WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy formation process

  1. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  2. The Policy Formation Process: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual framework for analysis which is intended to assist both the policy analyst and the policy researcher in their empirical investigations into policy phenomena is developed. It is meant to facilitate understanding of the policy formation process by focusing attention on the basic forces shaping the main features of policy formation as a dynamic social-political-organizational process. The primary contribution of the framework lies in its capability to suggest useful ways of looking at policy formation reality. It provides the analyst and the researcher with a group of indicators which suggest where to look and what to look for when attempting to analyze and understand the mix of forces which energize, maintain, and direct the operation of strategic level policy systems. The framework also highlights interconnections, linkage, and relational patterns between and among important variables. The framework offers an integrated set of conceptual tools which facilitate understanding of and research on the complex and dynamic set of variables which interact in any major strategic level policy formation process.

  3. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  4. First Impression Processes: Awareness, Comprehension, and Opinion-Formation and Their Effect on Implementation of State Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to address the question "How do school and district leaders and teachers become aware of, take steps to comprehend, and form opinions about state policies?" These "first impression processes" represent significant parts of the processes by which district administrators, school administrators, and teachers make…

  5. THE STAGES OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiia Kafka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the research of the existing scientists’ approaches to the procedure of the company accounting policy formation have been done, their critical analysis has been made, the major groups of issues and problems raised in scientific works have been found out, and those ones, which require the further up-to- date refinement, have been identified: the formation of the stages in projecting of the accounting policy in accordance with requirements of legislation. For the purposes of study the methods of analysis and synthesis, systematic approach to study the process of developing the company accounting policy and logical method and simulation to systematize the information support of the processes mentioned have been used. As a result, a comprehensive approach to the formation of accounting policy has been worked out, the author's vision of the stages in projecting of the accounting policy and their contents has been also proposed and disclosed in details. Key words: accounting policy, accounting, elements of accounting policy, information support, financial position, simulation, reliable information.  

  6. Understanding Educational Policy Formation: The Case of School Violence Policies in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Idit

    2016-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms underlying processes of educational policy formation. Previous studies have given much attention to processes of diffusion when accounting for educational policy formation. Less account has been given to the day-to-day institutional dynamics through which educational policies develop and change. Building on extensive…

  7. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Барсуков

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign.The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science.The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-38

  8. TRANSFORMATION THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN THE PROCESS OF GOVERNMENT POLICY FORMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukov Anton Yuryevich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of think tanks role as a political tool of government policy formation in the context of world financial crisis. The main purpose of the study was the description of such evolution, revealing of the basic differences with the analytical centers, founded before 2008 in China, and finding-out of think tank’ role in the process of anticrisis campaign. The actuality of the study is obvious, proceeding from there are not any other study dedicated to the Chinese “new type” think tanks in Russian politologycal science. The appearance of “new type” think tanks in the PRC is mentioned in the study. The special meaning devoted to the increasing of returnees’ role in the process of government policy formation. The author makes the conclusion that “new type” think tanks have a very important meaning just as in the process of anticrisis campaign so in the public life. “New type” think tanks have more independence from the official authorities.

  9. Features of Formation of Ukrainian Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nezhyva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show features of formation of Ukrainian education policy. According to the author, the formation of the national education policy in Ukraine, as the European Union in its time, must find the thin boundary i.e. the balance between unity and dissimilarity of two dif erent education systems such as Soviet education system, which was inherited after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and European education system, which was unified by requirements of the Bologna Declaration. The author examines the features of the formation and development of Soviet and European education systems. Each of them has certain advantages and disadvantages. The author also presents that major educational reforms, which were only started in Ukraine, took place in Central and Eastern Europe in the late twentieth century. This process was caused by the collapse of bipolar world and scores of countries, which were formed in Europe and sought to European values and democratic reforms. Poland, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and many other new independent states, which paid in full for socialist regimes, began reforms in education, politics, economics and other areas of activity. We can confidently say that the education system in the new founding countries of Europe not only shifted from one model (Soviet model to another (European model, but rather to achieve high performance in their development. The author points out that it is necessary to require continuing professional development of all categories of people, from teachers to car drivers. This growth must be accompanied with the received diplomas at the reputable higher educational institutions not only in Ukraine, but also abroad. Through this paper the author also wants to suggest that the main provisions of national education policy Ukraine is based on Ukrainian national idea. This national idea sounds as «Ukraine is as keeper of harmony between Eastern and Western Europe».

