimating impacts and valuing damages on a sectoral basis.

  12. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  13. Economic impact analysis of natural gas development and the policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, P.N.K.; Simons, S.J.R.; Stevens, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the US, the shale gas revolution ensured that the development costs of unconventional natural gas plummeted to the levels of $2–3/Mcf. This success has motivated the development of shale gas in other regions, including Australia and Europe. This study, focussing primarily on aspects of economic impact analysis, estimates the development costs of shale gas extraction in both Australia and Europe, based on both direct and fiscal costs, and also suggests policy initiatives. The increasing liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments in Australia are already straining domestic gas supplies. Hence, the development of more natural gas resources has been given a high priority. However, a majority of the Australian shale resources is non-marine in origin and significantly different to the marine-type shales in the US. In addition, the challenges of high development costs and the lack of infrastructure, service capacity and effective government policy are inhibiting shale gas development. Increasing the attractiveness of low risk investment by new, local, developers is critical for Australian shale gas success, which will simultaneously increase domestic gas security. In the European context, unconventional gas development will be challenged by direct, rather than fiscal costs. High direct costs will translate into average overall gas development costs over $13/Mcf, which is well over the existing market price. - Highlights: • The shale gas development potential of US, Europe and Australia are compared. • An economic impact analysis of shale gas development in Europe and Australia. • Factors important for shale gas development are discussed. • Policy pathways are suggested for shale gas development

  14. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2010 - part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - integrated assessment modeling and valuation.

  15. Water and growth: An econometric analysis of climate and policy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassaan Furqan; Morzuch, Bernard J.; Brown, Casey M.

    2017-06-01

    Water-related hazards such as floods, droughts, and disease cause damage to an economy through the destruction of physical capital including property and infrastructure, the loss of human capital, and the interruption of economic activities, like trade and education. The question for policy makers is whether the impacts of water-related risk accrue to manifest as a drag on economic growth at a scale suggesting policy intervention. In this study, the average drag on economic growth from water-related hazards faced by society at a global level is estimated. We use panel regressions with various specifications to investigate the relationship between economic growth and hydroclimatic variables at the country-river basin level. In doing so, we make use of surface water runoff variables never used before. The analysis of the climate variables shows that water availability and water hazards have significant effects on economic growth, providing further evidence beyond earlier studies finding that precipitation extremes were at least as important or likely more important than temperature effects. We then incorporate a broad set of variables representing the areas of infrastructure, institutions, and information to identify the characteristics of a region that determine its vulnerability to water-related risks. The results identify water scarcity, governance, and agricultural intensity as the most relevant measures affecting vulnerabilities to climate variability effects.

  16. On the Impact of Policy Uncertainty on Oil Prices: An Asymmetry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has assessed the impact of policy uncertainty on a few macro variables. In this paper, we consider its impact on oil prices. Oil prices are usually determined in global markets by the law of demand and supply. Our concern in this paper is to determine which country’s policy uncertainty measure has an impact on oil prices. Using both the linear and the nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL methods, we find that while policy uncertainty measures of Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the U.S. have short-run effects, short-run effects last into the long-run asymmetric effects only in the case of China. This may reflect the importance and recent surge in China’s engagement in world trade.

  17. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  18. Multiobjective Policy Analysis to Evaluate Air Quality Impacts of Oil and Gas Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Milford, J.; Ryan, J. N.; Estep, M.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect the public health of communities in proximity to UOGD and the environmental quality of these regions, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is the setback distance, which dictates the minimum distance between an oil and gas well and an occupied structure, such as a residential or commercial building, or an area of special concern. This presentation discusses a new policy analysis framework for UOGD regulations, using the Borg multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) coupled with AERMOD, a regulatory air dispersion model. The initial results explore how setback distance and well density regulations could impact the number of wells that can be drilled, based on a set of performance objectives that model potential increases in benzene, a hazardous air pollutant that has been linked to cancer and other detrimental health effects. The simulation calculates daily benzene averages using meteorological data from Greeley, CO. An important aspect of this work is to define representative quantitative objectives that accurately capture salient characteristics of the pollutant time series. For example, our framework will characterize the maximum concentration found over the entire spatial domain and over the duration of the simulation. Frequency-based objectives will also be explored, such as the number of exceedances of the benchmark annual average benzene concentration corresponding to a given level of cancer risk. The multiobjective analysis can also be expanded to integrate other objectives that represent performance-based outcomes on UOGD such as energy development profits, increases in noise pollution and decreases in property value. This research represents one application of how MOEAs can be used to inform policymaking for environmental regulations.

  19. Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Alex; Kopp, Robert E.; Shouse, Kate C.; Griffiths, Charles; Hodson, Elke L.; Kopits, Elizabeth; Mignone, Bryan K.; Moore, Chris; Newbold, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wolverton, Ann

    2013-04-01

    to updating the estimates regularly as modeling capabilities and scientific and economic knowledge improves. To help foster further improvements in estimating the SCC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy hosted a pair of workshops on “Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis.” The first focused on conceptual and methodological issues related to integrated assessment modeling and the second brought together natural and social scientists to explore methods for improving damage assessment for multiple sectors. These two workshops provide the basis for the 13 papers in this special issue.

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  1. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  2. An Analysis of China's Fertilizer Policies: Impacts on the Industry, Food Security, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Lin; Huang, Gaoqiang; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2013-07-01

    China has made remarkable strides in recent decades to grow enough food to feed 20% of the world's population with only 9% of the world's arable land. Meanwhile, the nation is experiencing exacerbated air and water pollution problems. Agricultural growth and the pollution aggravation are closely linked with policies affecting fertilizer production and use. Essentially nonexistent in 1950, China's fertilizer industry is now a robust conglomerate producing fertilizers in amounts that not only meet domestic demand but also contribute to international trade. The industry's growth stemmed from a series of policy progressions, featuring (i) a total control system with state ownership and central planning (1949-1984), (ii) a dual system of central planning and market adjustment (1985-1997), (iii) a market-driven system with government-mandated price caps (1998-2009), and (iv) a complete market-oriented system (since 2009). In conjunction with the policy changes were massive subsidy programs totaling more than $18 billion in 2010. The support policies and subsidies helped grow the industry and safeguard an adequate supply of fertilizers at affordable costs to farmers, but the artificially low-priced fertilizers also contributed to a nationwide trend of fertilizer overuse, leading to nutrient pollution. China needs innovative policies and programs to address food security and sustainability challenges. In this study, we review and analyze policies and programs related to China's fertilizer production and use in a 60-yr span (1950-2010) and discuss its impact on the development of the industry, food security, and pressing environmental issues. Finally, our study analyzes long-term trends in fertilizer use in China and offers some key viewpoints to stimulate debates among all stakeholders. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Assessing the influence of Environmental Impact Assessments on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree

    2009-07-01

    The need to understand and minimize negative environmental outcomes associated with large dams has both contributed to and benefited from the introduction and subsequent improvements in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. However, several limitations in the EIA process remain, including those associated with the uncertainty and significance of impact projections. These limitations are directly related to the feedback between science and policy, with information gaps in scientific understanding discovered through the EIA process contributing valuable recommendations on critical focus areas for prioritizing and funding research within the fields of ecological conservation and river engineering. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA process for the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China as a case study for evaluating this feedback between the EIA and science and policy. For one of the best-studied public development projects in the world, this paper presents an investigation into whether patterns exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental impacts and (a) the identification of impacts as uncertain or priority by the EIA, (b) decisions or political events associated with the dam, and (c) impact type. This analysis includes the compilation of literature on TGP, characterization of ecosystem interactions and responses to TGP through a hierarchy of impacts, coding of EIA impacts as "uncertain" impacts that require additional study and "priority" impacts that have particularly high significance, mapping of an event chronology to relate policies, institutional changes, and decisions about TGP as "events" that could influence the focus and intensity of scientific investigation, and analysis of the number of publications by impact type and order within the impact hierarchy. From these analyses, it appears that the availability and consistency of scientific information limit the accuracy of environmental impact

  4. Woodfuel in Rwanda: Impact on Energy, Poverty, Environment and Policy Instruments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Mazimpaka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda’s geographical and socio-economic situations have shaped the energy situation and limited access to modern fuels. Woodfuel is the main source of energy for households and its trade a source of income and jobs in rural areas. Currently 85.2% of households’ land holding is less than 1 ha, insufficient to grow food and fuelwood for a household of the average size of 5.5 persons. Without well documented reports of the individual impact of each deforestation factor, woodfuels have been most blamed. This paper investigates how the current woodfuel industry impacts on energy, poverty and forests and analyses the woodfuel policy instruments. Considering woodfuel consumption under an only environmental or energy perspective has resulted in a search for a narrowly environmental or energy solution. Both failed to solve the problem of forest depletion. Current regulations limit the benefits traditionally derived from woodfuel commoditisation leading to a negative attitude towards policy instruments. The processes involved in producing charcoal and using it as a cooking fuel is inefficient and resource intensive. The barriers to large dissemination of improved cooking stoves include availability, relatively low cost of woodfuels, lack of improved stove diversity on the local market and weak government policy in regard to the woodfuel industry. Policies aiming to substitute or reduce woodfuel consumption, have not achieved the desired results and their implementations have not unarguably reduced deforestation. The paper recommends the community-based woodfuel production as sustainable management approaches to mobilise community support for sustainable forestry management and woodfuel production.

  5. Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A. Radin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of policy analysis that exists in the 21st century is quite different from that found earlier phases. The world of the 1960s that gave rise to this field in the US often seems unrelated to the world we experience today. These shifts have occurred as a result of a range of developments – technological changes, changes in the structure and processes of government both internally and globally, new expectations about accountability and transparency, economic and fiscal problems, and increased political and ideological conflict.It is clear globalization has had a significant impact on the field. Shifts in the type of decisionmaking also have created challenges for policy analysts since analysts are now clearly in every nook and cranny in the decisionmaking world. Thus it is relevant to look at the work that they do, the skills that they require, and the background experience that is relevant to them.

  6. The likely regional impacts of an agricultural emissions policy in New Zealand: Preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Isabelle; Brunton, Emma; Hendy, Joanna; Kerr, Suzi

    2005-01-01

    Hendy and Kerr (2005b) find that an emissions charge on agricultural methane and nitrous oxide of $25 per tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent would be likely to reduce New Zealand’s net land-use related emissions for commitment period one in the order of 3%, with full accounting. The costs per farmer and as a percentage of profit would be very high. This paper considers the regional impacts of such a policy in New Zealand by allocating the emission charge across space according to the lo...

  7. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  8. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnár, Ágnes; Ádám, Balázs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Ádány, Róza; Kósa, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: ► Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies – in light of current evidence – is low. ► Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. ► Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. ► HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  9. Seasonal influenza vaccination in China: Landscape of diverse regional reimbursement policy, and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Atkins, Katherine E; Feng, Luzhao; Pang, Mingfan; Zheng, Yaming; Liu, Xinxin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-11-11

    To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures. Regular reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination are available in 61 mutually exclusive regions, comprising 8 provinces, 45 prefectures, and 8 counties, which were reimbursed by the local Government Financial Department or Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). Finance-reimbursed vaccination was offered mainly for the elderly, and school children for free in Beijing, Dongli district in Tianjin, Karamay, Shenzhen and Xinxiang cities. BSMI-reimbursement policies were limited to specific medical insurance beneficiaries with distinct differences in the reimbursement fractions. The average national vaccination coverage was just 1.5-2.2% between 2004 and 2014. A free national vaccination program for priority populations (n=416million), would cost government US$ 757million (95% CI 726-789) annually (uptake rate=20%). An increasing number of regional governments have begun to pay, partially or fully, for influenza vaccination for selected groups. However, this small-scale policy approach has failed to increase national uptake. A free, nationwide vaccination program would require a substantial annual investment. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to identify the most efficient methods to improve coverage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  11. The impact of policy on hospital productivity: a time series analysis of Dutch hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; Eggink, Evelien

    2014-06-01

    The health care industry, in particular the hospital industry, is under an increasing degree of pressure, by an ageing population, advancing expensive medical technology a shrinking labor. The pressure on hospitals is further increased by the planned budget cuts in public spending by many current administrations as a result of the economic and financial crises. However, productivity increases may alleviate these problems. Therefore we study whether productivity in the hospital sector is growing, and whether this productivity growth can be influenced by government policy. Using an econometric time series analysis of the hospital sector in the Netherlands, productivity is estimated for the period 1972-2010. Then, productivity is linked to the different regulation regimes during that period, ranging from output funding in the 1970s to the current liberalized hospital market. The results indicate that the average productivity of the hospital sector in different periods differs and that these differences are related to the structure of regulation in those periods.

  12. SYSTEMIC CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPACT ON MONETARY POLICY. THE INVOLVEMENT OF CENTRAL BANKS. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana GIBA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a systemic crisis, many institutions in the financial system may face a lack of liquidity and central banks, as lenders of last resort, have to support them in order to ensure their financial stability. The question is: To what extent the involvement of central banks in systemic crises management, by providing liquidity to credit institutions, affects their ability to accomplish the central goal of monetary policy - price stability?To answer this question, through this study, we conducted an empiricalanalysis on the effect which central banks’ involvement in systemic crises management, through liquidity support, has on monetary policy objectives, mainly on price stability. Using a principal components analysis, we built a Monetary policy index and we developed a regression model between this index and the liquidity support provided by central banks in systemic crises.The conclusion we reached is that the provision of liquidity by the central bank to banking institutions in the system affects its monetary policy objectives only on the short -term. Specifically, providing liquidity support leads to an increase in both monetary aggregates and consumer price index in the first two years of the crisis, after which there is a significant dilution of this impact.

  13. Impact of Minimum Driveway Spacing Policies on Safety Performance: An Integrated Traffic Micro-Simulation and Automated Conflict Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu C. Minh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy for successful access management is the adoption of driveway spacing guidelines that consider both safety and operations. The goal is to provide sufficient distance from one driveway to the next so that drivers can perceive and react to the conditions at each potential conflict point in succession. State DOTs across the country have adopted different driveway spacing standards that vary according to the access class and characteristics of the adjacent roadway, such as type of roadway, posted speed limit, and traffic volume. Utilizing the VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation tool and FHWA's Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM, this research examined safety implications of four different driveway spacing policies representing 13 states. The analysis involved calibrating the VISSIM model for an arterial roadway corridor in West Columbia, SC, and then using the calibrated model to simulate various operational changes to the corridor, including speed limits, traffic volumes, and the associated minimum driveway spacing criteria for the four different policies. SSAM was used to analyze vehicle trajectories derived from VISSIM to determine the number of conflict points. Experimental results indicate that posted speed limit and traffic volume are the primary impact factors for driveway safety, and thus, these parameters should be considered in establishing minimum driveway spacing. Findings from this study indicate that there are significant differences in safety impacts between the different driveway spacing policies adopted by various state DOTs.

  14. Policy impacts estimates are sensitive to data selection in empirical analysis: evidence from the United States – Canada softwood lumber trade dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Rajan Parajuli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use the U.S. softwood lumber import demand model as a case study to show that the effects of past trade policies are sensitive to the data sample used in empirical analyses.  We conclude that, to be consistent with the purpose of analysis of policy and to ensure all else being equal, policy impacts can only be judged by using data up to the time when...

  15. The economic value of fair use in copyright law: counterfactual impact analysis of fair use policy on private copying technology and copyright markets in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The counterfactual impact analysis of fair use amendments in Singapore undertaken here demonstrates that flexible fair use policy positively influences growth rates in private copying technology industries. In 2010, five years after the policy intervention, Singapore’s fair use amendments are correlated with a 3.33% increase in value-added (as % of GDP) for private copying technology industries. Prior to the amendment of fair use policies, private copying technology industries experienced - 1...

  16. Analysis of the economic impact of different Chinese climate policy options based on a CGE model incorporating endogenous technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Chen Jining

    2009-01-01

    Abatement cost is the main concern for climate change mitigation and the key factor for mitigation cost is technological change. This study established an integrated economic, energy, environmental, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model representing endogenous technological change for China's climate change policy analysis. This study analyzed and compared the economic impact of different approaches to mitigation commitments as well as the potential role of technological change in the formulation of mitigation targets and commitments, taking into account China's climate policy-making needs based on the current international climate negotiation process. The results show that, absolute emission limits similar to the Kyoto Protocol will seriously impede the future economic development of China, while the impact of an 80% reduction in carbon intensity, forecast for 2050 based on the 2005 level, is relatively small. Technological change can promote economic growth, improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon intensity per unit of output through the substitution of production factors. Consequently it can reduce marginal abatement cost and related GDP loss by mitigation. At the same time it can increase mitigation potentials and extend the emission reduction amount, showing that consideration of the impact of technological change when deciding the emission reduction targets is necessary.

  17. Internationalization Impact on PhD Training Policy in Russia: Insights from The Comparative Document Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Chigisheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the need for an objective picture of the Russian third level tertiary education transformation driven by internationalization issues and global trends in education. The article provides an analytical comparative review of the official documents related to the main phases of education reform in Russia and focuses on the system of PhD training which has undergone significant reorganization in recent years. A series of alterations introduced into the theory and practice of postgraduate education in Russia are traced in regulatory documents and interpreted in terms of growing internationalization demand. Possible implications for further development of the research human potential in Russia are being discussed. The method of comparative document analysis produces the best possible insight into the subject. The findings of the study contribute to the understanding of current challenges facing the system of doctoral studies in Russia and lead to certain conclusions on the transformation of educational policy in relation to PhD training under the influence of internationalization agenda.

  18. The impact of monetary policy on output and inflation in India: A frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunkhe Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, several attempts by the RBI to control inflation through tight monetary policy have ended up slowing the growth process, thereby provoking prolonged discussion among academics and policymakers about the efficacy of monetary policy in India. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between monetary policy and its final objectives; i.e., growth, and controlling inflation in India. The methodological tool used is testing for Granger Causality in the frequency domain as developed by Lemmens et al. (2008, and monetary policy has been proxied by the weighted average call money rate. In view of the fact that output gap is one of the determinants of future inflation, an attempt has also been made to study the causal relationship between output gap and inflation. The results of empirical estimation show a bi-directional causality between policy rate and inflation and between policy rate and output, which implies that the monetary authorities in India were equally concerned about inflation and output growth when determining policy. Furthermore, any attempt to control inflation affects output with the same or even greater magnitude than inflation, thereby damaging the growth process. The relationship between output gap and inflation was found to be positive, as reported in earlier studies for India. Furthermore, the output gap causes inflation only in the short-tomediumrun.

  19. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  20. The Comparative Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Tax Policies on the Country’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telnova Hanna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the impact of tax policies on economic growth through a comparative empirical analysis of the tax burden and its structure in the European countries. The carried out cluster analysis of the economic growth rate, tax burden and labor income taxation in 20 European countries allowed to determine that: countries with medium-to-low economic growth rates have the highest level of tax burden and labor income taxation; countries with low economic growth rates are characterized by a tax system with relatively low tax burdens and high taxation of labor income; countries with medium-to-high economic growth are applying a high level of tax burdens with a moderate taxation of labor income; countries with high rates of economic growth form a tax system with little tax burden and income taxation. It has been proven that countries that are able to mobilize tax revenues through adaptive tax structures and instruments have a greater impact on the long-term growth rates.

  1. BAYESIAN APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POLICY IMPACT ON RUSSIAN MACROECONOMICS INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the interaction between the production macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy and MIBOR (the main operational benchmark of the Bank of Russia, as well as the relationship between the inflation indicators and money supply were investigated with Bayesian approach. Conjugate Normal Inverse Wishart Prior was used. According to the study, tough monetary policy has a deterrent effect on the Russian economy. The growth of the money market rate causes a reduction in investments and output in the main sectors of the economy, as well as a drop in the income of the population with an increase in the unemployment rate.

  2. Projected impacts of federal tax policy proposals on mortality burden in the United States: A microsimulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The public health consequences of federal income tax policies that influence income inequality are not well understood. I aimed to project the impacts on mortality of modifying federal income tax structures based on proposals by two recent United States (U.S.) Presidential candidates: Donald Trump and Senator Bernie Sanders. I performed a microsimulation analysis using the latest U.S. Internal Revenue Service public-use tax file with state identifiers (2008 tax year), containing nationally-representative data from 139,651 tax returns. I considered five tax plan scenarios: 1) actual 2008 tax structures; proposals in 2016 by then-candidates 2) Trump and 3) Sanders; 4) a modified Sanders plan with higher top tax rates (75%); and 5) a modified Sanders plan with higher top rates plus revenue redistribution to lower-income households (<$40,000/year). I combined projected changes in income inequality with vital statistics data and past estimates of linkages between income inequality, income, and mortality. 29,689 (95% CI: 10,865-48,920) more deaths/year and 31,302 (95% CI: 11,455-51,577) fewer deaths/year from all causes are anticipated under the Trump and Sanders plans, respectively. Under the modified Sanders plan including higher top rates, 68,919 (95% CI: 25,221-113,561) fewer deaths/year are projected. Under the modified Sanders plan with redistribution, 333,504 (95% CI: 192,897-473,787) fewer deaths/year are expected. Policies that both raise federal income tax rates and redistribute tax revenue could confer large reductions in the total number of annual deaths among Americans. In this era of high income inequality and growing public support to address the rich-poor gap, policymakers should consider joint federal tax and redistributive policies as levers to reduce the burden of mortality in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  4. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting is necessary to save lives and reduce damages. Reducing damages is important to save livelihoods and to reduce the recovery time. Flood alerts should contain expected time of the event, location and extent of the event. A flood alert is not only one message but part of a rehearsed flow of information using multiple canals. First people have to accept the fact that there might be a threat and what the threat is about. People need a reference to understand the situation and be aware of possible measures they can take to assure their own safety and reduce damages. Information to the general public has to be consistent with the information used by emergency services and has to be very clear about consequences and context of possible measures (as shelter in place or preventive evacuation. Emergency services should monitor how the public is responding to adapt their communication en operation during a crisis. Flood warnings and emergency services are often coordinated by different government organisations. This is an extra handicap for having consistent information out on time for people to use. In an information based society, where everyone has twitter, email and a camera, public organisations may have to trust the public more and send out the correct information as it comes in. In the Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat, the National Water Authority and the National Public Works Department, is responsible for or involved in forecasting in case of floods, policy studies on flood risk, policy studies on maintenance, assessment and design of flood defences, elaborating rules and regulations for flood defences, advice on crisis management to the national government and for maintaining the main infrastructure in the Netherlands (high ways and water ways. The Water Management Center in the Netherlands (WMCN has developed a number of models to provide flood forecasts. WMCN is run for and by all managers of flood defences and is hosted by

  5. Impact of price deregulation policy on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Wang, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-12-01

    A new policy which required deregulation on prices of off-patent medicines for women's health during procurement was introduced in China in September 2015. The current study examines this policy's impact on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health. Based on product-level panel data, a fixed effect regression model is employed by using procurement records from Hubei Centralist Tender for Drug Purchase platform. In the model, Affordability was measured with prices. The Competition consists of two parts: generic competition and therapeutic class competition which are measured with generic competitors and therapeutic substitutes. Instrument variable is used to deal with endogeneity. The policy helped control prices of essential medicines for women's health. Generic competition helped control prices, however, therapeutic class competition caused higher prices. The new policy helped enhance the affordability of essential medicines for women's health as expected, which provides empirical evidence on price deregulation. Besides, generic competition is important in price control despite strict regulatory system in China.

