WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy group human

  1. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  2. Leadership in moving human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Boos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group--on the basis of movement alone--a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement.

  3. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  5. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  6. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  7. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services.

  8. Group Policy Fundamentals, Security, and the Managed Desktop

    CERN Document Server

    Moskowitz, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate Group Policy guide-now updated for Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2!. IT and network administrators can streamline their Windows Server management tasks by using Group Policy tools to automate or implement rules, processes, or new security across the enterprise. In this comprehensive guide, Microsoft Group Policy MVP Jeremy Moskowitz thoroughly explores Group Policy across all Windows platforms, including the latest on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. If you're a Windows network administrator managing scores of users and computers, you need this essential reference on your desk.: Covers

  9. Dilemmatic Aspects of Language Policies in a Trilingual Preschool Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Tünde; Björk-Willén, Polly

    2017-01-01

    This article explores dilemmatic aspects of language policies in a preschool group in which three languages (Swedish, Romani and Arabic) are spoken on an everyday basis. The article highlights the interplay between policy decisions on the societal level, the teachers' interpretations of these policies, as well as language practices on the micro…

  10. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  11. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  12. A Dynamic Policy for Grouping Maintenance Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Wildeman (Ralph); R. Dekker (Rommert); A.C.J.M. Smit

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA maintenance activity carried out on a technical system often involves a system-dependent set-up cost that is the same for all maintenance activities carried out on that system. Grouping activities thus saves costs since execution of a group of activities requires only one set-up. Many

  13. Group B meningococcal vaccine science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Simon B; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. A new vaccine (4CMenB) has recently been developed which was found to have an acceptable safety profile in clinical studies and to be immunogenic. This review examines the evidence supporting the licensure of the 4CMenB vaccine and discusses recommendations for its use. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting Group Justice: Fiscal Policies in Post-Conflict Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Stewart; Alex Cobham; Graham Brown

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, governments have an opportunity to address fundamental inequalities between internal groups. As taxation and expenditure policies are developed to rebuild a functional domestic economy and infrastructure, policies can be designed to lessen divisions and promote equity.The authors assert that good data about the status quo on inequality in a country is the first step to addressing it through policy. They then discuss some options for formulating a tax code...

  15. A humane policy is also an efficient policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D

    1994-06-01

    The population issue and the policy-making process are connected to the politics of control at every level (from the international level to the couple level); to the political economy (i.e., growth path and its management); to the finance and organization of development delivery; and to ethics (i.e., respect for humans and the trust that people can make rational decisions). The Swaminathan Committee has examined all these connections. It has arrived at a general consensus that population and its management are not just issues of contraceptive distribution but are macro-economic and political issues. It visualizes a community-based program that requires the state governments to divest themselves of power, particularly schemes and funds. The committee proposes that the monitoring and evaluation process should no longer revolve around reaching targets to one where local committees, whose members are people of integrity, conduct social audits. Through social development indices (e.g., sex ratio, reducing abuse of women, and increasing enrollment of girls in school), the peoples' representatives are held accountable to their constituents. The committee recommends the establishment of a population social development fund and commission. The fund would make sure that social development, and not fertility control, is safeguarded. It would allow local governments and voluntary groups to adopt the more controversial approach (i.e., poverty reduction). All subdepartments of the health ministry should be integrated through one window for health. The main vehicle for health care delivery should be the primary health centers. They should be modernized to include operating rooms that could handle abortions and other surgeries. The people of the villages will resist these proposed changes in the institutional framework. They involve making hard choices on allocation of resources within health. The State needs to be a strong advocate for the changes.

  16. GROUP POLICY BASED AUTHENTICATION ON INCOMING CALLS FOR ANDROID SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita M. Kumbhar, Prof. Z.M Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    The numbers of Smartphone users increasing day by day. Hence, there is need to propose advanced Group Policy based Authentication for incoming calls for Android phone. Android platform provides a variety of functions that support the programming of face recognition, as in image processing. Group policy based authentication scheme increases the security which restricts the access of incoming call form un-authorized user. To solve problems, related to face recognition should be applied in the p...

  17. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    organizational diagnosis , the group is itself a living human system. A group may be underbounded, overbounded, or optimally bounded. The state of group...very im- portant to understand and to use in order to conduct organizational diagnosis " using group methods. 2 -43 (Alderfer, 1977b). The group...Boundary Relations and Organizational Diagnosis . In H. Meltzer and F.W. Wickert (eds.) Humanizing Organizational Behavior. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas

  18. A brief history of human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhud, Dariush D; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed.

  19. Windows® Group Policy Administrators Pocket Consultant

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William

    2009-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers ready answers for the day-to-day administration of Group Policy. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the focused information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Configure Local GPOs and Active Directory®-based GPOsManage policy preferences and settingsModel policy changes through the consoleMigrate and maintain the SYSVOLDiagnose and troubleshoot replication issuesKnow when to enforce, block,

  20. Improving tsunami resiliency: California's Tsunami Policy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Charles R.; Johnson, Laurie; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandiño, V.; Takahashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group to facilitate development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The Tsunami Policy Working Group brings together government and industry specialists from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering. The group is acting on findings from two parallel efforts: The USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario project, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from an M 9.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands Subduction Zone striking California’s coastline, and the State’s Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. The unique dual-track approach provides a comprehensive assessment of vulnerability and risk within which the policy group can identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments, and provide advice that will assist development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard risk communication products to improve community resiliency.

  1. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  2. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  3. Research Award: Policy and Planning Group (PPG) Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows research awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. The Policy and Planning Group (PPG) is responsible for ...

  4. ACSNI study group on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Organisational failures are now recognised as being as important as mechanical failures or individual human errors in causing major accidents such as the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise or the Pipa Alpha disaster. The Human Factors Study Group of the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations was set up to look at the part played by human factors in nuclear risk and its reduction. The third report of the Study Group considers the role played by organisational factors and management in promoting nuclear safety. Actions to review and promote a safety culture are suggested. Three main conclusions are drawn and several recommendations made. (UK)

  5. Human altruism by lethal group competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, M.; Kats, R.; Reuben, E.; van der Sar, X.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed

  6. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  7. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  8. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  9. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  10. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  11. Tax Loss Utilization and Corporate Groups: A Policy Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Richardson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are both theoretical and practical tax policy considerations that favour a broad recognition for the value of corporate income tax losses-- including for businesses operated within corporate groups. Ideally, an equitable and economically efficient tax system could obviate the need for loss netting against income by providing for the tax value of losses from business to be refundable by tax authorities in cash to owners. This approach, however, involves many serious difficulties, including revenue cost to governments and potential for abuse by both domestic and foreign businesses. Accordingly, loss refundability tends to be provided for only sparingly, if at all; while many corporate income tax systems—such as in the U.S. the U.K., Japan and many other OECD countries--deal with loss netting within corporate groups through a formal system of tax loss transfer or tax consolidation. While Canadian policymakers have considered introduction of such a system over a long period of time, they have yet to come up with a satisfactory formal system for Canada. So, corporate groups in Canada have been left to make do with an informal self-help loss trading system that presents a number of problems compared to formal systems. As a federal country with substantial corporate taxation levied at the provincial level, Canada appears unusually constrained in what it can do to bring greater equity and efficiency to corporate group tax loss utilization. Moreover, the inefficiencies in the current system are small in aggregate terms, and the informal self-help system has a relatively generous threshold for access. Accordingly, while Canada’s current informal self-help corporate group loss system is far from ideal, it appears to remain as a workable approach. Alternatives to the status quo should be considered cautiously, as they have the potential to do more harm than good.

  12. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Monavarian; Mojtaba Amiri; Narges Sadat Razavimehr

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from...

  13. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  14. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  15. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  16. [The policy of human biological reproduction in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M A

    1992-08-01

    The author presents some of the historical determinations of the policies of human reproduction in Brazil, placing them among other social policies. She argues that reproductive profile of the social classes depends upon not only the biological reproduction, but also upon the work power.

  17. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.1 Trade Policy Committee..., December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.1), is abolished and there is hereby established as a subordinate body of...

  18. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Legon Journal of the Humanities: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books and films; interviews ... The journal is devoted to the study of the humanities, operationally ... and American Studies, Center for Government and International Studies, Harvard ...

  20. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  1. Challenging Fundraising, Challenging Inequity: Contextual Constraints on Advocacy Groups' Policy Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2018-01-01

    School fundraising is known to reproduce inequities in schools, yet it remains common practice in Ontario, Canada; findings from a critical policy analysis of an advocacy group's efforts to change fundraising policy help explain why this is the case. Adopting a discursive understanding of policy, the study used rhetorical analysis to identify how…

  2. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monavarian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from practical research purpose and method view, is a descriptive research and survey branch. The study investigates the effect of university based Iranian Sociological Association on public policy making. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts. The results of our survey indicate that that Iranian Sociological Association could influence on public policy making through elite and prominent leaders, self-knowledge and information, elective campaigns, stimulation and connecting with people and other groups.

  3. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  4. Drug policy, harm and human rights: a rationalist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex

    2011-05-01

    It has recently been argued that drug-related harms cannot be compared, so making it impossible to choose rationally between various drug policy options. Attempts to apply international human rights law to this area are valid, but have found it difficult to overcome the problems in applying codified human rights to issues of drug policy. This article applies the rationalist ethical argument of Gewirth (1978) to this issue. It outlines his argument to the 'principle of generic consistency' and the hierarchy of basic, nonsubtractive and additive rights that it entails. It then applies these ideas to drug policy issues, such as whether there is a right to use drugs, whether the rights of drug 'addicts' can be limited, and how different harms can be compared in choosing between policies. There is an additive right to use drugs, but only insofar as this right does not conflict with the basic and nonsubtractive rights of others. People whose freedom to choose whether to use drugs is compromised by compulsion have a right to receive treatment. They retain enforceable duties not to inflict harms on others. Policies which reduce harms to basic and nonsubtractive rights should be pursued, even if they lead to harms to additive rights. There exists a sound, rational, extra-legal basis for the discussion of drug policy and related harms which enables commensurable discussion of drug policy options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  6. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  7. Inclusion and Human Rights in Health Policies: Comparative and Benchmarking Analysis of 51 Policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Amin, Mutamad; Mannan, Hasheem; El Tayeb, Shahla; Bedri, Nafisa; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Van Rooy, Gert; McVeigh, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    While many health services strive to be equitable, accessible and inclusive, peoples’ right to health often goes unrealized, particularly among vulnerable groups. The extent to which health policies explicitly seek to achieve such goals sets the policy context in which services are delivered and evaluated. An analytical framework was developed – EquiFrame – to evaluate 1) the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2) coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such policies. Using this framework, analysis of 51 policies across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, confirmed the relevance of all Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups. Further, our analysis highlighted some very strong policies, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. If social inclusion and human rights do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery. EquiFrame facilitates policy analysis and benchmarking, and provides a means for evaluating policy revision and development. PMID:22649488

  8. Inclusion and human rights in health policies: comparative and benchmarking analysis of 51 policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    Full Text Available While many health services strive to be equitable, accessible and inclusive, peoples' right to health often goes unrealized, particularly among vulnerable groups. The extent to which health policies explicitly seek to achieve such goals sets the policy context in which services are delivered and evaluated. An analytical framework was developed--EquiFrame--to evaluate 1 the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2 coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such policies. Using this framework, analysis of 51 policies across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, confirmed the relevance of all Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups. Further, our analysis highlighted some very strong policies, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. If social inclusion and human rights do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery. EquiFrame facilitates policy analysis and benchmarking, and provides a means for evaluating policy revision and development.

  9. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  10. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  11. The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The starting point for this NWOI funded Ph.D. research is the observation that although UN accountability mechanisms are increasingly holding armed groups ‘accountable’ under human rights law, the legal basis for the responsibility of armed groups under human rights law remains controversial

  12. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the policy paper presented is to recommend the actions deemed necessary to assure that future US and other non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate to meet future energy demand. Taken together, the recommended decisions and actions form a nuclear fuels supply policy for the United States Government and for the private sector, and new areas of responsibility for the appropriate international organizations in which the US participates. The principal conclusions and recommendations are that the US and the other industrialized non-Communist countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends upon the security of supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another. The substitutability and efficient use of energy resources are enhanced by accelerating the supply and use of electricity

  13. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  14. The Interaction of Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Countries of the Visegrad Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Janků

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination of or at least absence of conflict between monetary and fiscal policies are key to the successful implementation of economic policy. The article aims to use reaction functions to assess whether the monetary and fiscal policies in the countries of the Visegrad Group are in coordination or in conflict and which variables influence their decisions. The central bank is the representative of monetary policy, which has interest rates as its instrument, and the government as the representative of the fiscal policy which has change revenue or spending as a share of GDP as instrument. To obtain the results, multivariate regression analysis is used. The research period is based on quarterly observations from first quarter of 2000 to the fourth quarter of 2012. Stabilizing role of monetary policy and in some countries also partially stabilizing role of fiscal policy has been found. Another result was that in the case of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland, monetary policy appears to play the dominant role, whereas fiscal policy plays dominant role in Hungary. In the case of Slovakia, some different results may be due to Slovakia’s participation in ERM II, which led to the monetary policy, in addition to maintaining price stability, also aiming to maintain a fixed exchange rate and the subsequent entry of Slovakia into the Eurozone and the de facto loss of autonomous monetary policy.

  15. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  16. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines: policy, ethics and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being ignored in the policy making process.

  17. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  18. Human Rights, Privacy and Medical Research; Analysing UK Policy on Tissue and Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillott, John

    2006-01-01

    This report is one outcome of a study into privacy and human genetics initiated by John Gillott and staff and trustees of the Genetic Interest Group. \\ud \\ud The initial focus was on genetics and human rights, with an emphasis on legal aspects and policy decisions informed by law and rights ideology. Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the right to respect for private and family life,1 is of most relevance to this study, though other Articles are considered.\\ud \\ud The study as a whole co...

  19. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  1. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  2. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies. PMID:12887735

  3. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-07-29

    The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws - the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  4. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities

  5. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  6. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Policy Paper recommends the actions deemed necessary to assure that future U.S. and non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate, considering the following: estimates of modest growth in overall energy demand, electrical energy demand, and nuclear electrical energy demand in the U.S. and abroad, predicated upon the continuing trends involving conservation of energy, increased use of electricity, and moderate economic growth (Chap. I); possibilities for the development and use of all domestic resources providing energy alternatives to imported oil and gas, consonant with current environmental, health, and safety concerns (Chap. II); assessment of the traditional energy sources which provide current alternatives to nuclear energy (Chap. II); evaluation of realistic expectations for additional future energy supplies from prospective technologies: enhanced recovery from traditional sources and development and use of oil shales and synthetic fuels from coal, fusion and solar energy (Chap. II); an accounting of established nuclear technology in use today, in particular the light water reactor, used for generating electricity (Chap. III); an estimate of future nuclear technology, in particular the prospective fast breeder (Chap. IV); current and projected nuclear fuel demand and supply in the U.S. and abroad (Chaps. V and VI); the constraints encountered today in meeting nuclear fuels demand (Chap. VII); and the major unresolved issues and options in nuclear fuels supply and use (Chap. VIII). The principal conclusions and recommendations (Chap. IX) are that the U.S. and other industrialized countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends on the secure supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another

  7. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  8. Algorithm that mimics human perceptual grouping of dot patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, G.; Petkov, N.; Gregorio, MD; DiMaio,; Frucci, M; Musio, C

    2005-01-01

    We propose an algorithm that groups points similarly to how human observers do. It is simple, totally unsupervised and able to find clusters of complex and not necessarily convex shape. Groups are identified as the connected components of a Reduced Delaunay Graph (RDG) that we define in this paper.

  9. Integration of Monetary and Fiscal Policy of the Countries of the Visegrad Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappel Stanislav

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate mutual interaction of monetary and fiscal policies in the countries of the Visegrad group, i.e. in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The relationship of monetary and fiscal policy - their coordination, cooperation or mutual antagonism - are basic determinants of successful implementation for economic policy of the state. Fiscal and monetary policies usually have different aims, and some conflict situations may arise in practical economic and political decision- making. Each policy has to make its decision with regard to the other one. Methodical approaches of this contribution are based on the game theory, which deals with the analysis of a wide range of decision situations with more participants (players and it is primarily focused on the conflict situations. This game-theoretical approach is responsible for creating the theoretical model which is then dealt with in the empirical analysis. We find a distinctly stabilizing role of monetary policy and relatively problematic stabilizing role of fiscal policy in the analyzed countries. The dominant role of monetary policy is statistically confirmed in the case of the Czech Republic and Hungary.

  10. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  11. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  12. Within-group competition reduces cooperation and payoffs in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2012-01-01

    Social organisms in many taxa cooperate to produce resources that are shared among group members. Some cooperatively produced resources may be monopolized by individuals who invest in within-group competition, but these have largely been overlooked in empirical and theoretical research on human c......, and demonstrates unifying principles in cooperation and competition across the animal kingdom....

  13. Health adaptation policy for climate vulnerable groups: a 'critical computational linguistics' analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Bell, Erica

    2014-11-28

    Many countries are developing or reviewing national adaptation policy for climate change but the extent to which these meet the health needs of vulnerable groups has not been assessed. This study examines the adequacy of such policies for nine known climate-vulnerable groups: people with mental health conditions, Aboriginal people, culturally and linguistically diverse groups, aged people, people with disabilities, rural communities, children, women, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The study analyses an exhaustive sample of national adaptation policy documents from Annex 1 ('developed') countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 20 documents from 12 countries. A 'critical computational linguistics' method was used involving novel software-driven quantitative mapping and traditional critical discourse analysis. The study finds that references to vulnerable groups are relatively little present or non-existent, as well as poorly connected to language about practical strategies and socio-economic contexts, both also little present. The conclusions offer strategies for developing policy that is better informed by a 'social determinants of health' definition of climate vulnerability, consistent with best practice in the literature and global policy prescriptions.

  14. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  15. Interest groups' influence over drug pricing policy reform in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Joong

    2005-06-30

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way.

  16. Actions speak louder than words in socially foraging human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Seirian; King, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    SOCIAL FORAGING IN HUMANS HAS A DEEP EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY: early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment. A fundamental assumption is that social foragers benefit by exchanging information about food sources, in order to make collective decisions based on pooled information. We conducted the first experimental test of this assumption, and showed that, as predicted, communication significantly enhanced group performance. A further, unexpected result was that physical communication through gesturing, rather than verbal communication, appeared to play a crucial role in the early stages of group interaction, facilitating consensus decision making by groups.  The importance of gestures in human interactions may therefore be underestimated, and this has important implications for modern human societies, where communications are becoming increasingly dominated by virtual modes of communication that preclude the use of gestures. 

  17. Humanness and (im)morality in group relations

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Ana Patrícia Matos

    2017-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia na área de especialidade - Psicologia Social Morality is a valued dimension within and between groups (Ellemers, Pagliaro, & Barreto, 2013; Leach, Bilali, & Pagliaro, 2015), that has been consistently pointed out as part of what makes us uniquely human (Demoulin et al., 2004; Leyens et al., 2000; Haslam, 2006). On the other hand, the extent to which we see others as fully human also impacts on other’s moral status (Bastian, Laham, Wilson, Haslam, & Koval,...

  18. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  19. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  20. A dynamic new group within Human Resources Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Since 1st May CERN's training and development and personnel management teams have been fused into a new group called Personnel Management and Development. The new Personnel Management and Development Group is responsible for career advancement and management, recruitment, remuneration and for language, communication, management, academic and technical training, keys to a sense of greater well-being and to career progression. The new group was born on 1st May out of the fusion of the "Personnel Management" and "Training and Development" Groups within CERN's Human Resources Division. Its aim is to offer a practical and easily accessible service to assist the members of the personnel and supervisors to manage careers more harmoniously, to make progress and to continue to learn on the job. With Sue Foffano as its Group Leader, the Group comprises four sections: Academic and Technical Training under the guiding hand of Mick Storr; Management, Communication and Language Training headed by Sudeshna Datta-Cockeril...

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN OVARY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Saloi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian pathology can manifest in various ways, e.g. menstrual abnormalities, cystic disease, infertility, benign and malignant tumours of the ovary, etc. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim was undertaken to observe the age-related changes in the human ovary and to study if there is any difference between the right and left ovaries with respect to length, breadth, thickness and weight and compare it with the established findings of previous workers, which will help the clinicians to adopt appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various clinical conditions associated with the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study on human ovary was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The morphological characteristics of 42 pairs of normal human ovaries of different age groups were studied (14 pairs in each age group. The ovaries were divided into three groups, viz. Group A or pre-reproductive, Group B or reproductive and Group C or postmenopausal. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was done to find out the significant difference of mean value. RESULTS The morphology of the ovary including the length, breadth, thickness and weight of the three groups were measured and the findings were compared with each other and also with the findings of studies done by previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of ovary in the three groups. The study also revealed that the weight of the right ovary was more than the left ovary in all the three age groups. The results were statistically analysed and compared with the findings of previous workers.

  2. Intrapartum Antibiotic Chemoprophylaxis Policies for the Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; O'Driscoll, Megan; Turner, Kim; Seedat, Farah; Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; Heath, Paul T; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Ip, Margaret; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Kampmann, Beate

    2017-11-06

    Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. We identified data through (1) systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean [LILACS], World Health Organization library database [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and unpublished data from professional societies and (2) an online survey and searches of policies from medical societies and professionals. We included data on whether an IAP policy was in use, and if so whether it was based on microbiological or clinical risk factors and how these were applied, as well as the estimated coverage (percentage of women receiving IAP where indicated). We received policy information from 95 of 195 (49%) countries. Of these, 60 of 95 (63%) had an IAP policy; 35 of 60 (58%) used microbiological screening, 25 of 60 (42%) used clinical risk factors. Two of 15 (13%) low-income, 4 of 16 (25%) lower-middle-income, 14 of 20 (70%) upper-middle-income, and 40 of 44 (91%) high-income countries had any IAP policy. The remaining 35 of 95 (37%) had no national policy (25/33 from low-income and lower-middle-income countries). Coverage varied considerably; for microbiological screening, median coverage was 80% (range, 20%-95%); for clinical risk factor-based screening, coverage was 29% (range, 10%-50%). Although there were differences in the microbiological screening methods employed, the individual clinical risk factors used were similar. There is considerable heterogeneity in IAP screening policies and coverage worldwide. Alternative global strategies, such as maternal vaccination, are needed to enhance the scope of global prevention of GBS disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  3. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J.

    2018-01-01

    A country’s total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup’s potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies. PMID:29425220

  4. Environmental Change and Human Mobility: Trends, Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the protection of persons displaced by natural disasters and the impacts of climate change will require sustained attention. This article identifies practical solutions, many of which are currently under consideration by governments and international organizations, to improve the lives of millions of people affected by environmental crises. It begins with a brief overview of why people move, the nature of those movements, and the relationship between human mobility and adaptation to environmental change by highlighting three types of mobility – migration, displacement and planned relocation. Next, the international and regional level will be discussed, with particular focus on legislative and policy frameworks for addressing human mobility in the context of environmental change. The article identifies gaps in existing frameworks as well as recent efforts to address them, particularly through mini-multilateral initiatives aimed at identifying principles and practices that should guide governmental action. The article concludes that efforts to improve responses require a better evidence base than currently exists on issues such as the environmental determinants of migration, displacement and planned relocation; the multi-faceted ways in which environmental factors relate to the many other causes of population movements in the cases of human mobility; and the impact of such movements on the well-being of migrants, communities of origin, and communities of destination.

  5. Pathogenicity of Virulent Species of Group C Streptococci in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kłos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group C streptococci (GCS are livestock pathogens and they often cause zoonotic diseases in humans. They are Gram-positive, in mostly β-hemolytic and facultative anaerobes. Because of their close evolutionary kinship with group A streptococci (GAS, GCS share many common virulence factors with GAS and cause a similar range of diseases. Due to the exchange of genetic material with GAS, GCS belong to bacteria that are difficult to be distinguished from group A streptococci; GCS are often treated in microbiological diagnostics as contamination of the culture. This report focuses mainly on the pathogenicity of virulent species of GCS and their association with human diseases. The condition that is most frequently quoted is pharyngitis. In this paper, the virulence factors have also been mentioned and an interesting link has been made between GCS and the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases among the native people of India and Aboriginal populations.

  6. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Melanie A. J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; van Vugt, John M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal NT, free β-human

  7. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying policy target groups with qualitative and quantitative methods: the case of wildfire risk on nonindustrial private forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...

  9. Cogema and the environment. Environmental policy. The Cogema group in the environment service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the organization of the environmental policy at Cogema facilities. The first part presents the environmental policy of the group: integration of environment management at all levels, reduction of effluents and control of their environmental impact, integrating environment protection at the design stage of facilities, quality and improvement policy, expenses devoted to environment protection (investments, R and D, funds), public information. The second part concerns the transfer of Cogema's know-how in environmental engineering towards other industrial sectors: radioactivity measurements, mine and quarry sites rehabilitation, industrial wastes and effluents processing, decontamination and rehabilitation of ancient polluted industrial sites, foreign activities (rehabilitation of US-DOE military sites, aid to Eastern countries. (J.S.)

  10. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  11. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  12. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  13. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  14. Identifying Key Stakeholder Groups for Implementing a Place Branding Policy in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulibanova V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional brands have become a valuable intangible asset and a crucial competitive resource for forging partnerships. An effective place branding policy is impossible without a precise understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups. It is essential to realize that each region is unique in its own way. Territories differ in the structure of stakeholders, their influence on regional development, and the range of leverages over regional decision-makers. This study aims to give a more precise definition of key groups of stakeholders in Saint Petersburg place branding, and to identify them. The authors employ the method of theoretical and empirical typology of a territory’s stakeholders within a theoretical framework proposed by E. Freeman, P. Kotler, S. Zenker, and E. Brown. The article defines the concept of key regional stakeholders and identifies them. The proposed target audience (stakeholder group model for a place branding policy is tested on the case of Saint Petersburg. The authors show that each target audience of place marketing requires an individual policy. This is explained by the fact that each group enjoys its unique features that should be taken into account when creating and transmitting messages.