  10. THE STAGES OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kafka, Sofiia

    2017-01-01

    In the article the research of the existing scientists’ approaches to the procedure of the company accounting policy formation have been done, their critical analysis has been made, the major groups of issues and problems raised in scientific works have been found out, and those ones, which require the further up-to- date refinement, have been identified: the formation of the stages in projecting of the accounting policy in accordance with requirements of legislation. For the purposes of stud...

  11. THE ALLIANCE FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipple, Judith M.; Frankel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While interest in developing strategic alliances within the food system continues to increase, there remains considerable risk when firms adopt such a cooperative strategy. The risk is due in part to the lack of concrete guidelines that illustrate the steps or stages of alliance development and the important strategic and operational decisions required at each stage. The existence of such guidelines would facilitate alliance formation and enable managers and researchers to better understand a...

  12. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  13. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  14. The multifaceted planetesimal formation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of dust and ice particles into planetesimals is an important step in the planet formation process. Planetesimals are the seeds of both terrestrial planets and the solid cores of gas and ice giants forming by core accretion. Left-over planetesimals in the form of asteroids, trans...... for planetesimal formation where particle growth starts unaided by self-gravity but later proceeds inside gravitationally collapsing pebble clumps to form planetesimals with a wide range of sizes....

  15. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  16. ROLE OF STATE PROTECTIONISM IN DEPRECIATION POLICY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Trachova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a generalization of state protectionism measures concerning the depreciation policy formation, which has resulted in economic growth in countries with a stable economy and their adaptation to economic conditions of Ukraine. Methodology. For writing the paper, the grouping and comparison methods were used for the research of business peculiarities of foreign and national enterprises’ operation and their impact on the enterprise depreciation policy formation; abstract-logic one was used during the examination of peculiarities of depreciation policy formation abroad; analysis and synthesis were used for the investigation of impact factors of different state regulation measures on efficiency of assets’ renewal and enterprise depreciation fund use, as well as stimulation of investments in the science and technology progress. Results. State depreciation policy is the basis in investment and innovation process, as well as one of the most important mechanisms for promoting the self-financing policy. In the developed countries, the state policy concerning the accelerated depreciation has become the main tool for economic growth. Depreciation policy reforming has to be conducted within and out of an enterprise simultaneously. Under existing conditions, the enterprise’s depreciation fund formation is impossible at the expense of its own resources. The changes of regulatory support for enterprise activity are necessary for depreciation fund forming. Tax protectionism has to be carried out in two directions: at the expense of profit redistribution before taxation as the special-purpose funding of fixed assets’ renewal as far as enterprise profitability allows and under the condition of the document approved the renewal of manufacturing capacities after the end of operation period. The control over state protectionism implementation regarding the tax heaven and directing funds for innovative renewal of fixed assets has to

  17. The Formation of Accounting Policies for Processing Enterprises in the Context of Adaptation of National Regulations to the International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Rozheliuk Viktoriia M.; Denchuk Pavlo N.

    2017-01-01

    The article defines principles for preparation of accounting policies using both domestic and foreign experience, generalizes scientific and theoretical approaches, and improves the wordings of the concept of «accounting policy». The feasibility of conducting a preliminary assessment of efficiency of organizational activities through the use of the criteria generalized in the accounting policy has been substantiated, the legal and regulatory levels have been highlighted, taking into considera...