  6. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  7. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  8. The impact of policy guidelines on hospital antibiotic use over a decade: a segmented time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith J Chandy

    Full Text Available Antibiotic pressure contributes to rising antibiotic resistance. Policy guidelines encourage rational prescribing behavior, but effectiveness in containing antibiotic use needs further assessment. This study therefore assessed the patterns of antibiotic use over a decade and analyzed the impact of different modes of guideline development and dissemination on inpatient antibiotic use.Antibiotic use was calculated monthly as defined daily doses (DDD per 100 bed days for nine antibiotic groups and overall. This time series compared trends in antibiotic use in five adjacent time periods identified as 'Segments,' divided based on differing modes of guideline development and implementation: Segment 1--Baseline prior to antibiotic guidelines development; Segment 2--During preparation of guidelines and booklet dissemination; Segment 3--Dormant period with no guidelines dissemination; Segment 4--Booklet dissemination of revised guidelines; Segment 5--Booklet dissemination of revised guidelines with intranet access. Regression analysis adapted for segmented time series and adjusted for seasonality assessed changes in antibiotic use trend.Overall antibiotic use increased at a monthly rate of 0.95 (SE = 0.18, 0.21 (SE = 0.08 and 0.31 (SE = 0.06 for Segments 1, 2 and 3, stabilized in Segment 4 (0.05; SE = 0.10 and declined in Segment 5 (-0.37; SE = 0.11. Segments 1, 2 and 4 exhibited seasonal fluctuations. Pairwise segmented regression adjusted for seasonality revealed a significant drop in monthly antibiotic use of 0.401 (SE = 0.089; p<0.001 for Segment 5 compared to Segment 4. Most antibiotic groups showed similar trends to overall use.Use of overall and specific antibiotic groups showed varied patterns and seasonal fluctuations. Containment of rising overall antibiotic use was possible during periods of active guideline dissemination. Wider access through intranet facilitated significant decline in use. Stakeholders and policy

  9. Scientists' response to societal impact policies: A policy paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Smit, Jorrit; van Drooge, L.

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have amended legislation and introduced policies to stimulate universities to transfer their knowledge to society. The effects of these policies on scientists are relatively unexplored. We employ principal–agent theory to increase our understanding of the relationship between impact

  10. Uncertainty analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impacts on low carbon fuel policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    The climate change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development of legislation supporting the introduction of low carbon alternatives, such as biofuels. However, the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions estimated for these policies using life cycle assessment methods are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty in outcomes. This may lead to unreliable and expensive decision making. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. is determined using a process-based framework and statistical modeling methods. Probability distributions fitted to available data were used to represent uncertain parameters in the life cycle model. Where data were not readily available, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model based on existing data was developed. This was used in conjunction with probability mixture models to select appropriate distributions for specific life cycle stages. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate sample output distributions. As an example of results from using these methods, the uncertainty range in life cycle GHG emissions from gasoline was shown to be 13%-higher than the typical 10% minimum emissions reductions targets specified by low carbon fuel policies.

  11. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  12. Preferences for distributional impacts of climate policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Lea Skræp; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    What role do people think distributional aspects should play in design of climate policy? The literature assessing climate policies has shown that assumptions regarding peoples’ distributional preferences for climate change policy impacts are central for policy assessment, but empirical evidence...... for such preferences is lacking. We design a discrete choice experiment that varies how climate policies affect the income of people living in the future in three geographical regions. The experiment is implemented on a representative sample of the Danish population and preferences are modelled in a latent class model....... Our results show that i) a small majority of Danes expresses preferences for climate policies consistent with inequity aversion, ii) a group expresses preferences resembling simple warm glow, while iii) a small group prefers not to support additional climate policies. Finally a somewhat larger group...

  13. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  14. Conclusions: inequality, impacts, and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    Keeping economic inequality in check is an uphill battle, though countries differ. General drivers seem mediated, moderated, accelerated or perhaps even replaced by demographic, institutions or policy-making changes. Growing inequality is not found robustly linked to worsening social outcomes

  15. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; van der Bilt, Willem G M; van Hinsberg, Arjen; de Knegt, Bart; van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-03-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA). We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three "headline" and ten "elaborate" indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010) as well as a reference policy (Trend). In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010) halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space - a common challenge for many urban areas - can only be achieved at

  16. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  17. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  18. Networks and Bargaining in Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today.......A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today....

  19. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public..., Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact...

  20. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  1. ROMANIAN INVESTMENT POLICY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign

  2. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  3. An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Cap-and-Trade Policy on the California Food Processing Industry: A Look at Processed Tomatoes and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Paggi, Mechel S.; Yamazaki, Fumiko; Konduru, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    California Cap-and-Trade policy, sets a statewide limit on sources responsible for an estimated 85 percent of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions. To maintain the cap as per the policy, individual industrial facilities in California must obtain enough allowances to cover their emissions either by purchasing allowances at auction or reducing their emissions by operating more efficiently. This research report analyses the economic impact of the Cap-and-Trade policy on the California food pro...

  4. Policy Analysis and Decisionmaking,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    on "PoI icy Analysis as appl ied to Hiqh-Level Decision-Makinq,’ orciani,’t, ard ,ponsored by Orinoquia Asociacion Civil , in Caracas. Vvelc/t l...substantive and tactical c. Rand’s experience (the new Institute for Civil Justice as a change) i

  5. Impact of Trade Policy Reforms on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Medalla, Erlinda M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts to provide a theoretical analysis as well as some indicators on the linkage between trade policy and the environment. It looks at what has happened to the share of manufacturing industries by pollution classification over time and finds that the share of non-pollutive/nonhazardous industries have grown over the years covering the period of trade reforms. The impact of trade policy on the environment was also analyzed using a simulation model which predicts what happens to p...

  6. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  7. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Sijtsma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA. We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three “headline” and ten “elaborate” indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010 as well as a reference policy (Trend. In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010 halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space − a common challenge for many urban areas

  8. Does social policy moderate the impact of unemployment on health? A multilevel analysis of 23 welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Muntaner, Carles

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude of observable health inequalities between the unemployed and their employed counterparts differs considerably across countries. Few attempts have been made to test theoretical explanations for this cross-national variation. Moreover, existing studies suffer from important theoretical and methodological limitations. This study addresses these limitations and investigates whether differences in the generosity of social protection policies and in public attitudes towards those policies explain why unemployment-related health inequalities are steeper in some societies than in others. Multilevel logistic modelling was used to link contextual-level variables on social protection policies and public attitudes in 23 European countries to individual-level data on self-rated health from the 2012 wave of the European Social Survey. The magnitude of inequalities in self-rated health between the unemployed and their employed counterparts varies significantly across countries as a function of cross-national differences in the level of social protection awarded to the unemployed and the level of public support for the welfare state. The results provide empirical support for the claim that governments can play a more active role in mitigating unemployment-related health inequalities by expanding the generosity and scope of social protection policies. Whether such an expansion of social protection will take place in the current climate of fiscal austerity is a political question whose implications merit the attention of population health scholars. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact assessment of land use policies: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Brouwer, F.M.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue is built around a series of impact assessments of land use policies and sustainable development in developing countries, carried out in the EU-funded project LUPIS (Sixth framework programme, Global Change and Ecosystems, Contract 36955). The project targeted at the development

  10. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania... comments on this transaction by email to economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW...

  11. Unpacking the impacts of 'participatory' forestry policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison....... Further, we conclude that impact evaluations must examine both outcomes and participatory forestry to provide meaningful policy evidence....

  12. 75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... export of approximately $450 million worth of mining equipment and services to Mexico. The U.S. exports... in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Brazil. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction...

  13. 75 FR 24700 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... million revolving credit line for the export of U.S. foundry tooling equipment to Mexico. The U.S. exports... economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room 1238, Washington, DC 20571, within 14...

  14. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... facility in Mexico. The financed amount associated with the U.S. export contract, including local cost and... Mexico, and also to the U.S., Central America, and South America. Interested parties may submit comments...

  15. 78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... production will be sold in India with the remainder sold in Mexico, the Middle East, Africa, and ASEAN...

  16. 77 FR 44614 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... in India. The financed amount associated with the U.S. export contract is expected to total...

  17. 75 FR 20993 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... and Central), China, and India. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by e- mail...

  18. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  19. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  20. The Impact of Privatization and Commercialization Policy on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of privatization and commercialization policy on the attainment of millennium development goals in the Nigerian economy. To achieve this objective, an econometric analysis of ordinary least squares regression method was used. The results showed that the privatization and ...

  1. An analysis of the impact on land use and ecological vulnerability of the policy of returning farmland to forest in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Wang, Jing Jing; Zhang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    During the past decades, land use change has taken place around the Loess Plateau at unprecedented rates. Due to the impact of existing land use policy, great changes have taken place in the land use types in this ecologically vulnerable area. Taking eight counties in Yan'an, Shaanxi province, China, as the study area, this study analyzed the long-term (from 1997 to 2011) changes in land use and ecological vulnerability. Based on thematic mapper (TM) images of Yan'an in 1997, 2004, and 2011, the dynamic changes in land use are analyzed with the application software for remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) since the implementation of the policy of returning farmland to forest. Combined with the land use data, the local socio-economic data, and natural resources condition, ecological vulnerability is evaluated using the spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) model in Yan'an region. Using the natural breaks classification (NBC), the evaluation results are divided into five categories: potential, slight, light, medium, and heavy. The results show that although the regional land use types changed markedly, the ecological vulnerability in the study shows greater than average optimism, and the ecological vulnerability index of the southern four counties is lower than that of the northern four counties. In 1997-2011, the eco-environmental quality gradually improved in most areas. However, it gradually deteriorated in some regions.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT ON THE POLICY OF OIL COMPANIES IN THE SPHERE OF SUBSOIL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarev A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas sector is key sector for the Russian economy. General socio-economic benefits from the development of oil and gas resources are largely dependent on the policies implemented by oil companies. Therefore, the most important task of the state is to create conditions that would ensure socially-oriented behavior of the oil companies. The main purpose of research is to develop recommendations for the establishment of these conditions with regard to oil production. The paper analyzes the current situation with the development of oil resources in Russia, the behavior of the oil companies in the sphere of subsoil use. The methodical approach to analyzing the behavior of companies with respect to the issues of development of oil fields in various conditions (rigidity of the state policy in the sphere of subsoil use is provided. It has been shown that it is necessary a balanced combination of restrictive measures and mechanisms for financial and economic incentives. The findings may be used in the formation of the institutional environment in the sphere of subsoil use.

  3. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  4. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  5. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  6. Impact of entrepreneurship policies on opportunity to startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Davari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the previous decades, policy makers have formulated policies for developing entrepreneurship in different countries in order to decrease unemployment and poverty toward sustainable development. Some of these policies include encouraging people to be an entrepreneur, opportunity creation, educating new skills to entrepreneurs and so on. In recent years an appropriate context has been formed for entrepreneurship development in Iran and some programs have been executed. Therefore, formulating appropriate frameworks to guide Iranian government in this way is a necessity. This paper evaluates the impact of entrepreneurship policies on opportunity to startup in Iran. The results of path analysis indicate that supportive financial and non-financial actions influence positively on opportunity to startup. In addition, education and culture also influence positively on opportunity to startup. Finally, legislation also positively influences on opportunity to startup.

  7. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  8. Preferential treatment and exemption policy impacts energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the preferential treatment and exemption policy of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for State and State Agencies which creates an anticompetitive and restraint of trade attitude in California against the development of alternative energy resources by the private sector when such development competes directly with state owned power generation under the State Water and Central Valley Water Projects, particularly in the area of water and power supply. The existing state water policy fails to address the effects of global warming and the adverse potential of the greenhouse effect in California, i.e. rising tides can seriously impact sea water intrusion problems of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Area by not only flooding agricultural lands in the Delta and Central Valley, but impacting the supply of water to large population areas in Southern and Northern California, especially when coupled with drought conditions. The California investigative research results herein reported demonstrates the fallacy of a preferential treatment and exemption policy in a free market economy, especially when such policy creates the potential for excessive state budget burdens upon the public in the face of questionable subsidies to special interest, i.e., allowing the resulting windfall profits to be passed onto major utilities and commingled at the expense of public interest so as to undermine the financial means for development of alternative energy resources. The cited Congressional and State Legislative Laws which provide the ways and means to resolve any energy or water resource problems are only as good as the enforcement and the commitment by the executive branch of government and the lawmakers to up-hold existing laws

  9. Assessing the impact of research on policy: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Boaz; Siobhan Fitzpatrick; Ben Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the impact of research on policy is a vital, and often overlooked, element of policy-making. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine methods for evaluating the impact of research on policy outcomes. The review focused in particular on strategic policy levels (rather than implementation) and waste, environment and pollution policy. The review draws on an international literature, although it is limited to English language publications. The findings identify the di...

  10. UNPACKING THE DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF FAMILY PLANNING POLICIES IN CHINA: ANALYSIS OF PARITY PROGRESSION RATIOS FROM RETROSPECTIVE BIRTH HISTORY DATA, 1971-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min; Falkingham, Jane; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2018-01-10

    Although China's family planning programme is often referred to in the singular, most notably the One-Child policy, in reality there have been a number of different policies in place simultaneously, targeted at different sub-populations characterized by region and socioeconomic conditions. This study attempted to systematically assess the differential impact of China's family planning programmes over the past 40 years. The contribution of Parity Progression Ratios to fertility change among different sub-populations exposed to various family planning policies over time was assessed. Cross-sectional birth history data from six consecutive rounds of nationally representative population and family planning surveys from the early 1970s until the mid-2000s were used, covering all geographical regions of China. Four sub-populations exposed to differential family planning regimes were identified. The analyses provide compelling evidence of the influential role of family planning policies in reducing higher Parity Progression Ratios across different sub-populations, particularly in urban China where fertility dropped to replacement level even before the implementation of the One-Child policy. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions in turn have been instrumental in adapting and accelerating family planning policy responses to reducing fertility levels across China.

  11. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  12. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  13. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximizing the Policy Impacts of Public Engagement : A European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Steven B.; Mulder, Henk A.J.; Frewer, Lynn J

    There is a lack of published evidence which demonstrates the impacts of public engagement (PE) in science and technology policy. This might represent the failure of PE to achieve policy impacts or indicate a lack of effective procedures for discerning the uptake by policy makers of PE-derived

  15. impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; James W. Richardson

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first...

  16. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  17. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  18. The Intellectual Landscape of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.; Welton, Anjalé D.; Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Lee, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    What counts as critical policy analysis in education? Over the past 30 years, a tightening of national educational policies can be seen in the USA and across the globe. Over this same period of time, a growing number of educational policy scholars, dissatisfied with traditional frameworks, have used critical frameworks in their analyses. Their…

  19. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  20. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  1. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MACROECONOMIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina IVAN-UNGUREANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization – the growing integration of economies and societies around the world – has been one of the most hotly-debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in some countries that were poor 20 years ago have been positive aspects of globalization. But globalization has also generated significant international opposition to concerns about increased inequality and environmental degradation. There are many definitions of globalization. One of them could be: globalization is an ecosystem in which economic potential is no longer defined or contained by political and geographic boundaries. Economic activity has no bounds in a globalized economy. A globalized world is one where goods, services, financial capital, machinery, money, workers and ideas migrate to wherever they are most valued and can work together most efficiently, flexibly and securely. Where does economic policy come into play in this world? This paper presents some aspects of globalization and the impact on the new strategy of macroeconomics policy.

  2. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  3. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  4. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Wiesböck, Laura; Mugabe, Paschal; Aparicio-Effen, Marilyn; Fudjumdjum, Hubert; Chiappetta Jabbour, Charbel Jose

    2018-01-01

    There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards) are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos), to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events. PMID:29438345

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal Filho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos, to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Leal; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Nagy, Gustavo J; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Wiesböck, Laura; Ayal, Desalegn Y; Morgan, Edward A; Mugabe, Paschal; Aparicio-Effen, Marilyn; Fudjumdjum, Hubert; Chiappetta Jabbour, Charbel Jose

    2018-02-13

    There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards) are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos), to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events.

  8. What Can Policy Analysis Add to Evaluation Research?: Predictive Modeling and Policy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Policy analysis, or policy study, is defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies; sometimes policy analysis refers to specific methods used. Two new developments associated with policy analysis are discussed. One is the concern for deducing the effects of alternative policies before they are adopted, as…

  9. Policies and procedures for considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-20

    This order updates the FAA agency-wide policies and procedures for compliance with the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and implementing regulations issued by the Council : on Environmental Quality (40 CFR parts 1500-1508). The provisions o...

  10. The impact of alcohol and road traffic policies on crash rates in Botswana, 2004-2011: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebego, Miriam; Naumann, Rebecca B; Rudd, Rose A; Voetsch, Karen; Dellinger, Ann M; Ndlovu, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In Botswana, increased development and motorization have brought increased road traffic-related death rates. Between 1981 and 2001, the road traffic-related death rate in Botswana more than tripled. The country has taken several steps over the last several years to address the growing burden of road traffic crashes and particularly to address the burden of alcohol-related crashes. This study examines the impact of the implementation of alcohol and road safety-related policies on crash rates, including overall crash rates, fatal crash rates, and single-vehicle nighttime fatal (SVNF) crash rates, in Botswana from 2004 to 2011. The overall crash rate declined significantly in June 2009 and June 2010, such that the overall crash rate from June 2010 to December 2011 was 22% lower than the overall crash rate from January 2004 to May 2009. Additionally, there were significant declines in average fatal crash and SVNF crash rates in early 2010. Botswana's recent crash rate reductions occurred during a time when aggressive policies and other activities (e.g., education, enforcement) were implemented to reduce alcohol consumption and improve road safety. While it is unclear which of the policies or activities contributed to these declines and to what extent, these reductions are likely the result of several, combined efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational Productivity. The Impact of Policy Decisions on School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    In order to elicit discussion on issues of concern to policy-makers at all levels of government, the Regional Planning and Service Project of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory invited educational policy-makers from its region to participate in a symposium on the impact of policy decisions on school performance. Symposium…

  12. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  13. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  14. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  15. Evaluating the impact of abrupt changes in forest policy and management practices on landscape dynamics: analysis of a Landsat image time series in the Atlantic Northern Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging Management regimes impacted different areas to different degrees, producing different trajectories

  16. Impact of Scheduling Policies on Control System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    It is well known that jitter has an impact on control system performance, and this is often used as an argument for static scheduling policies, e.g. a time triggered architecture. However, it is only completion jitter that seriously disturbs standard linear control algorithms in a way similar...... to the delay inherent in a time triggered architecture. Thus we propose that standard control algorithms are scheduled dynamically, but without preemption. Analysis of this policy is contrasted with a corresponding time triggered architecture and is shown to have better impulse response performance both...... in the deterministic case and under white noise disturbances. The conclusion is that under very reasonable assumptions about robustness of control algorithms,they are insensitive to relase jitter, albeit strongly sensitive to completion jitter, thus priority based scheduling without preemption is may be preferable...

  17. Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Pickle, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilising renewable energy technologies (RETs) are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on RET financing. This paper reviews the power plant financing process for renewable energy projects, estimates the impact of financing terms on levelised energy costs, and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and financing. We review five case studies of renewable energy policies, and find that one of the key reasons that RET policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy policies. The case studies specifically show that policies that do no provide long-term stability or that have negative secondary impacts on investment decisions will increase financing costs, sometimes dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the program. Within U.S. electricity restructuring proceedings, new renewable energy policies are being created, and restructuring itself is changing the way RETs are financed. As these new policies are created and implemented, it is essential that policymakers acknowledge the financing difficulties faced by renewables developer and pay special attention to the impacts of renewables policy design on financing. As shown in this paper, a renewables policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums. (Author)

  18. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  19. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community.

  20. IMPACT OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING POLICY ON UNIVERSITY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETAN Georgiana Camelia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of higher education funding policy and university operating efficiency are hot points on the actual public agenda worldwide as the pressures exercised upon the public resources increased, especially in the aftermath of the last economic crisis. Concerned with the improvement of the funding mechanism through which government allocates the public funds in order to meet the national core objectives within the area of higher education, the policy makers adjusted the funding policy by diversifying the criteria used in distributing the funds to public universities. Thus, the aim of this research is to underline both the impact and the consequences the public funding patterns of higher education have on the relative efficiency of public funded higher education institutions, across time. Moreover, the research conducted aims to determine whether the changes occurred within the Romanian public funding methodology of higher education institutions improved the relative efficiency scores of public funded universities, before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Thus, on one hand we have underlined the changes brought to the Romanian public funding mechanism of higher education during the years of 2007, 2009 and 2010 compared to the year of 2006, using the content analysis, and on the other hand we assessed and compared the relative efficiency scores of each selected public funded university using a multiple input - multiple output linear programming model, by employing the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The findings of the research undertaken emphasized that a more performance oriented funding mechanism improves the efficiency scores of public universities. The results of the research undertaken could be used either by the policy makers within the area of higher education or by the administrative management of public universities in order to correlate the funding with the results obtained and/or the objectives assumed by both the

  1. Policy Analysis and the Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes the need for reason, analysis, and experimentation in the provision of health services, and proposes that the institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences establish a center for policy studies to complement and interact with government policy formulation. (AL)

  2. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  3. Cumulative Impacts of Energy and Climate Change Policies on Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A.; Milnes, R.; Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon leakage occurs when climate change policy aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in one country leads to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a country that is not bound by these policies. Given that climate change is a global issue, carbon leakage impacts upon the effectiveness of climate change policies. This independent study examines the cumulative impact of climate change policies on carbon leakage. The report brings together findings and analysis from a wide range of primary literature in this area and where possible, conclusions relevant to the UK are drawn.

  4. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  5. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  6. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  7. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  8. Introduction: Discourse Analysis and Policy Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); R.J. Apthorpe (Raymond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: As introduction to a collection on policy discourses and patterns of argumentation in international development, this paper clarifies different meanings of `discourse' and 'discourse analysis', including as applied in development studies, and explains why effective

  9. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  10. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  11. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  12. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  13. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  14. Macroeconomic impact of a mild influenza pandemic and associated policies in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda: a computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the value of macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. A single-country whole-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Global climate change policies. An analysis of CDM policies with an adapted GTAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the relationships between spatial-economic interaction and global warming just discussed, this study aims to analyze the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) policies from an economic point of view. The research question of this study is formulated as follows: What will be the impacts of clirnate change policies, in particular CDM policies, on the economic performance of (groups of) countries in our global economic system, taking spatial interaction and general equilibrium effects into account? The purpose of addressing the issue of economic performance for (groups of) countries in the economic system is not just to identify winners and losers from international treaties. Rather, winning or losing may even determine the implementation and willingness of individual countries to participate in international environmental treaties, as illustrated by the recent withdrawal of the US from the Kyoto Protocol. By analyzing the economic impacts of an international environmental treaty for individual (groups of) countries, the framework that will be used to analyze this research question may be useful to determine the attractiveness of some global environmental policies, both for the world as a whole and for individual (groups of) countries. The research question will be answered by dividing it into six subquestions: (1) What is the position of CDM policies in the broad context of climate policy regimes?; (2) How should the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment be ideally modeled from an economic perspective? (3) How should the spatial dimension be incorporated in this framework of interaction between the economic and ecological system?; (4) How can climate change issues be incorporated in general equilibrium models in general, and in GTAP-E (extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project) in particular?; (5) How can CDM policies be implemented in the GTAP-E model?; and (6) What are the impacts of these climate change policies on

  16. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of s...