  15. Establishing global policy recommendations: the role of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Philippe; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Salisbury, David

    2011-02-01

    The vaccine landscape has changed considerably over the last decade with many new vaccines and technological developments, unprecedented progress in reaching out to children and the development of new financing mechanisms. At the same time, there are more demands and additional expectations of national policy makers, donors and other interested parties for increased protection through immunization. The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), which broadens the previous scope of immunization efforts, sets a number of goals to be met by countries. The WHO has recently reviewed and adjusted both its policy making structure and processes for vaccines and immunization to include an enlarged consultation process to generate evidence-based recommendations, thereby ensuring the transparency of the decision making process and improving communications. This article describes the process of development of immunization policy recommendations at the global level and some of their impacts. It focuses on the roles and modes of operating of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, which is the overarching advisory group involved with the issuance of policy recommendations, monitoring and facilitating the achievement of the GIVS goals. The article also describes the process leading to the publication of WHO vaccine position papers, which provide WHO recommendations on vaccine use. WHO vaccine-related recommendations have become a necessary step in the pathway to the introduction and use of vaccines, especially in developing countries and, consequently, have a clear and significant impact.

  16. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  17. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Boone, James L

    2010-08-21

    Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation--the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject--may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. Little formal theoretical work, however, has established whether and under what conditions individuals would indeed prefer the establishment of more hierarchical relationships over more egalitarian alternatives. This paper provides an evolutionary game theoretical model for the acceptance of leadership in cooperative groups. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable.

  19. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, T.; Childs, R.A.; Hakomori, S.-I.; Powell, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  20. A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lording, Roslyn J

    2006-11-01

    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. This history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.

  1. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  2. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  3. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  4. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  5. Living with a carbon allowance: The experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.

  6. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  7. Enacting localist health policy in the English NHS: the 'governing assemblage' of Clinical Commissioning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jonathan; Coleman, Anna; Checkland, Kath

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The Health and Social Care Act 2012 introduced Clinical Commissioning Groups to take responsibility for commissioning (i.e. planning and purchasing) the majority of services for local populations in the English NHS. Constituted as 'membership organizations', with membership compulsory for all GP practices, Clinical Commissioning Groups are overseen by, and are accountable to, a new arm's-length body, NHS England. This paper critically engages with the content and policy narrative of the 2012 Act and explores this in relation to the reality of local policy enactment. Methods Set against a careful review of the 2012 Act, a case study of a nascent Clinical Commissioning Groups was conducted. The research included observations of Clinical Commissioning Group meetings and events (87 h), and in-depth interviews (16) with clinical commissioners, GPs, and managers. Results The 2012 Act was presented as part of a broader government agenda of decentralization and localism. Clinical Commissioning Group membership organizations were framed as a means of better meeting the needs and preferences of local patients and realizing a desirable increase in localism. The policy delineated the 'governing body' and 'the membership', with the former elected from/by the latter to oversee the organization. 'The membership' was duty bound to be 'good', engaged members and to represent their patients' interests. Fieldwork with Notchcroft Clinical Commissioning Group revealed that Clinical Commissioning Groups' statutory duty to NHS England to 'ensure the continuous improvement' of GP practice members involved performance scrutiny of GP practices. These governance processes were carried out by a varied cast of individuals, many of whom did not fit into the binary categorization of membership and governing body constructed in the policy. A concept, the governing assemblage, was developed to describe the dynamic cast of people involved in shaping the work and direction of the Clinical

  8. How social information can improve estimation accuracy in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-21

    In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Medicaid and the politics of groups: recipients, providers, and policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronebusch, K

    1997-06-01

    There is a substantial heterogeneity of interests within the Medicaid program. Its major beneficiary groups include the elderly, people with disabilities, children in low-income families, and adults receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Providers who deliver medical services to these recipients represent another set of potential claimants. These groups are likely to be treated differently by the politics that affect the design and management of the Medicaid program. The Medicaid recipient groups vary in several important dimensions: First, the groups differ politically, a dimension that includes their political participation, their relationships to parties and electoral coalitions, the images they present to other political actors, and the legacy of public policies that affect them. Second, the groups have different medical and social needs. Third, the groups differ with respect to economic constraints, including the political economy of labor markets and of government spending programs, and they have differing relationships to the various types of medical providers. The medical providers are themselves political actors with a variety of characteristics that create political advantages relative to recipients, although there is also diversity among providers. The politics of the Medicaid program involves more than simply technical decisions about eligibility, coverage of medical services, reimbursement, and the implementation of managed care initiatives. Instead the differences between the program's multiple claimants are an important element of current Medicaid politics and the likely path of future reforms.

  10. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  11. The Human Factor: Training and Professional Development as a Policy Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian CIOLAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to make a case for the risky approach of many decision-makers and pol- icy specialists to overuse authority and regula- tion-based tools, while neglecting the ones more focused on human capacity and persuasion. Especially in fields like education, we consider that the human factor should be at the core of any policy mix, and a tool like training and pro- fessional development should gain a more visible and persistent role in policy interventions. Firstly, we try to analyze the distribution of policy tools on the authority-complexity axes. The value we see in the mapping of policy tools is that it can be used for investigating and positioning the activity of a specific governing body or central gover- nance. Thus, a fundamental question remains as to what really influences the choice of policy tools or instruments, as a basis for better understand- ing the rationales behind a specific policy mix. We argue that policy failure could be ex- plained in many cases by the incapacity to ad- dress in a consistent and professional way the human capacities needed for implementation. Thus, training and professional development are, at least, poorly used from the perspective of the potential they have. As an argument, we tried to look at training and professional development in the specific area of teachers in pre-university education in Romania, situating it in the broader context of European policies in lifelong learning and participation of adults in continuing educa- tion and training, but also in the local policy en- vironment. The results of the research led us to the conclusion that educational policies should be among the first in the broader spectrum of public policies valuing and emphasizing learning, through training and professional development of the stakeholders involved in policy change together with adding more value to the Human Factor in educational policies

  12. Human ecology. Foundations of preventive environmental policy. Humanoekologie. Grundlagen praeventiver Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B [ed.

    1989-01-01

    Can human ecology contribute towards originating a preventive environmental policy. Following a discussion of the demands of preventive environmental policy between theory and practice, the book presents the scientific approach 'human ecology' from a social-scientific angle. Then the question of the foundation in environmentally-related ethics is dealt with. The application and realizability of human-ecological considerations are tested with reference to different sectors of politics, and positive and negative indications of the chances of realization of a preventive environmental policy are discussed. (orig.).

  13. The Study of Human Resource Competency Development Policy in Tourism Sector of Bureaucracy Reformation Era

    OpenAIRE

    Wiryanto, Wisber

    2018-01-01

    The development of the tourism sector ought to be supported by the competent Human Resources (SDM). Human resources of tourism that include human resources apparatus, industrial human resources, and the tourism community until now still facing difficulties of competency gaps and capability certification. Concerning this issue, there will be conducted a research of human resource competency development policy in tourism sector of bureaucratic reformation era. The goal of this research is to ex...

  14. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  15. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  17. Stakeholder engagement in policy development: challenges and opportunities for human genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Amy A.; Harris-Wai, Julie N.

    2015-01-01

    Along with rapid advances in human genomics, policies governing genomic data and clinical technologies have proliferated. Stakeholder engagement is widely lauded as an important methodology for improving clinical, scientific, and public health policy decision making. The purpose of this paper is to examine how stakeholder engagement is used to develop policies in genomics research and public health areas, as well as to identify future priorities for conducting evidence-based stakeholder engag...

  18. A Human Development and Capabilities "Prospective Analysis" of Global Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    In global times, university education policy that holds the greatest promise for social responsibility is the focus here; the argument made is that such policy ought to be conceptualised using a normative human development and capabilities approach, drawing on the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Their ideas offer a values-based way of…

  19. Language policies and communication in multinational companies : Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Floor; Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the degree of alignment among multinational company (MNC) strategic orientation, human resource management (HRM) practices, and language policies. On the one hand, the authors propose that the coherent, tight alignment among the HRM practices, language policies, and MNC

  20. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  1. The AIR's policy on research involving the irradiation of human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of the Australian Institute of Radiography with regards to the human subject irradiation is outlined. It is stated that members will not irradiate another individual, nor themselves, solely for the purposes of experimentation or research without gaining the prior approval of an institutional ethics committee. Where possible, researchers should consider the use of patient equivalent or human tissue equivalent phantoms. A short list of references has been compiled to assist members in designing research protocols which comply with the stated policy

  2. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  3. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  4. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  5. The Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Among Socioeconomic Groups in Nine European Countries, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Platt, Stephen; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Lahelma, Eero; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Santana, Paula; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-11-07

    It is uncertain whether tobacco control policies have contributed to a narrowing or widening of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in European countries during the past two decades. This paper aims to investigate the impact of price and non-price related population-wide tobacco control policies on smoking by socioeconomic group in nine European countries between 1990 and 2007. Individual-level education, occupation and smoking status were obtained from nationally representative surveys. Country-level price-related tobacco control policies were measured by the relative price of cheapest cigarettes and of cigarettes in the most popular price category. Country-level non-price policies were measured by a summary score covering four policy domains: smoking bans or restrictions in public places and workplaces, bans on advertising and promotion, health warning labels, and cessation services. The associations between policies and smoking were explored using logistic regressions, stratified by education and occupation, and adjusted for age, Gross Domestic Product, period and country fixed effects. The price of popular cigarettes and non-price policies were negatively associated with smoking among men. The price of the cheapest cigarettes was negatively associated with smoking among women. While these favorable effects were generally in the same direction for all socioeconomic groups, they were larger and statistically significant in lower socioeconomic groups only. Tobacco control policies as implemented in nine European countries, have probably helped to reduce the prevalence of smoking in the total population, particularly in lower socioeconomic groups. Widening inequalities in smoking may be explained by other factors. Policies with larger effects on lower socioeconomic groups are needed to reverse this trend. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking widened between the 1990s and the 2000s in Europe. During the same period, there were intensified tobacco control policies

  6. Stakeholder engagement in policy development: challenges and opportunities for human genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Amy A; Harris-Wai, Julie N

    2015-12-01

    Along with rapid advances in human genomics, policies governing genomic data and clinical technologies have proliferated. Stakeholder engagement is widely lauded as an important methodology for improving clinical, scientific, and public health policy decision making. The purpose of this paper is to examine how stakeholder engagement is used to develop policies in genomics research and public health areas, as well as to identify future priorities for conducting evidence-based stakeholder engagements. We focus on exemplars in biobanking and newborn screening to illustrate a variety of current stakeholder engagement in policy-making efforts. Each setting provides an important context for examining the methods of obtaining and integrating informed stakeholder voices into the policy-making process. While many organizations have an interest in engaging stakeholders with regard to genomic policy issues, there is broad divergence with respect to the stakeholders involved, the purpose of engagements, when stakeholders are engaged during policy development, methods of engagement, and the outcomes reported. Stakeholder engagement in genomics policy development is still at a nascent stage. Several challenges of using stakeholder engagement as a tool for genomics policy development remain, and little evidence regarding how to best incorporate stakeholder feedback into policy-making processes is currently available.

  7. Brazilian Human Rights Policy Strategy in the First Lula Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Lourenço de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political consequences of the general strategy that guided key federal human rights programs from 2003-2006. The first part of the text discusses issues considered to be central for a consideration of the trajectory of human rights in Brazil, beginning with the authoritarian regime (1964-1985. The objective is to locate the victories and defeats that marked attempts to affirm more advanced standards of promotion and protection of human rights in Brazilian society. The second portion analyzes the promotion of this agenda in the first government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The sources used were official government documents, texts organized by specific segments of civil society and academic articles. In conclusion, it presents the main impasses of this agenda and the criticisms of the economist visions that weaken the integrated concept of human rights that guide the essay.

  8. distributive justice and human rights in climate policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    considerable ethical challenges when issues of justice and human rights .... change damages for GHG emissions pathways based on 'business-as- usual' as well ... (3) Global environmental change 297-301; William Nordhaus, 'A review of the.

  9. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  10. Journal of Religion and Human Relations: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus on religious and ... Peer Review Process ... that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  11. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eGonzalez-Kristeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10% have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs.

  12. Advancing environmental and policy change through active living collaboratives: compositional and stakeholder engagement correlates of group effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jill; Reed, Hannah; Zieff, Susan G; Tabak, Rachel G; Eyler, Amy A; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Lyn, Rodney; Gustat, Jeanette; Goins, Karen Valentine; Bornstein, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate compositional factors, including collaborative age and size, and community, policy, and political engagement activities that may influence collaboratives' effectiveness in advancing environmental improvements and policies for active living. Structured interviews were conducted with collaboratives' coordinators. Survey items included organizational composition, community, policy, and political engagement activities and reported environmental improvements and policy change. Descriptive statistics and multivariate models were used to investigate these relationships. Environmental improvement and policy change scores reflecting level of collaborative effectiveness across 8 strategy areas (eg, parks and recreation, transit, streetscaping, and land redevelopment). Fifty-nine collaborative groups participated in the interview, representing 22 states. Groups have made progress in identifying areas for environmental improvements and in many instances have received funding to support these changes. Results from multivariate models indicate that engagement in media communication and advocacy was statistically correlated with higher levels of environmental improvement, after adjusting for age of group and area poverty levels (P engagement activities may represent important levers for achieving structural and policy changes to the built environment.

  13. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  14. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, M.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013?2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disa...

  15. Maximising available resources: Equality and human rights proofing Irish fiscal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Mary P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines various rationales for applying equality and human rights proofing mechanisms to fiscal policy. The principle of using available resources to the maximum to progressively realise human rights, and not to erode the revenue capacity of developing nations to do likewise, is at the heart of emerging human rights norms. To date, Irish budgetary processes and major policy statements such as the Commission on Taxation or the draft outline National Plan on Business and Human Rights Strategy have not engaged with the principles of maximising available resources or extraterritoriality. Proofing fiscal policy is also relevant from the perspective of fiscal welfare where taxation instruments, traditionally used as a revenue-gathering mechanism, are increasingly used as distributional mechanisms to achieve policy outcomes in pensions, health, housing and employment, with important equality and distributive dimensions, particularly from gender, age and socioeconomic perspectives. A number of practical institutional mechanisms and evaluative questions can guide equality and human rights proofing of fiscal policy, but commitments to maximise resources to realise rights also need to be promoted through a public discourse which sees taxation as potential investment in society rather than a burden or cost on the economy.

  16. Interfaces between educational policies, pedagogical practices and human formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Bellanda Galuch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the formation perspective found in official documents regarding Basic Education and the pedagogical practices suggested by them. It also points out the relationship between a curriculum-defining public policy and the didactic organization of what is taught in the schools. Results show that the formation proposed by the above-mentioned documents tries to attend our society’s market demands with its valorization of pedagogical practices for the development of attitudes, values, competences and abilities required by the globalized society. When such formation is placed first and foremost and to the detriment of the transmission and appropriation of disciplines, school education decreases its commitment with scientific culture. In fact, it distances itself from its role in offering the symbolic instruments which are necessary for the students’ integral development.

  17. Homo Sapiens 1.0: Human Development and Policy Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Pam

    2017-01-01

    Nearly a century of psychological research and recent advances in neuropsychology suggest that there is a "learning to learn" stage in early childhood, during which children need to create the foundations of human cognition, which relies upon the ability to logically categorise incoming information. Mid-twentieth-century psychologists…

  18. Motivation and policies of human resources management in the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Goca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations today operate in an uncertain environment, accompanied by constant change and technological innovation. The greatest impact on performance as the key feature of human resources business. Motivation and employee satisfaction becoming the basis of a modern organization. Motivated employees today represent a strategic resource which confer a competitive advantage of the organization.

  19. Heuristic and optimal policy computations in the human brain during sequential decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2018-01-23

    Optimal decisions across extended time horizons require value calculations over multiple probabilistic future states. Humans may circumvent such complex computations by resorting to easy-to-compute heuristics that approximate optimal solutions. To probe the potential interplay between heuristic and optimal computations, we develop a novel sequential decision-making task, framed as virtual foraging in which participants have to avoid virtual starvation. Rewards depend only on final outcomes over five-trial blocks, necessitating planning over five sequential decisions and probabilistic outcomes. Here, we report model comparisons demonstrating that participants primarily rely on the best available heuristic but also use the normatively optimal policy. FMRI signals in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) relate to heuristic and optimal policies and associated choice uncertainties. Crucially, reaction times and dorsal MPFC activity scale with discrepancies between heuristic and optimal policies. Thus, sequential decision-making in humans may emerge from integration between heuristic and optimal policies, implemented by controllers in MPFC.

  20. [National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Correa; Meneguim, Silmara; Lima, Silvana Andréa Molina; Moreno, Vania

    2013-01-01

    The National Policy of Humanization aims at innovations in health production, management and care with emphasis on permanent education for workers in the Unified Public Health System and training of university students in the health care field. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals, from 2002 to 2010. Ten articles were analyzed in thematic strand through three axes: humanization and users caring, humanization and the work process, humanization and training. The articles point to the need to overcome the biological conception, valuing cultural aspects of users. The work process is marked by the devaluation of workers and by users deprived of their rights. The training of health professionals is grounded in health services where the prevailing standards are practices that hinder innovative attitudes.

  1. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence,

  2. Lobbying friends and foes in climate policy: The case of business and environmental interest groups in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on two conflicting hypotheses from the theoretical literature on lobbying, I consider the strategies applied by interest groups lobbying to influence climate policy in the European Union (EU). The first hypothesis claims that interest groups lobby their 'friends', decision-makers with positions similar to their own. The second claims that interest groups lobby their 'foes', decision-makers with positions opposed to their own. Using interviews with lobbyists and decision-makers, I demonstrate that in the field of climate policy, interest groups in the EU lobby both friends and foes, but under different conditions. Moreover, I find that the interest groups' motives are not always in line with the theoretical hypotheses. Interest groups lobby their friends on single policy decisions to exchange information, to further a common cause and to exert pressure, and their foes because a foe on one issue might prove to be a friend on another issue. Interest groups direct general lobbying towards both friends and foes. This paper provides a new empirical contribution to a literature that has so far been heavily dominated by studies focusing on lobbying in the US

  3. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierantoni Celia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS, has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH, through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. Methods The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. Results The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them

  4. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantoni, Celia Regina; Garcia, Ana Claudia P

    2011-05-17

    The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS), has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH), through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH) management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals) and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them, specialization courses account for 61.4% and short

  5. Value for Money? Problems of Impact Assessment of Counter-radicalization Policies on End Target Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of consensus in the academic literature and among policy makers and practitioners on the definition of violent radicalisation, and current counter-radicalisation policy responses and procedures are informed by a weak and, at times, confused understanding of the motivational...... and structural factors underpinning such a process. The result is a variety of interventions across the EU, signalling a lack of consensus on the purposes of counter-radicalisation. In addition, indicators of success of counter-radicalisation policies are often unclear or unspecified. One consequence...... of this is that assessments of the effectiveness of counter-radicalisation measures and policy responses are either lacking or often methodologically questionable, impairing our understanding of the impacts of counter-radicalisation interventions on targeted communities. The article investigates problems of assessing...

  6. Burning through organizational boundaries? Examining inter-organizational communication networks in policy-mandated collaborative bushfire planning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel F. Brummel; Kristen C. Nelson; Pamela J. Jakes

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration can enhance cooperation across geographic and organizational scales, effectively "burning through" those boundaries. Using structured social network analysis (SNA) and qualitative in-depth interviews, this study examined three collaborative bushfire planning groups in New South Wales, Australia and asked: How does participation in policy-...

  7. Multi-criteria group decision support with linguistic variables in long-term scenarios for Belgian energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Da; Lu, Jie; Laes, Erik; Zhang, Guangquan; Ma, Jun; Meskens, Gaston

    2010-01-01

    Real world decisions often made in the presence of multiple, conflicting, and incommensurate criteria. Decision making requires multiple perspectives of different individuals as more decisions are made now in groups than ever before. This is particularly true when the decision environment becomes more complex such as sustainability policies study in environmental and energy sectors. Group decision making processes judgments or solutions for decision problems based on the input and feedback of...

  8. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane

    2016-04-29

    High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.

  9. Human group C rotaviruses identified in Kenya | Mwenda | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods:Faecal samples were collected from 119 infants and young children with diarrhoea and were analysed by commercial ELISA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify possible non-group A rotaviruses. Extraction of any potential rrotavirus double-stranded RNA from faeces amd ...

  10. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J J

    1999-06-30

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, approaches are presented for the exposure assessment to be used for estimation of risks in authorization procedures under the recently accepted Directive 98/8/EC. Gaps in knowledge are indicated, making it possible to study the issues involved in a comprehensive and cost-effective way. Some recommendations are given on how to best do this. The current project has been detailed in a final report.

  11. Heads of household programme in Argentina: a human rights-based policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jorge; Giordano, Osvaldo; Torres, Alejandra; Cárdenas, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the consultative councils (CC) of the Argentinian conditional cash transfer heads of household programme as an institutional innovation directed to put into practice some of the principles of the human rights' approach for eradicating poverty. Since the main responsibilities assigned to the CCs coincided with some of the main principles of the human rights' approach, the research is focused on how CCs responded in practice. Using a case study methodology we show that even when, in theory, the CCs incorporate some of the principles of the human rights' approach to the programme, they deviated from this purpose due to a persistent phenomenon in the social policy arena in developing countries: political clientelism. Policy recommendations are formulated in order to deal with clientelism in the framework of the human rights' approach.

  12. A novel method for human age group classification based on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Yarlagadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the computer vision community, easy categorization of a person’s facial image into various age groups is often quite precise and is not pursued effectively. To address this problem, which is an important area of research, the present paper proposes an innovative method of age group classification system based on the Correlation Fractal Dimension of complex facial image. Wrinkles appear on the face with aging thereby changing the facial edges of the image. The proposed method is rotation and poses invariant. The present paper concentrates on developing an innovative technique that classifies facial images into four categories i.e. child image (0–15, young adult image (15–30, middle-aged adult image (31–50, and senior adult image (>50 based on correlation FD value of a facial edge image.

  13. How much might human capital policies affect earnings inequalities and poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R

    2011-01-01

    Economic inequality and poverty have persisted in Latin America despite important changes in political and policy regimes. This paper explores the relationship between various human capital programs aimed to reduced poverty and how improvements of those in poverty in the left tail of the earning income distribution are likely to reduce inequality. First it reviews some recent benefit/cost estimates for human capital intervention in LAC, suggesting some investments in which the returns appear ...

  14. Erratum to ‘Identifying policy target groups with qualitative and quantitative methods: the case of wildfire risk on nonindustrial private forest lands’ [Forest Policy and Economics. 25: 62–71

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Jeffrey D. Kline; Susan Charnley; Christine. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...

  15. A brief history of economic evaluation for human papillomavirus vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jit, Mark

    2010-09-01

    This commentary discusses key issues for health economic evaluation and modelling, applied to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programs. We outline some of the specific features of HPV disease and vaccination, and associated policy questions in light of a literature search for economic evaluations on HPV vaccination. We observe that some policy questions could not be reliably addressed by many of the 43 published economic evaluations we found. Despite this, policy making on universal HPV vaccination followed shortly after vaccine licensure in many developed countries, so the role economic evaluation played in informing these decisions (pre-dating 2008) seems to have been fairly limited. For more recent decisions, however, economic evaluation is likely to have been used more widely and more intensively. We expect future cost-effectiveness analyses to be more instrumental in policy making regarding vaccines covering more HPV types, therapeutic HPV vaccines, and novel diagnostic tests for biomarkers of HPV infection and disease integrated with cervical screening programs.

  16. Prostitution and Human Trafficking : A model-based exploration and policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovari, A.; Pruyt, E.

    2012-01-01

    The meeting of the oldest profession with modern slavery is the topic of this paper. After a brief introduction to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking, this paper focuses on the Dutch policy debate. A System Dynamics simulation model related to the Dutch situation developed to

  17. Policies to Create and Destroy Human Capital in Europe. NBER Working Paper No. 15742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Jacobs, Bas

    2010-01-01

    Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the…

  18. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  19. Guidelines to the Development of Human Resources in Libraries: Rationale, Policies, Programs and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Trends, 1971

    1971-01-01

    It is apparent that there are many roadblocks preventing the release of the human potential in our libraries. These guidelines take the position that a great deal can be done toward diagnosing and removing these roadblocks by establishing and developing meaningful policies and programs. (49 references) (Author/NH)

  20. Workshop: Towards an integrative European perspective on health human resources policy: how and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Kuhlmann, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Across many countries, shortages and inefficient use of qualified healthcare staff – together with changes in the composition of the health professional workforce by age, gender and citizenship – have created an urgent call for health human resources policy, planning and management. In

  1. Policy Writing as Dialogue: Drafting an Aboriginal Chapter for Canada's Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Reading

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing policy that applies to First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada has become more interactive as communities and their representative organizations press for practical recognition of an Aboriginal right of self-determination. When the policy in development is aimed at supporting “respect for human dignity” as it is in the case of ethics of research involving humans, the necessity of engaging the affected population becomes central to the undertaking.

  2. Australian Government health advisory groups and health policy: seeking a horse, finding a camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lesley M; Boxall, Anne-Marie; Leeder, Stephen R

    2008-11-17

    Since its election, the Rudd Labor Government has created 10 new advisory bodies in the health portfolio, in addition to the 100 or more that were already established. An expansive and devolved advisory system could improve the health policy-making process, but only if it is integrated into the processes of government. We outline eight simple and practical measures that, if implemented, would make Australia's health advisory system more transparent and effective. Past experience shows that the most important factor governing the impact of health policy advisory bodies is political leadership.

  3. Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.

  4. The Human Genome Project and the social contract: a law policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1992-08-01

    For the first time in history, genetics will enable science to completely identify each human as genetically unique. Will this knowledge reinforce the trend for more individual liberties or will it create a 'brave new world'? A law policy approach to the problems raised by the human genome project shows how far our democratic institutions are from being the proper forum to discuss such issues. Because of the fears and anxiety raised in the population, and also because of its wide implications on the everyday life, the human genome analysis more than any other project needs to succeed in setting up such a social assessment.

  5. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 Group O and P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haworth Kevin G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.

  6. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 Group O and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread. PMID:21955466

  7. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  8. Security, development and human rights: normative, legal and policy challenges for the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damon

    2010-03-01

    This commentary addresses some of the challenges posed by the broader normative, legal and policy framework of the United Nations for the international drug control system. The 'purposes and principles' of the United Nations are presented and set against the threat based rhetoric of the drug control system and the negative consequences of that system. Some of the challenges posed by human rights law and norms to the international drug control system are also described, and the need for an impact assessment of the current system alongside alternative policy options is highlighted as a necessary consequence of these analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  10. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The

  11. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  12. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  13. Implementation of School Uniform Policy and the Violation of Students’ Human Rights in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the violations of students’ human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School’s Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods. Black girls claimed they were discriminated against and the protest serves as an example to demonstrate students’ human rights violations when schools implement school uniform policies. Inequality in schools is rife in South Africa. School uniform policies with regard to dress codes are expected to reduce school violence, prevent discipline issues, and improve in school safety. Students have rights and their rights can include issues regarding cultural, economic, and political freedoms. Students, especially adolescents, respond very negatively to school uniforms.