  18. Nuclear processing during star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

  19. Accretion Processes in Star Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael

    for short-lived radionuclides that enrich the cloud as a result of supernova explosions of the massive stars allows us to analyze the distribution of the short-lived radionuclides around young forming stars. In contradiction to results from highly-idealized models, we find that the discrepancy in 26 Al...... that the accretion process of stars is heterogeneous in space, time and among different protostars. In some cases, disks form a few thousand years after stellar birth, whereas in other cases disk formation is suppressed due to efficient removal of angular momentum. Angular momentum is mainly transported outward...... with potentially observable fluctuations in the luminosity profile that are induced by variations in the accretion rate. Considering that gas inside protoplanetary disks is not fully ionized, I implemented a solver that accounts for nonideal MHD effects into a newly developed code framework called dispatch...

  20. The Methodology for Formation of National Nutrition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsun Leonid M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The materials of the study of management processes in the food service industry based on the criteria of composition of tasks of establishments’ activities, their participation in the integration process of production, sale and organization of food consumption and catering services are outlined. A model of nature-aligned development of the food service industry as a natural and socio-economic system is proposed. Priority directions of the national nutrition policy are determined on the basis of integration of participants in the process of organizing catering. There justified methodological approaches to the formation of a management model for development of enterprises in the food services industry by stages of preparing and making decisions on integration of business entities, including enterprises of the agrarian sector, food industry, trade, restaurant business and households.

  1. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have…

  2. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs

  3. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  4. What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student Nutrition Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…

  5. The Formation of the Brazilian State and the Uses of its Foreign Policy in the Light of the Process of Identity Construction. Definition of Key Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Pereyra-Doval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on its construction of identity, a State defines key situations. The aim of this paper is to analyze those milestones in the process of identity construction in Brazil, which caused its early differentiation from other Latin American countries. Consequently, we divide it into four sections. The first explains the differentiating aspect of identity. The second analyzes the process of independence. The third makes the difference from consolidation process of the national space, also going through the development process of this space. Finally, the Brazilian option is described as being closer to the United States as a reference center while it left the European area.

  6. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  7. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  8. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  9. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  10. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  11. A Competitive Partnership Formation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Tommy; Gudmundsson, Jens; Talman, Adolphus; Yang, Zaifu

    2013-01-01

    A group of heterogeneous agents may form partnerships in pairs. All single agents as well as all partnerships generate values. If two agents choose to cooperate, they need to specify how to split their joint value among one another. In equilibrium, which may or may not exist, no agents have incentives to break up or form new partnerships. This paper proposes a dynamic competitive adjustment process that always either finds an equilibrium or exclusively disproves the existence of any equilibri...

  12. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected].

  13. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  14. PROSPECTS OF THE REGIONAL INTEGRATION POLICY BASED ON CLUSTER FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tsepilova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop the theoretical foundations of regional integration policy and to determine its prospects on the basis of cluster formation. The authors use such research methods as systematization, comparative and complex analysis, synthesis, statistical method. Within the framework of the research, the concept of regional integration policy is specified, and its integration core – cluster – is allocated. The authors work out an algorithm of regional clustering, which will ensure the growth of economy and tax income. Measures have been proposed to optimize the organizational mechanism of interaction between the participants of the territorial cluster and the authorities that allow to ensure the effective functioning of clusters, including taxation clusters. Based on the results of studying the existing methods for assessing the effectiveness of cluster policy, the authors propose their own approach to evaluating the consequences of implementing the regional integration policy, according to which the list of quantitative and qualitative indicators is defined. The present article systematizes the experience and results of the cluster policy of certain European countries, that made it possible to determine the prospects and synergetic effect from the development of clusters as an integration foundation of regional policy in the Russian Federation. The authors carry out the analysis of activity of cluster formations using the example of the Rostov region – a leader in the formation of conditions for the cluster policy development in the Southern Federal District. 11 clusters and cluster initiatives are developing in this region. As a result, the authors propose measures for support of the already existing clusters and creation of the new ones.

  15. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author’s points of view for many questions of the organized market formation process are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness of the institutes and governmental regulation of the agricultural market. Readers can find strategically new approach to the agricultural market formation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence of the socioeconomic formation of agricultural market is considered. Main factors of agriculture market formation are outlined. Agricultural market structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness of the agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons of the agricultural market formation are determined.