  17. State policy affecting pain management: recent improvements and the positive impact of regulatory health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Aaron M; Maurer, Martha A; Joranson, David E

    2005-10-01

    Criteria-driven policy analysis resources from the University of Wisconsin Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) evaluated drug control and professional practice policies that can influence use of controlled substances for pain management, and documented changes over a 3-year period. Additional research was needed to determine the extent of change, the types of messages contained in the policies, and what has contributed to changing policy content. Four research aims guided this study: (1) evaluate change between 2000 and 2003 of state policy that can affect pain relief, (2) describe content differences for statutes, regulations, guidelines, and policy statements, (3) evaluate differences between policies specific to pain management and policies governing general healthcare practice, and (4) compare content of policies specific to pain management created by healthcare regulatory boards to those created by state legislatures. Results showed that more current policies, especially policies regulating health professionals, tend to encourage pain management and avoid language that restricts professional decision-making and patient treatment. In addition, pain policies from healthcare regulatory boards were generally less restrictive than statutes or policies that govern general healthcare practice. These findings suggest that the positive policy change results primarily from state medical, pharmacy, and nursing boards adopting policies promoting pain management and the use of opioids, while containing few if any restrictions. Despite this improvement, further progress can be made when states continue to abrogate additional restrictions or clinically obsolete provisions from policies. PPSG policy evaluations provide guidance to lawmakers, healthcare regulators, and clinicians who are striving to achieve balanced policy, an attainable but redoubtable goal, to benefit patient care.

  18. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  19. Strategic science for eating disorders research and policy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-03-01

    Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we have developed a model of Strategic Science. This research approach involves working with policy makers and influencers to craft research questions that will answer important and timely policy-related questions. The goal is to create tighter links between research and policy and ensure findings are communicated efficiently to change agents best positioned to apply the research to policy debates. In this article, we lay out a model for Strategic Science and describe how this approach may help advance policy research and action for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Universal Basic Education Policy: Impact on Enrolment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddrisu, Issah

    2016-01-01

    The universal basic education policy enshrined in the constitution of Ghana is aimed at making education accessible and affordable for all Ghanaian citizens. This paper sought to assess whether the universal basic education policy really have an impact on access at the basic level. The study was carried out on the premise that the universal basic…

  1. The Impact of Funding Policies on Higher Education in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Huisman, Jeroen; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the changes in the higher education funding policies and resource allocation models of the Jamaican government in the period 1962-2003. Throughout these four decades, four different systems were in force. This paper focuses particularly on the arguments for the funding policies and models and the impact of the models on the…

  2. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess the impact of fiscal and legislative policies on the nutritional status of South Africans and recommend important policy changes. The most recent national ... 40%, and was steadily increasing. Obesity is a risk factor for many NCDs, including stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.

  3. The Regional Impact of Monetary Policy in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridhwan, M.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Rietveld, P.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs vector autoregressive (VAR) models to measure the impact of monetary policy shocks on regional output in Indonesia. We find substantial cross-regional variation in policy responses in terms of both magnitude as well as timing. Our work adds to the existing literature by providing

  4. Impact of Attendance Policy on Adult College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracinal S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative evaluation focused on the problem of student attrition at a northern California college, its attendance policy, the policy's impact on previous students' decisions to persist in school, and on administrators' attempts to increase retention. The purpose for this study was to evaluate the participants' perceptions about their…

  5. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  6. "Entrepreneurship policy: Trade-offs and impact in the EU"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the notion that trade-offs in public policies form the basis of the separation of managed and entrepreneurial economies; this paper investigates the impact of policy on actual entrepreneurship activity in these two categories of economies. Using data from 19 European Union member countries......, the impact that policy trade-offs in the goal, target, location and system of finance have on entrepreneurship activity is measured using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that while business regulation negatively impact entrepreneurship activity, the location of policy does not show...... any measurable impact. They suggest the need for still more supportive institutions in the effort to develop entrepreneurship and create entrepreneurial economies and realize economic benefits....

  7. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  8. The impacts of carbon tax and complementary policies on Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chuanyi; Tong Qing; Liu Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, it is imperative for Chinese government to impose effective policy instruments to promote domestic energy saving and carbon emissions reduction. As one of the most important incentive-based policy instruments, carbon tax has sparked a lively controversy in China. This paper explores the impact of carbon tax on Chinese economy, as well as the cushion effects of the complementary policies, by constructing a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model. The model can describe the new equilibrium for each sequential independent period (e.g. one year) after carbon tax and the complementary policies are imposed, and thus describe the long-term impacts of the policies. The simulation results show that carbon tax is an effective policy tool because it can reduce carbon emissions with a little negative impact on economic growth; reducing indirect tax in the meantime of imposing carbon tax will help to reduce the negative impact of the tax on production and competitiveness; in addition, giving households subsidy in the meantime will help to stimulate household consumptions. Therefore, complementary policies used together with carbon tax will help to cushion the negative impacts of carbon tax on the economy. The dynamic CGE analysis shows the impact of carbon tax policy on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large. - Research highlights: →Carbon tax is an effective policy tool, which generates larger carbon emission reduction with a little negative impact on economic growth. →Carbon tax recycling to firms or households will help to reduce the impact of carbon tax on production or consumption. →The growth rate of carbon emission is lower than that of GDP because of technology change. →The impact of carbon tax on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large in China in the long run. →The marginal abatement cost of carbon dioxide will rise up

  9. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  10. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  11. Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.; Arasto, A.; Sijm, J.; Peck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers apply multiple policy instruments simultaneously in the climate and energy policy field at both EU and Member State levels. This creates interactions between instruments that can be complementary and synergistic but also conflicting. This article focuses on the interactions of climate policy instruments and their impact on biomass use. The objectives are to examine interactions of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) with the main national climate policy instruments and to identify the influence of these on biomass use. The work draws experiences from seven EU countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), with a special focus on Finland and Sweden. The analysis explores the effects of policy interactions and is based on an examination of literature, and interviews with biomass experts in research, industry and policy spheres. Results indicate that the combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass use, whereas the causal links to the EU ETS are difficult to assess separately. Policy impacts found include increased competition for biomass resources, changes in fuel mixes and a contribution to upward pressure on wood prices. Differences in these effects are linked to differing national policy mixes and energy-carrier portfolios – an example being the relative differences in the importance of peat to the energy mix in Finland and Sweden. Analysis and comparison of the effects in the selected countries can yield insight on how to improve the design of policy interventions that impact biomass use. This study confirms the importance of identifying interactions between policy instruments so as to recognise – and manage – synergies and conflicts. The development of more synergistic and coordinated policy instrument mixes would also be beneficial for the bioenergy field. -- Highlights: ► Combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass

  12. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    The large-scale development of variable renewable energy sources, like wind and solar power, increases the demand for flexibility in power systems. At the same time, their electricity production replaces that of conventional power plants – the traditional suppliers of flexibility, and consequently...... include a clear commitment to develop an "intelligent" energy system that utilises the flexibility potential of the demand side, a coherent policy strategy covering all aspects of the flexibility challenge has not yet been defined. By use of economic models and concepts of policy analysis, this thesis...... flexibility on the demand side. Its potential could be substantial and technical solutions are available. Still, demand flexibility is largely unutilised and establishing an enabling policy and regulatory framework has been identified as one of the major challenges. While the latest Danish energy policies...

  13. Planning nature in urbanized countries : An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans; van der Bilt, W.; van Hinsberg, A.; de Knegt, B.; Van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  14. Planning nature in urbanized countries : An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F; van der Bilt, WGM; van Hinsberg, A; de Knegt, B; van der Heide, M; Leneman, H; Verburg, R.W.

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  15. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J.; Bilt, van der Willem G.M.; Hinsberg, van Arjen; Knegt, de Bart; Heide, van der Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-01-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by

  16. Impact of policy game on insight and attitude to inter sectoral policy processes - EU country cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Glümer, Charlotte; Spitters, Hilde

    Background A policy game is a structured simulated role-play dealing with highly complex decision-making in real life network settings. Its impact on health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy making is unexplored. We aim to explore if an internationally developed and pilot tested policy game...... a policy game at local level, with 6 months intervals, including 18–19 policy makers in each game. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire one week after implementation of the games. Participants were asked if the game had changed their insight or attitude. Results: Response rate was 83%, 89......% and 89% in NL, DK and RO respectively. Across countries the majority of participants, 60%, enhanced their nderstanding of the local HEPA policy process, the roles in the organization network, and how stakeholders can collaborate as result of the game. Most participants perceived change in insight...

  17. Evaluating the impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, M.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste production. This paper evaluates the material impacts packaging policy in The Netherlands in the period 1986–2007. Five different voluntary agreements were implemented over this period to reduce the environmental impact

  18. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  19. Evidence-Based Policy Making and the Implementation of Regulatory Impact Assessment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Petak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is dealing with the application of evidence-based policy-making in Croatian public administration and the general role of applied policy analysis in the Croatian system of governance. Methodology: This development is illustrated by the peculiarities of introducing regulatory impact assessment (RIA tools in Croatian public administrative structures. Findings: The author is pointing out various limitations in the usage of policy analysis tools in formulating, implementing and evaluating public policies in Croatia. The crucial role of RIA for enhancing executive capacity of governance structures is particularly stressed in the study. The final part of the article is devoted to the prospects of further development of RIA as an applied policy analysis tool within the Croatian system of governance.

  20. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies.The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions.The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  1. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  2. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  3. Impact of Fishery Policy on Fishery Manufacture Output, Economy and Welfare in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah; Oktavilia, Shanty; Sugiyanto, F. X.; Hamzah, Ibnu N.

    2018-02-01

    The fisheries sector and fish manufacturing industry are the bright prospect sectors of Indonesia, due to its huge potency, which has not been worked out optimally. In facts, these sectors can generate a large amount of foreign exchange. The Government has paid significant attention to the development of these sectors. This study simulates the impact of fishery policies on the production of fish manufacturing industry, national economic and welfare in Indonesia. By employing the Input-Output Analysis approach, impacts of various government policy scenarios are developed, covering fisheries technical policy, as well as infrastructure development policies in the fisheries sector. This study indicates that the policies in the fisheries sector increase the output of fishery, the production of fish manufacturing industry, the sectoral and national outputs, as well as the level of national income.

  4. Education Policies: Potential Impacts and Implications in Australia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Australian education is delivered through government and independent systems. This article discusses how education policies on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer students in these different sectors have affected school climates. It describes how previously published policy analysis and survey data on Australian gay, lesbian,…

  5. The Impact of Youth Unemployment Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper examines the impact of unemployment, unemployment distribution, wages and welfare of Youth Unemployment Programmes (YUPs). This paper analyse what happens when the number of skilled workers increases relatively to the number of unskilled workers. The results depend on the productivity...

  6. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  7. Misconduct policies in high-impact biomedical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bosch

    Full Text Available It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct.We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to misconduct policies.Of 399 journals, 140 (35.1% provided explicit definitions of misconduct. Falsification was explicitly mentioned by 113 (28.3% journals, fabrication by 104 (26.1%, plagiarism by 224 (56.1%, duplication by 242 (60.7% and image manipulation by 154 (38.6%. Procedures for responding to misconduct were described in 179 (44.9% websites, including retraction, (30.8% and expression of concern (16.3%. Plagiarism-checking services were used by 112 (28.1% journals. The prevalences of all types of misconduct policies were higher in journals that endorsed any policy from editors' associations, Office of Research Integrity or professional societies compared to those that did not state adherence to these policy-producing bodies. Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell had the most journals included (22.6% and 14.8%, respectively, with Wiley journals having greater a prevalence of misconduct definition and policies on falsification, fabrication and expression of concern and Elsevier of plagiarism-checking services.Only a third of top-ranking peer-reviewed journals had publicly-available definitions of misconduct and less than a half described procedures for handling allegations of misconduct. As endorsement of international policies from policy-producing bodies was positively associated with implementation of policies and procedures, journals and their publishers should standardize their policies globally in order to increase public trust in the

  8. Misconduct Policies in High-Impact Biomedical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M.; Doti, Pamela; Marušić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to misconduct policies. Results Of 399 journals, 140 (35.1%) provided explicit definitions of misconduct. Falsification was explicitly mentioned by 113 (28.3%) journals, fabrication by 104 (26.1%), plagiarism by 224 (56.1%), duplication by 242 (60.7%) and image manipulation by 154 (38.6%). Procedures for responding to misconduct were described in 179 (44.9%) websites, including retraction, (30.8%) and expression of concern (16.3%). Plagiarism-checking services were used by 112 (28.1%) journals. The prevalences of all types of misconduct policies were higher in journals that endorsed any policy from editors’ associations, Office of Research Integrity or professional societies compared to those that did not state adherence to these policy-producing bodies. Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell had the most journals included (22.6% and 14.8%, respectively), with Wiley journals having greater a prevalence of misconduct definition and policies on falsification, fabrication and expression of concern and Elsevier of plagiarism-checking services. Conclusions Only a third of top-ranking peer-reviewed journals had publicly-available definitions of misconduct and less than a half described procedures for handling allegations of misconduct. As endorsement of international policies from policy-producing bodies was positively associated with implementation of policies and procedures, journals and their publishers should standardize their policies globally in order to

  9. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  10. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess the impact of fiscal and legislative policies on the nutritional status of South Africans and recommend important policy changes. The most recent national burden of ... Intervention intégrée quant au risque de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de ...

  11. The International Impact of US Unconventional Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Using a structural factor-augmented vector autoregression model and a large data set of daily time series, we study the impact of US unconventional monetary policy on British and German financial markets. Our findings indicate that a surprise US unconventional monetary policy easing leads to incr...... to increased equity returns and lower government bond yields for both Germany and the United Kingdom. These effects then nearly completely dissipate after approximately 750 days....

  12. Geothermal Brief: Market and Policy Impacts Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    Utility-scale geothermal electricity generation plants have generally taken advantage of various government initiatives designed to stimulate private investment. This report investigates these initiatives to evaluate their impact on the associated cost of energy and the development of geothermal electric generating capacity using conventional hydrothermal technologies. We use the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) to analyze the effects of tax incentives on project economics. Incentives include the production tax credit, U.S. Department of Treasury cash grant, the investment tax credit, and accelerated depreciation schedules. The second half of the report discusses the impact of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loan Guarantee Program on geothermal electric project deployment and possible reasons for a lack of guarantees for geothermal projects. For comparison, we examine the effectiveness of the 1970s DOE drilling support programs, including the original loan guarantee and industry-coupled cost share programs.

  13. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  14. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  15. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  16. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  17. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2013-08-01

    Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest.

  18. Impact of school peanut-free policies on epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M; Huffaker, Michelle F; Sheehan, William J; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Petty, Carter R; Leibowitz, Robert; Hauptman, Marissa; Young, Michael C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of peanut-free policies on rates of epinephrine administration for allergic reactions in Massachusetts public schools. In this retrospective study, we analyzed (1) rates of epinephrine administration in all Massachusetts public schools and (2) Massachusetts public school nurse survey reports of school peanut-free policies from 2006 to 2011 and whether schools self-designated as "peanut-free" based on policies. Rates of epinephrine administration were compared for schools with or without peanut-restrictive policies. The percentage of schools with peanut-restrictive policies did not change significantly in the study time frame. There was variability in policies used by schools self-designated as peanut-free. No policy was associated with complete absence of allergic reactions. Both self-designated peanut-free schools and schools banning peanuts from being served in school or brought from home reported allergic reactions to nuts. Policies restricting peanuts from home, served in schools, or having peanut-free classrooms did not affect epinephrine administration rates. Schools with peanut-free tables, compared to without, had lower rates of epinephrine administration (incidence rate per 10,000 students 0.2 and 0.6, respectively, P = .009). These data provide a basis for evidence-based school policies for children with food allergies. Further studies are required before decisions can be made regarding peanut-free policies in schools. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Administrator Perceptions of School Improvement Policies in a High-Impact Policy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO S. TORRES

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated school administrators’ perceptions of school improvement policies in a high-impact policy environment by measuring the impact of accountability, site-based management, professional development, and scheduling reform on the three dependent variables of a academic outcomes, b staff morale, and c parent and community involvement. Using a convenience sampling method, 49 public school principals from Texas participated and an online survey was constructed to gather both quantitative (i.e., Likert scale and qualitative (i.e., open ended response data. The findings clearly point to principals, regardless of geographical district type and grade level school type, viewing less controversial and more intrinsically oriented policies (i.e., site-based management and professional development as having a greater positive impact on outcomes as a whole than more radical alternatives (i.e., accountability and time and schedule reform. The evidence suggests that more aggressive school improvement policy approaches are likely failing to generate enough convincing outcomes to generate high commitment and confidence from school leaders. Further studies may look at the interaction of policy impact with minority student enrollments and with subgroup populations.

  20. Between government policy, clinical autonomy, and market demands: a qualitative study of the impact of the Prescribing Analysis System on behavior of physicians in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sook; Bae, Green; Yoo, Soo Yeon; Kang, Minah

    2015-09-21

    In South Korea, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service manages the Prescribing Analysis System (PAS) to evaluate the appropriate use of medication. To achieve the system's goal of changing prescribing behavior, it is critical to understand how physicians respond to the PAS. This study analyzes the opinions of South Korean physicians about the PAS, the way it is used, and factors affecting prescribing behavior. A qualitative, exploratory approach was used, with four focus groups of physicians from different specialties. A semi-structured guide was used to explore their opinions. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed by the authors, who independently considered content using uniform categories. Common themes were extracted and used to gather results and draw conclusions. Physicians acknowledged some positive aspects of the PAS but, overall, had mainly negative impressions of the system, and particularly, the evaluation reports that it generates. They reported that their prescribing behavior was affected by predisposing factors, including experiential, environmental and psychological factors. Physicians reported that their negative perceptions regarding the regulations were primarily influenced by concerns about maintaining their autonomy and expertise. However, their strong resistance to these perceived infringements on their independence may be considered inconsistent in relation to their professional autonomy as there was an equally strong concern about market competition. Physicians' objections to the PAS are more likely to have been caused by deeply rooted distrust of the government agency in charge of the system. Interestingly, we found that physicians' strong resistance to perceived violations of their autonomy seems somewhat inconsistent and contradictory. While they are very positive about new information or printed materials provided by pharmaceutical representatives, they are less enthusiastic when it comes to governmental guidelines or

  1. Regional Investment Policy Under The Impact Of Budget Limitations And Economic Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, Yelena S.; Vlasov, Semyon V.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Temkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the impact which budget limitations and economic sanctions have had on regional investment policy External sanctions and sluggish economic growth have affected the social and economic development of the region. Relying on the results of comparative and statistical analysis, the article demonstrates the need for altering the focus of current investment policy from quantitative growth to qualitative enhancement. The article analyses a new trend i...

  2. Data Envelopment Analysis of different climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Buchner, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in the political, scientific and economic debate on climate change suggest that it is of critical importance to develop new approaches able to compare policy scenarios for their environmental effectiveness, their distributive effects, their enforceability, their costs and many other dimensions. This paper discusses a quantitative methodology to assess the relative performance of different climate policy scenarios when accounting for their long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The proposed procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis, here employed in evaluating the relative efficiency of eleven global climate policy scenarios. The methodology provides a promising comparison framework; it can be seen as a way of setting some basic guidelines to frame further debates and negotiations and can be flexibly adopted and modified by decision makers to obtain relevant information for policy design. Three major findings emerge from this analysis: (1) stringent climate policies can outperform less ambitious proposals if all sustainability dimensions are taken into account; (2) a carefully chosen burden-sharing rule is able to bring together climate stabilisation and equity considerations; and (3) the most inefficient strategy results from the failure to negotiate a post-2012 global climate agreement. (author)

  3. Palliative care policy analysis in Iran: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ansari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Increased and earlier access for facilities is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy, and research. Aim: This study was conducted to explain stakeholders' perceptions of the factors affecting the design of such a palliative care system and its policy analysis. Methodology: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted following purposive sampling of the participants. Twenty-two participants were included in the study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative-directed content analysis based on "policy analysis triangle" framework. Results: The findings showed the impact of four categories, namely context (political, social, and structural feasibility, content (target setting, process (attracting stakeholder participation, the standardization of care, and education management, and actors (the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, health-care providers, and volunteers in the analysis of the palliative care policies of Iran. Conclusion: In the past 6 years, attention to palliative care has increased significantly as a result of the National Cancer Research Network with the support of the Ministry of Health. The success of health system plan requires great attention to its aspects of social, political, and executive feasibility. Careful management by policymakers of different stakeholders is vital to ensure support for any national plan, but this is challenging to achieve.

  4. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Probandari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design: Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results: Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions: Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored.

  5. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, Thomas F.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-01-01

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them

  6. Influencing policy through impact evaluation in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And there are growing concerns about the ethics of implementing some types of IE. This paper explores recent IE practice in Latin America and reviews more than 300 impact evaluations in 21 countries. It examines the policy issues covered and methodologies used; the research actors and implementing agencies involved; ...

  7. Influencing policy through impact evaluation in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Supporting Inclusive Growth (SIG) program supports the strengthening of research capacity, to generate and use evidence that contributes to informed public dialogue and policymaking. Impact Evaluation for Policy Making: A Close Look at Latin American Countries with Weaker Research Capacities, the fourth title ...

  8. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  9. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  10. Computer-assisted health impact assessment for intersectoral health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooy, J. M.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Intersectoral health policy implies negotiations with politicians outside the health sector. Health politicians have a stronger position if they can quantify health impact. In this Dutch case-study we used a computer simulation approach to answer the following questions: Which anti-tobacco

  11. The impact of monetary policy on financing of Czech firms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aliyev, Ruslan; Hájková, D.; Kubicová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2015), s. 455-476 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : monetary policy transmission * broad credit view * external finance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2015 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/mag/article/show/id/1343

  12. Impact of Scheduling Policies on Control System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that jitter has an impact on control system performance, and this is often used as an argument for static scheduling policies, e.g. a time triggered architecture. However, it is only completion jitter that seriously disturbs standard linear control algorithms in a way similar to ...

  13. In-house or outsourced public services? A social and economic analysis of the impact of spending policy on the private wage share in OECD countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensiero, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between government spending and the distribution of private income between capital and labour. While most previous research assumes that government spending redistributes in favour of the less wealthy, I distinguish between types of expenditures that enhance the bargaining position of labour – that is, unemployment benefits, public sector employment and investment in new capital – and labour-saving and pro-business types of expenditures – that is, outsourcing to private firms. The results are derived from various panel regression techniques on a panel of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the period 1985–2010 and show that expenditures on public sector employment and, to a lesser extent, on new capital prevented the private wage share from declining further, even after controlling for labour market institutions, globalisation and technological change. Conversely, expenditures on outsourcing substantially contributed to reducing the private wage share. Unemployment benefits had a non-significant and negative effect on the private wage share because their increase was the consequence of higher levels of unemployment rather than policy. Implications for theory and policy are drawn, including the support for a public employment-led spending policy. PMID:28919641

  14. In-house or outsourced public services? A social and economic analysis of the impact of spending policy on the private wage share in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensiero, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    This article analyses the relationship between government spending and the distribution of private income between capital and labour. While most previous research assumes that government spending redistributes in favour of the less wealthy, I distinguish between types of expenditures that enhance the bargaining position of labour - that is, unemployment benefits, public sector employment and investment in new capital - and labour-saving and pro-business types of expenditures - that is, outsourcing to private firms. The results are derived from various panel regression techniques on a panel of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the period 1985-2010 and show that expenditures on public sector employment and, to a lesser extent, on new capital prevented the private wage share from declining further, even after controlling for labour market institutions, globalisation and technological change. Conversely, expenditures on outsourcing substantially contributed to reducing the private wage share. Unemployment benefits had a non-significant and negative effect on the private wage share because their increase was the consequence of higher levels of unemployment rather than policy. Implications for theory and policy are drawn, including the support for a public employment-led spending policy.