  14. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H

    2016-01-12

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  15. Human Health and Economic Impacts of Ozone Reductions by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Rebecca K; Thompson, Tammy M; Selin, Noelle E

    2017-02-21

    Low-income households may be disproportionately affected by ozone pollution and ozone policy. We quantify how three factors affect the relative benefits of ozone policies with household income: (1) unequal ozone reductions; (2) policy delay; and (3) economic valuation methods. We model ozone concentrations under baseline and policy conditions across the full continental United States to estimate the distribution of ozone-related health impacts across nine income groups. We enhance an economic model to include these impacts across household income categories, and present its first application to evaluate the benefits of ozone reductions for low-income households. We find that mortality incidence rates decrease with increasing income. Modeled ozone levels yield a median of 11 deaths per 100 000 people in 2005. Proposed policy reduces these rates by 13%. Ozone reductions are highest among low-income households, which increases their relative welfare gains by up to 4% and decreases them for the rich by up to 8%. The median value of reductions in 2015 is either $30 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) or $1 billion if reduced mortality risks are valued with willingness-to-pay or as income from increased life expectancy. Ozone reductions were relatively twice as beneficial for the lowest- compared to the highest-income households. The valuation approach affected benefits more than a policy delay or differential ozone reductions with income.

  16. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  17. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  18. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  19. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  20. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  1. Implementation of the EU-policy framework WFD and GWD in Europe - Activities of CIS Working Group Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grath, Johannes; Ward, Rob; Hall, Anna

    2013-04-01

    At the European level, the basic elements for groundwater management and protection are laid down in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) and the Groundwater Daughter Directive (2006/118/EC). EU Member States, Norway and the European Commission (EC) have jointly developed a common strategy for supporting the implementation of the WFD. The main aim of this Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) is to ensure the coherent and harmonious implementation of the directives through the clarification of a number of methodological questions enabling a common understanding to be reached on the technical and scientific implications of the WFD (European Communities, 2008). Groundwater specific issues are dealt with in Working Group C Groundwater. Members of the working group are experts nominated by Member states, Norway, Switzerland and Accession Countries (from administrative bodies, research institutes, …) and representatives from relevant stakeholders and NGOs. Working Group C Groundwater has produced numerous guidance documents and technical reports that have been endorsed by EU Water Directors to support and enable Member States to implement the directives. All the documents are published by the EC. Access is available via the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/groundwater/activities.htm Having addressed implementations issues during the 1st river basin planning cycle, WG C Groundwater is currently focussing on the following issues: groundwater dependent ecosystems, and climate change and groundwater. In the future, the outcome and recommendations of the "Blueprint" - to safeguard Europe's water resources - which was recently published by the EC will be of utmost importance in setting the agenda for the group. Most likely this will include water pricing, water demand management and water abstraction. Complementory to the particular working groups, a Science Policy Interface (SPI) activity has been established. Its purpose is

  2. Culture, mobility and human rights: considerations on social occupational therapy in the context of immigrants municipal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takao Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the need to revise education and professional action, in the context of social occupational therapy, facing the growing phenomenon of international migration, especially in the current construction of the municipal policy for immigrant populations in São Paulo, SP. The discussion is methodologically structured into three complementary lines of analysis results from documentary research accompanied by field study, visits, participations in meetings, inter-institutional forums, public hearings, thematic debates, in addition to literature review. In the first analysis axis, we discuss the current legislation in Brazil, the construction of migration policy at the municipal level and civil society articulations about human mobility, understood as a fundamental right. In the second, we discuss people care services, families and groups in migratory situation in São Paulo, SP. Finally, on the third axis, we discuss the cultural developments in social occupational therapy for professional action and training in the field of human mobility. As a result it was observed that the current panorama poses new professional challenges, forcing the occupational therapist to review its technical-political position face to the new realities of the contemporary world.

  3. Activities of the study group of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and non-proliferation policy. FY Heisei 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Mitsuru; Oi, Noboru

    2000-01-01

    The Study Group on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Non-Proliferation Policy (Chairman: Prof. Kurosawa) was established in FY1999 with the funding from the Science and Technology Agency. The aim of the Study Group is to clearly understand nuclear proliferation issues and to lead international opinion. Nuclear non-proliferation is a matter of rather scanty interest compared to nuclear safety while both of them are important in promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Japan. In FY2000, the Study Group held International Symposium 'Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Non-Proliferation: A Challenge of 21st Century' and in conjunction with this Symposium, dispatched 'The Statement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Non-Proliferation, Action Plan towards 21st Century'. The Statement consists of five propositions: 1) Strengthening the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and making it universally applicable, 2) Negative legacy of cold war: rapid solution of problems, 3) Civil (non-military) plutonium, 4) Development of technology to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime internationally, and 5) Strengthening Japanese initiative on nuclear non-proliferation policy. In this report, these activities will be explained in detail. (author)

  4. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Joeris, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and c...... in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy.......Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement...... and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being...

  5. Group interventions for patients with cancer and HIV disease: part IV. Clinical and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszcz, Molyn; Sherman, Allen; Mosier, Julie; Burlingame, Gary M; Cleary, Trish; Ulman, Kathleen Hubbs; Simonton, Stephanie; Latif, Umaira; Strauss, Bernhard; Hazelton, Lara

    2004-10-01

    Group interventions have assumed a growing role in primary prevention and supportive care for cancer and HIV disease. Earlier sections of this Special Report examined empirical findings for these interventions and provided recommendations for future research. The current section offers brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and stakeholders. Group services now occupy an increasingly prominent place in primary prevention programs and medical settings. In previous sections of this Special Report (Sherman, Leszcz et al., 2004; Sherman, Mosier et al., 2004a, 2004b) we examined the efficacy of different group interventions at different phases of cancer or HIV disease, considered characteristics of the intervention and the participants that might influence outcomes, and discussed mechanisms of action. Methodological challenges and priorities for future research were highlighted. In this, the final section, we offer brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. We consider some of the barriers that constrain use of empirically-based group interventions and note how these programs might be implemented more widely and effectively.

  6. Interest Groups, the Courts, and Educational Equality: A Policy Regimes Approach to "Vergara v. California"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Thompson, Alea R.

    2016-01-01

    In "Vergara v. California" (2014), a trial-level court ruled that California laws governing teacher tenure and dismissal were unconstitutional. This study analyzes "Vergara" in light of the shifting use of the courts to promote equal educational opportunities and the changing power bases of educational interest groups,…

  7. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  8. How corporatist institutions shape the access of citizen groups to policy makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Munk; Mach, André; Varone, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    similar socio-economic and political challenges during this period, but the political opportunity structure is more favorable towards citizen groups in Switzerland than in Denmark. The Swiss referendum institution makes parliamentarians more open to popular demands while in Denmark strong unions, a strong...

  9. Language Policies and Sociolinguistic Domains in the Context of Minority Groups in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Anwei; Adamson, Bob

    2018-01-01

    In mainland China, most ethnic minority students today face the challenge of learning three languages in schools, namely, their home language (L1), Mandarin Chinese (L2) and a foreign language, usually English (L3). Research into trilingual education for minority groups has been most active since the turn of the twenty-first century. This paper…

  10. Working group of experts on rare events in human error analysis and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    In dealing with the reference problem of rare events in nuclear power plants, the group has concerned itself with the man-machine system and, in particular, with human error analysis and quantification. The Group was requested to review methods of human reliability prediction, to evaluate the extent to which such analyses can be formalized and to establish criteria to be met by task conditions and system design which would permit a systematic, formal analysis. Recommendations are given on the Fessenheim safety system

  11. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  12. Ethics and policies in the face of research into extending human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    If the prediction of some scientists comes true, then we are only few years away from the appearance of the first generation of human beings who will be able to add one year to each remaining year of life expectancy. Faced with this possibility, it seems appropriate to give thought to the public policies that should be adopted. It is better to anticipate the various future scenarios than react to a reality which is a fait accompli. To date, the debate has mainly focused on the ethical question: is it good or bad for us humans to achieve immortal life? Until now, neither legal guidelines at State level nor those of international organisations which deal with bioethical issues have concerned themselves with this matter. But before discussing policies, two other matters should be addressed: first, to show how the prolongation of human life can be as much the unwanted outcome of legitimate efforts in search of healthy aging, as one of the aims of the post-humanist project; second, to present the most consistent and shared ethical reasons for rejecting the human immortality project.

  13. Collective cognition in humans: groups outperform their best members in a sentence reconstruction task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain J G Clément

    Full Text Available Group-living is widespread among animals and one of the major advantages of group-living is the ability of groups to solve cognitive problems that exceed individual ability. Humans also make use of collective cognition and have simultaneously developed a highly complex language to exchange information. Here we investigated collective cognition of human groups regarding language use in a realistic situation. Individuals listened to a public announcement and had to reconstruct the sentence alone or in groups. This situation is often encountered by humans, for instance at train stations or airports. Using recent developments in machine speech recognition, we analysed how well individuals and groups reconstructed the sentences from a syntactic (i.e., the number of errors and semantic (i.e., the quality of the retrieved information perspective. We show that groups perform better both on a syntactic and semantic level than even their best members. Groups made fewer errors and were able to retrieve more information when reconstructing the sentences, outcompeting even their best group members. Our study takes collective cognition studies to the more complex level of language use in humans.

  14. Do humans and nonhuman animals share the grouping principles of the iambic-trochaic law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mora, Daniela M; Nespor, Marina; Toro, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    The iambic-trochaic law describes humans' tendency to form trochaic groups over sequences varying in pitch or intensity (i.e., the loudest or highest sounds mark group beginnings), and iambic groups over sequences varying in duration (i.e., the longest sounds mark group endings). The extent to which these perceptual biases are shared by humans and nonhuman animals is yet unclear. In Experiment 1, we trained rats to discriminate pitch-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in pitch. In Experiment 2, rats were trained to discriminate duration-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in duration. We found that nonhuman animals group sequences based on pitch variations as trochees, but they do not group sequences varying in duration as iambs. Importantly, humans grouped the same stimuli following the principles of the iambic-trochaic law (Exp. 3). These results suggest the early emergence of the trochaic rhythmic grouping bias based on pitch, possibly relying on perceptual abilities shared by humans and other mammals, whereas the iambic rhythmic grouping bias based on duration might depend on language experience.

  15. Human resource assignment and role representation mechanism with the "cascading staff-group authoring" and "relation/situation" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Y; Sasaki, Y; Kinoshita, A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the access control mechanism and audit strategy of the "patient-doctor relation and clinical situation at the point-of-care" model with multi-axial access control matrix (ACM). This mechanism overcomes the deficit of ACM in the aspect of data accessibility but does not resolve the representation of the staff's affiliate and/or plural membership in the complex real world. Care groups inside a department or inter-department clinical team plays significant clinical role but also spend great amount of time and money in the hospital. Therefore the impact of human resource assignment and cost of such stakeholders to the hospital management is huge, so that they should be accurately treated in the hospital information system. However multi-axial ACM has problems with the representation of staff groups due to static parameters such as department/license because staffs belong to a group rather temporarily and/or a medical staff may belong to plural groups. As a solution, we have designed and implemented "cascading staff-group authoring" method with "relation and situation" model and multi-axial ACM. In this mechanism, (i) a system administrator certifies "group chief certifying person" according to the request and authorization by the department director, (ii) the "group chief certifying person" certifies "group chief(s)", (iii) the "group chief" recruits its members from the medical staffs, and at the same time the "group chief" decides the profit distribution policy of this group. This will enable medical staff to access EMR according to the role he/she plays whether it is as a department staff or as a group member. This solution has worked successfully over the past few years. It provides end-users with a flexible and time-to-time staff-group authoring environment using a simple human-interfaced tool without security breach and without system administration cost. In addition, profit and cost distribution is clarified among departments and

  16. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  17. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  18. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  19. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  20. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  1. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  2. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  3. Uncertainty communication in the Environmental Balance 2005. Results of the User Group Policy Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2006-02-01

    In 2003 recommendations were formulated how to deal with uncertainties in scientific studies. Currently a so-called 'Styleguide for Uncertainty Communication' is under development to report on information about uncertainties. The guide is based on literature survey and knowledge from experts in the field. A group of users of the Dutch Environmental Balance 2005 was set up to communicate and inform about uncertainties with respect to the Balance [nl

  4. GROUP-BUYING ONLINE AUCTION AND OPTIMAL INVENTORY POLICY IN UNCERTAIN MARKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian CHEN; Yunhui LIU; Xiping SONG

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a group-buying online auction (GBA) model for a monopolistic manufacturer selling novel products in the uncertain market. Firstly, we introduce the bidder's dominant strategy, after which we optimize the GBA price curve and the production volume together.Finally, we compare the GBA with the traditional posted pricing mechanism and find that the GBA is highly probable to be advantageous over the posted pricing mechanism in some appropriate market environments.

  5. An unreliable group arrival queue with k stages of service, retrial under variant vacation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, J.; Indhira, K.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this research work we considered repairable retrial queue with group arrival and the server utilize the variant vacations. A server gives service in k stages. Any arriving group of units finds the server free, one from the group entering the first stage of service and the rest are joining into the orbit. After completion of the i th stage of service, the customer may have the option to choose (i+1)th stage of service with probability θi , with probability pi may join into orbit as feedback customer or may leave the system with probability {q}i=≤ft\\{\\begin{array}{l}1-{p}i-{θ }i,i=1,2,\\cdots k-1\\ 1-{p}i,i=k\\end{array}\\right\\}. If the orbit is empty at the service completion of each stage service, the server takes modified vacation until at least one customer appears in the orbit on the server returns from a vacation. Busy server may get to breakdown and the service channel will fail for a short interval of time. By using the supplementary variable method, steady state probability generating function for system size, some system performance measures are discussed.

  6. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  7. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  8. The place of human rights and the common good in global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioulas, John; Vayena, Effy

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an integrated account of two strands of global health justice: health-related human rights and health-related common goods. After sketching a general understanding of the nature of human rights, it proceeds to explain both how individual human rights are to be individuated and the content of their associated obligations specified. With respect to both issues, the human right to health is taken as the primary illustration. It is argued that (1) the individuation of the right to health is fixed by reference to the subject matter of its corresponding obligations, and not by the interests it serves, and (2) the specification of the content of that right must be properly responsive to thresholds of possibility and burden. The article concludes by insisting that human rights cannot constitute the whole of global health justice and that, in addition, other considerations-including the promotion of health-related global public goods-should also shape such policy. Moreover, the relationship between human rights and common goods should not be conceived as mutually exclusive. On the contrary, there sometimes exists an individual right to some aspect of a common good, including a right to benefit from health-related common goods such as programmes for securing herd immunity from diphtheria.

  9. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  10. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed; Ronda Mariani

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the...

  11. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  13. Impact of Public Safety Policies on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Dynamics in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Chaillon, Antoine; Gaines, Tommi L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia E; Stockman, Jamila K; Almanza-Reyes, Horatio; Chavez, Jose Roman; Vera, Alicia; Wagner, Karla D; Patterson, Thomas L; Scott, Brianna; Smith, Davey M; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2018-02-10

    North Tijuana, Mexico is home to many individuals at high risk for transmitting and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from 8 research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana and were used to infer viral transmission patterns. To evaluate the impact of recent policy changes on HIV transmission dynamics, qualitative interviews were performed on a subset of recently infected individuals. Between 2004 and 2016, 288 unique HIV pol sequences were obtained from individuals in Tijuana, including 46.4% from men who have sex with men, 42.1% from individuals reporting transactional sex, and 27.8% from persons who inject drugs (some individuals had >1 risk factor). Forty-two percent of sequences linked to at least 1 other sequence, forming 37 transmission clusters. Thirty-two individuals seroconverted during the observation period, including 8 between April and July 2016. Three of these individuals were putatively linked together. Qualitative interviews suggested changes in policing led individuals to shift locations of residence and injection drug use, leading to increased risk taking (eg, sharing needles). Near real-time molecular epidemiologic analyses identified a cluster of linked transmissions temporally associated with policy shifts. Interviews suggested these shifts may have led to increased risk taking among individuals at high risk for HIV acquisition. With all public policy shifts, downstream impacts need to be carefully considered, as even well-intentioned policies can have major public health consequences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Multi-task learning with group information for human action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Wu, Song; Pu, Nan; Xu, Shulin; Xiao, Guoqiang

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition is an important and challenging task in computer vision research, due to the variations in human motion performance, interpersonal differences and recording settings. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-task learning framework with group information (MTL-GI) for accurate and efficient human action recognition. Specifically, we firstly obtain group information through calculating the mutual information according to the latent relationship between Gaussian components and action categories, and clustering similar action categories into the same group by affinity propagation clustering. Additionally, in order to explore the relationships of related tasks, we incorporate group information into multi-task learning. Experimental results evaluated on two popular benchmarks (UCF50 and HMDB51 datasets) demonstrate the superiority of our proposed MTL-GI framework.

  15. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  16. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  17. Climate change, aeroallergens, natural particulates, and human health in Australia: state of the science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.

  18. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  19. Expression of LacdiNAc Groups on N-Glycans among Human Tumors Is Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Hirano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of proteins and lipids is one of the characteristic features of malignantly transformed cells. The GalNAcβ1 → 4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc or LDN group at the nonreducing termini of both N- and O-glycans is not generally found in mammalian cells. We previously showed that the expression level of the LacdiNAc group in N-glycans decreases dramatically during the progression of human breast cancer. In contrast, the enhanced expression of the LacdiNAc group has been shown to be associated with the progression of human prostate, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. Therefore, the expression of the disaccharide group appears to be dependent on types of tumors. The mechanism of formation of the LacdiNAc group in human tumors and cancer cells has been studied, and two β4-N-acetylgalacto-saminyltransferases (β4GalNAcTs, β4GalNAcT3 and β4GalNAcT4, have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of this disaccharide group in a tissue-dependent manner. Transfection of the β4GalNAcT3 gene brought about significant changes in the malignant phenotypes of human neuroblastoma, indicating that this disaccharide group is important for suppressing the tumor growth.

  20. Impacts of conservation and human development policy across stakeholders and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Zheng, Hua; Li, Shuzhuo; Chen, Xiaoshu; Li, Jie; Zeng, Weihong; Liang, Yicheng; Polasky, Stephen; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2015-01-01

    Ideally, both ecosystem service and human development policies should improve human well-being through the conservation of ecosystems that provide valuable services. However, program costs and benefits to multiple stakeholders, and how they change through time, are rarely carefully analyzed. We examine one of China’s new ecosystem service protection and human development policies: the Relocation and Settlement Program of Southern Shaanxi Province (RSP), which pays households who opt voluntarily to resettle from mountainous areas. The RSP aims to reduce disaster risk, restore important ecosystem services, and improve human well-being. We use household surveys and biophysical data in an integrated economic cost–benefit analysis for multiple stakeholders. We project that the RSP will result in positive net benefits to the municipal government, and to cross-region and global beneficiaries over the long run along with environment improvement, including improved water quality, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. However, there are significant short-run relocation costs for local residents so that poor households may have difficulty participating because they lack the resources to pay the initial costs of relocation. Greater subsidies and subsequent supports after relocation are necessary to reduce the payback period of resettled households in the long run. Compensation from downstream beneficiaries for improved water and from carbon trades could be channeled into reducing relocation costs for the poor and sharing the burden of RSP implementation. The effectiveness of the RSP could also be greatly strengthened by early investment in developing human capital and environment-friendly jobs and establishing long-term mechanisms for securing program goals. These challenges and potential solutions pervade ecosystem service efforts globally. PMID:26082546

  1. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  2. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  3. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers.Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops.Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers.Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant

  4. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  5. National Advisory Groups and their role in immunization policy-making processes in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F

    2013-12-01

    During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Group attributional training as an effective approach to human resource development under team work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z M

    1994-07-01

    An experimental programme of group attributional training under team work system was conducted as part of human resource development in Chinese industrial enterprises. One hundred and ten shopfloor employees participated in the study. Among them, 58 employees took part in the factorial-designed experiment to find out the effects of attributions on performance, and 52 employees of ten work groups participated in the group attributional training programme twice a week for two months. The results showed that the group attributional training was effective in modifying employees' attributional patterns and enhancing group performance and satisfaction. On the basis of the results, an attributional model of work motivation is proposed, and its theoretical and practical implications for human resource management discussed.

  7. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Characteristics and practice profiles of migrant dentist groups in Australia: implications for dental workforce policy and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D; Watkins, Keith; Chrisopoulos, Sergio; Brennan, David S

    2015-06-01

    Migrants comprise a growing proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. To date, research on migrant dentists is limited, raising policy questions regarding the motivations for migration, demographic profiles and work patterns. The purpose of this paper was to present findings from the first national survey of migrant dentists in Australia. All dentists with a primary dental qualification from an overseas institution and registered with the Australian Dental Association (n=1,872) or enrolled as a graduate student in any of the nine dental schools in Australia (n=105) were surveyed between January and May 2013. A total of 1,022 participants (response rate=54.5%) were classifiable into three migrant dentist groups: direct recognition (n=491); Australian Dental Council (ADC) (n=411); and alternative pathway (n=120). Overall, 41.8% of migrant dentists were female. More than half of the ADC group (54.1%) were from lower middle income countries. The most frequent motivation for migration according to the direct recognition group (21.1%) was 'adventure', whereas other groups migrated for 'better opportunity'. The majority of ADC respondents (65%) were under 45 years of age, and a larger proportion worked in the most disadvantaged areas (12.4%), compared with other groups. Gender, marital status, years since arrival in Australia and having children varied between the groups (chi square; Pmigrate to Australia for different reasons. The large proportion of the migrant dentist workforce sourced from lower middle income countries points towards deficiencies in oral health systems both for these countries and for Australia. The feminisation of the migrant dentist profile could in future affect dentist-practice activity patterns in Australia. Further research, especially on the settlement experiences of these dentists, can provide better insights into issues faced by these dentists, the nature of support that migrant dentists receive in Australia, the probable future

  9. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  10. Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  11. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barker

    Full Text Available Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic "tug-of-war" model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

  12. Human papillomavirus vaccine and cervical cancer prevention: practice and policy implications for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer; Sturpe, Deborah A; Khanna, Niharika

    2008-01-01

    To review the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), summarize relevant clinical trials of the prophylactic HPV vaccines, and describe the practice and policy implications that HPV vaccine represents for pharmacists. Search of Medline through June 2007 using keywords human papillomavirus vaccine, Gardasil, and Cervarix; meeting abstracts; bibliographies from selected articles; and National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. English language review articles, clinical trials, and published abstracts were considered for inclusion. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection that is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, and types 16 and 18 are associated with 70% of cases of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. A quadrivalent prophylactic vaccine against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 is currently available, and a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-16 and -18 is under review by the Food and Drug Administration. Both are highly effective at preventing persistent HPV infection and precancerous lesions caused by vaccine-specific HPV. HPV vaccine is currently indicated for girls aged 9 to 26 years, but ongoing trials are evaluating the efficacy in other populations. Implementation of a vaccine administration program is an area of opportunity for new policies to include pharmacists in the administration of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Pharmacists are allowed to administer vaccinations in 46 states and can potentially play a role in HPV vaccine administration. For this to happen, however, multiple legal and regulatory changes must occur. Prophylactic HPV vaccines safely and effectively prevent HPV infection and precancerous lesions in the cervix. The availability of these vaccines also create new clinical opportunities for community pharmacists, provided needed legal, regulatory, and policy changes are made.

  13. Handbook - TRACE-ing human trafficking : Handbook for policy makers, law enforcement agencies and civil society organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Pijnenburg, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is one of the largest criminal enterprises in the world. It is a multi-billiondollar crime of global scale. This is because human trafficking as a criminal enterprise continues to evolve as a high profit-low risk business for perpetrators and challenges policy makers, law

  14. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Human Body Movement and Group Interactions in Response to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Frank; Leman, Marc; Lesaffre, Micheline; de Bruyn, Leen

    Quantification of time series that relate to physiological data is challenging for empirical music research. Up to now, most studies have focused on time-dependent responses of individual subjects in controlled environments. However, little is known about time-dependent responses of between-subject interactions in an ecological context. This paper provides new findings on the statistical analysis of group synchronicity in response to musical stimuli. Different statistical techniques were applied to time-dependent data obtained from an experiment on embodied listening in individual and group settings. Analysis of inter group synchronicity are described. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Cross Correlation Function (CCF) were found to be valid methods to estimate group coherence of the resulting movements. It was found that synchronicity of movements between individuals (human-human interactions) increases significantly in the social context. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the type of music is the predominant factor in both the individual and the social context.

  16. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  17. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  18. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which sets out human rights in an accessible and inclusive fashion to ensure the equal participation of persons with disabilities. The inconclusive description of disability in the treaty overtly refers to 'mental impairment' as part of an explicitly evolving understanding of disability. This text sketches some of the underlying concepts as they apply to the realm of mental health: non-discrimination of persons with disabilities and measures that should be taken to ensure accessibility in a holistic understanding; removal of social and attitudinal barriers as much as communication and intellectual barriers but also institutional hurdles. The CRPD's paradigm shift away from framing disability mainly through deficits towards a social understanding of disability as the result of interaction and focusing on capacity is the core on which the provision of mental health services at community level to enable participation in society shall be ensured. Questions of capacity, also to make decisions and the possible need for support in so doing, are sketched out.

  19. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may......Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so...... large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one...

  20. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  1. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has...

  2. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  3. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  5. STARS experiential group intervention: a complex trauma treatment approach for survivors of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Elizabeth K; Azar, Naomi; Bhattacharyya, Sriya; Malebranche, Dominique A; Brennan, Kelsey E

    2018-01-01

    This is the abstract that was submitted online with the paper: Despite the fact that many survivors of human trafficking have experienced complex trauma, there are no established interventions designed to specifically address these impacts. Leaders in the field of complex trauma have advocated for the need for somatic approaches to intervention. This paper presents STARS Experiential Group treatment, the first structured bodybased group intervention that has been designed to address complex trauma in survivors of human trafficking. Three pilot groups were run in residential settings with adolescent and adult survivors of sex trafficking. Two adaptations were utilized, with one focusing on application of expressive arts modalities and the other incorporating theater games. Qualitative results, using thematic analysis, identified several themes related to challenges and potential benefits of these groups. Potential benefits of the STARS groups were found in the areas of Interpersonal Relationships, Regulation, and Self/ Identity, with fourteen sub-themes further describing positive impacts. Challenges within these areas are explored, to inform the development of group interventions for trafficking survivors. The results of this paper suggest that experiential, somatically-oriented group treatment shows promise as an important element of holistic intervention with trafficking survivors.