  16. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek; Kettunen, Janne; Wilson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations. (author)

  17. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  18. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION AND REALIZATION OF REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Chenenova

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed existing norm-legal base of realization of regional industrial policy from a position of conformity of principles of its formation and realization to problems of development of the industry in conditions of an openness to the world market. Opportunities of their evolution in the directions promoting becoming of competitive structure of an industrial complex of region are shown.

  19. Interfaces between educational policies, pedagogical practices and human formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Bellanda Galuch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the formation perspective found in official documents regarding Basic Education and the pedagogical practices suggested by them. It also points out the relationship between a curriculum-defining public policy and the didactic organization of what is taught in the schools. Results show that the formation proposed by the above-mentioned documents tries to attend our society’s market demands with its valorization of pedagogical practices for the development of attitudes, values, competences and abilities required by the globalized society. When such formation is placed first and foremost and to the detriment of the transmission and appropriation of disciplines, school education decreases its commitment with scientific culture. In fact, it distances itself from its role in offering the symbolic instruments which are necessary for the students’ integral development.

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of vesicles formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Vincenzo

    2010-12-15

    Vesicles are hollow aggregates, composed of bilayers of amphiphilic molecules, dispersed into and filled with a liquid solvent. These aggregates can be formed either as equilibrium or as out of equilibrium meta-stable structures and they exhibit a rich variety of different morphologies. The surprising richness of structures, the vast range of industrial applications and the presence of vesicles in a number of biological systems have attracted the interest of numerous researchers and scientists. In this article, we review both the thermodynamics and the kinetics aspects of the phenomena of formation of vesicles. We start presenting the thermodynamics of bilayer membranes formation and deformation, with the aim of deriving the conditions for the existence of equilibrium vesicles. Specifically, we use the results from continuum thermodynamics to discuss the possibility of formation of stable equilibrium vesicles, from both mixed amphiphiles and single component systems. We also link the bilayer membrane properties to the molecular structure of the starting amphiphiles. In the second part of this article, we focus on the dynamics and kinetics of vesiculation. We review the process of vesicles formation both from planar lamellar phase under shear and from isotropic micelles. In order to clarify the physical mechanisms of vesicles formation, we continuously draw a parallel between emulsification and vesiculation processes. Specifically, we compare the experimental results, the driving forces and the relative scaling laws identified for the two processes. Describing the dynamics of vesicles formation, we also discuss why non equilibrium vesicles can be formed by kinetics control and why they are meta-stable. Understanding how to control the properties, the stability and the formation process of vesicles is of fundamental importance for a vast number of industrial applications. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Policy and process of innovation in techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Su; Lee, Jin Ju

    1982-09-01

    This book mentions policy and process of innovation in techniques, which deals with introduction, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology including analysis of existing research about system of development on science and technology and new development system of science and technology, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology of Korea. It also indicates innovation of technology in Korean industry with various access.

  2. Formation of strategy and policy of banking credit operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic management of credit operations as the activities on credit strategies of banking institutions, the formation of goals, objectives, and the choice of methods to achieve them. The basis of this is the strategic management analysis of the factors affecting the lending operations, strategic planning, communication mechanisms of strategic and tactical decisions, monitoring the implementation of the strategy and timely adjustments. For the purpose of effective implementation of the developed strategy, the article argues that banks in modern conditions should develop their own internal credit policy which should cover the essential elements and principles of credit at these banks. The study determines that the credit policy is based on the factors determined by the amount of capital assets and loan portfolio, the structure of its clientele, specialization, location, presence of branch network, the situation in the money market.

  3. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic law activity data based on plausible networks of interactions. Through extensive parametric studies, we demonstrate the ability of these methods to reconstruct networks, varying in size, link density, and degree heterogeneity. Our results suggest that union transfer entropy should be preferred for slowly varying processes, which may be associated with policies attending to specific local problems that occur only rarely or with policies facing high levels of opposition. In contrast, event synchronization is effective for faster enactment rates, which may be related to policies involving Federal mandates or incentives. This study puts forward a data-driven toolbox to explain the determinants of legal activity applicable to political science, across dynamical systems, information theory, and complex networks.