  15. Deforestation, Leakage and Avoided Deforestation Policies: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...

  16. Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policies on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigerian Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    R.O. Kareem; A.J. Afolabi; K.A. Raheem; N.O. Bashir

    2013-01-01

    The research deals with analysis of Nigeria democracy and its impact on fiscal and monetary policies. Secondary data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) was mainly used for this study. The study adopted descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analysis on fiscal and monetary variables (i.e., inflation, interest rate, narrow money, broad money, government recurrent and capital expenditure). The objectives of the study are to describe the trend of policy variables; examine the impact o...

  17. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  18. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Masooma

    2010-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  19. The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranzini, Andrea; Chesney, Marc; Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

  20. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  1. The Impact of the Regional Policy on the European Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, EU28 operates in a very sensitive socio-economic environment. This is why the paper faces to the idea of changing the political approach in the EU. In order to support this idea, two essential common policies (Regional Policy and Cohesion Policy are analyzed, using pertinent indicators, as GDP per capita, gross value added and labor productivity. A comparative analysis covers EU28 and Euro area. On the other hand, the regional analysis points out the economic disparities between NUTS2 regions. The intermediate conclusions of the analysis led to a cluster approach for the Member States. Moreover, the forecasting procedures applied to the above three economic indicators led to the same idea: an EU more divided than integrated. The main conclusion of the paper is that the present economic approach has to be change into another focused on maintaining and, after that, decreasing the present European socio-economic disparities.

  2. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  3. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal and child health policies in. Malawi: The methodological perspective. Abstract. The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy.

  4. The Impact of Implementing Tobacco Control Policies: The 2017 Tobacco Control Policy Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Tam, Jamie; Kuo, Charlene; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chaloupka, Frank

    2018-01-17

    The Tobacco Control Scorecard, published in 2004, presented estimates of the effectiveness of different policies on smoking rates. Since its publication, new evidence has emerged. We update the Scorecard to include recent studies of demand-reducing tobacco policies for high-income countries. We include cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, media campaigns, comprehensive tobacco control programs, marketing bans, health warnings, and cessation treatment policies. To update the 2004 Scorecard, a narrative review was conducted on reviews and studies published after 2000, with additional focus on 3 policies in which previous evidence was limited: tobacco control programs, graphic health warnings, and marketing bans. We consider evaluation studies that measured the effects of policies on smoking behaviors. Based on these findings, we derive estimates of short-term and long-term policy effect sizes. Cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions, and comprehensive tobacco control programs are each found to play important roles in reducing smoking prevalence. Cessation treatment policies and graphic health warnings also reduce smoking and, when combined with policies that increase quit attempts, can improve quit success. The effect sizes are broadly consistent with those previously reported for the 2004 Scorecard but now reflect the larger evidence base evaluating the impact of health warnings and advertising restrictions.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  5. The impact of planning policies on bicycle-transit integration in Calgary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to manage Canadian cities through smart growth policies emphasize the importance of integrated public transit system and bicycle-transit integration. The goal of this paper is to review the impact of planning policies that promote utilitarian cycling on the provision of bicycle facilities (pathways, bikeways and parking in Calgary. The focus is on new suburban communities built since the 1990s, where new policies and standards affecting cycling have been implemented. The methodology draws on literature review, content analysis of major planning policies affecting utilitarian cycling, GIS spatial analysis of three case study areas and key informant interviews to holistically assess levels of bicycle-transit integration in Calgary. The research applies a straightforward and relatively robust framework for analysis of bicycle-transit integration using a number of quantitative indicators to assess levels of provision/accessibility and connectivity in transit commuter zones. The spatial analysis confirms that newer communities have better developed commuter-oriented cycling networks, bicycle facilities and integration with the light transit system compared to older ones. Despite area-specific challenges, findings indicate that the shift in planning policies in Calgary has a positive impact over the level of provision of bicycle infrastructure, which have the potential to increase utilitarian cycling in the future.

  6. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  7. Negociatrix policy game: building capacities in trade policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balie, J.; Hofwegen, van G.; Jongeneel, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Negociatrix Policy Game is a tool for training in multilateral negotiation, which has been developed through a partnership between FAO and the University of Wageningen in the Netherlands. This tool is a software based on a quantitative model and a simulation that consents to underline the

  8. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  9. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  10. STAPOL: A Simulation of the Impact of Policy, Values, and Technological and Societal Developments upon the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Dennis; Feller, Richard

    The Institute for the Future has been conducting research in technological and societal forecasting, social indicators, value change, and simulation gaming. This paper describes an effort to bring together parts of that research into a simulation game ("State Policy," or STAPOL) for analysis of the impact of government policy, social values, and…

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Colorado's Lands: A Spatial and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Brazeau, A.; Browning, K.; Meier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Managing landscapes to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration has significant potential to mitigate climate change. While a previous carbon baseline assessment in Colorado has been published (Conant et al, 2007), our study pulls from the existing literature to conduct an updated baseline assessment of carbon stocks and a unique review of carbon policies in Colorado. Through a multi-level spatial analysis based in GIS and informed by a literature review, we established a carbon stock baseline and ran four land use and carbon stock projection scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We identified 11 key policy recommendations for improving Colorado's carbon stocks, and evaluated each using Bardach's policy matrix approach (Bardach, 2012). We utilized a series of case studies to support our policy recommendations. We found that Colorado's lands have a carbon stock of 3,334 MMT CO2eq, with Forests and Woodlands holding the largest stocks, at 1,490 and 774 MMT CO2eq respectively. Avoided conversion of all Grasslands, Forests, and Wetlands in Colorado projected over 40 years would increase carbon stocks by 32 MMT CO2eq, 1,053 MMT CO2eq, and 36 MMT CO2eq, respectively. Over the 40-year study period, Forests and Woodlands areas are projected to shrink while Shrublands and Developed areas are projected to grow. Those projections suggest sizable increases in area of future wildfires and development in Colorado. We found that numerous policy opportunities to sequester carbon exist at different jurisdictional levels and across land cover types. The largest opportunities were found in state-level policies and policies impacting Forests, Grasslands, and Wetlands. The passage of statewide emission reduction legislation has the highest potential to impact carbon sequestration, although political and administrative feasibility of this option are relatively low. This study contributes to the broader field of carbon sequestration literature by examining the nexus of carbon stocks

  12. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  13. Policy Trends Impacting Community Colleges: An ECS Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Brian A.; Pingel, Sarah; Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of community and technical colleges to state education attainment and workforce development goals, policy addressing the two-year sector is of critical importance to state policymakers. Analysis of legislative issue trends suggests transfer and articulation, performance-based funding, and financial aid programs are substantial…

  14. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POLICY INDICATORS VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAMARIA POPESCU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to characterize through statistical indicators of statistical data that we have available. The purpose of this paper is to present statistical indicators, primary and secondary, simple and synthetic, which is frequently used for statistical characterization of statistical series. We can thus analyze central tendency, and data variability, form and concentration distributions package data using analytical tools in Microsoft Excel that enables automatic calculation of descriptive statistics using Data Analysis option from the Tools menu. We will also study the links which exist between statistical variables can be studied using two techniques, correlation and regression. From the analysis of monetary policy in the period 2003 - 2014 and information provided by the website of the National Bank of Romania (BNR seems to be a certain tendency towards eccentricity and asymmetry of financial data series.

  16. Long-Term National Impacts of State-Level Policies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Short, W.; Denholm, P.; Heimiller, D.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents analysis conducted with the Wind Deployment System Model (WinDS) -- a model of capacity expansion in the U.S. electric sector. With 358 regions covering the United States, detailed transmission system representation, and an explicit treatment of wind intermittency and ancillary services, WinDS is uniquely positioned to evaluate the market impacts of specific state-level policies. This paper provides analysis results regarding the impact of existing state-level policies designed to promote wind-capacity expansion, including state portfolio standards, mandates, and tax credits. The results show the amount of wind deployment due to current state-level incentives as well as examine their lasting impact on the national wind industry. For example, state-level mandates increase industry size and lower costs, which result in wind capacity increases in states without mandates and greater market growth even after the policies expire. Although these policies are enacted by individual states, the cumulative effect must be examined at a national level. Finally, this paper examines the impact on wind-capacity growth by increasing the penalty associated with the state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The results show national and regional wind energy deployment and generation through 2050.

  17. Transportation impact analysis gets a failing grade when it comes to climate change and smart growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Transportation impact analysis performed to comply with environmental impact laws (i.e., the : California Environmental Quality Act or the National Environmental Policy Act) often focuses : on only one perspective about potential impacts. That perspe...

  18. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N. [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  19. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined

  20. Impact of competitive electricity market on renewable generation technology choice and policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Market objectives based on private value judgments will conflict with social policy objectives toward environmental quality in an emerging restructured electricity industry. This might affect the choice of renewables in the future generation mix. The US electricity industry's long-term capacity planning and operations is simulated for alternative market paradigms to study this impact. The analysis indicates that the share of renewable energy generation sources would decrease and emissions would increase considerably in a more competitive industry, with greater impact occurring in a monopoly market. Alternative environmental policy options can overcome market failures and help achieve appropriate levels of renewable generation. An evaluation of these policies indicate their varying cost-effectiveness, with higher levels of intervention necessary if market power exists. (Author)

  1. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  2. 78 FR 65418 - Order 1050.1F Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Order 1050.1F Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures AGENCY... Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures; Re-Opening of Comment Period. SUMMARY: This action re-opens the comment period for the notice of draft Order 1050.1F, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures that...

  3. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  4. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  5. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  6. Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Nuclear Development Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert; Henderson, David; ); Moore, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied. These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programs. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policy-making in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources (gas, coal and renewables). It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. (authors)

  7. Health Impact Assessment, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M; Cruz, Theresa H; Kozoll, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental assessments and environmental impact statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Screening, scoping, assessment, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health impact of trail location and design. HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands.

  8. The Effect of Mitigation Policy on Regional Climate Impacts on the U.S. Electric Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. M.; Sun, Y.; Strzepek, K.; McFarland, J.; Boehlert, B.; Fant, C.

    2017-12-01

    temperature-induced load but also by lessening water- and temperature-based performance constraints. Policy impacts are nuanced and region-specific, and this analysis underscores the importance of climate mitigation policy to regional electricity system planning decisions.

  9. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  10. The Lithuanian Government’s Policy of Regulatory Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Dvorak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper critically evaluates the development of the impact assessment instrument in Lithuania’s public administration and suggests improvements to its impact assessment system. Research question: What interesting conceptual imperatives have appeared in Lithuania’s investigation of the impact of regulatory policy? Methodology: This research study uses positivist methodology to analyse the problems that researchers have identified in Lithuania’s impact assessment. This investigation explains why certain problems have appeared, what has changed and what system changes can be identified traced. The study proceeds as follows. First, the research on impact assessment carried out in Lithuania is analysed. Second, regulations on impact assessment in Lithuania are investigated. A substitute for non-existent integrated theory is emphased by the logical structure of the EU administrative system imperatives, principles, and norms, whose modifications have become the basis of impact assessment system design in Lithuania. The present research combines, integrates and consolidates the theoretical and practical information on impact assessment into an explanatory scheme, which could be developed into a model in the future. Information from two qualitative interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 was also used. Conclusions: The present research reveals that Lithuania’s regulatory impact assessment model is still being constructed and reconstructed towards evidence-based management. A model which revises the old impact stereotype has been designed, based on contemporary methodologies (cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses, consultations with the interested parties, a small but exhaustive legal initiatives impact assessment, and a centralised and institutional coordination of impact assessment. Practical consequences: The present research presents the issues which could be useful for the states that are starting to implement a

  11. Drug policy: what impact does it have on children and youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Friche Passos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the national and international literature on drug policy, focusing on harm reduction strategies and their impact on the development of children and youth in Brazil. Without using statistical criteria, this paper develops an overview of the current context and discusses the trends in the literature through an exploratory analysis of production and a non-exhaustive bibliography. The results showed that state investment in public policies for the treatment and prevention of drug abuse is recent. In addition, harm reduction is still a little known and controversial strategy, especially among children and adolescents.

  12. IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICIES ON INPUTS AND PRODUCTION COSTS IN GREENHOUSE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvin ZHLLIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis agriculture input related taxes and tariffs policies and their impact on input prices, production costs and profitability, focusing on the greenhouse sector in Albania. The study combines desk research and expert interviews to collect data and to analyse the main policy reforms and the tariff regime. A financial cost benefit analysis is implemented in order to observe the effect of the change of taxes in both sides: at farm gate profitability of Albanian farmers as well as in terms of revenues forgone in the state budget based on revenues collected.According to our research findings, tax exemption on inputs such as agrochemicals and fuel would significantly affect positively the profitability at the farm level and the overall agriculture sector competitiveness. Several political implications of the various scenarios of tax reduction are discussed and provided to policy-makers.

  13. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  14. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  15. Governing the transition to renewable energy: A review of impacts and policy issues in the small hydropower boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Richards, Sarah; Silber-Coats, Noah; Crootof, Arica; Tecklin, David; Bauer, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy technologies raises new and important governance questions. With small hydropower (SHP) expanding as part of renewable energy and climate mitigation strategies, this review assesses its impacts and identifies escalating policy issues. To provide a comprehensive literature review of small hydropower, we evaluated over 3600 articles and policy documents. This review identified four major concerns: (1) confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting scholarship and policy-making; (2) there is a lack of knowledge and acknowledgement of small hydropower’s social, environmental, and cumulative impacts; (3) small hydropower’s promotion as a climate mitigation strategy can negatively affect local communities, posing contradictions for climate change policy; and (4) institutional analysis is needed to facilitate renewable energy integration with existing environmental laws to ensure sustainable energy development. For readers interested in small hydropower, we clarify areas of confusion in definition and explain the corresponding impacts for distinct system designs. For a broader readership, we situate small hydropower implementation within international trends of renewable energy development – the contradictory impacts of climate change policy, emerging dynamics in energy finance, and reliance on market mechanisms. Our paper provides a timely contribution to scholarship on small hydropower and the transition to renewable energy. - Highlights: • Confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting small hydropower debates. • Small hydropower’s negative impacts are largely overlooked in policy discussions. • Small hydropower exemplifies paradoxical problems with climate change policy. • Policies needed to integrate renewable energy development with national environmental institutions.

  16. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  17. Impacts of climate policy on the competitiveness of Canadian industry. How big and how to mitigate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, Nic [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Competitiveness concerns have been at the forefront of climate policy debates in Canada particularly as a result of its high energy intensity and significant exposure to international markets. This paper uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the likely impacts on sectoral competitiveness that would accompany efforts to meet greenhouse gas mitigation targets that have been set by the Canadian government. Additionally, it evaluates several design mechanisms that could be used to reduce the negative competiveness impacts associated with adoption of domestic climate policies. The analysis suggests that several sectors would likely face significant competiveness challenges under a reference scenario in which permits are given to emitters in lump sum. However, it finds that competiveness impacts can be minimized by using output-based recycling of permits, or by using border tax adjustments. (author)

  18. Impacts of climate policy on the competitiveness of Canadian industry: How big and how to mitigate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, Nic, E-mail: njrivers@sfu.c [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Competitiveness concerns have been at the forefront of climate policy debates in Canada particularly as a result of its high energy intensity and significant exposure to international markets. This paper uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the likely impacts on sectoral competitiveness that would accompany efforts to meet greenhouse gas mitigation targets that have been set by the Canadian government. Additionally, it evaluates several design mechanisms that could be used to reduce the negative competiveness impacts associated with adoption of domestic climate policies. The analysis suggests that several sectors would likely face significant competiveness challenges under a reference scenario in which permits are given to emitters in lump sum. However, it finds that competiveness impacts can be minimized by using output-based recycling of permits, or by using border tax adjustments.

  19. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  20. Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, L; Erkal, N; Gangadharan, L; Meng, X

    2013-02-22

    We document that China's One-Child Policy (OCP), one of the most radical approaches to limiting population growth, has produced significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals. Our data were collected from economics experiments conducted with 421 individuals born just before and just after the OCP's introduction in 1979. Surveys to elicit personality traits were also used. We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society.

  1. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  2. Impact of Wisconsin Medicaid Policy Change on Dental Sealant Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I; Gonzalez, Cesar; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko

    2018-02-01

    In September 2006, Wisconsin Medicaid changed its policy to allow nondentists to become certified Medicaid providers and to bill for sealants in public health settings. This study examined changes in patterns of dental sealant utilization in first molars of Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees associated with a policy change. The Electronic Data Systems of Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support for Wisconsin from 2001 to 2009. Retrospective claims data analysis of Wisconsin Dental Medicaid for children aged 6-16 years. A total of 479,847 children followed up for 1,441,300 person-years with 64,546 visits were analyzed. The rate of visits for sealants by dentists increased significantly from 3 percent per year prepolicy to 11 percent per year postpolicy, and that of nondentists increased from 18 percent per year to 20 percent after the policy change, but this was not significant. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest visit rates for sealant application by dentists and nondentists pre- and postpolicy periods. The Wisconsin Medicaid policy change was associated with increased rates of visits for dental sealant placement by dentists. The rate of visits with sealant placements by nondentists increased at the same rate pre- and postpolicy change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Hoffmann, Rasmus; van Hedel, Karen; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-04-20

    The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching) can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects on population-level health inequalities. Increased use of the

  4. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. Methods We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. Results All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Conclusion Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects

  5. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  6. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  7. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labandeira, Xavier; Labeaga, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation.

  8. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Xavier [Facultade de CC. Economicas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Labeaga, Jose M. [Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Avda. Cardenal Herrera Oria 378, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Facultade de CC. Empresariais e Turismo, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  9. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  10. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  11. Ecological and economic impacts of forest policies: interactions across forestry and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Alig; D.M. Adams; B.A. McCarl

    1998-01-01

    A linked model of the US forest and agriculture sectors was used to examine the economic and ecological impacts of two forest policies: a minimum harvest age limitation and a reduced public harvest policy. Simulated private responses to both policies indicate that landowners could undertake a range of adjustments to minimize their welfare impacts, but imposition of...

  12. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  13. Open Access Journal Policies: A Systematic Analysis of Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Lobner, Katie; Fritz, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The open access movement has pushed for greater access to scientific knowledge by expanding access to scientific journal articles. There is limited information about the extent to which open access policies have been adopted by radiology journals. We performed a systematic analysis to ascertain the proportion of radiology journals with open access options. A search was performed with the assistance of a clinical informationist. Full and mixed English-language diagnostic and interventional radiology Web of Science journals (impact factors > 1.0) were included. Nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, physics, and solicitation-only journals were excluded. Primary outcome was open access option (yes or no) with additional outcomes including presence or absence of embargo, complete or partial copyright transfer, publication fees, and self-archiving policies. Secondary outcomes included journal citations, journal impact factors, immediacy, Eigenfactor, and article influence scores. Independent double readings were performed with differences resolved by consensus, supplemented by contacting editorial staff at each journal. In all, 125 journals were identified; review yielded 49 journals (39%, mean impact factor of 2.61). Thirty-six of the journals had open access options (73.4%), and four journals were exclusively open access (8.2%). Twelve-month embargoes were most commonly cited (90.6%) with 28.6% of journals stating that they did not require a complete transfer of copyright. Prices for open access options ranged from $750 to $4,000 (median $3,000). No statistically significant differences were found in journal impact measures comparing journals with open access options to journals without open access options. Diagnostic and interventional radiology journals have widely adopted open access options with a few radiology journals being exclusively open access. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretation and Analysis of Privacy Policies of Websites in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2017-01-01

    Privacy policy is vital and legal document that allows websites/companies to communicate users on how data is gathered, the ways of collection, its purpose, and its management. Once user accepts it, the user approves the disclosure of his/her personal/behavioral data to websites under...... the conditions specified in the policy document. So, ideally the privacy policies should be readable and provide sufficient information to empower users to make knowledgeable decisions. Thus, we have examined more than 50 privacy policies and discussed the content analysis in this paper. We discovered...... that the policies are not only unstructured but also described in complicated language. Our analysis shows that the user data security measures are nonspecific and unsatisfactory in 57% privacy policies. In spite of huge amount of information collection, the privacy policies does not have clear description...

  15. The potential impacts of climate-change policy on freshwater use in thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandel, Munish K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change policy involving a price on carbon would change the mix of power plants and the amount of water they withdraw and consume to generate electricity. We analyze what these changes could entail for electricity generation in the United States under four climate policy scenarios that involve different costs for emitting CO 2 and different technology options for reducing emissions out to the year 2030. The potential impacts of the scenarios on the U.S. electric system are modeled using a modified version of the U.S. National Energy Modeling System and water-use factors for thermoelectric power plants derived from electric utility data compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Under all the climate-policy scenarios, freshwater withdrawals decline 2-14% relative to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of no U.S. climate policy. Furthermore, water use decreases as the price on CO 2 under the climate policies increases. At relatively high carbon prices (>$50/tonne CO 2 ), however, retrofitting coal plants to capture CO 2 increases freshwater consumption compared to BAU in 2030. Our analysis suggests that climate policies and a carbon price will reduce both electricity generation and freshwater withdrawals compared to BAU unless a substantial number of coal plants are retrofitted to capture CO 2 . - Highlights: → We analyze the impact of climate change policy on water use for electricity generation. → Water use decreases with an increase in CO 2 allowance price. → Retrofitting of coal plants with CCS could increase water use considerably.

  16. Policy research and analysis organizations: an account of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from interviews, archival documents and a range of other sources, this article takes stock of key public policy research and analysis organizations in Ethiopia. It sheds light on the significance of professionalization of policy analysis and its contributions to closing the gap between knowledge and policymaking, offers ...

  17. Diffraction as a Method of Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in critical policy analysis have occurred alongside the new materialisms in qualitative research. These lines of scholarship have unfolded along two separate, but related, tracks. In particular, the new materialist method of "diffraction" aligns with many elements of critical policy analysis. Both involve critical…

  18. Energy efficiency policies for space heating in EU countries: A panel data analysis for the period 1990–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ó Broin, Eoin; Nässén, Jonas; Johnsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating demand between 1990 and 2010 modelled using a panel of 14 EU countries. • The impacts of 260 efficiency polices affecting space heating demand are examined. • Regulatory policies found to have had a greater success than financial or informative. • High priority should be given to regulatory policies for space heating energy goals. - Abstract: We present an empirical analysis of the more than 250 space heating-focused energy efficiency policies that have been in force at the EU and national levels in the period 1990–2010. This analysis looks at the EU-14 residential sector (Pre-2004 EU-15, excluding Luxembourg) using a panel data regression analysis on unit consumption of energy for space heating (kWh/m 2 /year). The policies are represented as a regression variable using a semi-quantitative impact estimation obtained from the MURE Policy Database. The impacts of the policies as a whole, and subdivided into financial, regulatory, and informative policies, are examined. The correlation between the actual reductions in demand and the estimated impact of regulatory policies is found to be stronger than the corresponding correlations with the respective impacts of financial policies and informative polices. Together with the well-known market barriers to energy efficiency that exist in the residential sector, these findings suggest that regulatory policy measures be given a high priority in the design of an effective pathway towards the EU-wide goals for space heating energy

  19. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    . This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques......Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way...