  6. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A.; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of human linguistic groups presents a number of interesting and nontrivial patterns. The distributions of the number of speakers per language and the area each group covers follow log-normal distributions, while population and area fulfill an allometric relationship. The topology of networks of spatial contacts between different linguistic groups has been recently characterized, showing atypical properties of the degree distribution and clustering, among others. Human demography, spatial conflicts, and the construction of networks of contacts between linguistic groups are mutually dependent processes. Here we introduce an adaptive network model that takes all of them into account and successfully reproduces, using only four model parameters, not only those features of linguistic groups already described in the literature, but also correlations between demographic and topological properties uncovered in this work. Besides their relevance when modeling and understanding processes related to human biogeography, our adaptive network model admits a number of generalizations that broaden its scope and make it suitable to represent interactions between agents based on population dynamics and competition for space.

  7. Ethical attitudes on human cloning among professionals in Taiwan and the policy implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2005-01-01

    This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.

  8. Policy for securing human resources in the nuclear industry of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The shortage of human resources in the field of nuclear industry in Japan is due to: structural difficulty resulting from the prevailing labor shortage in Japan, difficulties from the ever-intensifying adverse wind against nuclear power, and difficulties specific to R and D organizations. A practical plan is proposed for securing qualified personnel: approach to be directly made on campuses; effective/advanced management of human resources; better treatment and fringe benefit; promoting the nuclear industry attractiveness; expanding the scope of basic and fundamental researches; regaining the public confidence; closer cooperation between the government and the nuclear power groups. 6 figs

  9. Urban Foraging: A Ubiquitous Human Practice Overlooked by Urban Planners, Policy, and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie M. Shackleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although hardly noticed or formally recognised, urban foraging by humans probably occurs in all urban settings around the world. We draw from research in India, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States to demonstrate the ubiquity and varied nature of urban foraging in different contexts. Across these different contexts, we distil seven themes that characterise and thereby advance thinking about research and the understanding of urban foraging. We show that it is widespread and occurs across a variety of urban spaces and places. The species used and the local practices vary between contexts, and are in constant flux as urban ecological and social settings change. This requires that urban foragers are knowledgeable about diverse species, harvest locations, and rights of access, and that their practices are adaptable to changing contexts. Despite its ubiquity, most cities have some forms of regulations that prohibit or discourage urban foraging. We highlight a few important exceptions that can provide prototypes and lessons for other cities regarding supportive policy frameworks and initiatives. The formulation of dynamic policy, design, and management strategies in support of urban foraging will benefit from understanding the common characteristics of foraging in cities worldwide, but also will require comprehension of the specific and dynamic contexts in which they would be implemented.

  10. Food system policy, public health, and human rights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Kim, Brent F; McKenzie, Shawn E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2015-03-18

    The US food system functions within a complex nexus of social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological factors. Among them are many dynamic pressures such as population growth, urbanization, socioeconomic inequities, climate disruption, and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods that place immense strains on public health and the environment. This review focuses on the role that policy plays in defining the food system, particularly with regard to agriculture. It further examines the challenges of making the food supply safe, nutritious, and sustainable, while respecting the rights of all people to have access to adequate food and to attain the highest standard of health. We conclude that the present US food system is largely unhealthy, inequitable, environmentally damaging, and insufficiently resilient to endure the impacts of climate change, resource depletion, and population increases, and is therefore unsustainable. Thus, it is imperative that the US embraces policy reforms to transform the food system into one that supports public health and reflects the principles of human rights and agroecology for the benefit of current and future generations.

  11. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results. Copyright © 2015 Frenk and Gómez-Dantés. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  12. A human repair gene ERCC5 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    In E. coli, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage is removed by the coordinated action of UVR A, B, C, and D proteins (1). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than ten genes have been reported to be involved in excision repair (2). The nucleotide excision repair pathway has been extensively studied in these organisms. To facilitate studying nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. Ultraviolet-sensitive rodent cell mutants have been isolated and classified into 11 complementation groups (9,10). The human nucleotide excision repair genes which complement the defects of the mutants have been designated as the ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes; a number is added to refer to the particular rodent complementation group that is corrected by the gene. Recently, several human DNA repair genes have been cloned using rodent cell lines sensitive to ultraviolet. These include ERCC2 (3), ERCC3 (4), and ERCC6 (5), which correspond to the defective genes in the ultraviolet-sensitive human disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group D (6) and group B (4), and Cockayne's syndrome (CS) group B (7), respectively. The human excision repair gene ERCC5 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer of human HeLa cell genomic DNA into the ultraviolet-sensitive mouse mutant XL216, a member of rodent complementation group 5 (11,12) and the gene was mapped on human chromosome 13q32.3-q33.1 by the replication R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization method (13). The ERCC5 cDNA encodes a predicted 133 kDa nuclear protein that shares some homology with product of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD 2. Transfection with mouse ERCC5 cDNA restored normal levels of ultraviolet-resistance to XL216 cells. Microinjection of ERCC5 cDNA specifically restored the defect of XP group G cells (XP-G) as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), and XP-G cells stably transformed with ERCC5 cDNA showed nearly normal ultraviolet resistance. (J.P.N.)

  13. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  14. A Two-Generation Human Capital Approach to Anti-poverty Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Eckrich Sommer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-generation anti-poverty strategy to improve the economic fortunes of children in the United States. Our policy bridges two traditionally siloed interventions to boost their impacts: Head Start for children and career pathway training offered through community colleges for adults. We expect that an integrated two-generation human capital intervention will produce greater gains than either Head Start or community college alone for developmental and motivational, logistical and financial, social capital, and efficiency reasons. We suggest a competitive grant program to test and evaluate different models using federal dollars. We estimate average benefit-cost ratios across a range of promising career fields of 1.3 within five years and 7.9 within ten years if 10 percent of Head Start parents participate in two-generation programs.

  15. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated

  16. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  17. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the protection of information systems from unauthorized actors and cyber-threats. The criteria of the cybersecurity evaluation is identified and analyzed for quality, strengths, weaknesses, and future applicability. Topics within the criteria include organizational operation, regulations and industrial standards compliance, service delivery to national customers, and the prevention and mitigation of IT system and security failure. This analysis determines the strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for revising the cybersecurity policies within the United States Health and Human Services Department.

  18. Shaping a Gender Equality Policy in Higher Education: Which Human Capabilities Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Sonja; Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    South African institutions still confront gendered inequalities, irrespective of transformative national policies, compounded by the absence of a national gender equality policy for higher education. We therefore explore the potential of the capabilities approach (CA) to inform policy formation and argue for the development of a policy for higher…

  19. Research ethics in Canada: experience of a group operating a human embryo and fetal tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, N; Bamforth, S; Bagnall, K

    1999-04-01

    A Canadian research group is establishing a human embryo and fetal tissue bank. Its purpose is to provide researchers with frozen or fixed tissue specimens for use in protein and gene expression studies. Several legal and ethical issues have arisen, including questions about consent, use of these rare tissues, cost recovery, and profit-making. These issues are discussed here in light of the present lack of legislation in Canada. We make recommendations in these areas, and suggest that the bank's operations could legally fall under the jurisdiction of the Human Tissue Gift Act.

  20. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  1. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  2. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  3. A framework for the integration of ecosystem and human health in public policy: two case studies with infectious agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, H.S.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Despite that a significant body of published literature exists in the complex area of interconnection among the environment, ecosystems, and human activity, relatively little attention has been paid to the integration and analysis of ecological and human health data in the form of a conceptual model. Human and ecological health protection generally have been treated as separate domains of policy, with significant differences in both the analytic methods used to characterize risks and the policies developed for risk reduction. Understanding the relationships among population growth, development, natural resource use, the environment, human health, and ecosystems is an important area of both scientific inquiry and environmental policy. The present paper focuses on the development of a conceptual model for understanding disease causation, particularly infectious disease, and the implications of such a model for public policy. The conceptual model incorporates ecological and human health risk assessment information applied to case studies of two infectious diseases. This article takes an initial step toward formalizing the conceptual model so that research and assessment procedures can be developed

  4. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  5. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate

  6. Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    Human trafficking is an international crime renowned for extreme forms of violence against women, men and children. Although trafficking-related violence has been well-documented, the health of trafficked persons has been a largely neglected topic. For people who are trafficked, health risks and consequences may begin before they are recruited into the trafficking process, continue throughout the period of exploitation and persist even after individuals are released. Policy-making, service provision and research often focus narrowly on criminal violations that occur during the period of exploitation, regularly overlooking the health implications of trafficking. Similarly, the public health sector has not yet incorporated human trafficking as a health concern. We present a conceptual model that highlights the migratory and exploitative nature of a multi-staged trafficking process, which includes: 'recruitment', travel-transit', 'exploitation' and 'integration' or 'reintegration', and for some trafficked persons, 'detention' and 're-trafficking' stages. Trafficked persons may suffer from physical, sexual and psychological harm, occupational hazards, legal restrictions and difficulties associated with being marginalised or stigmatised. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from a theoretical approach that conceptualizes trafficking and health as a multi-staged process of cumulative harm. To address a health risk such as trafficking, which spans geographical boundaries and involves multiple sectors, including immigration and law enforcement, labour, social and health services, interventions must be coordinated between nations and across sectors to promote the protection and recovery of people who are trafficked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. E-cigarette use in pregnancy: a human rights-based approach to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Petersen, Anne Berit; Bialous, Stella A

    2017-11-01

    The health risks associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy are mostly unknown. Guidelines by the World Health Organization and national health agencies warn women against using e-cigarettes in pregnancy; however, in the UK, a recent multiagency guideline takes a different approach by not discouraging e-cigarette use in pregnancy. Furthermore, e-Voke ™ , an e-cigarette, has been approved for use in pregnancy in the UK. We analyze United Nations human rights treaties to examine how they might inform best practice recommendations for e-cigarette use in pregnancy. These treaties oblige Parties to adopt policies that protect children's and women's right to health, appropriate pregnancy services, and health education. We argue that clinical practice guidelines related to use of e-cigarettes in pregnancy should consider both evidence and human rights principles, and ensure that healthcare providers and patients are given clear, accurate messages about the known and potential risks associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.

  8. Towards a Custom-Made Whistleblowing Policy. Using Grid-Group Cultural Theory to Match Policy Measures to Different Styles of Peer Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing.

  9. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Dzurova, D.; Helmert, U.; Klumbiene, J.; Santana, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower

  10. Human chromosome 9 can complement UV sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanji; Sasaki, Masao S.; Ikenaga, Mituo; Nakamura, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    A single human chromosome derived from normal human fibroblasts and tagged with the G418 resistance gene was transferred into SV40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) cells via microcell fusion. When chromosome 1 or 12 was transferred, UV sensitivity of microcell hybrid cells was not changed. By contrast, after transferring chromosome 9,7 of 11 reipient clones were as UV-resistant as normal human cells. Four other clones were still as UV-sensitive as the parental XP-A cells. Southern hybridization analysis using a polymorphic probe, pEKZ19.3, which is homologous to a sequence of the D9S17 locus on chromosome 9, has confirmed that at least a part of normal human chromosome 9 was transferred into the recipient clones. However, amounts iof UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the UV-resistant clones were only one-third of those in normal human cells. These results indicate that a gene on chromosome 9 can confer complementation of high UV sensitivity of XP-A cells although it is still possible that 2 or more genes might be involved in the defective-repair phenotypes of XP-A. (author). 20 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Study on technology for utilization of the comprehensive functions of human group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki; Ando, Hirotomo

    1999-01-01

    To prevent an error manipulation in human intelligent workings during plant operation, it seems important to investigate on human comprehensive abilities. In this study, an investigation was made on 4 points; display of plant conditions fitting for human recognition abilities, feedback of plant working fitting to human recognition and sensation, display suitable for human recognition to predict the conditions of plant, and decision making and working support as a group. A supporting system to operate a plant model was constructed using multi-media projection system and transmission head-mount display. A feedback system able to reflect conditional changes in an actuator and a plant during bulb operation was constructed. Using these trial systems, geometric PWR plant model was constructed in 3D-VR space to make numerical simulation. Thus, the efficacy of this system for operating and surveillance workings was examined using control panel on personal computer. Three-dimensional presentation was obtained by combined use of an ordinal operation surveillance system and transmission HMD. If this system is used in combination with FTA, ETA and other logic support like online manual, human errors in judgement and workings during plant operations would be avoided through operator's noticing. If plant operation is regarded as a multi-agent consisted of a plant and humans, it seems possible to construct a model for working assignment and information exchange among agents with different intelligent capacities. It was demonstrated that 3D-VR was effective for information exchange especially among highly intelligent operators because 3D-VR was able to express abundant positional information. Since 3D pointer easily inform other operators about notice point on the screen, the pointer was thought very useful for mutual understanding among operators. (M.N.)

  12. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Study Design: Analytical cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Methodology: Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 macro m thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean +- S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. Results: The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). Conclusion: The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age. (author)

  13. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Ansa; Tahir, Mohammad; Munir, Bushra; Sami, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Analytical cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 μm thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean ± S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age.

  14. The Structure of the Human Centrin 2-Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Protein Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson,J.; Ryan, Z.; Salisbury, J.; Kumar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Human centrin-2 plays a key role in centrosome function and stimulates nucleotide excision repair by binding to the xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein. To determine the structure of human centrin-2 and to develop an understanding of molecular interactions between centrin and xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein, we characterized the crystal structure of calcium-loaded full-length centrin-2 complexed with a xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptide. Our structure shows that the carboxyl-terminal domain of centrin-2 binds this peptide and two calcium atoms, whereas the amino-terminal lobe is in a closed conformation positioned distantly by an ordered {alpha}-helical linker. A stretch of the amino-terminal domain unique to centrins appears disordered. Two xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptides both bound to centrin-2 also interact to form an {alpha}-helical coiled-coil. The interface between centrin-2 and each peptide is predominantly nonpolar, and key hydrophobic residues of XPC have been identified that lead us to propose a novel binding motif for centrin.

  15. The Structure of the Human Centrin 2-Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Protein Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.; Ryan, Z.; Salisbury, J.; Kumar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Human centrin-2 plays a key role in centrosome function and stimulates nucleotide excision repair by binding to the xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein. To determine the structure of human centrin-2 and to develop an understanding of molecular interactions between centrin and xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein, we characterized the crystal structure of calcium-loaded full-length centrin-2 complexed with a xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptide. Our structure shows that the carboxyl-terminal domain of centrin-2 binds this peptide and two calcium atoms, whereas the amino-terminal lobe is in a closed conformation positioned distantly by an ordered α-helical linker. A stretch of the amino-terminal domain unique to centrins appears disordered. Two xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptides both bound to centrin-2 also interact to form an α-helical coiled-coil. The interface between centrin-2 and each peptide is predominantly nonpolar, and key hydrophobic residues of XPC have been identified that lead us to propose a novel binding motif for centrin

  16. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  17. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  18. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  19. PENGUKURAN KINERJA KARYAWAN PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO TBBM SEMARANG GROUP DENGAN PENDEKATAN HUMAN RESOURCES SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Aisyah Putri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO Terminal Bahan Bakar Minyak (TBBM Semarang Group memiliki tugas utama yaitu sebagai tempat Penerimaan, Penyimpanan, dan Penyaluran. TBBM Semarang Group menargetkan posisi perusahaan ada pada peringkat “GOLD” di Tahun 2014 dengan standar kriteria persentase penilaian keseluruhan sebesar 90%. Dari data yang didapatkan hasil nilai audit POSE (Pertamina Operation & Service Excellent pada tahun 2013 mencapai 92%, dan pada tahun 2014 meningkat menjadi 93,9%. Namun pada 4 elemen yang berkaitan dengan aspek Human Resources terjadi penurunan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi KPI (Key performance indicator terpilih yang dapat menunjang peningkatan nilai POSE dengan menggunakan rancangan HR Scorecard, serta menghitung bobot masing-masing KPI dengan metode Analytical Hierarchy Process dan mengukur nilai pencapaian kinerja dengan metode Scoring System dan evaluasi hasil pengukuran kinerja dengan Traffic Light System. Perancangan pengukuran kinerja dengan kerangka Human Resources Scorecard menghasilkan 17 KPI yang dapat menunjang peningkatan nilai POSE, yaitu 5 KPI dari perspektif High Performance Work System, 3 KPI HR System Alignment, 4 KPI HR Efficiency, dan 5 KPI HR Deliverable. Dari hasil pengukuran kinerja TBBM Semarang Group berada pada level hijau dengan hasil kinerja sebesar 98% atau sudah baik. Namun, masih terdapat 2 KPI yang berada pada level merah yaitu tingkat keterlambatan karyawan dan biaya penjagaan lingkungan. Maka, perusahaan harus melakukan perbaikan segera pada kedua KPI tersebut agar dapat meningkatkan nilai persentase POSE pada aspek Human Resources. Kata Kunci : human resources scorecard; key performance indicator; pengukuran kinerja; analytical hierarchy process; scoring system dan traffic light system Abstract The main roles of PT. Pertamina (Persero Fuel Oil Terminal (TBBM Semarang Group consist of Receiving, Storing, and Distribution. In 2004, TBBM Semarang Group targeted the

  20. Sex, kings and serial killers and other group-selected human traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J T

    2000-06-01

    (Note: This unorthodox paper contains the first argument for heart disease being a programmed age change and promoted by the dramatic, post age-40 increases in the hormones FSH and hCG seen in some individuals.) A recent issue of Science suggests that the evolutionary purpose of sex is unknown. Surviving to adulthood implies a valuable gene combination which is destroyed by sexual recombination. This should be detrimental to offspring. PROPOSED: Sex is group-selected in prey to allow coalescence of beneficial, and disposal of detrimental, mutations in single individuals enabling rapid adaptation to novel predation. Group selection is a universal force driven by local inter-species (not intra-species) competition. Aging, metabolism, litter size, and fixed body size are directly linked. Sexual recombination and chromosomes destroy gene linkage and exist because mutations are usually detrimental, rarely positive, and occur in linked groups. In unevolving environments, sex is selected against and asexuality emerges. Periodic evolution of novel predators, like man, can explain the 'punctuated equilibria' fossil record. Genes inhibited by methylation or chromatin condensation, expressed at older ages in predation-minimized environments, allow for group selection. Stress increases mutation rates and beneficial mutation likelihood. Females select bigger, brighter, louder, or stronger males that can survive predator attention. Size approximates age and thus predator encounters; male traits represent predation-survival potential. Human male traits include, balding, acne, beard-length, wrinkling, graying, nose/ear growth. Progeria accelerates development of most male traits. Domination of groups by single males allows rapid predation-defense evolution: adolescent males are expelled, brave the wild, and expel another group's male to mate. If expelled and dominant males are culled by predation, males reaching puberty first will reproduce. Hormonal acceleration of puberty

  1. Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, D L; Geyer, M A; Swerdlow, N R

    2001-07-01

    Since the mid-1970s, cross-species translational studies of prepulse inhibition (PPI) have increased at an astounding pace as the value of this neurobiologically informative measure has been optimized. PPI occurs when a relatively weak sensory event (the prepulse) is presented 30-500 ms before a strong startle-inducing stimulus, and reduces the magnitude of the startle response. In humans, PPI occurs in a robust, predictable manner when the prepulse and startling stimuli occur in either the same or different modalities (acoustic, visual, or cutaneous). This review covers three areas of interest in human PPI studies. First, we review the normal influences on PPI related to the underlying construct of sensori- (prepulse) motor (startle reflex) gating. Second, we review PPI studies in psychopathological disorders that form a family of gating disorders. Third, we review the relatively limited but interesting and rapidly expanding literature on pharmacological influences on PPI in humans. All studies identified by a computerized literature search that addressed the three topics of this review were compiled and evaluated. The principal studies were summarized in appropriate tables. The major influences on PPI as a measure of sensorimotor gating can be grouped into 11 domains. Most of these domains are similar across species, supporting the value of PPI studies in translational comparisons across species. The most prominent literature describing deficits in PPI in psychiatrically defined groups features schizophrenia-spectrum patients and their clinically unaffected relatives. These findings support the use of PPI as an endophenotype in genetic studies. Additional groups of psychopathologically disordered patients with neuropathology involving cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuits exhibit poor gating of motor, sensory, or cognitive information and corresponding PPI deficits. These groups include patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome

  2. A proposed regulatory policy statement on human factors requirements in the design and operation of Canadian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    With the increasing complexity of new nuclear facilities and the extent to which automation is being applied, it is essential that the staff who operate a facility be considered as integral components in the design and safety analyses. This policy statement is proposed to indicate those areas of facility design and operation where the role of the human operator must be especially examined

  3. Czech Rural Development Policies for Human Resources, post-2004: A Story of Muddled Definitions Preventing Strategic Visions?"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vobecká, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2009), s. 44-65 ISSN 1802-4866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : rural development * human resources * policy formulation Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  4. Gender Instruments, Laws, Policies and Guidelines: A Tool for Human Resource Managers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Kathure Kaimenyi; Anne Ngeretha

    2014-01-01

    The need for effective workplace policies and procedures has never been more important in today’s changing workplace. This is driven by changes to legislation, regulation and codes. Organizations policies must be in line with the national laws, procedures and policies, and since nations subscribe to various international laws and guidelines, these should accordingly be integrated in organization policies. Through a review of existing literature, this study examines important legislations that...

  5. Dogs' (Canis familiaris) attention to human perception: Influence of breed groups and life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Manser, Marta B

    2017-02-01

    Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access. The owners saw either none or 1 food item through a transparent barrier. Our results showed that dogs pay attention to the perception of humans, whereby differences between breed groups became obvious. Within different genetic groups, ancient and hunting type dogs performed similarly, they were more attentive to their owners' perception than shepherd and the mastiff type dogs. When comparing dogs classified according to their working style, independent workers and family dogs were attentive to the owner's perception, while cooperative workers seemed not. The dogs' choice could not be explained by a general or training induced preference for eating behind an opaque screen, or by an influence of the owner's possible intention to prevent the dog from taking the food item he could see. Our study confirms that dogs are attentive/sensitive to human's perception, but genetic and working style differences among the breeds, as well as dog sport experiences explain part of the variation seen in their performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Kenya's health workforce information system: a model of impact on strategic human resources policy, planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Willy, Rankesh M; Kiriinya, Rose N; Waudo, Agnes N; Oluoch, Tom; Kimani, Francis M; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-09-01

    Countries worldwide are challenged by health worker shortages, skill mix imbalances, and maldistribution. Human resources information systems (HRIS) are used to monitor and address these health workforce issues, but global understanding of such systems is minimal and baseline information regarding their scope and capability is practically non-existent. The Kenya Health Workforce Information System (KHWIS) has been identified as a promising example of a functioning HRIS. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of KHWIS data on human resources policy, planning and management. Sources for this study included semi-structured interviews with senior officials at Kenya's Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), the Department of Nursing within MOMS, the Nursing Council of Kenya, Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board, Kenya's Clinical Officers Council, and Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board. Additionally, quantitative data were extracted from KHWIS databases to supplement the interviews. Health sector policy documents were retrieved from MOMS and MOPHS websites, and reviewed to assess whether they documented any changes to policy and practice as having been impacted by KHWIS data. Interviews with Kenyan government and regulatory officials cited health workforce data provided by KHWIS influenced policy, regulation, and management. Policy changes include extension of Kenya's age of mandatory civil service retirement from 55 to 60 years. Data retrieved from KHWIS document increased relicensing of professional nurses, midwives, medical practitioners and dentists, and interviewees reported this improved compliance raised professional regulatory body revenues. The review of Government records revealed few references to KHWIS; however, documentation specifically cited the KHWIS as having improved the availability of human resources for health information regarding workforce planning

  7. A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the most prevalent human pathogens, and consist of 101 serotypes that are classified into groups A and B according to sequence variations. HRV infections cause a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe lower respiratory symptoms. Defining the role of specific strains in various HRV illnesses has been difficult because traditional serology, which requires viral culture and neutralization tests using 101 serotype-specific antisera, is insensitive and laborious.To directly type HRVs in nasal secretions of infants with frequent respiratory illnesses, we developed a sensitive molecular typing assay based on phylogenetic comparisons of a 260-bp variable sequence in the 5' noncoding region with homologous sequences of the 101 known serotypes. Nasal samples from 26 infants were first tested with a multiplex PCR assay for respiratory viruses, and HRV was the most common virus found (108 of 181 samples. Typing was completed for 101 samples and 103 HRVs were identified. Surprisingly, 54 (52.4% HRVs did not match any of the known serotypes and had 12-35% nucleotide divergence from the nearest reference HRVs. Of these novel viruses, 9 strains (17 HRVs segregated from HRVA, HRVB and human enterovirus into a distinct genetic group ("C". None of these new strains could be cultured in traditional cell lines.By molecular analysis, over 50% of HRV detected in sick infants were previously unrecognized strains, including 9 strains that may represent a new HRV group. These findings indicate that the number of HRV strains is considerably larger than the 101 serotypes identified with traditional diagnostic techniques, and provide evidence of a new HRV group.