  4. On the ENDF Formats and Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The ENDF formats have served the community of nuclear data users from different fields of applications quite well for decades. Enormous effort has been devoted to the development and validation of the processing codes. Although there is no urgent need for a rapid transition to something completely new, there are signs that the current ENDF format is being pushed close to its limits. The time is right to look for a modern replacement, with due consideration for the following: - Development of data processing capabilities, starting from the data in the new format. - Backward compatibility through robust translation codes between the new and the old format until the majority of processing tools have been adequately validated. - Standardisation of the format features on the international level to maintain the possibility of easy data comparison and exchange. The NJOY Data Processing System is the most versatile and widely used code system for generating application libraries. The AMPX system is mainly used for generating libraries for codes from Oak Ridge. The Pre-Pro codes are found to be very robust, but their main purpose is data verification, validation and display. These codes do a good job for the present scope of applications, but current trend rely heavily on Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Further developments in the data processing tools should reflect these trends, focusing on the following: - Further verification and validation of covariance processing methods. - Development of a common tool for generating a global covariance matrix of nuclear data, including all available cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. - Consider if we can move away from histogram covariance representation into a piecewise linear domain. - Having a 'global' covariance matrix (that can include the covariance matrix of the resonance parameters), pursue the development of a common tool for statistical sampling of the cross sections and other

  5. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...... culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process....

  6. Uranium in a recent phosphorite formation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturin, G N; Dubinchuk, V I; Kochenov, A V

    1986-01-01

    Uranium behaviour in the process of nowadays phosphorite formation in the sediments of Namibia shelf is considered. The material collected during the 3-d trip of the research vessel ''Akademik Kurchatov'' and 26-th trip of the research vessel ''Mikhail Lomonosov'' is used. The samples from three geological stations 2046, 2047 and 2048 from the depths of 78-87 m have been investigated. Each sample (mass from 0.2 to 0.3 kg) is composed of several samples representing unified genetic series: holocene diatomic silts enclosing phosphorites - phosphatized silts - phosphorite concretions. Uranium has been determined by the X-ray spectral method; phosphorus, organic carbon and other components - by the chemical analysis. Uranium forms investigated by the combination of methods of electron microscopy, microdiffraction, microradioautography and microsounding. Uranium content in nowadays phosphorites at the shelf is 3-106 g/t. Uranium accumulation in phosphorites at the initial stages of their formation is controlled by its content in host sediments. In the course of litification of diagenetic phosphate concretions the uranium content in them varies from 40 to 80 g/t. The uranium concentration process in phosphorites is accompanied by formation of independent mineral phases of uranium oxide and ningyoite type.

  7. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  8. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  9. A high yield process for hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavarini, C.; Maccioni, F. [Univ. of Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to the large quantities of natural gas stored in deep ocean hydrates, hydrate reservoirs are a substantial energy resource. Hydrates concentrate methane by as much as a factor of 164. As such, several natural gas transportation and storage systems using gas hydrates have been studied, and many of them are nearing practical use. In these systems, the hydrate is produced as a slurry by a spray process at approximately 7 megapascal (MPa), and then shaped into pellets. The use of a spray process, instead of a conventional stirred vessel is necessary in order to reach high hydrate concentrations in the hydrate-ice system. This paper presented a new procedure to produce a bulk of concentrated methane hydrate in a static traditional reactor at moderate pressure, controlling pressure and temperature in the interval between ice melting and the hydrate equilibrium curve. This paper discussed the experimental procedure which included formation of methane hydrate at approximately 5 MPa and 2 degrees Celsius in a reaction calorimeter at a volume of two liters. Results were also discussed. It was concluded that the procedure seemed suitable for the development of a gas hydrate storage and transport technology. It was found that the spray procedure took more time, but could be sped up and made continuous by using two vessels, one for hydrate formation and the other for hydrate concentration. The advantage was the production of a concentrated hydrate, using a simpler equipment and working at lower pressures respect to the spray process. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Public policies: right to learn and formative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chizzotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the right to learn in school type education and considers the assessment as assurance of teaching and learning quality. It deals with the current evaluation processes and discriminatory misconceptions of merely summative assessments, which tend to qualify students. This text evaluates the punitive bias of meritocratic grading of learning and argues that only formative assessment can ensure the right to learn