  20. What shapes research impact on policy? Understanding research uptake in sexual and reproductive health policy processes in resource poor contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andy; Crichton, Jo; Theobald, Sally; Zulu, Eliya; Parkhurst, Justin

    2011-06-16

    Assessing the impact that research evidence has on policy is complex. It involves consideration of conceptual issues of what determines research impact and policy change. There are also a range of methodological issues relating to the question of attribution and the counter-factual. The dynamics of SRH, HIV and AIDS, like many policy arenas, are partly generic and partly issue- and context-specific. Against this background, this article reviews some of the main conceptualisations of research impact on policy, including generic determinants of research impact identified across a range of settings, as well as the specificities of SRH in particular. We find that there is scope for greater cross-fertilisation of concepts, models and experiences between public health researchers and political scientists working in international development and research impact evaluation. We identify aspects of the policy landscape and drivers of policy change commonly occurring across multiple sectors and studies to create a framework that researchers can use to examine the influences on research uptake in specific settings, in order to guide attempts to ensure uptake of their findings. This framework has the advantage that distinguishes between pre-existing factors influencing uptake and the ways in which researchers can actively influence the policy landscape and promote research uptake through their policy engagement actions and strategies. We apply this framework to examples from the case study papers in this supplement, with specific discussion about the dynamics of SRH policy processes in resource poor contexts. We conclude by highlighting the need for continued multi-sectoral work on understanding and measuring research uptake and for prospective approaches to receive greater attention from policy analysts.

  1. Environmental impacts of products: Policy relevant information and data challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Eder, P.; Suh, S.

    2006-01-01

    The research and analysis presented in this special issue shows that the same limited number of consumption categories are consistently revealed to be responsible for the largest share of environmental impact: mobility (automobile and air transport), food (meat, poultry, fish, and dairy followed by

  2. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  3. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  4. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel, MA, MEd

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  5. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Bach, Nicoline; Baum, Christopher F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to examine the impact of cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation on current adolescent smoking and smoking frequency overall as well as test whether there were differential policy effects by age. Using data on 717,543 adolescents from 43 states in the 1999-2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, we used difference-in-differences regression models to evaluate the impact of tobacco control policies on current adolescent smoking (yes/no) and, separately, smoking frequency (defined as 0, 1-5, 6-29, 30+ days per month). We tested an interaction between age and cigarette taxes and, separately, smoke-free legislation. From 1999 to 2013, adolescent smoking decreased from 35.3% to 13.9% and 41 of 43 states increased their cigarette tax in real terms by an average of 257%. By the end of the study period, 29 of 43 states had 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation. Although we found no overall effect of cigarette taxes on current smoking, there was a significant interaction by age. Among 14- and 15-year olds, every $1.00 cigarette tax increase was associated with a 2.2 and 1.6 percentage point reduction in smoking, respectively. The enactment of 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation was associated with an overall reduction in adolescent smoking by 1.1 percentage points and there were no differences by age. Cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation were also associated with decreased smoking frequency. The youngest adolescents are the most price sensitive, and cigarette taxes continue to be a successful approach to reduce adolescent smoking. Smoke-free legislation may also be an effective strategy to reduce smoking among all adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Mainstreaming and Work-Family Reconciliation. An Analysis of Family Policies in Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Crușmac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender Mainstreaming (GM was introduced by the European Union (EU in 1997, as a strategy to achieve gender equality in all policy areas. Yet, European countries greatly diverge in their progress of implementation. We investigate the role GM played in Romanian and German policies aimed at achieving work-family reconciliation, using concepts from feminist policy analysis. Our analysis shows that pre-existing policies and discourse, the economic situation, as well as the relationship with the EU have shaped and impeded the implementation process of GM in both countries. While Germany slowly moves towards more egalitarian policies, GM as label and strategy did not succeed. In Romania, GM has only impacted work and family reconciliation indirectly through EU legislation.

  7. Innovation in information society policy : Rationale, policy mix and impact in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how innovation has become more important in information society policy and what the implications are for policy design, policy coordination and policy evaluation. Design/methodology/approach - Against the background of European information society

  8. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  9. Representations of women and drug use in policy: A critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa

    2018-03-13

    Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues). Whilst these are important areas for policy to address, we argue that such representations of women who use drugs tend to reinforce particular understandings of women and drug use, while at the same time contributing to areas of 'policy silence' or neglect. In particular, the policy documents analysed are largely silent about the harm reduction needs of all women, as well as the needs of women who are not mothers, young women, older women, transwomen or other women deemed to be outside of dominant normative reproductive discourse. This analysis is important because understanding how women's drug use is problematised and identifying areas of policy silence provides a foundation for redressing gaps in policy, and for assessing the likely effectiveness of current and future policy approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.

  11. Assessing the impact of information and framing on support for climate policy action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A significant share of the public appears mislead by the way the economic impacts of emissions reductions are traditionally communicated. This misunderstanding is associated with reduced support for policy action, and risks long term climate impacts that would be avoided if results were communicated properly. Correct this basis appears likely to have a larger effect on attitudes than new research and information on the impacts of climate change. Government action to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions - like other major policy changes -depends on public support, which in turn depends on perceptions of policy impacts. This paper reports research exploring the effect of three factors on support for policy action: the way that policy impacts are described; the magnitude of these impacts, and additional information on climate change impacts, provided internally through the surveys and externally through the release of An Inconvenient Truth and media coverage of the Stern Report (2006). The research used split sample phone and internet surveys (n = 4264) conducted in Australia and New Zealand in four waves from April to December 2006. The study gives rise to four major findings: Support for policy action is sensitive to the magnitude of expected economic impacts, with predicted support varying from 27% to 84% across the different levels of policy impact presented; Current approaches to communicating policy impacts are associated with public support for policy action being 8-10% lower than it would be if policy impacts were well communicated. This bias may be corrected by describing policy impacts in terms of changes relative to current levels - stating that incomes continue to rise - as well as describing impacts relative to the base case; The reduction in support associated with these biases is much larger than the increase in support associated with providing credible additional information on the impacts of climate change; Significantly more than

  12. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  13. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  14. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  15. SECURITY POLICIES APPROACHED BY VALUE ANALYSIS CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Varlanuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to redefine the role of the end users of the Internet facilities, in the process of creation of more secure transactions on the Internet, in respect of their privacy. In this context, the purpose is to introduce the use of end user (customer value concept in the process of Security policy framework design.

  16. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  17. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  18. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  19. Policy analysis of the English graduation benchmark in Taiwan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...

  20. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report / statistical compilation of the ICT sector and policy analysis : a communication for development approach to scientific training and research and its extension digital transformations; seeking applied frameworks and indicators. Download PDF. Studies. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy ...

  1. Ex Ante Impact Assessment of Policies Affecting Land Use, Part B: Application of the Analytical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Helming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of science-based tools for impact assessment has increasingly gained focus in addressing the complexity of interactions between environment, society, and economy. For integrated assessment of policies affecting land use, an analytical framework was developed. The aim of our work was to apply the analytical framework for specific scenario cases and in combination with quantitative and qualitative application methods. The analytical framework was tested for two cases involving the ex ante impact assessment of: (1 a European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP financial reform scenario employing a modeling approach and combined with a comprehensive indicator analysis and valuation; and (2 a regional bioenergy policy scenario, employing a fully participatory approach. The results showed that European land use in general is less sensitive to changes in the Common Agricultural Policy, but in the context of regions there can be significant impacts on the functions of land use. In general, the implementation of the analytical framework for impact assessment proved to be doable with both methods, i.e., with the quantitative modeling and with the qualitative participatory approach. A key advantage of using the system of linked quantitative models is that it makes possible the simultaneous consideration of all relevant sectors of the economy without abstaining from a great level of detail for sectors of particular interest. Other advantages lie in the incontestable character of the results. Based on neutral, existing data with a fixed set of settings and regions, an absolute comparability and reproducibility throughout Europe can be maintained. Analyzing the pros and cons of both approaches showed that they could be used complementarily rather than be seen as competing alternatives.

  2. Tourism policy analysis: the case of post-independence Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nyakunu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism policy is an important domain for tourism researchers. Despite its significance, the analysis and unpacking of the making of tourism policy has so far attracted only limited attention in the global South. This paper reports on the case study of tourism policy in post-independence Namibia. It is disclosed that policy development is led by professional knowledge in support of the leading interest groups in the country's tourism economy, namely large local and private sector enterprises. By contrast, the role of small firms (SMEs, which constitute the largest segment of tourism firms in Namibia, is marginal.

  3. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  4. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  5. Assessing prevention research impact: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Adele L; Simoes, Eduardo J; Singh, Rajdeep; Sajor Gray, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    This study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to assessing the impact of selected prevention research center (PRC) peer-reviewed publications. The 25 eligible PRCs were asked to submit 15 papers that they considered the most important to be published in the decade 1994-2004. Journal articles (n=227) were verified in 2004 and categorized: 73% were research reports, 10% discussion articles, 9% dissemination articles, and 7% review articles. Only 189 articles (83%) were searchable via the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science databases for citation tracking in 2004. These 189 articles were published in 76 distinct journals and subsequently cited 4628 times (range 0 to 1523) in 1013 journals. Articles published before 2001 were cited a median of 14 times each. Publishing journals had a median ISI impact factor of 2.6, and ISI half-life of 7.2. No suitable benchmarks were available for comparison. The PRC influence factor (number of PRCs that considered a journal highly influential) was only weakly correlated with the ISI impact factor and was not correlated with half-life. Conventional bibliometric analysis to assess the scientific impact of public health prevention research is feasible, but of limited utility because of omissions from ISI's databases, and because citation benchmarks for prevention research have not been established: these problems can and should be addressed. Assessment of impact on public health practice, policy, or on the health of populations, will require more than a bibliometric approach.

  6. Noise policy: sound policy? A meta level analysis and evaluation of noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its negative health effects, noise policy has been developed in the Netherlands during the last four decades, aimed at preventing and reducing noise by road and railway traffic, industry and aviation. Academic literature illustrated that significant changes have occurred in many sectoral

  7. The impact of social science research on health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, E

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between research and health policy is discussed from a policy process perspective, describing communication problems in the course of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Policy process is often expected by researchers to be rational, having logical sequence of steps and the objective evaluation of alternatives based on scientific knowledge. In fact, policies are often formulated without clear problem identification or based on wrong assumption. The timing of research and policy-making differs. Policy-makers need to respond quickly. Evaluations may be regarded by politicians as embarrassing if they point to a need for significant change. It is not satisfactory to consider only research and policy-making: their relationship is influenced by the media, different interest groups and by the general public. Health policy formulation is embedded in the general policy environment of particular societies. Some countries have a long tradition of consensus-building, while in others health reforms have been formulated and introduced in a centralized way. Traditional bio-medical thinking influences health policy-makers. The importance of social and political acceptability tends to be overlooked. The paper emphasizes that we are experiencing an era of scarcity of resources and growing tension concerning allocation decisions. Existing institutions provide insufficient incentives for policy-makers and researchers to promote public dialogue about such issues. The paper concludes that there is a need for new approaches to policy development and implementation, new structures in policy-making, changes in research financing and co-operation between disciplines and new structures for public participation in policy-making. Research should facilitate more open and democratic dialogue about policy options and the consequences of alternative choices.

  8. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  9. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.

    Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  10. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  11. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  12. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL POLICIES ON NIGERIA'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exist between some financial policy variables and economic growth in Nigeria. An Overview of Recent ... these financial measures on the growth of the national economy and suggest further policy measures for ... concluded that monetary policy can do little to ease a credit crunch that arises because of increasing loan risk.

  13. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % ( n  = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  14. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    delegation to honor former South Korean President Kim Dae- jung ; a resumption of activity at the Kaesong Industrial Complex; bilateral talks between U.S...task is more urgent or more important than solving the people’s food problem and eating problem.”21 Pyongyang currently faces the archetypical ...1, 2007. Jung Sung-ki. Kim Jong-il Interested in Vietnamese-style Reform Policy, Korea Times. October 28, 2007. 65 Hong, Ihk-pyo. A Shift Toward

  15. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. A Policy Analysis of Strategies to Manage Medical Holdovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tammie M

    2005-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of the Community Based Health Care Initiative (CBHCI) implemented to address the problems for Soldiers mobilized and deployed in support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom...

  17. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  18. A fully feminist foreign policy? : A postcolonial feminist analysis of Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Mia-Lie

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy. Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy is unique to the world, but it is not the only case of incorporating a gender perspective as a central part of national or international politics. Feminism and gender perspectives are increasingly receiving attention and space in global politics. The Swedish case could therefore inform us about where politics are heading. Previous research on the Feminist Foreign Pol...

  19. Environmental and economic policy analysis of waste paper trade and recycling in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Vinod K.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Nag, Barnali

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive case study of Mumbai (Bombay), India was undertaken to investigate the economic, social and environmental impact of international trade of waste paper for recycling purposes between industrialised and developing countries. Analysis of a Western approach vis-a-vis informal policy for

  20. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  1. Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Lodge; Paul W. Simonin; Stanley W. Burgiel; Reuben P. Keller; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Christopher L. Jerde; Andrew M. Kramer; Edward S. Rutherford; Matthew A. Barnes; Marion E. Wittmann; W. Lindsay Chadderton; Jenny L. Apriesnig; Dmitry Beletsky; Roger M. Cooke; John M. Drake; Scott P. Egan; David C. Finnoff; Crysta A. Gantz; Erin K. Grey; Michael H. Hoff; Jennifer G. Howeth; Richard A. Jensen; Eric R. Larson; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Doran M. Mason; Felix A. Martinez; Tammy J. Newcomb; John D. Rothlisberger; Andrew J. Tucker; Travis W. Warziniack; Hongyan. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of species invasions links biology and economics, is increasingly mandated by international and national policies, and enables improved management of invasive species. Biological invasions proceed through a series of transition probabilities (i.e., introduction, establishment, spread, and impact), and each of these presents opportunities for...

  2. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 4 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  3. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | Page 3 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICES OF THE STATE YOUTH POLICY IN THE MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samohvalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines a number of foreign cases of practical realization of state youth policy for example the USA, Germany and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of these cases is due to the fact that these countries have an extensive practice of state youth policy. The second factor in the choice of case studies is the fundamental difference between the political systems of countries and as a consequence of the institutional arrangements and the technological features of established models of state youth policy. And fi nally, the third factor is that these States represent different political and cultural traditions. These differences between the traditions have an impact on the diversity of the state youth policy (as the US are a classic example of Western «pluralist» system of youth policy; Germany – West European model of youth policy; Kazakhstan is a bright representative of an effective model of youth policy in the former Soviet Union. Special attention is given to General and specifi c features identified on the basis of comparative analysis, the study of foreign models of youth policy, as well as possible their application in the process of realization of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation.

  5. Growing Stem Cells: The Impact of Federal Funding Policy on the U.S. Scientific Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Jeffrey L.; Murray, Fiona; Stern, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a citation-based approach to science policy evaluation and employs that approach to investigate the impact of the United States' 2001 policy regarding the federal funding of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. We evaluate the impact of the policy on the level of U.S. hESC research, the U.S. position at the knowledge…

  6. The impact of fiscal and monetary policies on unemployment problem in Nigeria (managerial economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Attamah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of fiscal and Monetary Policies on Unemployment Problem in Nigeria and covers the periods 1980 to 2013. To achieve this, fiscal policy was captured here by government expenditures and revenues respectively while monetary policy was proxied by broad Money Supply (M2, Interest and Exchange rates respectively. The methodology adopted was econometric analysis employing OLS techniques and unit roots of the series were examined using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller after which the co-integration tests was conducted using the Engle Granger approach. Error correction models were estimated to take care of the short run dynamics. It was found that while government expenditure had a positive relationship with unemployment problem in Nigeria, the result of government revenue was negative and insignificant on unemployment problem. For monetary policy, it was found that money supply and exchange rate had positive and significant impact while interest rate has only a positive relationship on unemployment problem in Nigeria. This meets the a priori expectation. The study also revealed that increases in interest and exchange rates escalate unemployment by increasing cost of production which discourages the private sector from employing large workforce. On the other hand, national productivity measured by real GDP had a negative and significant impact on unemployment rate in Nigeria. This paper recommends that for an effective combat to unemployment problem in Nigeria, there should be a systematic diversion of strategies, thus more emphasis should be laid on aggressively pursuing entrepreneurial development and increased productivity. Again government should aggressively focus on investment, employment generation and economic growth that has mechanism to trickle does to the masses

  7. Economic impact of integrated policies to respond to threats of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Argonne Multisector Industry Growth Assessment Model (AMIGA), which is a tool for policy impact analysis in the context of the economy as a whole and its individual sectors. AMIGA is currently being used by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to help understand and evaluate these DOE programs, including more efficient motor vehicle programs. The steps being taken under the US Climate Change Action Plan are being assessed using AMIGA. However, because AMIGA represents prices of goods and services and the wages of workers, AMIGA has the capability to represent incentive approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reductions such as a carbon tax. The ''best'' policy option in a ''second-best'' world may be a mix, or bundle of incentives, voluntary programs, and command-and-control regulations. Detailed reports on model documentation and simulation studies will be available from the author

  8. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  9. Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

    2014-05-01

    Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms

  10. Strategic Choice Analysis by Expert Panels for Migration Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    International migration is a source of policy and research interest in many countries. This paper provides a review of experiences and findings from migration impact assessment worldwide. Various findings are briefly summarised in the context of a systematic migration SWOT analysis for five distinct

  11. The Distributional Impact of Developed Countries’ Climate Change Policies on Senegal: A Macro-Micro CGE Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Estache

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributional impact analysis of climate change policies envisaged or implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Senegal. We consider policies implemented in developed countries and their impact on a developing country. Moreover, we simulate the diminishing productivity of agricultural land as a potential result of climate change (CC for Senegal. This country is exposed to the direct consequences of CC and is vulnerable to changes in world prices of energy, given its lack of substitution capacity. Past researches have shown that countries with this profile will bear the greatest burden of CC and its mitigation policies. Our results reveal slight increases in poverty when the world price of fossil fuels increases and the negative impact is further amplified with decreases in land productivity. However, subsidizing electricity consumption to protect consumers from world price increases in fossil fuels is shown to provide a weak cushion to poverty increase.

  12. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY ON BANK CREDIT DURING ECONOMIC CRISIS: INDONESIA’S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was very important to influencesthe economic activitiy, the result provided evidence that monetary policy was important as atool to control economic activity via credit channel. The validity of this study challenged thehypotheses that monetary policy was death. However, monetary policy maker should carefullyconsider the soundness of the banking industry because it was a strategic partner for monetaryauthority to control the economic activities.

  13. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  14. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  15. A harmonized calculation model for transforming EU bottom-up energy efficiency indicators into empirical estimates of policy impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Marvin J.; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This study is an impact analysis of European Union (EU) energy efficiency policy that employs both top-down energy consumption data and bottom-up energy efficiency statistics or indicators. As such, it may be considered a contribution to the effort called for in the EU's 2006 Energy Services Directive (ESD) to develop a harmonized calculation model. Although this study does not estimate the realized savings from individual policy measures, it does provide estimates of realized energy savings for energy efficiency policy measures in aggregate. Using fixed effects panel models, the annual cumulative savings in 2011 of combined household and manufacturing sector electricity and natural gas usage attributed to EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 is estimated to be 1136 PJ; the savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 is estimated to be 807 PJ, or the equivalent of 5.6% of 2011 EU energy consumption. As well as its contribution to energy efficiency policy analysis, this study adds to the development of methods that can improve the quality of information provided by standardized energy efficiency and sustainable resource indexes. - Highlights: • Impact analysis of European Union energy efficiency policy. • Harmonization of top-down energy consumption and bottom-up energy efficiency indicators. • Fixed effects models for Member States for household and manufacturing sectors and combined electricity and natural gas usage. • EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 are estimated to have saved 1136 Petajoules. • Energy savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 are 5.6 percent of 2011 combined electricity and natural gas usage.

  16. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  17. China's Population Policy at the Crossroads: Social Impacts and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    China's total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China's population policy evolve in the future? This paper first reviews the history of China's population policy since 1970 in terms of three stages: 1970-1979; ...

  18. Factors Impacting Bank Net Interest Margin and the Role of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Hasan Yılmaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate factors affecting net interest margin (NIM of commercial banks in Turkey. Especially, our results highlight the relation between unconventional monetary policy shocks and bank margins. To this end, first, we conduct an identification analysis about which parameters of asymmetric interest corridor framework are important in explaining variations in NIM. Using industry-level data, we show that there exists a pass through from BIST interbank overnight repo/reverse repo market rate and weighted average cost of funding (WACF to bank loan and deposit rates. As a result of reduced-form Vector Autoregression (VAR analysis we find the existence of a transmission mechanism from BIST rate and WACF to commercial loan rate, consumer loan rate and deposit rate. Same pass through to loan and deposit rates is also shown in individual bank level with the Panel Vector Autoregression (Panel VAR analysis in the case of 16 commercial banks in Turkey during the period 2011Q1-2016Q1. After the identification analysis, we examine the relationship between NIM and policy rates through System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM techniques by controlling bank specific, industry related and macroeconomic factors. We find that a change in the monetary policy rate has significant and positive impact on NIM. Among bank-specific factors, equity ratio and operating expenses are found to be significantly affecting NIM during the sample period. Our empirical findings also stress the significance of lag values of NIM. Estimations conducted with standardized variables indicate that economic significance of lag values and bank specific variables are larger than that of policy.

  19. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  20. The fit between health impact assessment and public policy: practice meets theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Sainsbury, Peter; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has seen increased use of health impact assessment (HIA) to influence public policies developed outside the Health sector. HIA has developed as a structured, linear and technical process to incorporate health, broadly defined, into policy. This is potentially incongruent with complex, non-linear and tactical policy making which does not necessarily consider health. HIA research has however not incorporated existing public policy theory to explain practitioners' experiences with HIA and policy. This research, therefore, used public policy theory to explain HIA practitioners' experiences and investigate 'What is the fit between HIA and public policy?' Empirical findings from nine in-depth interviews with international HIA practitioners were re-analysed against public policy theory. We reviewed the HIA literature for inclusion of public policy theories then compared these for compatibility with our critical realist methodology and the empirical data. The theory 'Policy Cycles and Subsystems' (Howlett et al., 2009) was used to re-analyse the empirical data. HIAs for policy are necessarily both tactical and technical. Within policy subsystems using HIA to influence public policy requires tactically positioning health as a relevant public policy issue and, to facilitate this, institutional support for collaboration between Public Health and other sectors. HIA fits best within the often non-linear public policy cycle as a policy formulation instrument. HIA provides, tactically and technically, a space for practical reasoning to navigate facts, values and processes underlying the substantive and procedural dimensions of policy. Re-analysing empirical experiential data using existing public policy theory provided valuable explanations for future research, policy and practice concerning why and how HIA fits tactically and technically with the world of public policy development. The use of theory and empiricism opens up important possibilities for future

  1. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is therefore critical to document and evaluate the nature and impact of alcohol promotion, policy, and legislation in Africa. This research will achieve that goal ... The University of Cape Town (UCT) will host the umbrella project and will provide training, scientific support, and ethical oversight. It will help synthesize the data ...