  8. New patterns in human biogeography revealed by networks of contacts between linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A; Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-03-07

    Human languages differ broadly in abundance and are distributed highly unevenly on the Earth. In many qualitative and quantitative aspects, they strongly resemble biodiversity distributions. An intriguing and previously unexplored issue is the architecture of the neighbouring relationships between human linguistic groups. Here we construct and characterize these networks of contacts and show that they represent a new kind of spatial network with uncommon structural properties. Remarkably, language networks share a meaningful property with food webs: both are quasi-interval graphs. In food webs, intervality is linked to the existence of a niche space of low dimensionality; in language networks, we show that the unique relevant variable is the area occupied by the speakers of a language. By means of a range model analogous to niche models in ecology, we show that a geometric restriction of perimeter covering by neighbouring linguistic domains explains the structural patterns observed. Our findings may be of interest in the development of models for language dynamics or regarding the propagation of cultural innovations. In relation to species distribution, they pose the question of whether the spatial features of species ranges share architecture, and eventually generating mechanism, with the distribution of human linguistic groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  10. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  11. Lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae by a human cytotoxic T cell clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Robbins, F.; Hartzman, R.J.; Dasch, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytolytic human T cells clones generated in response to the intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi were characterized. Growing clones were tested for their ability to proliferate specifically in response to antigens derived from typhus group rickettsiae or to lyse targets infected with R. typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii, as measured by 51 Cr-release from target cells. Two clones were able to lyse targets infected with typhus group rickettsiae. One of these clones was more fully characterized because of its rapid growth characteristics. This cytolytic clone was capable of lysing an autologous infected target as well as a target matched for class I and II histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA). It was not capable, however, of lysing either a target mismatched for both class I and II HLA or a target partially matched for class I HLA. In addition, the clone exhibited specificity in that it was able to lyse an autologous target infected with typhus group rickettsiae, but did not lyse an autologous target infected with an antigenically distinct rickettsial species, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cells infected with intracellular bacteria can be lysed by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  12. Variation in clinical phenotype of human infection among genetic groups of Blastomyces dermatitidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Jennifer K.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Gruszka, Sarah; Sloss, Brian L.; Sullivan, Bradley; Reed, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, has 2 genetic groups and shows varied clinical presentation, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination. The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical phenotype and outcomes vary based on the infecting organism's genetic group.Methods. We used microsatellites to genotype 227 clinical isolates of B. dermatitidis from Wisconsin patients. For each isolate, corresponding clinical disease characteristics and patient demographic information were abstracted from electronic health records and Wisconsin Division of Health reportable disease forms and questionnaires.Results. In univariate analysis, group 1 isolates were more likely to be associated with pulmonary-only infections (P 1 month (P smoking status (P = .0001) remained predictors for group 2 infections.Conclusions. This study identified previously unknown associations between clinical phenotype of human infection and genetic groups of B. dermatitidis and provides a framework for further investigations of the genetic basis for virulence in B. dermatitidis.

  13. Characterization of binding of human alpha 2-macroglobulin to group G streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatwal, G.S.; Mueller, H.P.; Blobel, H.

    1983-01-01

    An interaction was observed between human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and streptococci belonging to group A, C, and G. Of 27 group C and 19 group G streptococcal cultures, 13 and 14, respectively, bound 125 I-labeled alpha 2M. Some group A streptococci also interacted with alpha 2M. A number of other bacterial species tested did not react with alpha 2M. The binding of 125 I-labeled alpha 2M to group G streptococci was time dependent, saturable, and could be inhibited by unlabeled alpha 2M. Inhibition experiments indicated that the streptococcal binding site for alpha 2M differed from the receptors for immunoglobulin G, fibrinogen, aggregated beta 2-microglobulin, albumin, and fibronectin. The alpha 2M binding activity was remarkably sensitive to trypsin and heat treatment indicating its protein nature. Kinetic analysis indicated a homogenous population of binding sites. The number of binding sites per bacterial cell was estimated to be approximately 20,000

  14. Overview on urban and peri-urban agriculture: definition, impact on human health, constraints and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, E K; Grace, D; Randolph, T F

    2007-11-01

    To collate and synthesize current knowledge of components of urban agriculture (UA) with a thematic emphasis on human health impact and a geographic emphasis on East Africa. Data management followed a structured approach in which key issues were first identified and then studies selected through literature search and personal communication. Evidence-based principles. Urban agriculture is an important source of food security for urban dwellers in East Africa. Descriptors of UA are location, areas, activities, scale, products, destinations, stakeholders and motivation. Many zoonotic and food-borne diseases have been associated with UA but evidence on human health impact and management is lacking. Major constraints to UA are illegality and lack of access to input and market; policy options have been developed for overcoming these. Urban agriculture is an important activity and likely to remain so. Both positive and negative human health impacts are potentially important but more research is needed to understand these and set appropriate policy and support levels.

  15. The energy policy relevance of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report on the macro-economics of mitigating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Richard A.; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2016-01-01

    Research which attempted to determine the macroeconomic importance of mitigating climate change through 2100 was presented primarily in Chapter 6 of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report. Some of the findings of this chapter were then summarized in the Summary for Policy Makers (SPMs) of both the Synthesis Report, and the WGIII report. Unfortunately, these SPMs omitted key aspects of what the overall macroeconomic results for the costs and benefits of mitigating climate change actually did and did not include, how they were produced, and a careful assessment of their uncertainty and scientific validity. Yet, many of the major omissions were acknowledged deep in the text of Chapter 6, but were not revealed to the public. We conclude, therefore, that neither of these SPMs was useful for energy policy makers and energy managers, and they were misleading due to their many key omissions. Finally, we recommend several improvements that can be made to integrated assessment modeling methodologies so that the macroeconomic analysis of mitigating climate change resulting from the use of such models can be more relevant and useful to energy policy makers in the future, and can be communicated to them better. - Highlights: •The 2014 IPCC Working Group III Report has major omissions in its economic analysis. •Many well-known benefits of mitigation are not included in its economic results. •The Summary for Policy Makers is not very useful for energy policy decision makers. •The upcoming Sixth IPCC WGIII analysis should be structured quite differently.

  16. Nystagmus responses in a group of normal humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal eye movement responses to earth-horizontal yaw axis rotation were evaluated in 50 normal human subjects who were uniformly distributed in age (20-69 years) and each age group was then divided by gender. Subjects were rotated with eyes open in the dark, using clockwise and counter-clockwise 60 deg velocity trapezoids. The nystagmus slow component velocity is analyzed. It is shown that, despite large intersubject variability, parameters which describe earth-horizontal yaw axis responses are loosely interrelated, and some of them vary significantly with gender and age.

  17. Nanotechnology in global medicine and human biosecurity: private interests, policy dilemmas, and the calibration of public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how best to approach dilemmas posed to global health and biosecurity policy by increasing advances in practical applications of nanotechnology. The type of nano-technology policy dilemmas discussed include: (1) expenditure of public funds, (2) public-funded research priorities, (3) public confidence in government and science and, finally, (4) public safety. The article examines the value in this context of a legal obligation that the development of relevant public health law be calibrated against less corporate-influenced norms issuing from bioethics and international human rights.

  18. Gruppenrechte versus Frauen-/Menschenrechte? Group Rights vs. Women’s/Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Ergenzinger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aus feministischer Sicht werden Konflikte zwischen Frauenrechten als Menschenrecht und Gruppenrechten der kulturellen Selbstbestimmung in mehrkulturellen Gesellschaften in Europa verhandelt. Sachverständige, Aktivistinnen und Wissenschaftler/-innen thematisieren die am häufigsten in der Öffentlichkeit diskutierten Spannungen: Genitalbeschneidung von Frauen, Zwangsverheiratungen, Ehrenmord, Frauenhandel und Kopftuchzwang werden als Reibungen zwischen Individual- und Gruppenrechten, zwischen Minderheits- und Mehrheitsgesellschaft diskursiv und empirisch gerahmt und an die Autonomie der betroffenen Frauen zurückgebunden.From a feminist perspective, conflicts between women’s rights as human rights and group rights dispute cultural self-determination in multicultural societies in Europe. Specialists, activists, and scholars thematize those tensions most often appearing in public discussions: Genital mutilation of women, forced marriages, honor killings, trafficking in women, and forced veiling are framed discursively and empirically as representing friction between individual and group rights, between minority and majority society. This is tied to the autonomy of the women concerned.

  19. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  20. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  1. Preclinical Safety Studies of Enadenotucirev, a Chimeric Group B Human-Specific Oncolytic Adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Illingworth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Enadenotucirev is an oncolytic group B adenovirus identified by a process of bio-selection for the ability to selectively propagate in and rapidly kill carcinoma cells. It is resistant to inactivation by human blood components, potentially enabling intravenous dosing in patients with metastatic cancer. However, there are no known permissive animal models described for group B adenoviruses that could facilitate a conventional approach to preclinical safety studies. In this manuscript, we describe our tailored preclinical strategy designed to evaluate the key biological properties of enadenotucirev. As enadenotucirev does not replicate in animal cells, a panel of primary human cells was used to evaluate enadenotucirev replication selectivity in vitro, demonstrating that virus genome levels were >100-fold lower in normal cells relative to tumor cells. Acute intravenous tolerability in mice was used to assess virus particle-mediated toxicology and effects on innate immunity. These studies showed that particle toxicity could be ameliorated by dose fractionation, using an initial dose of virus to condition the host such that cytokine responses to subsequent doses were significantly attenuated. This, in turn, supported the initiation of a phase I intravenous clinical trial with a starting dose of 1 × 1010 virus particles given on days 1, 3, and 5.

  2. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  3. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization

  4. Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Human Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Melanie L; Lainhart, William; Burnham, C A

    2018-03-01

    The veterinary pathogens in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) are increasingly recognized as causes of human infection. Shared features between SIG and Staphylococcus aureus may result in the misidentification of SIG in human clinical cultures. This study examined the clinical and microbiological characteristics of isolates recovered at a tertiary-care academic medical center. From 2013 to 2015, 81 SIG isolates were recovered from 62 patients. Patients were commonly ≥50 years old, diabetic, and/or immunocompromised. Documentation of dog exposure in the electronic medical record was not common. Of the 81 SIG isolates, common sites of isolation included 37 (46%) isolates from wound cultures and 17 (21%) isolates from respiratory specimens. Although less common, 10 (12%) bloodstream infections were documented in 7 unique patients. The majority of SIG (65%) isolates were obtained from polymicrobial cultures. In comparison to S. aureus isolates from the same time period, significant differences were noted in proportion of SIG isolates that were susceptible to doxycycline (74% versus 97%, respectively; P SIG isolates. All MR isolates detected by an oxacillin disk diffusion test would have been misclassified as methicillin susceptible using a cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Thus, SIG is recovered from human clinical specimens, and distinction of SIG from S. aureus is critical for the accurate characterization of MR status in these isolates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS IN A GROUPHUMAN - PET”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Gagarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the features of interspecific interaction “Human - Pet” in aspects of psychology and behaviorism. This direction is shown to be promising in the theoretical and applied aspects. This is significant for the study of individual social activity and human life, as well as social groups. The article identifies the promising areas of the research of such interaction: in the development of family and child-parent relations; in the asocial individual development under the influence of various factors (social and personal; in various directions of media development (social advertising on television and in print, in fiction and film; in socially-significant communicating in social networks (communication through video sharing, etc.. It is shown that this perspective is important for research in education and upbringing. We have come to the conclusion that the problems are of social significance because the direct and/or indirect human contact with natural objects contributes to the development of different spheres of his/her personality (cognitive, communicative, aesthetic, ethical, emotional, volitional.

  6. Group B streptococcus activates transcriptomic pathways related to premature birth in human extraplacental membranes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ryung; Harris, Sean M; Boldenow, Erica; McEachin, Richard C; Sartor, Maureen; Chames, Mark; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short-term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes. We tested this hypothesis using GBS-inoculated human extraplacental membranes in vitro. In agreement with our hypothesis, a microarray-based transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes in GBS-inoculated membranes revealed that GBS activated pathways related to inflammation and preterm birth with significant gene expression changes occurring as early as 4 h postinoculation. In addition, pathways related to DNA replication and repair were downregulated with GBS treatment. Conclusions based on our transcriptomics data were further supported by responses of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP1) and 3 (MMP3), all of which are known to be involved in parturition and premature rupture of membranes. These results support our initial hypothesis and provide new information on molecular targets of GBS infection in human extraplacental membranes.

  7. Expression and characterization of human group C rotavirus virus-like particles in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Kristina B.; Lin, S.-C.; Humphrey, Charles; Foytich, Kimberly; Esona, Mathew; Wang Yuhuan; Liu, Merry; Jiang Baoming

    2009-01-01

    Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. We expressed the three major capsid proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 of human GpC RV in baculovirus and demonstrated the self-assembly of VP2/6/7 or VP6/7 virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells. We examined a number of parameters, including the kinetics of protein synthesis in different cell lines and media, to optimize the most favorable conditions for the synthesis of recombinant viral proteins and the production of VLPs in Sf9 cells. Hyperimmune serum to VP2/6/7 and VP6/7 VLPs recognized individual recombinant proteins of human GpC RV by Western blot analysis. This serum also showed specific reactivities with the corresponding GpC VLPs but not GpA RV by using immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The ability to produce an unlimited amount of GpC RV antigen and the availability of high quality antibody will allow us to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic assays to better determine the epidemiology and disease burden of GpC RV in humans.

  8. Barriers to acceptance of self-sampling for human papillomavirus across ethnolinguistic groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Lytwyn, Alice; Lohfeld, Lynne; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Fowler, Nancy; Karwalajtys, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant and low socio-economic (SES) women in North America underutilize Papanicolaou screening. Vaginal swab self-sampling for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening participation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the perceptions of lower SES and immigrant women regarding self-sampling for HPV. Eleven focus-group interviews were conducted: one with Canadian-born English-speaking lower SES women, and two groups each with Arabic, Cantonese, Dari (Afghani), Somali and Spanish (Latino)-speaking women (one group conducted in English, the other in the native language) recently immigrated to Canada. Five to nine women aged 35 to 65 years and married with children participated in each group. Themes included 1) who might use self-sampling and why; 2) aversion to self-sampling and reasons to prefer physician; 3) ways to improve the appeal of self-sampling. Women generally perceived benefits of self-sampling and a small number felt they might use the method, but all groups had some reservations. Reasons included: uncertainty over performing the sampling correctly; fear of hurting themselves; concern about obtaining appropriate material; and concerns about test accuracy. Women preferred testing by a health care professional because they were accustomed to pelvic examinations, it was more convenient, or they trusted the results. Perceptions of self-sampling for HPV were similar across cultures and pertained to issues of confidence in self-sampling and need for physician involvement in care. These findings can inform programs and studies planning to employ self-sampling as a screening modality for cervical cancer.

  9. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Jair de Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.

  10. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies. A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    The publication contains thirteen reports from the Twentieth National Agricultural Policy Conference held September 22-25, 1970, at Pokagon State Park, Angola, Indiana. The conference was designed to assist extension workers by broadening their perspective, understanding, and handling of the methodology of public affairs education. Four topics in…

  11. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies; A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Sixteen essays pertaining to agricultural extension education were the basis of the 18th National Agricultural Policy Conference, held September 10-18, 1968, at Sequoyah State Park, Wagoner, Oklahoma. Individual topics of papers include leadership training, Iowa State welfare, low income area community development, an urban extension pilot…

  12. Humanity, U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy and the Select Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Broadus N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines United States policy and practices in regard to immigrants and refugees. Observes that recent changes in refugee and immigration legislation may have provided the catalyst for less racial and ethnic discrimination in American domestic and foreign policy. Suggests that current trends point to the possibility of unity in cultural pluralism.…

  13. Policies and practices of countries experiencing a crisis in Human Resources for Health : A tracking survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ankie; Gedik, Gulin; dal Poz, Mario; Dieleman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand and monitor the progress in developing and implementing HRH policies in the 57 countries experiencing a critical deficit in the health workforce, this tracking survey provides an overview of the current situation in terms of HRH policies, plans, capacities and processes. The

  14. Small functional groups for controlled differentiation of hydrogel-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Durney, Andrew R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-10-01

    Cell-matrix interactions have critical roles in regeneration, development and disease. The work presented here demonstrates that encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be induced to differentiate down osteogenic and adipogenic pathways by controlling their three-dimensional environment using tethered small-molecule chemical functional groups. Hydrogels were formed using sufficiently low concentrations of tether molecules to maintain constant physical characteristics, encapsulation of hMSCs in three dimensions prevented changes in cell morphology, and hMSCs were shown to differentiate in normal growth media, indicating that the small-molecule functional groups induced differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where synthetic matrices are shown to control induction of multiple hMSC lineages purely through interactions with small-molecule chemical functional groups tethered to the hydrogel material. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful as they could make production of therapeutic materials simpler, cheaper and more easily controlled.

  15. Curcumin Protects -SH Groups and Sulphate Transport after Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythrocytes, continuously exposed to oxygen pressure and toxic compounds, are sensitive to oxidative stress, namely acting on integral Band 3 protein, with consequences on cell membranes deformability and anion transport efficiency. The aim of the present investigation, conducted on human erythrocytes, is to verify whether curcumin (1 or 10µM, a natural compound with proved antioxidant properties, may counteract Band 3-mediated anion transport alterations due to oxidative stress. Methods: Oxidative conditions were induced by exposure to, alternatively, either 2 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM or pH-modified solutions (6.5 and 8.5. Rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups estimation were measured to verify the effect of oxidative stress on anion transport efficiency and erythrocyte membranes. Results: After the exposure of erythrocytes to, alternatively, NEM or pH-modified solutions, a significant decrease in both rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups was observed, which was prevented by curcumin, with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions: Our results show that: i the decreased efficiency of anion transport may be due to changes in Band 3 protein structure caused by cysteine -SH groups oxidation, especially after exposure to NEM and pH 6.5; ii 10 µM Curcumin is effective in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress events at level of cell membrane transport.

  16. Reflections on the international climate change negotiations: A synthesis of a working group on carbon emission policy and regulation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, Oswaldo; Romeiro, Viviane; Pacca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This short communication presents a synthesis of a Working Group on Carbon Emission Policy and Regulation held at the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil. The document looked at the problems with the international negotiations, the options for Brazil as it attempts to control emissions, and ways to leverage the mitigation process. Several options are currently being proposed, but these are neither clear in order to support a solid polycentric approach with adequate metrics, nor a robust international coordination and a sound scientific communication. Brazil has a central role in this process, for having successful initiatives on renewable energy and deforestation control. Its leadership can demonstrate how such policies might take shape. However, the country´s future is uncertain in terms of low carbon development. Although the country is still well positioned among BRICS to find practical solutions to the stalemate in international cooperation, several internal challenges need to be harmonized. - Highlights: • The work presents results of a recent climate change mitigation policies workshop. • It assesses Brazil's potential role in shaping future policies and negotiations. • Policies are evaluated based on domestic and international effects. • Suggests how Brazil's national effort could leverage the international processes

  17. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pediatric Formulation Initiative: selected reports from working groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2008-11-01

    The Pediatric Formulation Initiative (PFI) is a project of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The PFI was established to address the issue of the lack of appropriate formulations in children and to use this activity as a means to improve pediatric formulations, as mandated by the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2002 and 2007. The PFI began in 2005 with the formation of 3 working groups-Scientific, Economics, and Taste and Flavor. These groups began the process of identifying issues, gathering needed information, and considering possible ways to overcome barriers to the development of pediatric drug formulations. The purpose of this supplement was to provide details of the working groups' activities through presentation of full-length articles. Also presented is an article that discusses the 2007 European Union (EU) regulation on medicinal products for pediatric use. Information for this article was gathered from the proceedings of a PFI workshop, sponsored by the NICHD, that was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on December 6 and 7, 2005, as well as postworkshop discussions of the different working groups. The increased awareness that the majority of medications used today have not been labeled for use in children, and have not been tested to define safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing, has led to the passage of legislation in the United States and in the EU to create incentives to stimulate the testing of drugs in this special population. It is imperative that the problems associated with the compounding and use of extemporaneous formulations as described in this supplement be addressed. Regulatory barriers to the availability of commercially developed pediatric formulations in different countries will need to be minimized or removed. New drug delivery systems will need to be tested and made available to pediatric patients. Further research in the mediators of bitter taste and study of taste blockers

  18. CERN anti-fraud policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  19. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV) refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV) refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003). After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Government asylum policies and practices violating human rights norms are associated with demonstrable psychological health impacts. This link between policy, rights violations and health outcomes offers a framework for addressing the impact of socio-political structures on health.

  20. Awareness and Attitude of Physicians in Academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) and Related Policies in Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin K Joshi; Latika Nath; Vibha Joshi; Anil Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In India, several science agencies are promoting Stem Cell Research (SCR). There is paucity of studies which document the perception of doctors about SCR, especially physicians in academia. This study was carried out to assess perception of physicians in academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) and related policies in India. Methods: We interviewed 200 doctors from three different government medical colleges of Rajasthan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to disce...

  1. Government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Monica; Hoffman, Steven J

    2017-12-13

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognized threat to global public health. Increasing AMR and a dry pipeline of novel antimicrobial drugs have put AMR in the international spotlight. One strategy to combat AMR is to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption. Governments around the world have been experimenting with different policy interventions, such as regulating where antimicrobials can be sold, restricting the use of last-resort antimicrobials, funding AMR stewardship programs, and launching public awareness campaigns. To inform future action, governments should have access to synthesized data on the effectiveness of large-scale AMR interventions. This planned systematic review will (1) identify and describe previously evaluated government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use and (2) estimate the effectiveness of these different strategies. An electronic search strategy has been developed in consultation with two research librarians. Seven databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PAIS Index, Web of Science, and PubMed excluding MEDLINE) will be searched, and additional studies will be identified using several gray literature search strategies. To be included, a study must (1) clearly describe the government policy and (2) use a rigorous design to quantitatively measure the impact of the policy on human antibiotic use. The intervention of interest is any policy intervention enacted by a government or government agency in any country to change human antimicrobial use. Two independent reviewers will screen for eligibility using criteria defined a priori. Data will be extracted with Covidence software using a customized extraction form. If sufficient data exists, a meta-analysis by intervention type will be conducted as part of the effectiveness review. However, if there are too few studies or if the interventions are too heterogeneous, data will be tabulated and a narrative synthesis strategy will be used. This evidence synthesis is intended

  2. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  3. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo.

  4. The Australopithecines – An Extinct Group of Human Ancestors: My Scientific Interest in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszycka Katarzyna A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the subject of my research interest in South Africa - the australopithecines - a group of bipedal, small-brained and large-toothed creatures from the Plio-Pleistocene, from which the human genus arose. I then briefly discuss various topics of my research, concerning: (1 Taxonomic status and morphological description of the extinct human relative from the Kromdraai site (Australopithecus robustus; (2 Graphic reconstruction of the partial skull from Kromdraai - specimen numbered TM 1517; (3 Assessment of size sexual dimorphism of the South African australopithecines (Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus africanus, which, in terms of facial features, was pronounced - being almost gorilla-sized; (4 Social behavior of a fossil hominid species from around 2 million years ago, which, in terms of the social structure, was most likely a multimale-multifemale one; and (5 An event from the history of paleoanthropology, concerning the content of the 1924/25 photographs of the Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus - the first australopithecine skull discovered.

  5. Molecular cloning and protein structure of a human blood group Rh polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif-Zahar, B.; Bloy, C.; Le Van Kim, C.; Blanchard, D.; Bailly, P.; Hermand, P.; Salmon, C.; Cartron, J.P.; Colin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding a human blood group Rh polypeptide were isolated from a human bone marrow cDNA library by using a polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA fragment encoding the known common N-terminal region of the Rh proteins. The entire primary structure of the Rh polypeptide has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a 1384-base-pair-long cDNA clone. Translation of the open reading frame indicates that the Rh protein is composed of 417 amino acids, including the initiator methionine, which is removed in the mature protein, lacks a cleavable N-terminal sequence, and has no consensus site for potential N-glycosylation. The predicted molecular mass of the protein is 45,500, while that estimated for the Rh protein analyzed in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels is in the range of 30,000-32,000. These findings suggest either that the hydrophobic Rh protein behaves abnormally on NaDodSO 4 gels or that the Rh mRNA may encode a precursor protein, which is further matured by a proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal region of the polypeptide. Hydropathy analysis and secondary structure predictions suggest the presence of 13 membrane-spanning domains, indicating that the Rh polypeptide is highly hydrophobic and deeply buried within the phospholipid bilayer. These results suggest that the expression of the Rh gene(s) might be restricted to tissues or cell lines expressing erythroid characters

  6. A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidbey, Christopher; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Burnside, Kellie; Ngo, Lisa; Becraft, Alexis K.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infection of the amniotic fluid is a significant cause of fetal injury, preterm birth, and newborn infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important human bacterial pathogen associated with preterm birth, fetal injury, and neonatal mortality. Although GBS has been isolated from amniotic fluid of women in preterm labor, mechanisms of in utero infection remain unknown. Previous studies indicated that GBS are unable to invade human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), which represent the last barrier to the amniotic cavity and fetus. We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. Clinical GBS isolates obtained from women in preterm labor are hyperhemolytic and some are associated with covR/S mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that hemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and not due to a pore-forming protein toxin. Our studies emphasize the importance of the hemolytic GBS pigment in ascending infection and fetal injury. PMID:23712433

  7. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for specific antibodies to members of the human herpesvirus group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehle, W.D.; Smith, K.O.; Fuccillo, D.A.; Perry, A.; Andrese, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antibody to members of the human herpesvirus group. The RIA is compared with some of the conventional serologic techniques used to quantitate antibody to these viruses (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus). Color-coded beads, each coated with the antigens of a different herpesvirus, were simultaneously placed in a well which contained a human serum to be assayed for antibody to each of these 4 viruses. The results of this test were compared with the results obtained when the serum was assayed for antibody to the 4 viruses in 4 separate tests. We conclude that the antigen-antibody reactions do not significantly interfere with each other when a serum is assayed for antibody to the 4 viruses simultaneously. A comparison of the RIA with conventional serologic techniques shows excellent correlation in the antibody titers obtained. Features of the solid-phase RIA allow significant savings of time, reagents and space, and thus make it feasible for the small laboratory to screen large numbers of sera for antibody to a variety of antigens. (Auth.)

  8. Study on techniques to use the comprehensive functions of human beings in a group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Ando, Hirotomo

    1997-01-01

    In an atomic power plant, it is necessary to provide sufficient informations concerning the quantity of state in the plant to the operators. However, an atomic power plant is apt to have a black box in its operation because of the automatized systems to avoid human errors. Thus, the informations of plant are needed to be provided in fitting forms for human cognitive functions. Here, an investigation was made focusing on the feedback of operation results and the presentation of the plant states in the PWR plant model. In addition, exchange and sharing of informations as well as role assignment in the operational support among groups were investigated using duty officers on bridge of a modern coastwise tanker as the subjects. To prevent an error manipulation during intelligent works in plant operation, a model room for virtual reality experiment was constructed. Then, an input system for sensory feedback and its plant model were proposed to examine the validity of the feedback inputs. (M.N.)

  9. CONNECTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental and public health policy continues to evolve in response to new and complex social, economic and environmental drivers. Globalization of commerce, evolving patterns of land use, and technological advances in such areas as manufacturing and genetically modified food...

  10. Duffy blood group system and the malaria adaptation process in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens are produced by the Duffy locus (Fya, Fyb, F3, F4, F5 and F6. It has been observed that Fy(a-b- individuals are resistant to Plasmodium knowlesi and P. vivax infection, because the invasion requires at least one of these antigens. The P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP is functionally important in the invasion process of these parasites in Duffy / DARC positive humans. The proteins or fractions may be considered, therefore, an important and potential inoculum to be used in immunization against malaria.