  11. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy formation in industrialised market economics. Part II (chapters 8-11) focuses on the empirical applicability of political economy models to agricultural policy formation and agricultural policy developmen...

  12. Public Policies – Embodiments of Democratization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are the most practical part of the triad polity-politics-policy. Public policies are related to the practical areas of planning, implementation and evaluation of the governmental activities. From this perspective, to talk about a perfect public policy (or which aspires to perfection means to speak about an efficient institutional system of a state as a sign of its degree of democratization. This article aims to explore “the cuisine” of democratic systems taking into account the applied perspective of public policy functionality, a type of functionality which is determined by a particular decision, by a kind of rationality or motivation of the actors involved or by a type of an organizational culture. Thus, the study of democracies involves an analytical approach developed at a micro level (the types of parties, institutional designs, election systems, public policies becoming indices of democratization for every state system.

  13. Policy Process Editor for P3BM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Chang, Hsin-Ping; Chow, Edward T.; Crichton, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer program enables generation, in the form of graphical representations of process flows with embedded natural-language policy statements, input to a suite of policy-, process-, and performance-based management (P3BM) software. This program (1) serves as an interface between users and the Hunter software, which translates the input into machine-readable form; and (2) enables users to initialize and monitor the policy-implementation process. This program provides an intuitive graphical interface for incorporating natural-language policy statements into business-process flow diagrams. Thus, the program enables users who dictate policies to intuitively embed their intended process flows as they state the policies, reducing the likelihood of errors and reducing the time between declaration and execution of policy.

  14. Engaged: Educators and the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Richard Lee; Bassett, Katherine; Hansen, Jessica; Boffy, Holly Franks; DelColle, Jeanne; Fennell, Maddie; Izzo, Marguerite; Lechleiter-Luke, Leah; Mieliwocki, Rebecca; Minkel, Justin; Pearson, Michelle; Poulos, Christopher; Woods-Murphy, Maryann

    2015-01-01

    The premise of the white paper is that education policy results are better for students when policies are informed and shaped by highly effective educators who know firsthand what it takes to deliver excellent teaching and learning. Policymakers and educators should share a sense of urgency to work together to provide every child in our country…

  15. The Role of Interstate Policy Organizations in State Higher Education Policy Processes: Perceptions of Policymakers and Policy Shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2010-01-01

    Political science offers rich explanations for how different types of organizations that are focused on public policy decisions (e.g., boundary organizations, interest groups, policy networks (or communities), and think tanks) influence public policy processes (Cash, Clark, Alcock, Dickson, Eckley, Guston, Jager, and Mitchell 2003; Guston 2001;…

  16. Peculiarities of formation of accounting policy of the catering company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant business in Ukraine is developing quite dynamically. Today, services of off-premise catering have become an integral part of each business process. Insufficient level of theoretical and practical developments of domestic scientists in catering actualizes the study of the organization of their accounting process. The article investigates one of the newest Ukrainian market restaurant services i.e. catering. We determined that catering is a service activity sphere of the restaurant business, the purpose of which is to satisfy social and personal needs of the population. Thus, the main peculiarity of catering is outdoor servicing in the places selected by the customers of catering services. Two catering areas are pointed out: corporate services and individual services that affect the organization of accounting processes. The article presents the author's position regarding the allocation of the individual accounting policies of the catering company in which it is necessary to provide the specifics of the inventory and containers, their revaluation, product losses, discounts and loyalty programs, pricing, direct and indirect cost structure, peculiarities of their distribution, methods of cost accounting and calculation, etc.