  2. Creating 'healthy built environment' legislation in Australia; a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Marie-Thow, Anne; Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon; McCue, Peter

    2017-09-05

    Influencing healthy public policy through health advocacy remains challenging. This policy analysis research uses theories of agenda setting to understand how health came to be considered for specific mention in legislation arising from land-use planning system reform in New South Wales, Australia. This qualitative study follows critical realist methodology to conduct a policy analysis of the case. We collected data from purposively sampled in-depth interviews (n = 9), a focus group and documentary analysis. We used three classic policy process (agenda setting) theories to develop an analytic framework for explaining the empirical data: Multiple Streams; Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Advocacy Coalition Framework. The reform process presented a window of opportunity that opened incrementally over a 2 year period. The opportunity was grasped by individual policy entrepreneurs who subsequently formed a coalition of healthy planning advocates focused on strategically positioning 'health' as legislative objective for the new system. The actual point of influence seemed to appear suddenly when challenges to a perceived economic development agenda within the reforms peaked, and the health objective, see as non-threatening by all stakeholders, was taken up. Our analysis demonstrates how this particular point of influence followed sustained long-term activity by health advocates prior to and during the reform process. We demonstrate a theory-driven policy analysis of health advocacy efforts to influence an instance of major land-use planning reform. The application of multiple policy process theories enables deep understanding of what is required to effectively advocate for healthy public policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Reduction in male suicide mortality following the 2006 Russian alcohol policy: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Andreev, Evgeny

    2013-11-01

    We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ω0 = -0.096; P = .01). Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm.

  4. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Groundwater Management Policies in the Republican River Basin of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrozencik, R. A.; Manning, D. T.; Suter, J. F.; Goemans, C.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a critical input to agricultural production across the globe. Current groundwater pumping rates frequently exceed recharge, often by a substantial amount, leading to groundwater depletion and potential declines in agricultural profits over time. As a result, many regions reliant on irrigated agriculture have proposed policies to manage groundwater use. Even when gains from aquifer management exist, there is little information about how policies affect individual producers sharing the resource. In this paper, we investigate the variability of groundwater management policy impacts across heterogeneous agricultural producers. To measure these impacts, we develop a hydroeconomic model that captures the important role of well capacity, productivity of water, and weather uncertainty. We use the model to simulate the impacts of groundwater management policies on producers in the High Plains aquifer of eastern Colorado and compare outcomes to a no-policy baseline. The management policies considered include a pumping fee, a quantity restriction, and an irrigated acreage fee. We find that well capacity and soil type affect policy impacts but in ways that can qualitatively differ across policy type. Model results have important implications for the distributional impacts and political acceptability of groundwater management policies.

  5. Stakeholders Analysis of Policy-Making Process: The Case of Timber Legality Policy on Private Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyaningrum Mulyaningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify and measure the relationships among stakeholders that influence the process of policy-making in defining legality of timber from private forests. The study focuses on the policy-making process of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation P.38/Menhut-II/2009 on Standard and Guidelines for Assessment of Sustainable Forest Management Performance and Timber Legality Verification of Concessionaire or of the Private Forest License Holder as the subject that has been implemented in several private forest management units as follow: Giri Mukti Wana Tirta in Lampung, Koperasi Serba Usaha APIK in Bali, Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari in South East Sulawesi, and Koperasi Wana Lestari Menoreh Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta. This research used a qualitative approach and the analysis method used in this research is a modified-stakeholder analysis that developed by ODA (1995, Reitbergen et al. (1998, and Mayer (2005. The stakeholder analysis shows that the interests and influences do not consider private forest farmers as primary stakeholder during  the process of policy formulation.  The strong national and international interests, supported by high authority could not be influnced by the role of the NGOs and academicians. The imbalance of responsibilities, rights, and revenues that was experienced by  farmers as the manager of private forest when started implementing the policy was more as burdens, it means implementation of the policy was more as burdens. Strong relationships between the Ministry of Forestry with the state as a core could not empower the relationship with private forest farmers. As result, policy assumptions cannot be implemented properly.Keywords: policy making process, timber legality, private forest, stakeholder.DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.156

  6. Agricultural pricing policy in Kenya : scope and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the findings of available studies and reports thought to be of relevance to policy makers. A discussion of the institutional framework, of criteria used in price-setting procedures, and of scope and objectives of the agricultural pricing policies is folowed by an examination of what these

  7. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  8. The Business Impact of LGBT-Supportive Workplace Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Durso, Laura E.; Mallory, Christy; Kastanis, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    LGBT-supportive policies are linked to positive business-related outcomes. LGBT-supportive policies are also linked to greater job commitment, improved workplace relationships, increased job satisfaction, and improved health outcomes among LGBT employees. LGBT employees are also less likely to face discrimination in such environments and are more comfortable being open about their sexual orientation.

  9. Research and Policy in Education: Evidence, Ideology and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tells us that 90 per cent of education reforms are not properly evaluated. So it seems that governments have not lived up to their own ideals of evidence-informed policymaking. "Research and Policy in Education" argues that education policy is as often driven by political…

  10. The Impact of Zero Tolerance Policy on Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaim, Mariam

    2018-01-01

    The Zero Tolerance policy was intended to eliminate learners who are a danger to a learning institution (Henson, 2012). The development of this policy was to assist schools with better policing approaches of students conducts by employing tough disciplinary action and subsequently provide a safer learning environment. While the Zero Tolerance…

  11. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  12. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  13. Impact of Different Carbon Policies on City Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A programming model for a four-layer urban logistics distribution network is constructed and revised based on three types of carbon emissions policies such as Carbon tax, carbon emissions Cap, Carbon Trade. Effects of different policies on logistics costs and carbon emissions are analyzed based on a spatial Logistics Infrastructure layout of Beijing. Research findings are as follows: First, based on low-carbon policies, the logistics costs and carbon emissions can be changed by different modes of transport in a certain extent; second, only when carbon taxes and carbon trading prices are higher, carbon taxes and carbon trading policies can reduce carbon emissions while not significantly increase logistics costs at the same time, and more effectively achieve carbon reduction targets than use carbon cap policy.

  14. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Zwi B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that

  15. Czech Fiscal Policy:Introductory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bezděk, Vladimír; Dybczak, Kamil; Krejdl, Aleš

    2003-01-01

    The subject of this work are the following questions: What is the size of quasi-fiscal operations and their impact on the overall fiscal balance and public debt in the Czech Republic? Is the recent increase in Czech fiscal deficits fully attributable to the business cycle, or are there non-cyclical factors in place? And last but not least, what are the long-term perspectives of the fiscal system given the size and speed of the expected population ageing process?

  16. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)]. E-mail: yanjun9@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development.

  17. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewables, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development. (author)

  18. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  19. Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike

    2018-03-01

    Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.

  20. One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response. Methods Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia. Results The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health. Conclusion The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.

  1. Public participation in the process of local public health policy, using policy network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-11-01

    To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.

  2. The role of social norms on preferences towards climate change policies: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate

  3. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Pervin, Sonia; Tanim, Md Imtiaz Alam; Niessen, Louis; Islam, Anwar

    2017-06-19

    This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents. Information was extracted from the documents using a specific matrix, mapping each document against the six objectives of the WHO 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. A total of 51 documents were identified. Seven (14%) were research and/or surveys, nine were on established policies (17%), while seventeen (33%) were on action programmes. Five (10%) were related to guidelines and thirteen (25%) were strategic planning documents from government and non-government agencies/institutes. The study covered documents produced by the Government of Bangladesh as well as those by quasi-government and non-government organizations irrespective of the extent to which the intended policies were implemented. The policy analysis findings suggest that although the government has initiated many NCD-related policies or programs, they lacked proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Consequently, Bangladesh over the years had little success in effectively addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. It is imperative that future research critically assess the effectiveness of national NCD policies by monitoring their implementation and level of population coverage.

  4. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  5. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  6. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  7. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  8. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-02-01

    Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school policies on smoking rates among youth in Florida. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the comprehensiveness and enforcement of tobacco-free school policies affect the youth smoking rates within Florida public school districts. The 2010 and 2014 youth smoking rates were calculated based on the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey results. The 2010 youth smoking rate and the inclusion of the enforcement component with provision of cessation resources were statistically significant predictors of the 2014 youth smoking rate. However, the comprehensiveness level of a policy and the inclusion of an enforcement component were not statistically significant predictors. The inclusion of an enforcement component with provision of cessation resources is important in efforts to reduce youth smoking rates. The content of the tobacco-free school policies seems to be less relevant to their effectiveness than the enforcement of the policies. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  9. The Impact of Fiscal Policies on the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Isabel; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable recent debate around the alleged impact of discretionary fiscal policies - especially austerity policies - on health and health inequalities. Assuming that most of the impact will have to run via the effect of fiscal policies on socioeconomic determinants of health (SDH), it is of interest to gain a further understanding of the relationship between fiscal policies and SDH. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the recent evidence on the impact of discretionary fiscal policies on key SDH, i.e. income, poverty, education, and employment, in high income OECD countries. We find that there are no simple answers as to how fiscal policy affects those determinants of health. The effects of contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies on the analyzed SDH vary considerably across countries and will largely depend on the pre-crisis situation. Contractionary fiscal policies seem to have increased poverty, while their impact on income inequality will be influenced by the composition of the implemented measures. More empirical research trying to directly link fiscal policies to health outcomes, while taking into account of some of the mechanisms encountered here, would be worthwhile.

  10. Probabilistic economic analysis of green roof benefits for policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Adriaens, P.; Talbot, B.

    2006-01-01

    The installation costs of green roofs continue to deter widespread use of green roof technology. Analyses of the boundary conditions for the cost differential between a green roof and a conventional roof are usually compared to environmental benefits such as storm water reduction and building energy savings. However, evidence is emerging that green roofs may play a role in urban air quality improvement. This paper discussed a methodology for developing probabilistic ranges of benefits and cost analyses. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to prepare a generalized cost-benefit analysis for application to a range of green roof projects. Environmental benefits of roof greening were quantified on a per unit surface area to assess environmental impact at the building scale. Parameters included conventional and green roof installation costs; storm water fees and fee reductions for green roofs; energy costs due to heat flux and the resultant savings through the installation of a green roof and the additional economic valuation of the public health benefits due to air pollution mitigation. Results were then integrated into an economic model to determine the length of time required for a return on investment in a green roof, assuming that a traditional roof would require replacement after 20 years. A net present value analysis was performed for an average-sized university roof. Results of the study showed that a valuation of environmental benefits can reduce the time required for a return on investment in a moderately priced green roof. While reduced installation costs reduced the time required for a return on investment, optimizing the green roof system for maximum environmental benefit had a greater potential to provide a higher return. It was concluded that the benefit of improved air quality should not be ignored by green roof policy-makers as a valuation tool. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. A social network analysis of Canadian food insecurity policy actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Jessiman-Perreault, Geneviève; Mah, Catherine L; Godley, Jenny

    2018-01-31

    This paper aims to: (i) visualize the networks of food insecurity policy actors in Canada, (ii) identify potential food insecurity policy entrepreneurs (i.e., individuals with voice, connections, and persistence) within these networks, and (iii) examine the political landscape for action on food insecurity as revealed by social network analysis. A survey was administered to 93 Canadian food insecurity policy actors. They were each asked to nominate 3 individuals whom they believed to be policy entrepreneurs. Ego-centred social network maps (sociograms) were generated based on data on nominees and nominators. Seventy-two percent of the actors completed the survey; 117 unique nominations ensued. Eleven actors obtained 3 or more nominations and thus were considered policy entrepreneurs. The majority of actors nominated actors from the same province (71.5%) and with a similar approach to theirs to addressing food insecurity (54.8%). Most nominees worked in research, charitable, and other nongovernmental organizations. Networks of Canadian food insecurity policy actors exist but are limited in scope and reach, with a paucity of policy entrepreneurs from political, private, or governmental jurisdictions. The networks are divided between food-based solution actors and income-based solution actors, which might impede collaboration among those with differing approaches to addressing food insecurity.

  13. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  14. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  15. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their pop......To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ?wellbeing? is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective...

  16. Impacts of public policy on rail development in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Identifying the State policies that most directly affect or advance railroad development begins with an : understanding of how railroads make investment decisions. Railroads are a capital-intensive business, : owning all physical assets, locomotives,...

  17. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-11-28

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the financial sector by the relevant authorities to avoid lopsided compliance with financial and monetary guidelines. Keywords: Financial policies, Financial Liberalization, Financial developments, Economic growth, Guided regulations. International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol.

  19. Impact of Policy on Fuels RD&D (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, C.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fuel economy and emissions policy and its relationship with fuel research, development, and deployment (RD&D). Solutions explored include biofuels and increased engine efficiency.

  20. Federal policies for renewable electricity: Impacts and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Karen, E-mail: Palmer@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Paul, Anthony, E-mail: Paul@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Woerman, Matt, E-mail: Woerman@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C., E-mail: daniel.steinberg@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Three types of policies that are prominent in the federal debate over addressing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are a cap-and-trade program (CTP) on emissions, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for electricity production, and tax credits for renewable electricity producers. Each of these policies would have different consequences, and combinations of these policies could induce interactions yielding a whole that is not the sum of its parts. This paper utilizes the Haiku electricity market model to evaluate the economic and technology outcomes, climate benefits, and cost-effectiveness of three such policies and all possible combinations of the policies. A central finding is that the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions reductions from CTP can be significantly greater than those from the other policies, even for similar levels of renewable electricity production, since of the three policies, CTP is the only one that distinguishes electricity generated by coal and natural gas. It follows that CTP is the most cost-effective among these approaches at reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. An alternative compliance payment mechanism in an RPS program could substantially affect renewables penetration, and the electricity price effects of the policies hinge partly on the regulatory structure of electricity markets, which varies across the country. - Research Highlights: > Climate benefits of cap-and-trade are greater than of tax credits or RPS. > Cap-and-trade is more cost-effective at reducing emissions than tax credits or RPS. > Tax credits are a subsidy to production that raises electricity consumption. > Alternative compliance payment can substantially affect the outcome of RPS.

  1. Federal policies for renewable electricity: Impacts and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Karen; Paul, Anthony; Woerman, Matt; Steinberg, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of policies that are prominent in the federal debate over addressing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are a cap-and-trade program (CTP) on emissions, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for electricity production, and tax credits for renewable electricity producers. Each of these policies would have different consequences, and combinations of these policies could induce interactions yielding a whole that is not the sum of its parts. This paper utilizes the Haiku electricity market model to evaluate the economic and technology outcomes, climate benefits, and cost-effectiveness of three such policies and all possible combinations of the policies. A central finding is that the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions from CTP can be significantly greater than those from the other policies, even for similar levels of renewable electricity production, since of the three policies, CTP is the only one that distinguishes electricity generated by coal and natural gas. It follows that CTP is the most cost-effective among these approaches at reducing CO 2 emissions. An alternative compliance payment mechanism in an RPS program could substantially affect renewables penetration, and the electricity price effects of the policies hinge partly on the regulatory structure of electricity markets, which varies across the country. - Research highlights: → Climate benefits of cap-and-trade are greater than of tax credits or RPS. → Cap-and-trade is more cost-effective at reducing emissions than tax credits or RPS. → Tax credits are a subsidy to production that raises electricity consumption. → Alternative compliance payment can substantially affect the outcome of RPS.

  2. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be op...

  3. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John

    2018-02-03

    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  4. A policy hackathon for analysing impacts and solutions up to 20 metres sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Bouwer, Laurens; Kwadijk, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    We organised a policy hackathon in order to quantify the impacts accelerated and high-end sea-level rise up to 20 metres on the coast of the Netherlands, and develop possible solutions. This was done during one day, with 20 experts that had a wide variety of disciplines, including hydrology, geology, coastal engineering, economics, and public policy. During the process the problem was divided up into several sub-sets of issues that were analysed and solved within small teams of between 4 to 8 people. Both a top-down impact analysis and bottom-up vulnerability analysis was done by answering the questions: What is the impact of sea level rise of x meter?; and How much sea level rise can be accommodated with before transformative actions are needed? Next, adaptation tipping points were identified that describe conditions under which the coastal system starts to perform unacceptably. Reasons for an adaptation tipping point can be technical (technically not possible), economic (cost-benefits are negative), or resources (available space, sand, energy production, financial). The results are presented in a summary document, and through an infographic displaying different adaptation tipping points and milestones that occur when the sea level rises up to 20 m. No technical limitations were found for adaptation, but many important decisions need to be taken. Although accelerated sea level rise seems far away it can have important consequences for short-term decisions that are required for transformative actions. Such extensive actions require more time for implementation. Also, other action may become ineffective before their design life. This hackathon exercise shows that it is possible to map within a short time frame the issues at hand, as well as potentially effective solutions. This can be replicated for other problems, and can be useful for several decision-makers that require quick but in-depth analysis of their long-term planning problems.

  5. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  6. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Nina; Bauer, Annette; Haase, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  7. Impact of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy on Indonesian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossanto Dwi HANDOYO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on Indonesian Stock price as well as main sectors stock price such as agricultural, mining, manufacture, and financial sector indexes. We consider the world oil price as a foreign variable that will influence domestic economy as in regular small open economy model. In this paper, we employ the Monte Carlo algorithm to Near-SVAR models (If some of the VAR equations have regressors not included in the others. We find that there is a positive stock price response to monetary policy shock both aggregated and sectoral stock price. In term of interaction between fiscal policy shock and stock market, we find that all sectors respond negative relationship. From this empirical finding, fiscal policy crowd out private sector activity in market, thus, its effect will be impotent in economy. We also provide the evidence that not only both policies are able to influence the stock price individually, but also the interaction between monetary and fiscal policy is important in explaining stock market performance.

  8. Impact of relaxation of the one-child policy on maternal mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Shiliang; He, Fang; Du, Lili; Guo, Yanfang; El-Chaar, Darine; Wen, Shi Wu; Chen, Dunjin

    2018-01-19

    To assess the impact of the one-child policy in China on maternal mortality. The present retrospective study included maternal death data from Guangdong, China, from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015; data from 2013 were excluded because they were not available. Maternal deaths were divided into legal and illegal pregnancies based on adherence to the one-child policy. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was compared between the groups, temporal trends in the MMR were examined, and comparisons were made of the causes of death and access to maternity care. The final analysis included 847 520 live deliveries and 383 maternal deaths. The MMR among legal pregnancies declined moderately from 18.5 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries in 2006 to 12.2 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries in 2015 (P=0.029), whereas the MMR among illegal pregnancies declined dramatically from 1268.4 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries to 177.5 deaths per 100 000 live deliveries (Pone-child policy in China. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. The impact of planning policies on bicycle-transit integration in Calgary

    OpenAIRE

    Sasha Tsenkova; David Mahalek

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to manage Canadian cities through smart growth policies emphasize the importance of integrated public transit system and bicycle-transit integration. The goal of this paper is to review the impact of planning policies that promote utilitarian cycling on the provision of bicycle facilities (pathways, bikeways and parking) in Calgary. The focus is on new suburban communities built since the 1990s, where new policies and standards affecting cycling have been implemented. The methodology ...

  10. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  11. The Places Toolkit for the Impact Assessment of Science Communication Initiatives and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This document has been created for the purpose of serving as an instrument for the measure of the impact of initiatives and policies within the area of science communication and scientific culture in general (SCIP: Science Communication Initiatives and Policies). The toolkit is part of the European...... project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science)....

  12. The Impact of Assessment Policy on Learning: Replacement Exams or Grade Dropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermott, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often debate the merits of alternate grading policies such as dropping the lowest exam or offering an additional exam to replace the lowest score. To date, there has been little research conducted on the impact of these policies on performance. In this study, the author investigates student performance in intermediate macroeconomics…

  13. The impact of monetisation policy on public service: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetisation policy on the performance of the public service. A case study of Nigerian Copyright Commission, a public service was carried out, with a view to examining the thrust, implementation, prospects and challenges of the policy. Primary data was gathered through a structured ...

  14. The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Poverty in Ethiopia: A Computable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia has implemented various fiscal policy reforms in the past decade. Most of these reforms center on indirect taxes and pro-poor expenditure patterns. This study investigates the economy-wide impacts of these fiscal policy changes on poverty. To this effect, the study used a static computable general equilibrium ...

  15. The Impact of Conventional and Unconventional Monetary Policy on Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    the fed funds rate is at its zero lower bound, research results indicate that expansionary unconventional monetary policy shocks also have a large and positive impact on investor mood. Together, our findings highlight the importance of both conventional and unconventional monetary policy...

  16. The impact of policy on firms' performance: the case of CNC machine tool industry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study is about understanding how the government policy actually works at firm level in the context of developing countries' industrialization. In the literature, the discussions on impact of government policy on corporate performance primarily stress on macroeconomic aspects of industrial

  17. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  18. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  19. National Language Policy and Its Impacts on Second Language Reading Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff

    2013-01-01

    This research concentrates on Malaysian language policy and its impacts on the development of English language (regarded as a second language in Malaysia) specifically on reading culture. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the weaknesses and strengths of the policy and also to come out with recommendations to improve the…

  20. Education Policy in Poland: The Impact of PISA (and Other International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Jakubowski, Maciej; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the PISA study on Polish education policy has been significant, but probably different from any other country. Poland has not experienced the so-called "PISA shock," but its education system has been benefiting considerably from PISA. For experts and policy makers, it has been a useful and reliable instrument that has made…

  1. The Impact of Environmental Policy on Foreign Trade: Tobey revisited with a Bilateral Flow Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, van Cees; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Whereas theoretical analyses of trade and environment indicate thatrelatively strict environmental policies can have a strong impact on foreign trade, empirical studies present mixed results. This study presents new empirical results that tie together two previous empirical studies employing a

  2. Dividend Policy and Corporate Value (A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.

  3. The role of the media in the science-policy nexus. Some critical reflections based on an analysis of the Belgian drug policy debate (1996-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieberghien, Julie

    2014-03-01

    Drug policy is one of the most polarised subjects of public debate and media coverage, which frequently tend to be dramatic and event-centred. Although the role of the media in directing the drug discourse is widely acknowledged, limited research has been conducted in examining the particular role of the media in the science-policy nexus. We sought to determine how the (mis)representation of scientific knowledge in the media may, or may not, have an impact on the contribution of scientific knowledge to the drug-policy making process. Using a case study of the Belgian drug-policy debates between 1996 and 2003, we conducted a discourse analysis of specially selected 1067 newspaper articles and 164 policy documents. Our analysis focused on: textual elements that feature intra-discourse differences, how players and scientific knowledge are represented in the text, the arguments used and claims made, and the various types of research utilisation. Media discourse strongly influenced the public's and policy makers' understanding as well as the content of the Belgian drug policy debate between 1996 and 2003. As a major source of scientific knowledge, media coverage supported the 'enlightenment' role of scientific knowledge in the policy-making process by broadening and even determining frames of reference. However, as the presentation of scientific knowledge in the media was often inaccurate or distorted due to the lack of contextual information or statistical misinformation, the media may also support the selective utilisation of scientific knowledge. Many challenges as well as opportunities lie ahead for researchers who want to influence the policy-making process since most research fails to go beyond academic publications. Although media is a valuable linking mechanism between science and policy, by no means does it provide scientists with a guarantee of a more 'evidence-based' drug policy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impacts of Internationalization on Quality Assurance Policy: A Comparative Study of Finland and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, PO-YUN

    2008-01-01

    Internationalization and quality assurance have become the central considerations of higher education development currently. The aim of this research is to explore and compare the impacts of internationalization on quality assurance policy in Finland and Taiwan. To achieve this aim, the general impacts of internationalization on quality assurance policy have been discussed first. Next, the empirical research of Finland and Taiwan are conducted by qualitative interviews of higher education pol...