  11. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  13. Human prevalence of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-06-01

    In February 2006, an outbreak of human rickettsiosis occurred in the municipality of Necoclí Colombia, with 35% of lethality. This episode was, followed by two more, one in the municipality of Los Cordobas in 2007 with a 54% of lethality and the other one in the municipality of Turbo in 2008 with 27% of lethality. The aim of this study was to perform serological tests in healthy persons to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and develop a survey to study some infection risk-related factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2011 and 2012. A blood sample and survey of associated factors was performed in healthy persons. A prevalence of 32%-41% was found in healthy people. From the multivariate analysis, we found that people living more than 16 years in these sites had a 79% higher risk of being seropositive and a 46% higher risk when they reported having birds in their houses if the variable of having a horse was included in the model. In conclusion, this study shows endemicity of at least one spotted fever group Rickettsia in the study zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  16. Principal working group No. 1 on operating experience and human factors (PWG1). Report of the task group on reviewing the activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    A Task Group was formed by PWG-1 in the latter part of 1999 to review the mandate of PWG1 in light of new directions and assignments from CSNI, and to prepare a report that suggests future directions of the Working Group, in harmony with directions from CSNI. This report is the response of the Task Group. Principal Working Group no.1 was organized in September 1982. The group formed its charter, which included: - reviewing periodically activities for the collection, dissemination, storage and analysis of incidents reported under the IRS; - examining annually the incidents reported during the previous year in order to select issues (either technical or human-factor-oriented) with major safety significance and report them to CSNI; - encouraging feed-back through CSNI of lessons derived from operating experience to nuclear safety research programmes, including human factors studies; - providing a forum to exchange information in the field of human factors studies; - establishing short-term task forces, when necessary to carry out information exchange, special studies or any other work within its mandate; - making recommendations to CSNI for improving and encouraging these activities. The mandate of the working group was systematically re-examined in 1994. The purpose was to determine whether changes since the formation of the original mandate would indicate some need to refocus the directions of the working group. It was concluded that the main line of work (sometimes called the core business) of PWG1, which was shown to be an efficient tool for exchanging safety-significant operating experience and lessons learned from safety-significant issues, remained as valid and necessary in 1994 as it was in 1982. Some recommendations for improvement of efficiency were made, but the core business was unchanged. Very little of the mandate needed modification. With little change over nearly 20 years, these six items have constituted the mandate of PWG1. There have been twenty

  17. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in

  18. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  19. Pain and Policy Studies Group: Two Decades of Working to Address Regulatory Barriers to Improve Opioid Availability and Accessibility Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, James F; Maurer, Martha A

    2018-02-01

    For two decades, the Pain & Policy Studies Group (PPSG), a global research program at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, has worked passionately to fulfill its mission of improving pain relief by achieving balanced access to opioids worldwide. PPSG's early work highlighted the conceptual framework of balance leading to the development of the seminal guidelines and criteria for evaluating opioid policy. It has collaborated at the global level with United Nations agencies to promote access to opioids and has developed a unique model of technical assistance to help national governments assess regulatory barriers to essential medicines for pain relief and amend existing or develop new legislation that facilitates appropriate and adequate opioid prescribing according to international standards. This model was initially applied in regional workshops and individual country projects and then adapted for PPSG's International Pain Policy Fellowship, which provides long-term mentoring and support for several countries simultaneously. The PPSG disseminates its work online in several ways, including an extensive Web site, news alerts, and through several social media outlets. PPSG has become the focal point for expertise on policy governing drug control and medicine and pharmacy practice related to opioid availability and pain relief. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles....... The primary end point was time to progression. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 78 patients to capecitabine and 78 patients to capecitabine plus trastuzumab. Sixty-five events and 38 deaths in the capecitabine group and 62 events and 33 deaths in the capecitabine-plus-trastuzumab group occurred during 15...

  1. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  2. Awareness and Attitude of Physicians in Academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR and Related Policies in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin K Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, several science agencies are promoting Stem Cell Research (SCR. There is paucity of studies which document the perception of doctors about SCR, especially physicians in academia. This study was carried out to assess perception of physicians in academia towards Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR and related policies in India. Methods: We interviewed 200 doctors from three different government medical colleges of Rajasthan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to discern their awareness, attitudes towards utilization of SCR and their knowledge of related international and ethical policy issues. Results: Though mostly 177 (96.2% physicians acknowledged the public health benefits of promoting stem cell research in India, but 166 (66.2% were not aware of the stem cell research policy of the Government of India and 111 (60.3% were not aware of the ICMR guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research in India. There was a strong desire among academic physicians 152 (82.6% to incorporate a course on SCR to the students in the near future. Discussion: Physicians in academia have views that SCR should be encouraged to treat clinical diseases and this technology should be brought into India in a big way. They seem to believe that one of the ways to promote the benefits of SCR would be to raise awareness by publishing success stories in widely read Indian Medical Journals, giving updated information regarding its uses in clinical practices and its inclusion as a part of the curricula for health professionals.

  3. The Analysis of Human Resources Policies and Regional Financial Accounting System on Regional Government Financial Statements’ Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Nahar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accountability of local governments in the implementation of policies should be carried out with the financial statements present the quality. Qualitative characteristics of financial statements described in PP 24/ 2005 that the qualitative characteristics of financial statements is a normative measurement that needs to be realized in the accounting information that can be fulfil its purpose. To be able to raise the normative requirements, this characteristics is absolutely necessary in order to meet the government 's financial statements desired qualities are: relevant, reliable, comparable, and understandable.The population of this research is PPK-SKPD in Karesidenan Pati. Consisting of: Regency Jepara, Kudus, Pati , Rembang, Blora, and Grobogan, totally 113 SKPD with 73 respondents with a random sampling technique . Data analysis technique used is multiple regression analysis. The results mentioned that human resource policies affect the quality of financial reporting by 4.167. Implementation of the system accounting effect on the quality of financial reporting by 3.309 % . Human resources policies and implementation of accounting systems affect the quality of financial statements. This study did not succeed accept hypothesis 5 proved that the value of t = -1.021 and p = 0.311, which means that the BPK audit does not affect the relationship between the Application System Accounting for the Quality of Regional Financial Statements.

  4. EU and US External Policies on Human Rights and Democracy Promotion: Assessing Political Conditionality in Transatlantic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez de las Heras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at advancing existing research about the role that the Transatlantic Partnership may play within the specific field of human rights and democracy promotion in the current changing global order. It examines recent changes to the foreign policies of the European Union and the United States on this area and assesses the impact of these changes on the transatlantic partnership over the last five years. The paper argues that these modifications entail a greater convergence between the policies of the two regions, though some ideological divergences, lack of coordination and differences in implementation are still observable. However, the increasing mutual realignment could foster a truly transatlantic partnership in the field if both partners attain to define a joint strategy and establish common institutions to ensure permanent dialogue and policy coherence. At the same time, this enhanced co-operation could enable them to remain the principal supporters of human rights and democracy in the current multi-polar order.

  5. The balancing act of establishing a policy agenda : Conceptualizing and measuring drivers of issue prioritization within interest groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin, D.R.; Fraussen, B.; Nownes, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Interest groups are important intermediaries in Western democracies, with the potential to offer political linkage and form a bridge between the concerns of citizens and the agendas of political elites. While we know an increasing amount about the issue-based activity of groups, we only have a

  6. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  7. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Li, R.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L.C.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin

  8. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Guide Focus Group Development of Messages Aimed at Increasing Compliance With a Tobacco-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Harrington, Nancy G; Helme, Donald W; Savage, Matthew W

    2018-01-01

    This study details the persuasive message development for a theory-based campaign designed to increase compliance with a university's tobacco-free policy. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) guided message design and evaluation for focus group-tested messages that were adapted to the context of complying with a tobacco-free policy. The study was conducted at a university located in the tobacco belt. Undergraduate focus group participants (n = 65) were mostly male (69%), white (82%), and freshman (62%) who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the last 30 days; on-campus smoking percentages were never/rare (60%), occasionally (23%), and often/frequently (16%). Data analysis used a theoretical thematic approach to identify how the TPB constructs related to perceptions of message effectiveness. Participants responded favorably to attitudinal strategies about health, respect, and university figures; they rejected approaches they considered juvenile and offensive. They also discussed the impact of noncompliance and avoiding overgeneralized statements for addressing subjective norms, suggesting shortening text, adjusting picture location, and emphasizing the importance of compliance to increase perceptions of behavioral control. Applying theory to preexisting messages is challenging. The design approach in this study is an evidence-based strategy that can be used as a universal process for message adaptation. Results offer health promotion suggestions for designing messages aimed at improving undergraduate smokers' willingness to comply with tobacco-free campus policies.

  10. Motor units in the human medial gastrocnemius muscle are not spatially localized or functionally grouped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Brown, Harrison J; Inglis, J Timothy; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-08-15

    Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories or regions, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. We used intramuscular recordings to measure the territory of muscle fibres from MG MUs and determine whether these MUs are grouped by recruitment threshold or joint action (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion). The territory of MUs from the MG muscle varied from somewhat localized to highly distributed, with approximately half the MUs spanning at least half the length and width of the muscle. There was also no evidence of regional muscle activity based on MU recruitment thresholds or joint action. The CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. In this study, subjects (n = 8) performed ramped and sustained isometric contractions (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion; range: ∼1-40% maximal voluntary contraction) and we measured MU territory size with spike-triggered averages from fine-wire electrodes inserted along the length (seven electrodes) or across the width (five electrodes) of the MG muscle. Of 69 MUs identified along the length of the muscle, 32 spanned at least half the muscle length (≥ 6.9 cm), 11 of which spanned all recording sites (13.6-17.9 cm). Distal fibres had smaller pennation angles (P recruitment threshold or contraction type, nor was there a relationship between MU territory size and recruitment threshold (Spearman's rho = -0.20 and 0.13, P > 0.18). MUs in the human MG have larger territories than previously reported and are not localized based on recruitment threshold or joint action. This indicates that the CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of

  11. Policy Dialog: the Missing Link in the 2008 Romanian Human Papillomavirus (Hpv Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus PRICOPIE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of the traditional decision – making deciding behind the closed doors ofpower is strongly eroded by the new perceptionof democracy, as it is gradually replaced by amodel dominated not by managers, but by themanagement of decision. This article analyzesfrom the social sciences perspective a why theRomanian 2008 HPV vaccination campaign turnedout to be a failure, b what generated the strongpublic rejection of a policy that the Ministry of PublicHealth supposed would be easily accepted by thepopulation, and especially by the targeted group– the 10-11 years old girls and their parents. Thearticle also seeks to offer recommendations, fromthe public communication perspective, regardinghow policy dialogue and public participation mightsupport the promotion of large-scale policies byinvolving the stakeholders at all stages of thedecision-making process, and hence, avoidingunfounded social tensions and waste of valuableresources.

  12. A Critical Insight into Europe´s Criminalisation of Human Smuggling : SIEPS Policy Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, I.C.

    Despite being framed as a recent phenomenon, human smuggling practices have existed for a long time and have historically been tied to border crossing regulations and controls. What is relatively new however is the criminalisation of human smuggling. Since the 1990s human smuggling is increasingly

  13. Zbigniew Wozniak, The Elderly in Social Policy. Towards a New Architecture of Gerontological Programmes (Development in Humanities, Volume 4, Lit Verlag, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Zbigniew Wozniak, The Elderly in Social Policy. Towards a New Architecture of Gerontological Programmes (Development in Humanities, Volume 4, Lit Verlag, 2013

  14. Preventing cervical cancer through human papillomavirus vaccination: perspective from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2009-04-01

    It has been a little more than a year ago since the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) was released in Malaysia. Little is known about parental knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The objective of this study is to assess the mother's knowledge and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. The results are aimed to provide insights into the provision of appropriate educational and promotional program for effective immunization uptake. Purposive sampling method was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total of 47 mothers participated across 8 focus group discussions carried out between October and November 2007. The transcribed group discussions were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Respondents have low awareness about the newly released vaccine and the link between HPV and cervical cancer. When provided with information about HPV and cervical cancer, most mothers were in favor of protecting their daughters from cervical cancer using the vaccine. As with any new vaccine, efficacy and safety were the major concern, particularly when the vaccine is recommended to preadolescent. Many expressed concern about the high cost of the vaccine and hope that the inoculation could be at least partially subsidized by the government. A minority were concerned that the sexually transmitted disease-related vaccine would promote sexual activities, and some opposed making vaccination mandatory. For Muslim respondents, the kosher issue of HPV vaccine was an important factor for acceptance. Developing public health messages that focus on the susceptibility of HPV infection and its link to cervical cancer to educate parents may have the greatest impact on improving the uptake of the vaccine. Apart from the major concern about safety and efficacy, affordability, and acceptability of vaccinating young children, religious and ethnic backgrounds were important considerations when recommending the HPV vaccine. To foster broad acceptance

  15. Monetary Policy Transmission and the Labour Market in the Non‑eurozone Visegrad Group Countries in 2000–2014. Evidence from a SVAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at filling the gap in existing economic research by delivering new evidence on the money‑labour nexus in the emerging markets of the non‑eurozone Visegrad group countries (i.e. Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Analyses are based on the Strucutral VAR (SVAR models of the monetary transmission mechanism, estimated using monthly data from the 2000:1-2014:2 period. In order to obtain impulse responses, the short‑run restrictions set, based on the monetary transmission theory, is imposed. Two different identification schemes are considered. The results confirm that there exists a nexus between monetary policy, employment, and unemployment. According to the obtained estimates monetary policy shocks invoked lagged, hump‑shaped reactions of output, employment and unemployment in each of the analysed countries.

  16. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  17. Making Healthy Eating Policy Practice: A Group Randomized Controlled Trial on Changes in Snack Quality, Costs, and Consumption in After-School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B; Beighle, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to assist after-school programs (ASPs) in meeting snack nutrition policies that specify that a fruit or vegetable be served daily and sugar-sweetened beverages/foods and artificially flavored foods eliminated. The study used a 1-year group-randomized controlled trial. The study took place in ASPs operating in South Carolina, United States. Twenty ASPs serving over 1700 children were recruited, match-paired postbaseline on enrollment size and days fruits/vegetables were served per week, and randomized to either intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) groups. The study used Strategies To Enhance Practice for Healthy Eating (STEPs-HE), a multistep adaptive intervention framework that assists ASP leaders and staff to serve snacks that meet nutrition policies while maintaining cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed and monthly snack expenditures as determined by receipts were used. The study used nonparametric and mixed-model repeated measures. By postassessment, intervention ASPs increased serving of fruits/vegetables to 3.9 ± 2.1 vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 d/wk and decreased serving sugar-sweetened beverages to 0.1 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 2.4 d/wk and sugar-sweetened foods to 0.3 ± 1.1 vs. 2.7 ± 2.5 d/wk compared to controls, respectively. Cost of snacks increased by $0.02/snack in the intervention ASPs ($0.36 to $0.38) compared to a $0.01 per snack decrease in the control group ($0.39 to $0.38). Across both assessments and groups, 80% to 100% of children consumed FVs. The STEPs-HE intervention can assist ASPs in meeting nationally endorsed nutrition policies with marginal increases in cost. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  18. Papers of the Ziff Energy Group's 30. North American gas strategies conference : setting the stage : energy policy to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Policies and economic drivers concerning the natural gas industry were the focus of this conference, which was divided into 3 sessions. The first session examined various policy issues and perspectives from government officials in North America. High energy prices and regulations concerning land access were reviewed, as well as supply costs and infrastructure needs. Outlooks for the natural gas industry in Alberta and British Columbia were presented. Issues concerning coalbed methane (CBM) and accessing off-shore natural gas were discussed. Activities in the Yukon were outlined. Land claim settlements were reviewed, and the development of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure in Mexico was examined. Issues concerning the role of the natural gas industry in oil sands developments were addressed, as well as pipelines challenges and gas price impacts. Session 2 examined pipeline developments and infrastructure needs. Issues concerning stress corrosion cracking and the increase in Canadian pipelines were reviewed along with rates of return and market needs. Challenges facing natural gas infrastructure in the northeast were outlined and the impacts of LNG and northern supply were evaluated. Session 3 examined the impact of high gas prices. Macroeconomic impacts to the United States economy were discussed, as well as the impact of rising natural gas prices on the industrial sector. Issues concerning contract terms, credit terms, traded volumes and hedging were examined. Advances in temperature forecasting were reviewed. Short term price impacts and fundamental supply and demand issues were reviewed in relation to marketplace needs. Eleven presentations were given at this conference, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-12-16

    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  20. Metabolism of oxycodone in human hepatocytes from different age groups and prediction of hepatic plasma clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eKorjamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1 and 10 µM was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 hours, and 1 µM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 µM. Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. In general, this in vitro to in vivo extrapolation method provides valuable information on the maturation of oxycodone metabolism that can be utilized in the design of clinical pharmacokinetic studies in infants and young children.

  1. High-throughput sequencing of human plasma RNA by using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Wu, Douglas C.; Nottingham, Ryan M.; Mohr, Sabine; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptome profiling, gene expression analysis, and RNA-based diagnostics. Here, we developed a new RNA-seq method that exploits thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) and used it to profile human plasma RNAs. TGIRTs have higher thermostability, processivity, and fidelity than conventional reverse transcriptases, plus a novel template-switching activity that can efficiently attach RNA-seq adapters to target RNA sequences without RNA ligation. The new TGIRT-seq method enabled construction of RNA-seq libraries from RNA in RNA in 1-mL plasma samples from a healthy individual revealed RNA fragments mapping to a diverse population of protein-coding gene and long ncRNAs, which are enriched in intron and antisense sequences, as well as nearly all known classes of small ncRNAs, some of which have never before been seen in plasma. Surprisingly, many of the small ncRNA species were present as full-length transcripts, suggesting that they are protected from plasma RNases in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and/or exosomes. This TGIRT-seq method is readily adaptable for profiling of whole-cell, exosomal, and miRNAs, and for related procedures, such as HITS-CLIP and ribosome profiling. PMID:26554030

  2. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  3. Stories in Our Classrooms: Diverse Human Lives, as Narrated by Standardizing Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Bomer challenges the logic and effectiveness of current educational policy, noting that just as educational practice was becoming interdisciplinary and promoting holistic growth, philanthropic organizations pulled away from the effort with the expectation that government and other funding entities would pick up the responsibility. They didn't.…

  4. Building Capacity for Tracking Human Capital Development and Its Mobility across State Lines. Policy Insights

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    Prescott, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" provides a review of the past five years of the cost and value of higher education, which have gained increased policymaker, consumer, and media attention. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has worked with four of its member states (Hawai'i, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) to…

  5. Perception, acquisition and use of ecosystem services: human behavior, and ecosystem management and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Anne D. Guerry; Dale J. Blahna; Joshua J. Lawler

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services, fundamental to livelihoods and well-being, are reshaping environmental management and policy. However, the behavioral dimensions of ecosystem services and the responses of ordinary people to the management of those services, is less well understood. The ecosystem services framework lends itself to understanding the relationship between ecosystems...

  6. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  7. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  9. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

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    Mulholland Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001 amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies

  10. Making healthy eating policy practice: A group randomized controlled trial on changes in snack quality, costs, and consumption in after school programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B.; Beighle, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to assist after school programs (ASPs) in meeting snack nutrition policies that specify that a fruit or vegetable (FV) be served daily, and sugar-sweetened beverages/foods and artificially flavored foods eliminated. Design One-year group randomized controlled trial Setting Afterschool programs operating in South Carolina, US. Subjects Twenty ASPs serving over 1,700 children were recruited, match-paired post-baseline on enrollment size and days FV were served/week (days/wk), and randomized to either an intervention (n=10) or control (n=10) groups. Intervention Strategies To Enhance Practice for Healthy Eating (STEPs-HE), a multi-step adaptive intervention framework, which assists ASP leaders and staff to serve snacks that meet nutrition policies while maintaining cost. Measures Direct observation of snacks served and consumed, and monthly snack expenditures via receipts. Analysis Nonparametric and mixed-model repeated-measures Results By post-assessment, intervention ASPs increased serving FV to 3.9±2.1 vs. 0.7±1.7days/wk and decreased serving sugar-sweetened beverages to 0.1±0.7 vs. 1.8±2.4days/wk and foods to 0.3±1.1 vs. 2.7±2.5days/wk compared to controls, respectively. Cost of snacks increased by $0.02/snack in the intervention ASPs ($0.36 to $0.38) compared to a $0.01/snack decrease in the control ($0.39 to $0.38). Across both assessments and groups 80–100% of children consumed FV. Conclusions The STEPs-HE intervention can assist ASPs in meeting nationally endorsed nutrition policies with marginal increases in cost. PMID:26158679

  11. Human Polycomb group EED protein negatively affects HIV-1 assembly and release

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    Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group (PcG proteins with WD-40 repeats, has been found to interact with three HIV-1 components, namely the structural Gag matrix protein (MA, the integrase enzyme (IN and the Nef protein. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible biological role of EED in HIV-1 replication, using the HIV-1-based vector HIV-Luc and EED protein expressed by DNA transfection of 293T cells. Results During the early phase of HIV-1 infection, a slight negative effect on virus infectivity occurred in EED-expressing cells, which appeared to be dependent on EED-MA interaction. At late times post infection, EED caused an important reduction of virus production, from 20- to 25-fold as determined by CAp24 immunoassay, to 10- to 80-fold based on genomic RNA levels, and this decrease was not due to a reduction of Gag protein synthesis. Coexpression of WTNef, or the non-N-myristoylated mutant NefG2A, restored virus yields to levels obtained in the absence of exogenous EED protein. This effect was not observed with mutant NefΔ57 mimicking the Nef core, or with the lipid raft-retargeted fusion protein LAT-Nef. LATAA-Nef, a mutant defective in the lipid raft addressing function, had the same anti-EED effect as WTNef. Cell fractionation and confocal imaging showed that, in the absence of Nef, EED mainly localized in membrane domains different from the lipid rafts. Upon co-expression with WTNef, NefG2A or LATAA-Nef, but not with NefΔ57 or LAT-Nef, EED was found to relocate into an insoluble fraction along with Nef protein. Electron microscopy of HIV-Luc producer cells overexpressing EED showed significant less virus budding at the cell surface compared to control cells, and ectopic assembly and clustering of nuclear pore complexes within the cytoplasm. Conclusion Our data suggested that EED exerted an antiviral activity at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, which included genomic

  12. HERV-W group evolutionary history in non-human primates: characterization of ERV-W orthologs in Catarrhini and related ERV groups in Platyrrhini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Nicole; Cadeddu, Marta; Blomberg, Jonas; Mayer, Jens; Tramontano, Enzo

    2018-01-19

    The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology. A HERV-W provirus in locus 7q21.2 has been coopted during evolution to exert an essential role in placenta, and the group expression has been tentatively linked to Multiple Sclerosis and other diseases. Following up on a detailed analysis of 213 HERV-W insertions in the human genome, we now investigated the ERV-W group genomic spread within primate lineages. We analyzed HERV-W orthologous loci in the genome sequences of 12 non-human primate species belonging to Simiiformes (parvorders Catarrhini and Platyrrhini), Tarsiiformes and to the most primitive Prosimians. Analysis of HERV-W orthologous loci in non-human Catarrhini primates revealed species-specific insertions in the genomes of Chimpanzee (3), Gorilla (4), Orangutan (6), Gibbon (2) and especially Rhesus Macaque (66). Such sequences were acquired in a retroviral fashion and, in the majority of cases, by L1-mediated formation of processed pseudogenes. There were also a number of LTR-LTR homologous recombination events that occurred subsequent to separation of Catarrhini sub-lineages. Moreover, we retrieved 130 sequences in Marmoset and Squirrel Monkeys (family Cebidae, Platyrrhini parvorder), identified as ERV1-1_CJa based on RepBase annotations, which appear closely related to the ERV-W group. Such sequences were also identified in Atelidae and Pitheciidae, representative of the other Platyrrhini families. In contrast, no ERV-W-related sequences were found in genome sequence assemblies of Tarsiiformes and Prosimians. Overall, our

  13. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

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    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  14. Human milk banking in the volunteer sector: policy development and actuality in 1970s Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2012-04-01

    to describe the development of rigorous milk banking policies in the voluntary sector in Australia, 1975-1979, by the non-government organisation, the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia (now the Australian Breastfeeding Association), and the eventual abandonment of milk banking by the organisation. historical article. Australia in the years 1975-1979. during the period in which the policy development described here took place, conducting a milk bank to the rigorous standards set by the organisation required too heavy an investment of hours by unpaid volunteer coordinators to be sustainable. in establishing and continuing a successful milk bank, models which depend less on volunteer hours may be more sustainable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human nutrition and adaptation in Brazilian Amazon fishing areas: contributions to health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira de Souza Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for equity in access to services is presently an important principle in public policies for health in Brazil. Social inequalities in the Amazonia occur at high levels comparatively to the other regions in the country; and, within Amazonia, they particularly affect rural communities. The present study aims to appreciate associations between food and nutritional profile, adaptive strategies, and epidemiology in these communities, specially in areas of artisanal fishery, and also to suggest general lines of appropriated health policies. The construction of a context of equitable assistance and of sustainable health, without significant damage to biodiversity, depends on the capacity of public power in exploring the relationships between use and management of natural resources and the quality of life of riverine man.

  16. Lineage specific expression of Polycomb Group Proteins in human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Prasad; Pursani, Varsha; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2015-05-01

    Human embryonic (hES) stem cells are an excellent model to study lineage specification and differentiation into various cell types. Differentiation necessitates repression of specific genes not required for a particular lineage. Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are key histone modifiers, whose primary function is gene repression. PcG proteins form complexes called Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs), which catalyze histone modifications such as H2AK119ub1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3. PcG proteins play a crucial role during differentiation of stem cells. The expression of PcG transcripts during differentiation of hES cells into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineage is yet to be shown. In-house derived hES cell line KIND1 was differentiated into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages; followed by characterization using RT-PCR for HNF4A, CDX2, MEF2C, TBX5, SOX1, and MAP2. qRT-PCR and western blotting was performed to compare expression of PcG transcripts and proteins across all the three lineages. We observed that cells differentiated into endoderm showed upregulation of RING1B, BMI1, EZH2, and EED transcripts. Mesoderm differentiation was characterized by significant downregulation of all PcG transcripts during later stages. BMI1 and RING1B were upregulated while EZH2, SUZ12, and EED remained low during ectoderm differentiation. Western blotting also showed distinct expression of BMI1 and EZH2 during differentiation into three germ layers. Our study shows that hES cells differentiating into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages show distinct PcG expression profile at transcript and protein level. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Conflict of Interest Policies and Industry Relationships of Guideline Development Group Members: A Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Krimsky, Sheldon; Wheeler, Emily E; Peters, Shannon M; Brodt, Madeline; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements. Multi-modal screens for undeclared conflicts were also conducted. Fourteen guidelines with a total of 172 panel members were included in the analysis. Eleven of the 14 guidelines (78%) had a stated conflict of interest policy or disclosure statement, although the policies varied widely. Most (57%) of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication. However, only a minority of total panel members (18%) had such conflicts of interest. Drug company speakers bureau participation was the most common type of conflict. Although some progress has been made, organizations that develop guidelines should continue to work toward greater transparency and minimization of financial conflicts of interest.

  18. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  19. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  20. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel C.T. Budy, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  1. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  3. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  4. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  5. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  6. Resolution proposition aiming to create an inquiry commission on the capacities and the financial results of the Total Group, on the resources use, the industrial policy and on the employment, wages and country planing policy, as on the social and environmental liabilities. (refer to the economical, environmental and country affairs commission, for lack of special commission in due time by the articles 30 and 31 of the regulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document denounces the Total Group policy oriented to the profit and reveals the resulting environmental and social negative effects. It proposes the creation of an inquiry commission on the Group policy activities. (A.L.B.)

  7. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  8. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive "combination prevention" programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers' openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of PrEP implementation.

  9. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Krag, L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals such as pigs. The most frequent infectious agent in such infections is Escherichia coli. Virulence characteristics of E. coli UTI strains range from highly virulent pyelonephritis strains...... to relatively benign asymptomatic bacteriuria strains. Here we analyse a spectrum of porcine and human UTI E. coli strains with respect to their antibiotic resistance patterns and their phylogenetic groups, determined by multiplex PCR. The clonal profiles of the strains differed profoundly; whereas human...

  10. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Tharavichitkul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig’s blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4% and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp+epf−sly− and only 12.9% were in mrp−epf−sly+ genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp+epf−sly− genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  11. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) and only 12.9% were in mrp (-) epf (-) sly (+) genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  12. Accountability: Evaluating the Impact of Regulatory Policies on Air Quality, Human Health, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses "accountability"; e.g., do emission-control regulations really reduce exposure to pollutants and improve human health? In this presentation, we provide examples of how to examine this and related questions.

  13. Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollenbaugh, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    ... the DPRK spends exorbitant amounts of money on its military. To maintain both its legitimacy and security, the Pyongyang regime purposely and willfully commits many human right violations against its own citizens. Current U.S...

  14. Group Ia afferents likely contribute to short-latency interlimb reflexes in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2017-01-01

    amplitudes (4 vs. 8°) at the same 150°/s velocity (p’s > 0.08). Conclusion: Because fast conducting group Ia muscle spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in muscle stretch velocity, while group II spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in amplitude (Grey et al., JPhysiol., 2001; Matthews, Trends...... Neurosci., 1991), group Ia velocity sensitive muscle spindle afferents likely contribute to the short-latency crossed spinal reflexes in the cBF muscle following iKnee joint rotations. This supports the findings for the short-latency crossed responses in the human soleus muscle (Stubbs & Mrachacz...... neurons in humans, with primary contributions from group Ia muscle spindle afferents....

  15. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate

  16. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information

  17. Demilitarization of the Police, Criminal Policy and Human Rights in the Democratic Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Frederico Fontes de Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection on the incompatibility between the militarization of the police and the democratic rule of law. Seeing the violent mechanisms such as routine, relates to public safety model with Agamben's teachings on the state of exception as the rule. The culture of fear is seen as legitimizing the social longing for more militarized apparatus. Reconnecting Bauman, Zaffaroni and Foucault , the work points out that criminal policy is based on the annihilation of the other and that the penal system is extremely selective, using the PM's for vertical integration and standardization of acceptable profiles.

  18. Notes on seasonality and subsistence of west Cantabrian human groups about 1300 BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateos Cachorro, Ana

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Final Pleistocene palaeocommunities developed some adaptative answers to alleviate their environmental constrictions. One of them using in hunting strategies was the differential selection of some individuals by age or sex. In this study the possible ages of death are estimated from mandibles and analysed along with their processing by the human groups that lived in Caldas Cave about 13000 BP. It will try to characterize mortality patterns from the ungulates in their diet, to define the stationary character of the site and to check if it is possible to consider a tactics of intentional and differential temporal planning as an answer to a subsistence strategy. These are part of a palaeoeconomic system that organized the life of these Final Upper Paleolithic societies in face of the ecological pressures and cultural limitations that were imposed them. This analysis may allow us to estimate modes of occupation and mobility in a territory as a strategic space of resource management.

    Las paleocomunidades del Pleistoceno final desarrollaron unas respuestas de adaptación al entorno para paliar alguna de sus constricciones ambientales. Una de ellas, en lo que a técnicas de caza se refiere, era la selección diferencial de algunos individuos bien por edad o sexo. En este estudio se analizan las posibles edades de muerte estimadas a partir de las mandíbulas y el procesado antrópico de las mismas por parte de los grupos humanos que habitaron la Cueva de Las Caldas en el 13000 BP. Con ello se trata de caracterizar los patrones de mortalidad de los ungulados que formaron parte de su dieta, definir el carácter estacionario del yacimiento y comprobar si se puede hablar de una táctica de planificación temporal intencionada y diferencial como respuesta a una estrategia de subsistencia. Estos planteamientos forman parte del sistema paleoeconómico responsable del funcionamiento de estas sociedades del Paleolítico Superior Final ante las presiones

  19. Endogenous secreted phospholipase A2 group X regulates cysteinyl leukotrienes synthesis by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Lai, Ying; Hooper, Kathryn A; Oslund, Rob C; Altemeier, William A; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2s mediate the rate-limiting step in the formation of eicosanoids such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Group IVA cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) is thought to be the dominant PLA2 in eosinophils; however, eosinophils also have secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) activity that has not been fully defined. To examine the expression of sPLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) in eosinophils, the participation of sPLA2-X in the formation of CysLTs, and the mechanism by which sPLA2-X initiates the synthesis of CysLTs in eosinophils. Peripheral blood eosinophils were obtained from volunteers with asthma and/or allergy. A rabbit polyclonal anti-sPLA2-X antibody identified sPLA2-X by Western blot. We used confocal microscopy to colocalize the sPLA2-X to intracellular structures. An inhibitor of sPLA2-X (ROC-0929) that does not inhibit other mammalian sPLA2s, as well as inhibitors of the mitogen-activated kinase cascade (MAPK) and cPLA2α, was used to examine the mechanism of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-mediated formation of CysLT. Eosinophils express the mammalian sPLA2-X gene (PLA2G10). The sPLA2-X protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, and granules of eosinophils and moves to the granules and lipid bodies during fMLP-mediated activation. Selective sPLA2-X inhibition attenuated the fMLP-mediated release of arachidonic acid and CysLT formation by eosinophils. Inhibitors of p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and cPLA2α also attenuated the fMLP-mediated formation of CysLT. The sPLA2-X inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK) as well as cPLA2α during cellular activation, indicating that sPLA2-X is involved in activating the MAPK cascade leading to the formation of CysLT via cPLA2α. We further demonstrate that sPLA2-X is activated before secretion from the cell during activation. Short-term priming with IL-13 and TNF/IL-1β increased the

  20. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  1. Human methanogen diversity and incidence in healthy and diseased colonic groups using mcrA gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlan Pauline D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results DNA faecal extracts (207 in total from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45–50%. Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94% retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further

  2. Incorporating human-triggered earthquake risks into energy and water policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Seeber, L.; Jacob, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake risks in urbanized regions requires an accurate assessment of both urban vulnerabilities and hazards from earthquakes, including ones whose timing might be affected by human activities. Socioeconomic risks associated with human-triggered earthquakes are often misconstrued and receive little scientific, legal, and public attention. Worldwide, more than 200 damaging earthquakes, associated with industrialization and urbanization, were documented since the 20th century. Geomechanical pollution due to large-scale geoengineering activities can advance the clock of earthquakes, trigger new seismic events or even shot down natural background seismicity. Activities include mining, hydrocarbon production, fluid injections, water reservoir impoundments and deep-well geothermal energy production. This type of geohazard has impacts on human security on a regional and national level. Some planned or considered future engineering projects raise particularly strong concerns about triggered earthquakes, such as for instance, sequestration of carbon dioxide by injecting it deep underground and large-scale natural gas production in the Marcellus shale in the Appalacian basin. Worldwide examples of earthquakes are discussed, including their associated losses of human life and monetary losses (e.g., 1989 Newcastle and Volkershausen earthquakes, 2001 Killari earthquake, 2006 Basel earthquake, 2010 Wenchuan earthquake). An overview is given on global statistics of human-triggered earthquakes, including depths and time delay of triggering. Lastly, strategies are described, including risk mitigation measures such as urban planning adaptations and seismic hazard mapping.

  3. Hubungan antara Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI, Commitment, Competence, Leadership, Government Policy, Human Capital, dan Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, tomaintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technologylearning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for country’s development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy,and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model isas follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence oncompetitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationshipof KTI and competitive advantage.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 group M consensus and mosaic envelope glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2017-11-21

    The disclosure relates to nucleic acids mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  5. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  6. Human factors that derail extension services delivery in developing countries: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ajani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines human factors derailing extension services delivery in developing countries. Poor management of rewards and incentives; quality of work life; poor assessment system; limited quality of human resource; inadequate extension support training materials; inconsistencies of government programmes; inadequate staff training and poor extension programme evaluation were viewed as major constraints. Considering the role of extension to agricultural development, the paper recommends that efforts should be made by the various stakeholders in agricultural extension services to improve the capability of human resources involved in extension services and highlights the need for government agricultural programmes to be consistent to enable the beneficiaries of such programmes derive the benefits that will boost productivity in agriculture.

  7. Common RNA replication signals exist among group 2 coronaviruses: evidence for in vivo recombination between animal and human coronavius molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.-Y.; Guy, James S.; Yoo, Dongwan; Vlasak, Reinhard; Urbach, Ena; Brian, David A.

    2003-01-01

    5' and 3' UTR sequences on the coronavirus genome are known to carry cis-acting elements for DI RNA replication and presumably also virus genome replication. 5' UTR-adjacent coding sequences are also thought to harbor cis-acting elements. Here we have determined the 5' UTR and adjacent 289-nt sequences, and 3' UTR sequences, for six group 2 coronaviruses and have compared them to each other and to three previously reported group 2 members. Extensive regions of highly similar UTR sequences were found but small regions of divergence were also found indicating group 2 coronaviruses could be subdivided into those that are bovine coronavirus (BCoV)-like (BCoV, human respiratory coronavirus-OC43, human enteric coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, and equine coronavirus) and those that are murine hepatitis virus (MHV)-like (A59, 2, and JHM strains of MHV, puffinosis virus, and rat sialodacryoadenitis virus). The 3' UTRs of BCoV and MHV have been previously shown to be interchangeable. Here, a reporter-containing BCoV DI RNA was shown to be replicated by all five BCoV-like helper viruses and by MHV-H2 (a human cell-adapted MHV strain), a representative of the MHV-like subgroup, demonstrating group 2 common 5' and 3' replication signaling elements. BCoV DI RNA, furthermore, acquired the leader of HCoV-OC43 by leader switching, demonstrating for the first time in vivo recombination between animal and human coronavirus molecules. These results indicate that common replication signaling elements exist among group 2 coronaviruses despite a two-cluster pattern within the group and imply there could exist a high potential for recombination among group members

  8. The Reasoned Arguments of a Group of Future Biotechnology Technicians on a Controversial Socio-Scientific Issue: Human Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Chouchane, Habib

    2011-01-01

    We tried to determine the reasoning behind the stances taken by a group of 19-21-year-old students on the controversial issue of the feasibility and acceptability of human gene therapy. The students were in training at a biotechnology institute. We organised classroom debates, punctuated by phases of epistemological "disturbances". We…

  9. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  10. Localization of the xeroderma pigmentosum group B-correcting gene ERCC-3 to human chromosome 2q21.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Weeda (Geert); J. Wiegant; M. van der Ploeg; A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe human excision-repair gene ERCC3 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer to the uv-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line 27-1, a member of complementation group 3 of the excision-defective rodent cell lines. The ERCC3 gene specifically corrects the DNA repair defect of

  11. Quantification and characterization of grouped type I myofibers in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Stec, Michael J; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-01-01

    Myofiber type grouping is a histological hallmark of age-related motor unit remodeling. Despite the accepted concept that denervation-reinnervation events lead to myofiber type grouping, the completeness of those conversions remains unknown. Type I myofiber grouping was assessed in vastus lateralis biopsies from Young (26 ± 4 years; n = 27) and Older (66 ± 4 years; n = 91) adults. Grouped and ungrouped type I myofibers were evaluated for phenotypic differences. Higher type I grouping in Older versus Young was driven by more myofibers per group (i.e., larger group size) (P grouped type I myofibers displayed larger cross-sectional area, more myonuclei, lower capillary supply, and more sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase I (SERCA I) expression (P Grouped type I myofibers retain type II characteristics suggesting that conversion during denervation-reinnervation events is either progressive or incomplete. Muscle Nerve 57: E52-E59, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Translating between social worlds of policy and everyday life: The development of a group-based method to support policymaking by exploring behavioural aspects of sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana

    2015-10-01

    A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  14. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  15. Implementation of School Uniform Policy and the Violation of Students' Human Rights in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    The paper highlights the violations of students' human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School's Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods.…

  16. Methodology to Support Dynamic Function Allocation Policies Between Humans and Flight Deck Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Function allocation assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automation. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically have been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary aspects of function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives have emerged from this comprehensive review of literature on those fields: the technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented perspectives. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), structure and strategy of a team, and work structure and environment. This report offers eight issues with function allocation that can be used to assess the extent to which each of issues exist on a given function allocation. A modeling framework using formal models and simulation was developed to model work as described by the environment, agents, their inherent dynamics, and relationships among them. Finally, to validate the framework and metrics, a case study modeled four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight.

  17. Human choice and ICT policy: Introduction to the HCC8 Conference proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgerou, C.; Smith, M.L.; van den Besselaar, P.; Avgerou, C.; Smith, M.L.; van den Besselaar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Since its launching in 1974, the Human Choice and Computers (HCC) series of conferences of the IFIP Technical Committee 9 (TC9)1 has provided a forum for the study of the multiple facets of the dynamics of social change associated with information and communication technologies (ICTs). These

  18. Urban foraging: a ubiquitous human practice overlooked by urban planners, policy, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Shackleton; Patrick Hurley; Annika Dahlberg; Marla Emery; Harini. Nagendra

    2017-01-01

    Although hardly noticed or formally recognised, urban foraging by humans probably occurs in all urban settings around the world. We draw from research in India, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States to demonstrate the ubiquity and varied nature of urban foraging in different contexts. Across these different contexts, we distil seven themes that characterise and...

  19. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  20. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  1. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  2. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  3. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  4. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP.

  5. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  6. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of th......, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES.......The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004...

  7. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-06-13

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  9. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  10. Human genetics for non-scientists: Practical workshops for policy makers and opinion leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    These workshops form part of a series of workshops that the Banbury and the DNA Learning Centers of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have held for a number of years, introducing genetics, and the ways in which scientific research is done, to non-scientists. The purpose of the workshops as stated in the grant application was: {open_quotes}Our objective is to foster a better understanding of the societal impact of human genome research by providing basic information on genetics to non-scientists whose professions or special interests interface with genetic technology.... Participants will be chosen for their interest in human genetics and for their roles as opinion leaders in their own communities. Primary care physicians are of particular interest to us for this series of workshops.{close_quotes} Two workshops were held under this grant. The first was held in 21-24 April, 1994 and attended by 20 participants, and the second was held 16-19 November, 1995, and attended by 16 participants. In each case, there was a combination of concept lectures on the foundations of human molecular genetics; lectures by invited specialists; and laboratory experiments to introduce non-scientists to the techniques used in molecular genetics.

  11. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  12. Augmented Teams -- Assembling Smart Sensors, Intelligent Networks and Humans into Agile Task Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Rijn, M. van; Marck, J.W.; Keus, D.

    2009-01-01

    Safety and security environments are full of networked devices. Despite ample research on sensor networks and network technology, there is little practical comprehensive work on how to incorporate such technologies effectively into human-centered teams. This paper discusses the challenge of

  13. A novel method for human age group classification based on Correlation Fractal Dimension of facial edges

    OpenAIRE

    Yarlagadda, Anuradha; Murthy, J.V.R.; Krishna Prasad, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the computer vision community, easy categorization of a person’s facial image into various age groups is often quite precise and is not pursued effectively. To address this problem, which is an important area of research, the present paper proposes an innovative method of age group classification system based on the Correlation Fractal Dimension of complex facial image. Wrinkles appear on the face with aging thereby changing the facial edges of the image. The proposed method is rotation an...

  14. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  15. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: the design and overview of a group randomized controlled trial in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Glenn Weaver, R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B

    2014-07-01

    National and state organizations have developed policies calling upon afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) to serve a fruit or vegetable (FV) each day for snack, while eliminating foods and beverages high in added-sugars, and to ensure children accumulate a minimum of 30 min/d of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Few efficacious and cost-effective strategies exist to assist ASP providers in achieving these important public health goals. This paper reports on the design and conceptual framework of Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Policy Practice in ASPs, a 3-year group randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of strategies designed to improve snacks served and increase MVPA in children attending community-based ASPs. Twenty ASPs, serving over 1800 children (6-12 years) will be enrolled and match-paired based on enrollment size, average daily min/d MVPA, and days/week FV served, with ASPs randomized after baseline data collection to immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed group. The framework employed, STEPs (Strategies To Enhance Practice), focuses on intentional programming of HEPA in each ASPs' daily schedule, and includes a grocery store partnership to reduce price barriers to purchasing FV, professional development training to promote physical activity to develop core physical activity competencies, as well as ongoing technical support/assistance. Primary outcome measures include children's accelerometry-derived MVPA and time spend sedentary while attending an ASP, direct observation of staff HEPA promoting and inhibiting behaviors, types of snacks served, and child consumption of snacks, as well as, cost of snacks via receipts and detailed accounting of intervention delivery costs to estimate cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: The Design and Overview of a Group Randomized Controlled Trial in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    National and state organizations have developed policies calling upon afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6pm) to serve a fruit or vegetable (FV) each day for snack, while eliminating foods and beverages high in added-sugars, and to ensure children accumulate a minimum of 30 min/d of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Few efficacious and cost-effective strategies exist to assist ASP providers in achieving these important public health goals. This paper reports on the design and conceptual framework of Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Policy Practice in ASPs, a 3-year group randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of strategies designed to improve snacks served and increase MVPA in children attending community-based ASPs. Twenty ASPs, serving over 1,800 children (6-12yrs) will be enrolled and match-paired based on enrollment size, average daily min/d MVPA, and days/week FV served, with ASPs randomized after baseline data collection to immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed group. The framework employed, STEPs (Strategies To Enhance Practice), focuses on intentional programming of HEPA in each ASPs’ daily schedule, and includes a grocery store partnership to reduce price barriers to purchasing FV, professional development training to promote physical activity to develop core physical activity competencies, as well as ongoing technical support/assistance. Primary outcome measures include children’s accelerometry-derived MVPA and time spend sedentary while attending an ASP, direct observation of staff HEPA promoting and inhibiting behaviors, types of snacks served, and child consumption of snacks, as well as, cost of snacks via receipts and detailed accounting of intervention delivery costs to estimate cost-effectiveness. PMID:24893225

  17. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective: This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results: The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%, benefit packages (25.1%, equipment (35.7%, and environment (41.8%. The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100 and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100. Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion: The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  18. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Van Hoang, Minh; Nguyen, Hinh Duc

    2013-01-30

    Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely 'benefits and prospects,' 'facility and equipment,' 'performance,' and 'professionals.' The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for 'performance' (66.6/100) and lowest for 'facility and equipment' (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  19. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Correlations between personality traits and specific groups of alpha waves in the human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Johannisson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Different individuals have alpha waves with different wavelengths. The distribution of the wavelengths is assumed to be bell-shaped and smooth. Although this view is generally accepted, it is still just an assumption and has never been critically tested. When exploring the relationship between alpha waves and personality traits, it makes a huge difference if the distribution of the alpha waves is smooth or if specific groups of alpha waves can be demonstrated. Previous studies have not considered the possibility that specific groups of alpha waves may exist. Methods. Computerized EEGs have become standard, but wavelength measurements are problematic when based on averaging procedures using the Fourier transformation because such procedures cause a large systematic error. If the actual wavelength is of interest, it is necessary to go back to basic physiology and use raw EEG signals. In the present study, measurements were made directly from sequences of alpha waves where every wave could be identified. Personality dimensions were measured using an inventory derived from the International Personality Item Pool. Results. Recordings from 200 healthy individuals revealed that there are three main groups of alpha waves. These groups had frequencies around 8, 10, and 12 waves per second. The middle group had a bimodal distribution, and a subdivision gave a total of four alpha groups. In the center of each group, the degree of extraversion was high and the degree of neuroticism was low. Many small differences in personality traits were found when the centers were compared with one another. This gave four personality profiles that resemble the four classical temperaments. When people in the surrounding zones were compared with those in the centers, relatively large differences in personality traits were found. Conclusions. Specific groups of alpha waves exist, and these groups have to be taken into account when correlations are made to

  1. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna

    Full Text Available High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038, directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008 levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider

  2. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  3. Geographic variation in nasal cavity form among three human groups from the Japanese Archipelago: Ecogeographic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hitoshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Geographic variation in human nasal form has often been interpreted as a climatic adaptation, owing to the nasal air-conditioning function. The aim of this study was to further address morphofunctional issues of the nasal cavity, using three human groups from subarctic, temperate, and subtropical regions of the Japanese Archipelago: prehistoric Okhotsk, early-modern Honshu and Okinawa groups. Using three-dimensional coordinates of craniometric landmarks surrounding the nasal cavity, we compared linear measurements regarding nasal cavity form among the three groups and also conducted 3D geometric morphometrics. Both linear measurements and morphometric analyses corroborate the previously reported covariation pattern of nasal cavity shape with climate, where humans from a cold/dry climate tend to possess a relatively tall, narrow, and deep nasal cavity compared with those from a warm/humid environment. The northern Okhotsk group had overall larger cranial airways, which may be attributable to their large facial skeleton. However, the ratio of nasal/bimaxillary breadth was significantly lower in the Okhotsk group, indicating that maxillary size does not necessarily constrain the nasal breadth. In addition, despite the presence of obvious geographic clines in anterior nasal shape, posterior choanal shape lacked the north-south geographic cline. This suggests a certain level of morphofunctional independence between the anterior and posterior nasal openings. The observed geographic variations must, however, be partly considered as a reflection of different ancestral traits and population histories of the three groups. Nevertheless, the results indicate that intergroup variations in nasal cavity morphology can be largely explained by climatic conditions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:343-351, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  5. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  6. Are ‘fair share’ policies fair to the homeless? : A critical assessment of distributive siting policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, N.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers’ fears of an increased concentration of marginalised and disadvantaged groups in already vulnerable urban neighbourhoods have prompted recent measures to combat the spatial concentration of human service facilities. In many cities, distributive siting policies have aimed to achieve a

  7. Neutralizing antibody response during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type and group specificity and viral escape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Sönnerborg, A; Svennerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    The paradox that group-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) exist in the majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, whereas the NA response against autologous HIV-1 virus isolates is highly type-specific, motivated us to study the type- and group-specific NA...... demonstrated, suggesting that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific NA. Furthermore, no differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anti-carbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A...

  8. Determination of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 228/Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuzil, E F; Dysart, M E [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)

    1984-12-01

    The total /sup 90/Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of /sup 90/Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide /sup 228/Ra (daughter of /sup 232/Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets.

  9. The determination of 90Sr and 228Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, E.F.; Dysart, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total 90 Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of 90 Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide 228 Ra (daughter of 232 Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets. (author)

  10. Female dominance in human groups : Effects of sex ratio and conflict level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    Compared to men, women less often attain high-level positions and generally have lower status in society. In smaller groups, the relative influence of men and women depends on gender composition, but research is inconclusive regarding the relation between gender composition and female influence.

  11. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...

  12. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation VI. Genetical load and ethnic group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general.

  13. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation VI. Genetical load and ethnic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general [pt

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, David Cantu de; Montiel, Delia Pérez; Nemcova, Jana; Mykyskova, Iva; Turcios, Elmer; Villavicencio, Verónica; Cetina, Lucely; Coronel, Alberto; Hes, Ondraj

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor). Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9%) of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5%) were negative and 15 (29.4%) were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6%) were positive for HPV 16, 3(20%) for HPV 18, two cases (13.4%) were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Methods Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor. Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. Results All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9% of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5% were negative and 15 (29.4% were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6% were positive for HPV 16, 3(20% for HPV 18, two cases (13.4% were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Conclusion Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  16. The Regulation of Multi-Age Groupings in Canadian Centre-based Child Care Settings: An Analysis of Provincial and Territorial Policies, Legislation and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Judith; Pollard, June; Chud, Gyda; Vukelich, Goranka; Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2000-01-01

    Examined the ways Canadian provincial and territorial policies address the inclusion of infants in multi-age early childhood education settings and the ways practitioners and licensing personnel interpret these policies. Noted policy patterns that affect the inclusion of infants and older children. Derived recommendations for policymakers and…

  17. Glucocorticoid stress responses of lions in relationship to group composition, human land use, and proximity to people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David; Schuette, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivore populations are in global decline, and conflicts between large carnivores and humans or their livestock contribute to low tolerance of large carnivores outside of protected areas. African lions (Panthera leo) are a conflict-prone species, and their continental range has declined by 75% in the face of human pressures. Nonetheless, large carnivore populations persist (or even grow) in some areas that are occupied by humans. Lions attain locally high density in the Olkiramatian and Shompole Group Ranches of Kenya's South Rift region, despite residence by pastoralist Maasai people and their sheep, goats, and cattle. We have previously found that these lions respond to seasonal movements of people by moving away from occupied settlements, shifting into denser habitats when people are nearby, and moving into a protected conservation area when people move into the adjacent buffer zone. Here, we examined lion stress responses to anthropogenic activities, using enzyme-linked immunoassay to measure the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in 136 samples collected from five lion groups over 2 years. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were significantly lower for lions in the conservation area than for lions in the human-settled buffer zone, and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest occupied human settlement. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not detectably related to fine-scaled variation in prey or livestock density, and surprisingly, faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in the wet season, when regional prey abundance was high. Lions coexist with people and livestock on this landscape by adjusting their movements, but they nonetheless mount an appreciable stress response when conditions do not allow them to maintain adequate separation. Thus, physiological data confirm inferences from prior data on lion movements and habitat use, showing that access to undisturbed

  18. [Streptococcus group B--association with Aerobic vaginitis and ability to human cell lines activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Kafel, Joanna; Lagergård, Teresa; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate: the frequency of aerobic vaginitis, susceptibility of the GBS isolated from vagina of non-pregnant women with and without cervicitis to selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and the proinflammatory cytokines production by HeLa, THP-I, U - 937 cells after stimulation by vaginal GBS. Our results indicated low frequency of the aerobic vaginitis -4.5% among non-pregnant young women and ability of the vaginal GBS to release proinflammatory cytokines by human cell lines in vitro.