  5. Health impact assessment as an instrument to examine the health implications of education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J; Gakh, M; Coughenour, C; Clark, S

    2017-04-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that can be used by public health professionals to examine the potential health effects of a policy, plan, program, or project that originates outside of the health sector. This article presents a case study of how an interdisciplinary team utilized an HIA to analyze the potential health impact of full-day kindergarten (FDK) on communities in Nevada. Case study. With stakeholder and community engagement, we conducted a multistage HIA that included qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, a review of existing literature, and projections. The team considered several pathways through which FDK could impact health in Nevada: (1) school performance; (2) physical development (physical activity and nutrition education); and (3) access to school-based meals and health screenings. Findings indicated that access to FDK could enhance opportunities for Nevada's children to harness school-based services, increase physical activity, and promote nutrition education. In addition, based on existing research that suggests relationships between (1) FDK attendance and 3rd and 5th grade math and reading standardized test scores and (2) 3rd and 5th grade test scores and high school graduation, as well as available state and national data, we estimated that access to FDK could increase high school graduation in Nevada by 499-820 students per year. This HIA demonstrated that access to FDK could impact both student and adult health in Nevada. Our engagement of public health professionals along with stakeholders and the community in the HIA process demonstrated that HIAs can be an important tool for public health professionals to examine the effects on community health of policies, programs, plans or projects that arise outside of the health sector. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Shams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the significant role “values” play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of “values” and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of “value in health policy-making” were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results We identified eight major attributes of “value in health policy-making”: ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra

  7. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC POLICY UNCERTAINTY ON THE VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED (VMT) IN THE U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Ender Demir; Giray Gozgor

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in the United States (U.S.) over the period of January 1978 to October 2014. We estimate an empirical model based on a travel demand-analysis. It is found that an increase in economic policy uncertainty leads to a decrease in vehicle miles traveled. This negative relationship is also observed when different model types, various control variables, and the subindexes of the EPU are consid...

  8. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  9. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  10. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 avr. 2010 ... Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

  11. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  12. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... accomplished based on society values of products, internal and external product and the third row of matrix is gotten from discrepancy between first and second rows and utilized in policy analysis. Also, the calculations of relative advantage indicators are presented in Table 2. The shadowy value of opened ...

  13. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By using benefit to costs index, internal rate of return, net present value and policy analysis matrix were calculated. The results show that intercropping was affordable than sole cropping. Sole cropping of these crops had no relative advantage, while mixed cropping had a relative advantage than sole cropping. Nominal ...

  14. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  15. A Critical Policy Analysis of Texas' "Closing the Gaps 2015"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Thackik, Stefani Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This critical policy analysis uses critical race theory to provide a counter narrative to the P-16 initiative in Texas known as "Closing the Gaps 2015". Findings indicate that while these reforms aim to increase educational access and achievement for people of color, they fall short of addressing systemic inequities such as enduring…

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Analysis of Ethiopia's National ICT Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is ... other technologies it enables to transform organizations and redefine social relations. In essence, ... public policies and disciplines. First, document analysis was carried out to study.

  17. Research, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis: Heuristics for Disciplined Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon E.

    Research, evaluation, and policy analysis are elements of inquiry whose functions, aims, purposes, intended audiences, and intended outcomes have been confused in the literature discussing how to accomplish them. Using the definition of "disciplined inquiry" provided by Cronbach and Suppes (1969), which defines disciplined inquiry as the…

  18. Investigating the impact of agrarian policies on conflict and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... ... a timely fashion — and the complexity and confusion of the administrative process — had surprising consequences, giving the government time to implement a development policy that reassigned the Yucatán's agrarian "surplus population" to new work in maquiladoras and the growing tourism industry, ...

  19. The Impact of Different Policy Choices on Income Distribution After ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Government controls on the price of food through stock adjustment and through imports of food are explicitly modelled in a computable general equilibrium for Zimbabwe. The results of policy simulations show that allowing the price of food to increase during a drought period increases incomes of food producers ...

  20. Impact of electrical intertie capacity on carbon policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.; Niet, T.; Lyseng, B.; Palmer-Wilson, K.; Keller, V.; Moazzen, I.; Pitt, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the potential cost and emissions reductions that result from an increase in electricity transmission capacity between Canada's two westernmost provinces: Alberta, a fossil fuel dominated jurisdiction, and British Columbia, a predominantly hydroelectric jurisdiction. A bottom-up model is used to find the least cost electricity generation mix in Alberta and British Columbia under different carbon policies. The long-term evolution of the electricity system is determined by minimizing net present cost of electricity generation for the time span of 2010–2060. Different levels of intertie capacity expansion are considered together with a variety of carbon tax and carbon cap scenarios. Results indicate that increased intertie capacity reduces the cost of electricity and emissions under carbon pricing policies. However, the expandable intertie does not encourage greater adoption of variable renewable generation. Instead, it is used to move low-cost energy from the United States to Alberta. The optimal intertie capacity and cost reduction of increased interconnectivity increases with more restrictive carbon policies. - Highlights: • A techno-economic optimization model is used to examine electricity generation in western Canada. • Interprovincial electricity transmission can decrease carbon abatement costs. • Market conditions can reduce the expected synergy between storage hydroelectricity and variable renewable generation. • Inconsistent carbon policies between regions mean emissions are moved, not avoided.

  1. The Impacts of State Control Policies on College Tuition Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun; Ko, Jangwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined state efforts to control tuition increases over the past 10 years. Using data from 50 states and 540 public 4-year universities and colleges, we examined average tuition increases in dollar amount and percentage of change by the type of state tuition control policy and by the authority for tuition-setting power. The state…

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... support of the national policy. (b) With respect to the procurement, management, and disposal of personal... actions as may be required when expediency is of prime importance. Further, the Federal regulatory...; especially the directive that environmental concerns, effects, and values shall be given appropriate...

  3. Beyond Terminology: The Policy Impact of a Grassroots Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marty; Acosta, Annie; Sutcliffe, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the grassroots movement led by self-advocates and their families to replace the stigmatizing term "mental retardation" with "intellectual disability" in federal statute. It also describes recent and pending changes in federal regulations and policy to adopt the new terminology for Social Security and Medicaid.

  4. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  5. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the c...

  6. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter; K-Laflamme, Annik; Wassmann, Sven; Lansberg, Peter; Hobbs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the consequences for

  7. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  8. Impact of Climate Policy on the Basque Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the economic effects of CO2 emission reductions in the Basque Country (Spain) using an applied general equilibrium (AGE) model with specific attention to environment-energy-economy interactions. Environmental policy is implemented through a system of tradable pollution

  9. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  10. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  11. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON COMPETITION POLICY EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, more and more countries have enacted competition laws, understanding the importance of this process in providing a normal functioning of the economy. Analyzing competition policy effectiveness is important not only because of the recent extent of the phenomenon, but also because of the impact of competition policy effectiveness on economic development and, in the current economic climate, on the economic recovery process. For this reason, quantitative evaluation for competition policy effectiveness became very useful as data handling and understanding the whole phenomenon are easier this way and an international perspective is provided. This was made possible by various international institutions that have created a system of aggregated indicators for the evaluation of competition law enforcement and competition advocacy (perceived effectiveness. The purpose of our research is to identify the macroeconomic factors that influence the effectiveness of competition law implementation within the European Union Member States. We have tasted the influence of 13 macroeconomic, using panel data methodology and data from the last four years. We obtained ß coefficients statistically significant only for 11 of them. The results are consistent with prior analyzed studies and economic logic: positive influence from market division, intensity of local competition, ethical behavior of firms, strength of auditing and reporting standards, efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, public trust of politicians, economic dimension and market size and negative influence from corruption level and diversion of public funds. Based on the achieved results we can perform an analysis of principal components leading to causal space reduction with minimal information loss and without informational redundancy, creating the premises for building a model that explains competition policy

  12. The research on the impact of energy-environment policy on regional development—based on CGE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we will focus on study the impact of energy and environment regulatory on the inter-regional coordinated development from the regional level. Making use of multi-regional energy-economy-environmental computable general equilibrium(CGE) model, we will analysis the effect of regional energy regulation in the future. We will research the impact of the carbon emissions trading and other environmental policy on regional economic development and industrial structure. The results show that the regulation of energy and environment can promote regional industry to upgrade and different policies of energy and environmental are needed to implement to mitigate the negative impact on the economy of different regions. In the paper, we expand the traditional regional energy-environmental CGE model tools for providing new quantitative methods to study regional energy and environmental problems in China.

  13. The impact of environmental policy instruments on the timing of adoption of energy-saving technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Soest, Daan P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main considerations in designing environmental policy is the impact of policy instruments on the timing of firms' investment decisions with respect to energy-saving technologies. This paper analyzes the impact of environmental taxes and quotas on the timing of adoption when (i) the rate at which new, improved energy-efficient technologies become available, is uncertain, and (ii) the investment decision is (at least partially) irreversible. We find that neither policy instrument is unambiguously preferred to the other when it comes to stimulating early adoption of new technologies. (author) (Environmental taxation; Command-and-control instruments; Dynamic efficiency; Stochasticity)

  14. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  15. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S.; Rodriguez, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs

  16. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Fleming, Charles B; Rhew, Isaac C; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in 4 states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and nonmedical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic Search Premier, Econlit, Legal Collection, Medline, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Furthermore, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the margin of alcohol use examined. Design of

  17. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in four states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. Methods The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and non-medical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic search premier, Econlit, Legal collection, Medline, Psych articles, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. Results The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Conclusions Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Further, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the

  18. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  19. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  20. The Politics of Healthy Policies: Redesigning health impact assessment to integrate health in public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.M. Bekker (Marleen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPublic health issues, such as obesity, lung disease from air pollution or mental health complaints from living in an unsafe neighbourhood, are complex, intractable policy problems. The causes are dispersed at the individual and the collective level among different societal

  1. Evolving trends in nurse regulation: what are the policy impacts for nursing's social mandate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan; Thorne, Sally; Rodney, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    We recognize a paradox of power and promise in the context of legislative and organizational changes in nurse regulation which poses constraints on nursing's capacity to bring voice and influence to pressing matters of healthcare and public policy. The profession is at an important crossroads wherein leaders must be well informed in political, economic and legislative trends to harness the profession's power while also navigating forces that may put at risk its central mission to serve society. We present a critical policy analysis of the impact of recent regulatory trends on what the International Council of Nurses considers nursing's three 'pillars' - the profession of nursing, socioeconomic welfare of nurses and nurse regulation. Themes surfacing from this analysis include regulatory discontinuity, a tightening of regulatory control, and an increasingly managerial governance culture. These themes illuminate insights and strategies required to renew and revitalize the social mandate of our profession amidst a climate of urgency in the questioning of nurse scholars with respect to the future of the profession. At this historic juncture, nurses must clearly understand the implications of legislative and organizational regulatory changes to ensure the profession contributes to full capacity in achieving health and health equity globally. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Analysis of Disaster Risk Management in Colombia : A Contribution to the Creation of Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Garcia, Ana; Holm-Nielsen, Niels; Diaz G., Carolina; Rubiano Vargas, Diana Marcela; Costa P., Carlos R.; Ramirez Cortes, Fernando; Dickson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to assess the state of progress of risk management in Colombia and propose recommendations to help the Government set public policy in the short-and long-term. For this reason, the study sought to: (i) establish the risk and impact of disasters in recent decades, (ii) identify legal, institutional and conceptual themes in the country, (iii) review the stat...

  3. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decreasing the burden of type 2 diabetes in South Africa : The Impact of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Download PDF. Journal articles. Empowering healthy food and beverage choices in the workplace. Download PDF. Journal articles. Modelling the potential impact of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax on stroke ...

  4. Social Impact Management Plans : Innovation in corporate and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and

  5. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  6. Income Distribution Impacts of Irrigation Water Distribution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Rajan K.

    1984-06-01

    In the majority of lesser developed countries (LDC's) there is acute inequality in income distribution in the rural sector, particularly between large and small farms on the one hand and between land owners and the landless on the other. Irrigation water distribution policy of the government is both an economic and political problem. It has both equity and efficiency implications. It has effects on both the level and distribution of income. This paper deals with the conditions under which using water redistribution as an effective governmental policy variable can reduce inequality in the distribution of income. This paper also deals with the relationship between the objectives of equity and efficiency in water distribution under different objective realities, such as dualistic versus nondualistic conditions, two-sector versus three-sector modeling, optimum versus equal water distribution, specifically to derive the conditions under which promotion of equity promotes efficiency and vice versa and the conditions under which it does not.

  7. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  8. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  9. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  10. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE IMPACT THE COMPETITION POLICY HAS ON THE LIBERALISATION OF INTERANTIONAL TRADE. CASE STUDY: THE CARTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of international trade is the key when we talk about globalization from an economic aspect, because only when there will be a single global market can we talk about abundance as to what economic globalization is concerned. It is a known fact that market economies can work in free competition conditions. Taking into account the present tendencies of international trade, a decisive role is played by competition authorities. The policy in this field and the commercial policies play complementary roles, because in the absence of one of the two policies, we cannot see economic development and growth. In order to benefit from the full advantages of a free trade, companies must respect the laws of competition. In this context, in this paper, we proposed to study the way in which the existence of a cartel on a certain market can cancel the positive effects of international trade. The working hypothesis from which we started in this study was the following: identifying a cartel that functioned on the European market before and after the Uruguay Round, in order to study the negative effects that this anti-competition practice had. The Uruguay negotiation Round has been chosen, because the best results concerning the liberalization of international trade have been achieved in it. The cartel case was not chosen at random; we have searched to find one that was active in a field which got significant customs tax reductions in the Uruguay Round. We have decided to analyze the impact which a cartel had in the field of industrial products. Following our study, we have managed to empirically demonstrate the way in which a cartel can cancel the benefits of international trade liberalization. The analysis of the way in which the Industrial Tubes cartel acted on the EU market, as well as the analysis of the indicators that led to the undisputable conclusion that this cartel case canceled the positive effects which should have been felt on the

  12. Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners.

  13. Subjective Wellbeing Impacts of National and Subnational Fiscal Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Grimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the association between fiscal policy and subjective wellbeing using fiscal data on 34 countries across 129 country-years, combined with over 170,000 people’s subjective wellbeing scores. While past research has found that ‘distortionary taxes’ (e.g. income taxes are associated with slow growth relative to ‘non-distortionary’ taxes (GST/VAT, we find that distortionary taxes are associated with higher levels of subjective wellbeing than non-distortionary taxes. This relationship holds when we control for macro-economic variables and country fixed effects. If this relationship is causal, it would offer an explanation as to why governments pursue these policies that harm economic growth. We find that richer people’s subjective wellbeing is less harmed by indirect taxes than people with lower incomes, while “unproductive expenditure” is associated with higher wellbeing for the middle class relative to others, possibly reflecting middle class capture. We see little evidence for differential effects of fiscal policy on people living in different sized settlements. Devolving a portion of expenditure to subnational government is associated with higher subjective wellbeing but devolving tax collection to subnational government is associated with monotonically lower subjective wellbeing.

  14. The impact of the endogenous technical change on climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, O.

    2008-11-01

    This research aims at revisiting the 'autonomous vs. induced' debate on the costs of climate policies, first by broadening the framework of the technical change induction to other economical sectors, and then by attempting to go beyond the concept of technical change induction and think in terms of a structural change induction. After a review of modes of representation of the technical progress in economical prospective models for the assessment of climate policies, the author presents the IMACLIM-R model, a recursive general equilibrium model which simulates the evolution of the world economy within 12 regions and 12 sectors between 2001 and 2100. The results obtained with this model are then presented and discussed, in the case of a reference scenario which displays a significant change towards a carbon-intensive path. These results stress the risks related to a 'laissez faire' attitude. The author explores the consequences in terms of climate policies with a more or less extended taking into account of phenomena of induction of technical and structural changes

  15. Evaluating the Relative Impact of Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Nigeria using the St. Louis Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adebayo Ajayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The controversy existing on the efficacy of monetary and fiscal policy to influence the economy is unending. This study evaluates the relative impact of monetary and fiscal policy in Nigeria from 1986 to 2014 using a modified St. Louis equation. Employing the Ordinary Least Squares estimation method, this study reveals that growth in money supply and export have a positive and significant effect on growth in output of the economy while growth in government expenditure has a negative and insignificant effect. This study provides evidence that monetary policy has a greater growth-stimulating effect on the economy than fiscal policy. It recommends that monetary policy rather than fiscal policy should be relied upon by the Nigerian government as an economic stabilisation tool.

  16. Analysing the impacts of air quality policies on ecosystem services; a case study for Telemark, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L; White, L; Miles, A; Roberts, P

    2018-01-15

    There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county. Second, we analyse the subsequent impacts on the supply of three ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, timber production and biodiversity. Changes in the supply of the first two services are analysed in both physical and monetary units, biodiversity effects are only analysed in physical terms. The scenarios derive from work conducted in the context of the European National Emissions Ceilings Directive. In the 2010 base case the benefits of carbon sequestration are estimated at 13 million euro per year and the value of timber harvesting at 2.9 million euro per year. Under the examined policy scenarios aiming to reduce nitrogen emissions the societal benefits resulting from these two ecosystem services in Telemark are found to be reduced; the scenarios have little effect on terrestrial biodiversity. Such results cannot be scaled up, individual ecosystem services respond differently to changes in air pollution depending upon type of pollutant, type of ecosystem, type of service, and the magnitude of change. The paper further presents an analysis of the uncertainties that need to be considered in linking air pollution and ecosystem services including those in deposition rates, ecosystem responses, human responses and in the values of ecosystem services. Our conceptual approach is also useful for larger scale analysis of air pollution effects on ecosystem services, for example at national or potentially European scale

  17. The Impacts of Changes to Nevada’s Net Metering Policy on the Financial Performance and Adoption of Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Net energy metering (NEM) is a billing mechanism that has historically compensated owners of distributed generation systems at retail rates for any electricity that they export back to the grid rather than consume on-site. NEM can significantly enhance the financial performance of distributed generation systems from the owner’s perspective. The following analysis was designed to illustrate the potential impact of NEM policy and tariff changes implemented in early 2016 in Nevada.

  18. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  19. The credit crunch : Impacts on the housing market and policy responses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priemus, H.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution deals with the impact of the credit crunch on the Dutch housing market and the policy responses of the Dutch government so far. Reinhart and Rogoff have presented an overview of credit crises after WW II: what are the general characteristics and impacts? Also in the Netherlands,

  20. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  1. Education Policy and "Friedmanomics": Free Market Ideology and Its Impact on School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…

  2. Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnone, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Time-series data from 1960-1998 is used to test hypotheses regarding the impact of protest and public opinion on the passage of U.S. environmental legislation. An amplification model of policy impact is introduced which posits that protest affects legislative action independent of public opinion as suggested by protest event theorists, whereas the…

  3. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  4. The policy-relevancy of impact assessment tools: Evaluating nine years of European research funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podhora, A.; Helming, K.; Adenauer, L.; Heckelei, T.; Kautto, P.; Reidsma, P.; Rennings, K.; Turnpenny, J.; Jansen, J.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, the European Commission has employed the instrument of ex-ante impact assessments (IA) to help focus its policy-making process on implementing sustainable development. Scientific tools should play an essential role of providing the evidence base to assess the impacts of alternative

  5. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  6. Social Impacts of the Asian Crisis: Policy Challenges and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Wha Lee; Changyong Rhee

    1999-01-01

    This paper documents the social impacts of the financial crisis in Asia. We provide a general overview of the cause and the evolution of the crisis and highlight the differences as well as the similarities among the Asian countries. In particular, the impacts of the crisis on unemployment, real wage, poverty, and income inequality are analyzed using the cross-country data set, which consists of all the countries that have received financial assistance from the IMF over the period from 1973 to...

  7. Establishment of a Policy Analysis Capability in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole M.P. NEVES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government, like other governments of former communist countries, emerged from the collapsed Soviet Union ill prepared to confront the complex challenges of governing under a democratic, free market system. At the core of governments that formulate sound public policies, successfully implement programs, and respond effectively to rapidly changing situations is the capacity to carry out independent, high quality research and analysis that results in improved decision making. During the 21st century, the need and acceptance of the incorporation of policy analysis courses in public administration curricula in Romania is expected to grow. In time, educational programs are expected to result in the following consequences: _ Formation of a body of strong independent policy researchers employed by the national and local governments as well as by universities and non-profit institutions _ Utilization of analytical outcomes as tools of political, social and economic improvement by the executive, legislative and judicial branches and by non-profit and private sectors _ Greater public understanding of and participation in public policy processes.

  8. Assumptions and Policy Decisions for Vital Area Identification Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeon-Kyoung; Lee, Youngseung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and IAEA guidance indicate that certain assumptions and policy questions should be addressed to a Vital Area Identification (VAI) process. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power conducted a VAI based on current Design Basis Threat and engineering judgement to identify APR1400 vital areas. Some of the assumptions were inherited from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a sabotage logic model was based on PSA logic tree and equipment location data. This paper illustrates some important assumptions and policy decisions for APR1400 VAI analysis. Assumptions and policy decisions could be overlooked at the beginning stage of VAI, however they should be carefully reviewed and discussed among engineers, plant operators, and regulators. Through APR1400 VAI process, some of the policy concerns and assumptions for analysis were applied based on document research and expert panel discussions. It was also found that there are more assumptions to define for further studies for other types of nuclear power plants. One of the assumptions is mission time, which was inherited from PSA.

  9. Impacts on the Common Agricultural Policy and on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.; Palz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)

  10. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  11. The Impact of Beijing Subway’s New Fare Policy on Riders’ Attitude, Travel Pattern and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechao Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On 28 December 2014, the Beijing subway’s fare policy was changed from “Two Yuan” per trip to the era of Logging Ticket Price, charging users by travel mileage. This paper aims at investigating the effects of Beijing subway’s new fare policy on the riders’ attitude, travel pattern and demand. A survey analysis was conducted to identify the effects of the new fare policy for Beijing subway on riders’ satisfaction degree and travel pattern associated with the potential influencing factors using Hierarchical Tree-based Regression (HTBR models. The model results show that income, travel distance and month of travel have significant impacts on the subway riders’ satisfaction degree, while trip purpose, car ownership and travel frequency significantly influence the riders’ stated travel pattern. Overall, the degree of satisfaction could not be effectively recovered within five months after the new fare policy, but the negative public attitude did not depress the subway demand continuously. Based on the further time sequence analyses of the passenger flow volume data for two years, it is concluded that the new policy made the ridership decrease sharply in the first month but gradually came back to the previous level four months later, and then the passenger flow volume kept steady again. The findings in this study indicate that the new fare policy realized the purpose of lowering the government’s financial pressure but did not reduce the subway ridership in a long term perspective.

  12. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  13. Powerplant productivity improvement study: policy analysis and incentive assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Policy options that the Illinois Commerce Commission might adopt in order to promote improved power plant productivity for existing units in Illinois are identified and analyzed. These policy options would generally involve either removing existing disincentives and/or adding direct incentives through the regulatory process. The following activities are reported: in-depth review of existing theoretical and empirical literature in the areas of power plant reliability, regulatory utility efficiency and performance incentives, and impacts of various regulatory mechanisms such as the Fuel Adjustment Clauses on productivity; contacts with other state public utility commissions known to be investigating or implementing productivity improvement incentive mechanisms; documentation and analysis of incentive mechanisms adopted or under consideration in other states; analysis of current regulatory practice in Illinois as it relates to power plant productivity incentives and disincentives; identification of candidate incentive mechanisms for consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission; and analysis and evaluation of these candidates. 72 references, 8 figures.

  14. Energy Market Impacts of Nuclear Power Phase-Out Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  15. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  16. American Legal Realism: Research Programme and Policy Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s  work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th century in helping to develop and implement the New Deal policy vis-à-vis its scientific work?After outlining some characteristics of American Legal Realism and Lakatos’s concept, the author studies LR from this perspective and concludes that LR can at the maximum be seen as a research programme of a very rudimentary nature with largely only a focus on procedures/methods. Despite this conclusion, LR has been important in stimulating questions in which social science research and law came together. Next, the professor-realist-relationship that helped President Roosevelt to have his New Deal developed and implemented is also discussed. A downside of this ‘professor-realist-advisor-partnership’ may have been that a LR scientific research programme has not been developed. Given the increased visibility of New Legal Realism, the paper finally stresses the relevance of working with scientific research programmes and the importance of being on the alert when linking research to (legal policies.

  17. Public outreach, participatory communication, and communication impact assessment in Paris flood resilience policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Adverse social impacts can reduce the intended benefits of a project aimed to reduce flood risks, and can threaten its viability if they are severe enough. In some other cases, the diverse impacts may mutually counter-balance each other, by furthermore strengthening and amplifying the social resilience. Social changes include those associated with the phenomenon known as the social construction of reality. In the case of proposed actions that involve controversy, attitudes and perceptions toward a proposed policy change are one of the variables that must be considered in determining the significance of impacts. This research entails an analysis of public authorities strategic documents developed during the last ten years in the context of strengthening Paris flood resilience. The review highlights a clear trend to encourage citizen participation and to share responsibilities with the population. This trend does not only express a political will to apply the principle of subsidiarity and decentralise risk management, it also springs from a growing awareness among public institutions of the impact that social construction of the reality can have. Hence the communication between local governments and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. More and more frequently flood resilience projects entail a communication strategy or focus on communication actions. However not all these project identify clear communication objectives, target audiences or monitor communication impact. Measuring communication indicators allows decision makers to compare the costs of communication actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. Those metrics also help to set up clear communication objectives at the beginning of a project, to evaluate and improve management capacities, to

  18. [Health impact assessment: one way to introduce health in all policies. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, Santiago; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Sanz, Elvira; Aldasoro, Elena; Calderón, Carlos; Zuazagoitia, Juan; Cambra, Koldo

    2010-12-01

    Health impact assessment is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. Current experience shows that health impact assessment could play an important role in the development of the Health in All Policies strategy. This strategy has been extensively used in other European countries and in a wide range of policy and administrative sectors. Health impact assessment is hardly ever mandatory and is frequently carried out separately from other impact assessments. The use of this process in Spain is relatively new, limited and fundamentally based on local level experiences and the screening of regional interventions. The current normative and organizational reform of public health in Spain provides an excellent opportunity to promote the development of health impact assessment. Some of the barriers to the development of this process are related to the biomedical model of health prevailing among health professionals, politicians, and the general population, political disaffection, lack of assessment culture, underdevelopment of community participation processes, and insufficient intersectoral work. Health impact assessment provides an opportunity to move toward improving the population's health and reducing inequalities in health. Consequently, political commitment, as well as investment in education and research, is needed to introduce and develop health impact assessment in all administrative settings and policy sectors. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  20. A new robustness analysis for climate policy evaluations: A CGE application for the EU 2020 targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermeling, Claudia; Löschel, Andreas; Mennel, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for computable general equilibrium (CGE) model based on Gauss Quadrature and applies it to check the robustness of a large-scale climate policy evaluation. The revised version of the Gauss-quadrature approach to sensitivity analysis reduces computations considerably vis-à-vis the commonly applied Monte-Carlo methods; this allows for a stochastic sensitivity analysis also for large scale models and multi-dimensional changes of parameters. In the application, an impact assessment of EU2020 climate policy, we focus on sectoral elasticities that are part of the basic parameters of the model and have been recently determined by econometric estimation, alongside with standard errors. The impact assessment is based on the large scale CGE model PACE. We show the applicability of the Gauss-quadrature approach and confirm the robustness of the impact assessment with the PACE model. The variance of the central model outcomes is smaller than their mean by order four to eight, depending on the aggregation level (i.e. aggregate variables such as GDP show a smaller variance than sectoral output). - Highlights: ► New, simplified method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for CGE analysis. ► Gauss quadrature with orthogonal polynomials. ► Application to climate policy—the case of the EU 2020 targets

  1. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  2. Interaction between policy measures. Analysis tool in the MURE database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This report describes how sets of mutually consistent impacts for packages as well as individual policy measures can be determined in the MURE database (MURE is the French abbreviation for Mesures d'Utilisation Rationnelle de l'Energie)

  3. A Computable OLG Model for Gender and Growth Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a computable Overlapping Generations (OLG) model for gender and growth policy analysis. The model accounts for human and physical capital accumulation (both public and private), intra- and inter-generational health persistence, fertility choices, and women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, and home production. Bargaining between spouses and gender bias, in the form of discrimination in the work place and mothers' time allocation between daughters and so...

  4. A Danish case. Portfolio evaluation and its impact on energy efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, K. [Ea Energy Analyses, Frederiksholms Kanal 4, 1220 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Larsen, A.E. [Department of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, P. [Danish Energy Agency, Amaliegade 44, 1256 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-01-15

    A political agreement from 2005 stated that an evaluation of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before the end of 2008, with the aim to assess the following: (1) Is the policy portfolio sufficient to meet the energy efficiency targets? (2) Do the policies enable the national goals to be met in a cost-effective manner? (3) Is the overall design of the policy portfolio appropriate? The evaluation gave recommendations on how to improve and develop the portfolio, mainly using cost-effectiveness as criteria. The evaluation was completed in December 2008, and this paper presents the main findings and the subsequent impact on Danish policy. A key lesson learned is the importance of including all energy efficiency policies in the evaluation. Examining the entire portfolio of policies (as opposed to only selected policies) gave way to findings that would otherwise not have been captured. With its broad perspective, the evaluation found that the policy instruments prioritised the commercial and industrial sectors less than the household and public sectors. The recommendations made by the authors contributed to the implementation of new taxes for the commercial and industrial sectors together with the reform of the Electricity Saving Trust to a Centre for Energy Savings charged with energy savings within all sectors, except transport - both which have been important steps towards a more cost-effective solution.

  5. Evaluating the implementation and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes to prevent childhood obesity in 49 diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K; Kemner, Allison L; Donaldson, Kate; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess and understand the intervention reach, dose, and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes implemented by the 49 Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) community partnerships across the United States and in Puerto Rico. These partnerships planned and implemented healthy eating and active living policy, system, and environmental interventions to support healthier communities for children and families, with special emphasis on reaching children at highest risk for obesity. Using a mixed-methods, participatory evaluation design, investigators analyzed multiple qualitative and quantitative data sources collected during the HKHC initiative from 2009 to 2014. Evaluators used an inductive approach to develop indicators to assess intervention reach, dose, and impact for 6 cross-site strategies, including corner stores, farmers' markets, child care nutrition standards, child care physical activity standards, active transportation, and parks and play spaces. Across HKHC community partnerships, 4261 policy, practice, or environmental changes occurred in 1536 intervention settings. Several trends emerged from the data related to how different levels of intervention (ie, community-level, setting-level, and within-setting), the size and access to intervention settings, the stage of implementation, and the sociodemographic composition of the intervention settings play important roles in the way policy, practice, and environmental changes "count" toward intervention reach, dose, and impact. This exploratory analysis provided a method and typology for increasing understanding in the field related to the reach, dose, and impact of policy, practice, and environmental changes promoting healthy eating and active living in order to reduce childhood overweight and obesity.

  6. Counterfactual Thinking and Impact Evaluation in Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Impact evaluations assess the degree to which changes in outcomes can be attributed to an intervention rather than to other factors. Such attribution requires knowing what outcomes would have looked like in the absence of the intervention. This counterfactual world can be inferred only indirectly through evaluation designs that control for…

  7. Community perspectives on the impact of policy change on linking social capital in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lyn; Walker, Rae

    2007-06-01

    Understanding what undermines or builds social capital is important when estimating the impact that changes in social capital have on people's lives. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the consequences of neo-liberal policy initiatives have impacted on linking social capital in one small and vibrant rural community in Australia. Policy changes affecting all levels of government and various commercial agencies have undermined people's capability for a range of actions which bring personal and community-wide social and economic returns. Rationalisation and regionalisation of services and commercial agencies, including local government amalgamation, and increased workloads have undermined people's capabilities for community engagement. Policy outcomes are at odds with the stated policy agenda of building community capacity.

  8. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  9. Policy Adoption of Forest Management Unit: A Knowledge Diffusion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijanti Julijanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the policy adoption process of Forest Management Unit (FMU concept, there has been disagreement of stakeholders on FMUs concept. This disagreement is caused by the exchange of knowledge, information, and perception among stakeholders involved. The results of these interactions could speed up, slow down, and prevent the adoption process of FMU policy. The study objective was analyzing process of knowledge diffusion of FMUs development policy and stakeholders interaction in PFMU Batutegi and PFMU Kotaagung Utara, Indonesia. Adoption process was analyzed by the logical diffusion technique based on knowledge time of FMUs concept received and its interaction space. Social interaction among stakeholders was analyzed using method developed by International Development Studies analysis, i.e. interaction among discourse/narrative, actors/networks and politics/interests. The results showed that knowledge diffusion of FMUs concept in both PFMU tends to cascade diffusion. Factors was affecting of it process were network, role of opinion leaders, willingness to know, and understand on FMUs concept. Indicative strategy is needed as anticipating and overcoming an obstacle in its internalization process, i.e. harmonization of legislative and executive relationship, building an opinion the importance of FMU, and optimalizing network for bureaucratic problems. Keywords: Forest Management Unit, knowledge diffusion, network, policy adoption

  10. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  11. TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUDGET REVENUES UNDER THE IMPACT OF TAX POLICY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the need to ensure sustainable development has become a central point of debates and of the economic policies. Obviously, the influence of the level of financial resources mobilized at the state level is crucial, reason for it is necessary to promote a sustainable fiscal policy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of fiscal policy measures on budget revenues, in terms of volume and their structure in Romania. Empirical researchs realised, reflected a longitudinal study that targeted budget income trends between 2006-2015, both in terms of total volume and in terms of revenues for each category of taxation. The results of this study demonstrate the use of a pro-cyclical fiscal policy, with negative effects in terms of the impact on the budget deficit and a poor correlation with other components of macroeconomic policy.

  12. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  13. The impact of post-9/11 visa policies on travel to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Neiman, Brent; Swagel, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-9/11 changes in visa and security policy on business and leisure travel to the United States. American businesses, tourism industry representatives, and politicians pointed to changes in visa policies as being responsible for a sharp decline in short-term visitors following the September 11 attacks. Several foreign governments likewise complained that visa requirements and other security measures were making it difficult for their citizens to travel t...

  14. The Near-Term Impacts of Carbon Mitigation Policies on Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Richard; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Ho, Mun; Zhang, Xuehua

    2002-01-01

    Who will pay for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries is combined with input-output information on interindustry purchases to paint a ...

  15. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  16. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  17. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  18. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  19. The impact of consumer returns policies on consignment contracts with inventory control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, W.; Li, Y.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    , and then the retailer sets her retail price for selling the product. The vendor gets paid based on net sold units and salvages unsold units as well as returned items in a secondary market. Under the framework, we study and compare two different consignment arrangements: the retailer/vendor manages consignment inventory...... (RMCI/VMCI) programs. To study the impact of return policy, we discuss a consignment contract without return policy as a benchmark. We show that whether or not the vendor offers a return policy, it is always beneficial for the channel to delegate the inventory decision to the vendor. We find...

  20. The impact of government policy on preference for NEVs: The evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian; Wang, Ke; Hao, Yu; Fan, Jing-Li; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To reduce gasoline consumption and emissions, the Chinese government has introduced a series of preferential policies to encourage the purchase of new energy vehicles (NEVs). However, enthusiasm for the private purchase of NEVs appears to be very low. This timely paper addresses the need for an empirical study to explore this phenomenon by identifying purchase motivations of potential NEV consumers and examining the impact of government policies introduced to promote NEVs in China. A questionnaire survey was carried out. The acceptance of NEVs is measured in three different logistic models: the willingness of consumers to purchase NEVs, the purchasing time, and the acceptable price. The results showed that financial benefits, performance attributes, environmental awareness and psychological needs are the four most important factors influencing consumers’ acceptance of NEVs. Among these, performance attributes rather than financial benefits are the most important indicator. The moderating effect of government policies to relations between purchasing intention, time and price is not strong as respected while the policy implications are clear that the ‘public awareness of government policy’ functions as a moderator in the process of acceptance. These findings could give some hints to the government to make better NEV industry policy. - Highlights: • This paper timely studies the private purchasing behaviors of NEVs in China. • Purchase motivations of NEVs and the impact of government policies are examined. • Performance attribute is the most important indicator to acceptance of NEVs. • The moderating effect of government policies is not strong as respected

  1. Staff policy regarding mitigation of school enrollment impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Testimony in recent geothermal power plant siting cases in the Geysers-Calistoga KGRA has established that nine local school districts have reached or exceeded the design which induces immigration into these impacted districts will aggravate the situation. Several power plant applicants have agreed to provide annual mitigation payments to local school districts which can document adverse student enrollment impacts. The Lake County agreements with Occidental Geothermal, Inc. and the California Department of Water Resources require mitigation fees for students having at least one parent who either works directly with the power plant or works indirectly with the geothermal-service industry. An adjustment is made each year so that the applicant only pays a one-time fee for each student. An annual student survey is used to help identify students qualifying for mitigation payments. This paper presents an algorithms which CEC staff will propose to be used in the event that a power plant applicant and an impacted school district are unable to negotiate a mitigation agreement. The algorithm provides a basis for calculating an annual mitigation payment which would be used to help construct new permanent facilities and to purchase additional school buses.

  2. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  3. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Analysis of evaluations of health system/policy interventions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Lalit; Raban, Magdalena Z; Dandona, Rakhi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Analysis of the scope and quality of evaluations of health system/policy interventions done in India is not available. Such analysis can help in conducting more useful evaluations. METHODS. We accessed evaluation reports of health system/ policy interventions aimed at improving population health in India, reported during 2001-08, which were available in the public domain through extensive internet searches. We developed and used a classification system for the type of evaluation, commissioning agency, health system/policy area covered and methodology used, and a method for assessing the quality of evaluation reports. RESULTS. Of the 219 total evaluation reports in the public domain, 6% assessed needs, 22% process, 42% outcome and 30% impact. Seventy-six per cent evaluations were commissioned by international agencies. Among health system components, services were the focus of evaluation in 74.9% of reports, with human resources, financing, drugs/products, information system and governance having little representation. Only 21% of evaluation reports were rated as good quality. Among evaluations based mainly on health system data, 42% were poor quality compared with 20% that were based on population data. Seventy-two per cent of the outcome/impact evaluations presented only basic tabulations and just 12% attempted multivariate analysis. Eighty-two per cent of the outcome/impact evaluations had no controls, among which 42% were poor quality versus 17% poor quality among outcome/impact evaluations with controls. Among the 54% evaluations in which the intervention implementer was involved, only 1% reported negative conclusion about the intervention compared with 37% among evaluations in which the implementer was not involved. CONCLUSION. This analysis of health system/policy intervention evaluation reports from India identifies specific areas that need improvement. We recommend that Indian agencies should commission more evaluations as international agencies

  5. Coal transport demand in Western Europe and Japan: Impacts of energy market liberalisation and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Maestad, Ottar

    2005-12-01

    Western Europe and Japan are among the main importers of coal. Climate policies following the Kyoto agreement are creating pressure to substitute away from coal and turn to less emission intensive energy sources. At the same time, liberalizations of energy markets in Europe and Japan are likely to cause reduced electricity prices, which will boost the overall demand for electricity. This paper analyses the combined effect of electricity market liberalization and climate policies on the international coal trade. Using the numerical equilibrium model LIBEMOD, we find that while liberalization of electricity markets will imply a large increase in aggregate coal transport demand, the negative impact of climate policies may be even larger, in particular if Russia and Ukraine utilise their market power in the market for emission permits. If this market power is exploited, the total effect of liberalisation and climate policy - when including the impact of general economic growth - is a 20% reduction in aggregate coal transport between 2000 and 2010. Further, impacts differ markedly between Western Europe and Japan. A main difference is that liberalisation has a much more positive - and climate policies have a much stronger negative - impact on steam coal demand in Western Europe than in Japan

  6. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  8. A Potentially Heteroglossic Policy Becomes Monoglossic in Context: An Ethnographic Analysis of Paraguayan Bilingual Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographic and discursive approaches to educational language policy (ELP) that explore how policy is appropriated in context are important for understanding policy success/failure in meeting goals of educational equity for language-minoritized students. This study describes how Paraguayan national policy for universal bilingual education…

  9. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  10. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  11. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  12. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  13. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  14. Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Although  quinine  is the currently approved medication for severe  malaria  in much of the world,  resistance to  quinine  is increasing and has...Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces August 2011 Silver Spring, MD PREPARED BY: CDR...2011 to 25-08-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Extent of alcohol prohibition in civil policy in Muslim majority countries: the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Basma; Thow, Anne-Marie; Day, Carolyn A; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2016-10-01

    Many policies have been introduced to reduce alcohol harm in different countries. However, Muslim majority countries (MMCs), where the major religion (Islam) prohibits alcohol consumption, have less well-developed civil alcohol policies. Overall, MMCs have low prevalence of alcohol consumption, although recently most MMCs have been undergoing transition, which has sometimes increased pressure for alcohol availability and impacted on social practices, alcohol policies and broader public health. Globalization, the influence of the global alcohol industry, recent governmental transition or political instability and the presence of immigrants from non-Muslim countries can all affect civil alcohol policy. In this context, consumption overall has increased compared with two decades ago. This paper presents an overview of current civil alcohol policy, with regard to the presence or absence of alcohol prohibition, and provides an insight into the legal availability of alcohol in MMCs and the challenges facing policymakers. English, Arabic and Persian language sources were examined, using PubMed, government websites for each country and the World Health Organization (WHO). Some of the challenges MMCs may face in developing alcohol policies are explored, including the need to interact with the global economy and the potential influence of the alcohol industry. Muslim majority countries have adopted a range of civil alcohol policies in recent decades. There is a pressing need for better data and to support Muslim majority countries in alcohol policy development. Lessons from Muslim majority countries can help to inform other parts of the world. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  17. Impact of Sustainable Environmental Expenditures Policy on Air Pollution Reduction, During European Integration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the growth of society, against the boosting of scientific and technological progress, also arises the negative effect of pollution acceleration. In this context, we relate to risks that imply the growth of pollution, especially against nuisance air pollution increase (CO, SO2, NO etc. with major implications on the growth of greenhouse effect, the melting of the ice fields, respectively the pollution of the soil with nitrates from fertilizers intensively used in agriculture. Our study is up-to-date, as pursuant to the ONU Conference from Paris (France 2015, Conference on Climate Changes, they reached an agreement and the adopted text admits the menace of climate modifications is far more important than previously acknowledged and engages the participants to reduce their pollutant emissions. The researchers’ current concerns focus on studying the effects of the redistribution of financial resources obtained by practising the ‘green’ fiscal policy on dependent variables. Observing them, we integrate the respective variables into complex models analysed by multiple regression (both standard and robust and the fixed effects panel on 20 European countries which also reflect the different effects on the environmental policy and the expenses it incurred. The main purpose of the analysis we aim to accomplish is the impact of the policy for environment expenditure tenable within the European framework on against nuisance air pollution attenuation. The statistical analysis aims at identifying these effects by means of regression equations (OLS, robust regression (M method, fixed and random effects, using panel data from 18 EU countries, as well as Switzerland and Turkey due to their position in relation to the community block; we will analyse the period between 1995-2013. Further to the application of multiple regression statistical methods (OLS and robust M, our results show that teimiqgdp expenses played a major role in the reduction

  18. Empirical analysis of the solar incentive policy for Tennessee solar value chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Rapinder; Thakur, Kaveri; Venkatesan, Bharadwaj; Ji, Shuguang; Upreti, Girish; Sanseverino, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tennessee solar value chain (TNSVC) is modeled to analyze effect of policy on demand. • TNSVC model replicates realistic scenarios to gauge the economic impact on state. • Simulation study determines that the TNSVC capacity is greater than demand. • Direct cash incentives have greater impact on demand than indirect incentives. • The model portrays a holistic approach to assist strategic energy policy analysis. - Abstract: The market for solar energy in the US has grown exponentially due to increased consumer demand resulting from price reduction via economies of scale, technological progress, and a variety of incentives from federal and state governments as well as utility companies. The installation of solar power in Tennessee has more than doubled each year from 2009 to 2011. In this paper, we focus on the behavior of the Tennessee Solar Value Chain (TNSVC) to study the factors that influence growth of solar industry in the state. The impact of existing incentives on the TNSVC is analyzed. The TNSVC is simulated based on inputs from on-site survey to estimate economic impact in terms of the number of jobs added and the tax revenue generated in the state. In addition, a sensitivity analysis for the impact on the TNSVC under different policies those may be adopted by the state of Tennessee in the future is conducted. This paper employs a holistic model which can predict PV installation demand, understand solar value chain capacity, and estimate the revenue generation. It should be noted that the method employed in this study is not unique to the solar energy industry in Tennessee. The data utilized in this study is a combination of public domain information and surveys of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and installers. This makes the model in this paper flexible enough to be applied to assess the solar value chain in other state or country

  19. Impact of two policy interventions on dietary diversity in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.

  20. A qualitative exploration of the human resource policy implications of voluntary counselling and testing scale-up in Kenya: applying a model for policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Kenya experienced rapid scale up of HIV testing and counselling services in government health services from 2001. We set out to examine the human resource policy implications of scaling up HIV testing and counselling in Kenya and to analyse the resultant policy against a recognised theoretical framework of health policy reform (policy analysis triangle). Methods Qualitative methods were used to gain in-depth insights from policy makers who shaped scale up. This included 22 in-depth interviews with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) task force members, critical analysis of 53 sets of minutes and diary notes. We explore points of consensus and conflict amongst policymakers in Kenya and analyse this content to assess who favoured and resisted new policies, how scale up was achieved and the importance of the local context in which scale up occurred. Results The scale up of VCT in Kenya had a number of human resource policy implications resulting from the introduction of lay counsellors and their authorisation to conduct rapid HIV testing using newly introduced rapid testing technologies. Our findings indicate that three key groups of actors were critical: laboratory professionals, counselling associations and the Ministry of Health. Strategic alliances between donors, NGOs and these three key groups underpinned the process. The process of reaching consensus required compromise and time commitment but was critical to a unified nationwide approach. Policies around quality assurance were integral in ensuring standardisation of content and approach. Conclusion The introduction and scale up of new health service initiatives such as HIV voluntary counselling and testing necessitates changes to existing health systems and modification of entrenched interests around professional counselling and laboratory testing. Our methodological approach enabled exploration of complexities of scale up of HIV testing and counselling in Kenya. We argue that a better