  19. Balancing selfishness and norm conformity can explain human behavior in large-scale prisoner's dilemma games and can poise human groups near criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Andrighetto, Giulia; Nardin, Luis Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices. Yet a well-founded model of the effect of social norms on human cooperation is still lacking. Using statistical-physics techniques and integrating findings from cognitive and behavioral sciences, we present an analytically tractable model in which individuals base their decisions to cooperate both on the economic rewards they obtain and on the degree to which their action complies with social norms. Results from this parsimonious model are in agreement with observations in recent large-scale experiments with humans. We also find the phase diagram of the model and show that the experimental human group is poised near a critical point, a regime where recent work suggests living systems respond to changing external conditions in an efficient and coordinated manner.

  20. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  1. Removing financial barriers to access reproductive, maternal and newborn health services: the challenges and policy implications for human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ensor, Tim; Fustukian, Suzanne; Newlands, David; Martineau, Tim; Chirwa, Yotamu

    2013-09-22

    The last decade has seen widespread retreat from user fees with the intention to reduce financial constraints to users in accessing health care and in particular improving access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services. This has had important benefits in reducing financial barriers to access in a number of settings. If the policies work as intended, service utilization rates increase. However this increases workloads for health staff and at the same time, the loss of user fee revenues can imply that health workers lose bonuses or allowances, or that it becomes more difficult to ensure uninterrupted supplies of health care inputs.This research aimed to assess how policies reducing demand-side barriers to access to health care have affected service delivery with a particular focus on human resources for health. We undertook case studies in five countries (Ghana, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe). In each we reviewed financing and HRH policies, considered the impact financing policy change had made on health service utilization rates, analysed the distribution of health staff and their actual and potential workloads, and compared remuneration terms in the public sectors. We question a number of common assumptions about the financing and human resource inter-relationships. The impact of fee removal on utilization levels is mostly not sustained or supported by all the evidence. Shortages of human resources for health at the national level are not universal; maldistribution within countries is the greater problem. Low salaries are not universal; most of the countries pay health workers well by national benchmarks. The interconnectedness between user fee policy and HRH situations proves difficult to assess. Many policies have been changing over the relevant period, some clearly and others possibly in response to problems identified associated with financing policy change. Other relevant variables have also changed.However, as is now well

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccine policy and delivery in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Jon Kim; Lewis, Merle J; Goldie, Sue J; García, Patricia J; Winkler, Jennifer L; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; de Quadros, Ciro A

    2008-08-19

    Cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major preventable public health problem. Two vaccines are now available for primary prevention of HPV infection and their introduction offers new opportunities to enhance comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control. Currently, HPV vaccine price is a significant barrier to rapid vaccine introduction and access. Therefore, making evidence-based decisions about whether and how to introduce HPV vaccine into the immunization schedule in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) requires a rigorous analysis of several factors. These include: estimates of disease burden, cost-effectiveness, operational feasibility of reaching a population of adolescent females and other key analyses that have been used in recent years to support the introduction of other vaccines, such as rotavirus and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Given the large number of public health priorities that are competing for limited public resources, developing and using a sound evidence base is of particular importance for vaccines, like HPV, which are currently available only at prices higher than other vaccines now in use. HPV vaccination provides the opportunity to dramatically improve women's health and partnerships must also be broad-based and effectively coordinated. This can be achieved by developing programs based on the lessons learned from vaccination strategies used to eliminate rubella and neonatal tetanus and for scaling up influenza vaccination in countries of LAC.

  3. Improving High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches for Reconstructing the Evolutionary Dynamics of Upper Paleolithic Human Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    the development and testing of innovative molecular approaches aiming at improving the amount of informative HTS data one can recover from ancient DNA extracts. We have characterized important ligation and amplification biases in the sequencing library building and enrichment steps, which can impede further...... been mainly driven by the development of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing (HTS) technologies but also by the implementation of novel molecular tools tailored to the manipulation of ultra short and damaged DNA molecules. Our ability to retrieve traces of genetic material has tremendously improved, pushing......, that impact on the overall efficacy of the method. In a second part, we implemented some of these molecular tools to the processing of five Upper Paleolithic human samples from the Kostenki and Sunghir sites in Western Eurasia, in order to reconstruct the deep genomic history of European populations...

  4. A scoping review of training and deployment policies for human resources for health for maternal, newborn, and child health in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Goma, Fastone; MacKenzie, Adrian; Bradish, Stephanie; Price, Sheri; Nzala, Selestine; Rose, Annette Elliott; Rigby, Janet; Muzongwe, Chilweza; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Carey, Amanda; Hamavhwa, Derrick

    2014-12-16

    Most African countries are facing a human resources for health (HRH) crisis, lacking the required workforce to deliver basic health care, including care for mothers and children. This is especially acute in rural areas and has limited countries' abilities to meet maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) targets outlined by Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. To address the HRH challenges, evidence-based deployment and training policies are required. However, the resources available to country-level policy makers to create such policies are limited. To inform future HRH planning, a scoping review was conducted to identify the type, extent, and quality of evidence that exists on HRH policies for rural MNCH in Africa. Fourteen electronic health and health education databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers specific to training and deployment policies for doctors, nurses, and midwives for rural MNCH in African countries with English, Portuguese, or French as official languages. Non-peer reviewed literature and policy documents were also identified through systematic searches of selected international organizations and government websites. Documents were included based on pre-determined criteria. There was an overall paucity of information on training and deployment policies for HRH for MNCH in rural Africa; 37 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, the majority of primary research studies employed a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods. Doctors, nurses, and midwives were equally represented in the selected policy literature. Policies focusing exclusively on training or deployment were limited; most documents focused on both training and deployment or were broader with embedded implications for the management of HRH or MNCH. Relevant government websites varied in functionality and in the availability of policy documents. The lack of available documentation and an apparent bias towards HRH research in developed areas suggest a need for

  5. 'Social evils' and harm reduction: the evolving policy environment for human immunodeficiency virus prevention among injection drug users in China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Wu, Zunyou; Duc, Tran Tien; Stephens, David; Sullivan, Sheena; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Ngu, Doan; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of government policies in China and Vietnam regarding harm reduction interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, such as needle/syringe provision and opioid substitution treatment. The work is based upon the authors' experiences in and observations of these policy developments, as well as relevant government policy documents and legislation. Both countries are experiencing HIV epidemics driven by injection drug use and have maintained generally severe policies towards injection drug users (IDUs). In recent years, however, they have also officially endorsed harm reduction. We sought to understand how and why this apparently surprising policy evolution took place. Factors associated with growing support for harm reduction were similar but not identical in China and Vietnam. These included the emergence of effective 'champions' for such policies, an ethos of pragmatism and receptivity to evidence, growing collaboration across public health, police and other sectors, the influence of contingent events such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic and pressure from donors and international organizations to adopt best practice in HIV prevention. Ongoing challenges and lessons learned include the persistence of tensions between drug control and harm reduction that may have negative effects on programs until a fully harmonized policy environment is established. Excessive reliance on law enforcement and forced detoxification will not solve the problems of substance abuse or of HIV among drug users. Ongoing evaluation of harm reduction programs, as well as increased levels of multi-sectoral training, collaboration and support are also needed.

  6. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahmad

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH. The World Health Report (WHR 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015, with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR, particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs, the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2 generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs in the context of EMR; (3 identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know and (4 provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy. Methods The variables used in the analysis were: nurse and physician density, gross national income, poverty, female literacy, health expenditure, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR, Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR and Life Expectancy (LE. Univariate (charts, bivariate (Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis (linear regression was conducted using SPSS 14.0, besides a synthesis of HRH literature. Results Results demonstrate the significant disparities in physician and nurse densities within the EMR, particularly between LMICs and MHICs. Besides this, significant differences exist in health status indicators within the EMR. Results of the Pearson correlation revealed that physician and nurse density, as well as female literacy in EMR countries were significantly correlated with lower mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Results of the regression

  7. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  8. Molecular – genetic variance of RH blood group system within human population of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Lasić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two major theories for inheritance of Rh blood group system: Fisher - Race theory and Wiener theory. Aim of this study was identifying frequency of RHDCE alleles in Bosnian - Herzegovinian population and introduction of this method in screening for Rh phenotype in B&H since this type of analysis was not used for blood typing in B&H before. Rh blood group was typed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, using the protocols and primers previously established by other authors, then carrying out electrophoresis in 2-3% agarose gel. Percentage of Rh positive individuals in our sample is 84.48%, while the percentage of Rh negative individuals is 15.52%. Inter-rater agreement statistic showed perfect agreement (K=1 between the results of Rh blood system detection based on serological and molecular-genetics methods. In conclusion, molecular - genetic methods are suitable for prenatal genotyping and specific cases while standard serological method is suitable for high-throughput of samples.

  9. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  10. Genetic Variation among Major Human Geographic Groups Supports a Peculiar Evolutionary Trend in PAX9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R.; Meyer, Diogo; Pereira, Tiago V.; Mazières, Stéphane; Elion, Jacques; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Zago, Marco A.; Silva, Wilson A.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2011-01-01

    A total of 172 persons from nine South Amerindian, three African and one Eskimo populations were studied in relation to the Paired box gene 9 (PAX9) exon 3 (138 base pairs) as well as its 5′and 3′flanking intronic segments (232 bp and 220 bp, respectively) and integrated with the information available for the same genetic region from individuals of different geographical origins. Nine mutations were scored in exon 3 and six in its flanking regions; four of them are new South American tribe-specific singletons. Exon3 nucleotide diversity is several orders of magnitude higher than its intronic regions. Additionally, a set of variants in the PAX9 and 101 other genes related with dentition can define at least some dental morphological differences between Sub-Saharan Africans and non-Africans, probably associated with adaptations after the modern human exodus from Africa. Exon 3 of PAX9 could be a good molecular example of how evolvability works. PMID:21298044

  11. Genetic variation among major human geographic groups supports a peculiar evolutionary trend in PAX9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes

    Full Text Available A total of 172 persons from nine South Amerindian, three African and one Eskimo populations were studied in relation to the Paired box gene 9 (PAX9 exon 3 (138 base pairs as well as its 5'and 3'flanking intronic segments (232 bp and 220 bp, respectively and integrated with the information available for the same genetic region from individuals of different geographical origins. Nine mutations were scored in exon 3 and six in its flanking regions; four of them are new South American tribe-specific singletons. Exon3 nucleotide diversity is several orders of magnitude higher than its intronic regions. Additionally, a set of variants in the PAX9 and 101 other genes related with dentition can define at least some dental morphological differences between Sub-Saharan Africans and non-Africans, probably associated with adaptations after the modern human exodus from Africa. Exon 3 of PAX9 could be a good molecular example of how evolvability works.

  12. Immobilization induces changes in presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    immobilized the left foot and ankle joint for 2 weeks in 12 able-bodied subjects. Disynaptic reciprocal inhibition of soleus (SOL) motoneurones and presynaptic control of SOL group Ia afferents was measured before and after the immobilization as well as following 2 weeks of recovery. Following immobilization...... maximal voluntary plantar- and dorsiflexion torque (MVC) was significantly reduced and the maximal SOL H-reflex amplitude increased with no changes in Mmax. Decreased presynaptic inhibition of the Ia afferents likely contributed to the increase of the H-reflex size, since we observed a significant...... decrease in the long-latency depression of the SOL H-reflex evoked by peroneal nerve stimulation (D2 inhibition) and an increase in the size of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the SOL H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. These two measures provide independent evidence of changes in presynaptic...

  13. Hierarchical clustering into groups of human brain regions according to elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen brain regions were dissected from both hemispheres of fifteen 'normal' ageing subjects (8 females, 7 males) of mean age 79±7 years. Elemental compositions were determined by simultaneous application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses using a 2 MeV, 4 nA proton beam scanned over 4 mm 2 of the sample surface. Elemental concentrations were found to be dependent upon the brain region and hemisphere studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to group the brain regions according to the sample concentrations of eight elements. The resulting dendrogram is presented and its clusters related to the sample compositions of grey and white matter. (author)

  14. Basic human values in a young group: advances in exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Daset Carreto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a wide area of Study, developed since 1998 and focused on Childhood and Adolescence. At first, the aim was to research the psychopathological profile of adolescents, with sociodemographic variables. Further on Competence, Coping and Values were added for an approach from the Positive Psychology (Dahlsgaard, Peterson & Seligman, 2005. This article presents the preliminar results of a youth sample of secondary level students (n=152, aged 12 to 18, male and female, belonging to a medium socioeconomical status. The instrument used for the study is the Basic Values Questionnaire, developed by Valdiney V. Gouveia (1998, based on the studies of S. Schwartz and W. Bilsky (1987, 1990, 2004. Once the performance of this instrument was tested with our Spanish speaking population, some linguistic adaptations were implemented. To obtain the profile of the interviewed adolescents, descriptive statistic is used. The results show to statistically significant difference between girls and boys in Experimenting and Realization Values (Personnel Values Group; as well in Existence (Central Category Value and in Normative (Social Value, with bigger M quantity in Suprapersonnel Value (Central Value and Interaction (Social Category Value. In response to open questions about the most and the least important values, subjects have chosen Interaction (Social Value and Existence Values (Central Value as the most important ones, and Realization Values (Personal Value and the Normative Values (Central Value Category, as the least important ones. The study shows the importance of some groups of Values, what would require an analysis in relation to the behaviours with those that are expressed and their cultural relevance. The conclusions open the debate, from the own expression of the value and their relationship with the psychopathology and on the other hand with the well-being. 

  15. Sponge non-metastatic Group I Nme gene/protein - structure and function is conserved from sponges to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleoside diphosphate kinases NDPK are evolutionarily conserved enzymes present in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, with human Nme1 the most studied representative of the family and the first identified metastasis suppressor. Sponges (Porifera) are simple metazoans without tissues, closest to the common ancestor of all animals. They changed little during evolution and probably provide the best insight into the metazoan ancestor's genomic features. Recent studies show that sponges have a wide repertoire of genes many of which are involved in diseases in more complex metazoans. The original function of those genes and the way it has evolved in the animal lineage is largely unknown. Here we report new results on the metastasis suppressor gene/protein homolog from the marine sponge Suberites domuncula, NmeGp1Sd. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of the sponge Group I Nme gene and protein, and compare it to its human homolog in order to elucidate the evolution of the structure and function of Nme. Results We found that sponge genes coding for Group I Nme protein are intron-rich. Furthermore, we discovered that the sponge NmeGp1Sd protein has a similar level of kinase activity as its human homolog Nme1, does not cleave negatively supercoiled DNA and shows nonspecific DNA-binding activity. The sponge NmeGp1Sd forms a hexamer, like human Nme1, and all other eukaryotic Nme proteins. NmeGp1Sd interacts with human Nme1 in human cells and exhibits the same subcellular localization. Stable clones expressing sponge NmeGp1Sd inhibited the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells, as already reported for human Nme1, which suggests that Nme's function in migratory processes was engaged long before the composition of true tissues. Conclusions This study suggests that the ancestor of all animals possessed a NmeGp1 protein with properties and functions similar to evolutionarily recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues

  16. LEADERSHIP IN OPTIMIZING MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR GROUP SUSTAINABILITY (Case of Farmer Groups of Gisik Pranaji Bugel Village Panjatan Kulon Progo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kuning Retno Dewandini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is one important aspect in the sucess of the group. The leader of a group have a role as determinat sucess of the group. Nothing a leader, a group will only run without direction and purpose. But the sucess of a group is not only determined by a leader, but also it determined by his followers as well as a supportive environment. Gisik Pranaji farmer groups in the Bugel village of Panjatan Kulon Progo Regency able to survive due to the role of farmer group. To sustain these group need the support of the parties involved in it, including all the members of farmers and the environment.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus in a self referred group of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.

  18. Determination of ABO blood grouping from human oral squamous epithelium by the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Makoto; Tatsumi, Shinji; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki

    2002-03-01

    Using the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+, which employs a dextran polymer reagent for the secondary antibody, the detection of the ABH antigens was attempted in the oral squamous epithelium. This new technique uses monoclonal antibody as a primary antibody and it takes about three hours for staining. The time is much shorter than conventional absorption-elution testing or absorption-inhibition testing for the determination of ABO blood grouping. Secretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity by the antibody, which corresponded to its blood group and anti-H. On the one hand, nonsecretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity only by the antibody that corresponded to its blood group, and at weak intensity only by anti-H. Since human oral squamous epithelium antigens were stained specifically by this method, we can examine the ABO blood group of saliva samples and perform cytodiagnosis at the same time. Our research suggested that the EnVision+ Method is a useful technique for ABO blood grouping of saliva in forensic cases.

  19. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  20. Group A Rotaviruses in Chinese Bats: Genetic Composition, Serology, and Evidence for Bat-to-Human Transmission and Reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun

    2017-06-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses, and increasing evidence supports the notion that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVAs), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals have been identified from African and Chinese bats. However, all the data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, present only during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA. To systematically investigate the genetic diversity of RVAs, 547 bat anal swabs or gut samples along with 448 bat sera were collected from five South Chinese provinces. Specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening found four RVA strains. Strain GLRL1 possessed a completely novel genotype constellation, whereas the other three possessed a constellation consistent with the MSLH14-like genotype, a newly characterized group of viruses widely prevalent in Chinese insectivorous bats. Among the latter, strain LZHP2 provided strong evidence of cross-species transmission of RVAs from bats to humans, whereas strains YSSK5 and BSTM70 were likely reassortants between typical MSLH14-like RVAs and human RVAs. RVA-specific antibodies were detected in 10.7% (48/448) of bat sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA). Bats in Guangxi and Yunnan had a higher RVA-specific antibody prevalence than those from Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. These observations provide evidence for cross-species transmission of MSLH14-like bat RVAs to humans, highlighting the impact of bats as reservoirs of RVAs on public health. IMPORTANCE Bat viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses, are important pathogens causing outbreaks of severe emerging infectious diseases. However, little is known about bat viruses capable

  1. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  2. Bat Caliciviruses and Human Noroviruses Are Antigenically Similar and Have Overlapping Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Jacob F; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Debbink, Kari; Beall, Anne; Mallory, Michael L; Yount, Boyd L; Graham, Rachel L; Huynh, Jeremy; Gates, J Edward; Donaldson, Eric F; Baric, Ralph S

    2018-05-22

    Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus. We observed that bat norovirus formed virus-like particles and had epitopes and receptor-binding patterns similar to those of human noroviruses. To determine whether these observations stretch across multiple bat caliciviruses, we characterized a novel bat calicivirus, BtCalV/A10/USA/2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 likely represents a novel Caliciviridae genus and is most closely related to "recoviruses." Homology modeling revealed that the capsid sequences of BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 and bat norovirus resembled human norovirus capsid sequences and retained host ligand binding within the receptor-binding domains similar to that seen with human noroviruses. Both caliciviruses bound histo-blood group antigens in patterns that overlapped those seen with human and animal noroviruses. Taken together, our results indicate the potential for bat caliciviruses to bind histo-blood group antigens and overcome a significant barrier to cross-species transmission. Additionally, we have shown that bat norovirus maintains antigenic epitopes similar to those seen with human noroviruses, providing further evidence of evolutionary descent. Our results reiterate the importance of surveillance of wild-animal populations, especially of bats, for novel viral pathogens. IMPORTANCE Caliciviruses are

  3. An autonomous, automated and mobile device to concurrently assess several cognitive functions in group-living non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizet, Jonas; Rimele, Adam; Pebayle, Thierry; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Kelche, Christian; Meunier, Hélène

    2017-11-01

    Research methods in cognitive neuroscience using non-human primates have undergone notable changes over the last decades. Recently, several research groups have described freely accessible devices equipped with a touchscreen interface. Two characteristics of such systems are of particular interest: some apparatuses include automated identification of subjects, while others are mobile. Here, we designed, tested and validated an experimental system that, for the first time, combine automatization and mobility. Moreover, our system allows autonomous learning and testing of cognitive performance in group-living subjects, including follow-up assessments. The mobile apparatus is designed to be available 24h a day, 7days a week, in a typical confined primate breeding and housing facility. Here we present as proof of concept, the results of two pilot studies. We report that rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) learned the tasks rapidly and achieved high-level of stable performance. Approaches of this kind should be developed for future pharmacological and biomedical studies in non-human primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human security policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All evidence points towards climate- and environmentallyinduced migration becoming one of the major policychallenges of this century. Adequate planning for andmanagement of this phenomenon will be critical forhuman security.

  5. Optimal human capital policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Kapička, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-16 ISSN 0304-3932 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : dynamic optimal taxation * income taxation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2008

  6. Changes in human skull morphology across the agricultural transition are consistent with softer diets in preindustrial farming groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David C; Grote, Mark N; Weaver, Timothy D

    2017-08-22

    Agricultural foods and technologies are thought to have eased the mechanical demands of diet-how often or how hard one had to chew-in human populations worldwide. Some evidence suggests correspondingly worldwide changes in skull shape and form across the agricultural transition, although these changes have proved difficult to characterize at a global scale. Here, adapting a quantitative genetics mixed model for complex phenotypes, we quantify the influence of diet on global human skull shape and form. We detect modest directional differences between foragers and farmers. The effects are consistent with softer diets in preindustrial farming groups and are most pronounced and reliably directional when the farming class is limited to dairying populations. Diet effect magnitudes are relatively small, affirming the primary role of neutral evolutionary processes-genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow structured by population history and migrations-in shaping diversity in the human skull. The results also bring an additional perspective to the paradox of why Homo sapiens , particularly agriculturalists, appear to be relatively well suited to efficient (high-leverage) chewing.

  7. Social implications of the Human Genome Project: Policy roundtable series and journals. Final progress report, March 15, 2001 - March 15, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiguer, Erica

    2002-12-30

    This report reflects the activities of the Harvard Health Caucus at Harvard Medical School that were supported, in part, by the Department of Energy. The following policy roundtables and panels were held: Spring 2001 Policy Roundtable Series: The social implications of the Human Genome Project; Spring 2002 Policy Roundtable Series: Managing globalization to improve health; 13 February 2002 Keynote Address: The globalization of health; 25 February 2002 Healthier or Wealthier: Which comes first in the new global era?; 28 February 2002 The crisis of neglected diseases: Creating R&D incentives for diseases of developing countries; 7 March 2002 Health care education in the developing world: Bridging global and local health care practices; 20 March 2002 Building a legal framework for global health: How can the US and UN work to reduce global disparities?; 25 April 2002 The role of mass media and tobacco control efforts. Caucus organizational information is also included.

  8. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  9. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  10. Sitting on the fence? policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs at Kruger National Park (KNP and Limpopo Province along KNP′s western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.

  11. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  12. From Hume's Law To Policy Analysis For Human Development - Sen after Dewey, Myrdal, Streeten, Stretton and Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Much of Amartya Sen’s work has been directly policy-related, but his methodology of policy analysis has not been explained in detail. Action-related social science involves value-imbued procedures that guide the numerous unavoidable choices. This theme was explored

  13. Effect of nation-wide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower......-smokers divided by total ever-smokers. In regression analyses we explored the correlation between national quit ratios and the national score on the Tobacco Control Scale. RESULTS: Quit ratios were especially high (>45%) in Sweden, England, Netherlands, Belgium and France, and relatively low (... quit ratios than countries with less developed tobacco control policies. High and low educated smokers benefit about equally from the nation-wide tobacco control policies....

  14. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibassa, Deusdedit

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  15. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-05-15

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new information needed

  16. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  17. Distance Education and Open Learning in Sub-Saharan Africa: Criteria and Conditions for Quality and Critical Success Factor-- Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. A Survey of Policy and Practice. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Both of these "Surveys of policy and practice" were conducted on behalf of COL by the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) as part of COL's partnership agreement with the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Distance Education and Open Learning. The first report identifies…

  18. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Abdallah, Ahmad; Kassak, Kassem

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH). The World Health Report (WHR) 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composi...

  19. Knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean American women: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2015-01-01

    As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about HPV vaccination among KA women. We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based, randomized, controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: 1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, 2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), 3) patterns of decision making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and 4) promoting HPV education and information sharing in the Korean community. KA women are generally positive toward HPV vaccination, but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women's decision-making patterns and effective information sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multilevel approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision making need to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polysaccharide utilization loci and nutritional specialization in a dominant group of butyrate-producing human colonic Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Paul O; Martin, Jennifer C; Lawley, Trevor D; Browne, Hilary P; Harris, Hugh M B; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Duncan, Sylvia H; O'Toole, Paul W; Scott, Karen P; Flint, Harry J

    2016-02-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the predominant bacterial phyla colonizing the healthy human large intestine. Whilst both ferment dietary fibre, genes responsible for this important activity have been analysed only in the Bacteroidetes , with very little known about the Firmicutes . This work investigates the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in a group of Firmicutes , Roseburia spp. and Eubacterium rectale , which play an important role in producing butyrate from dietary carbohydrates and in health maintenance. Genome sequences of 11 strains representing E. rectale and four Roseburia spp. were analysed for carbohydrate-active genes. Following assembly into a pan-genome, core, variable and unique genes were identified. The 1840 CAZyme genes identified in the pan-genome were assigned to 538 orthologous groups, of which only 26 were present in all strains, indicating considerable inter-strain variability. This analysis was used to categorize the 11 strains into four carbohydrate utilization ecotypes (CUEs), which were shown to correspond to utilization of different carbohydrates for growth. Many glycoside hydrolase genes were found linked to genes encoding oligosaccharide transporters and regulatory elements in the genomes of Roseburia spp. and E. rectale , forming distinct polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Whilst PULs are also a common feature in Bacteroidetes , key differences were noted in these Firmicutes , including the absence of close homologues of Bacteroides polysaccharide utilization genes, hence we refer to Gram-positive PULs (gpPULs). Most CAZyme genes in the Roseburia / E. rectale group are organized into gpPULs. Variation in gpPULs can explain the high degree of nutritional specialization at the species level within this group.