  17. The formation of ‘policy truths’: Foucault and social policy discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Pickerden, Alex; Evans, Donna; Piggott, David

    2015-01-01

    Discuss current approaches to policy analysis Illustrate an alternative method for policy analysis influenced by the theoretical concepts of Michel Foucault Briefly analyse current research which has focused upon education policy and education reform in the United Kingdom (UK) Introduce the concept of ‘policy truths’ and explain how this idea can aid in the critique of neoliberal policies and neoliberal governmentality

  18. How to manage barriers to formation and implementation of policy packages in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerman, Jonas; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore success factors and barriers to the formation and implementation of single policy measures and policy packages in transport, and to identify strategies to manage such barriers. As a first step, we developed a typology of barriers and success factors...... for policy formation and implementation. Secondly, we carried out an empirical analysis of barriers and success factors in four cases of policy packaging: Urban Congestion Charging; National Heavy Vehicle Fees; Aviation in the European Emissions Trading System and The EU’s First Railway Package. The third...... and final task was to identify more general strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation. A main conclusion in this report is that a conscious application of these strategies may contribute significantly to successful formation and implementation of even controversial policies...

  19. Secretory processes involved in the formation of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion. A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. (author)

  20. Processes governing pinch formation in diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaugrund, A.E.; Cooperstein, G.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The process of pinch formation in large aspect ratio diodes has been studied by means of streak photography and time-resolved x-ray detectors. A tight pinch is formed at the anode center by a collapsing thin hollow electron beam. The collapse velocity depends, among other things, on the type of material in the top 1 μm layer of the anode. In a tentative model it is assumed that an anode plasma is at least partially created from gases released from the surface layer of the anode by the heating action of the beam. These gases are ionized by primary, backscattered, and secondary electrons. Ions emitted from this plasma modify the electron trajectories in the diode leading to a radial collapse of the hollow electron beam. The observed monotonic dependence of the collapse velocity on the atomic number of the anode material can be explained by the smooth dependence on Z of both the specific heat and the electron backscatter coefficient. In the case of high-Z anodes the ion expansion time appears to be the factor limiting the collapse velocity. Detailed experimental data are presented

  1. Theoretical Substantiation of Formation of Integration Forms of Interaction of Enterprises when Developing the Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoylenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues, connected with activation of innovation activity of engineering enterprises on the basis of application of integration forms of interaction. It justifies a necessity of formation of infrastructure of interaction of an enterprise when introducing innovation models of development with consideration of realisation of goals of all interested parties. The article offers a generalised scheme of organisational interaction of an enterprise in external environment and a matrix of functional provision of the integration process. The theoretical approach that is considered in the article allows increase of innovation activity of engineering enterprises and minimisation of expenditures of own resources when realising innovation policy of an enterprise.

  2. Fuzzy social choice models explaining the government formation process

    CERN Document Server

    C Casey, Peter; A Goodman, Carly; Pook, Kelly Nelson; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the extent to which fuzzy set logic can overcome some of the shortcomings of public choice theory, particularly its inability to provide adequate predictive power in empirical studies. Especially in the case of social preferences, public choice theory has failed to produce the set of alternatives from which collective choices are made.  The book presents empirical findings achieved by the authors in their efforts to predict the outcome of government formation processes in European parliamentary and semi-presidential systems.  Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project (CMP), the authors propose a new approach that reinterprets error in the coding of CMP data as ambiguity in the actual political positions of parties on the policy dimensions being coded. The range of this error establishes parties’ fuzzy preferences. The set of possible outcomes in the process of government formation is then calculated on the basis of both the fuzzy Pareto set and the fuzzy maximal set, and the pre...

  3. Basic formation and realization problems of urban policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skiba Alisa Anatol’evna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems that arise in the process of urban development of areas planning, their solutions (improvement and transformation of settlement system, in which case we should base on the new geopolitical situation in the country, the development and modernization of transport and communication infrastructure, where it is necessary to consider both the internal needs of the state and external ones in order to think about possible ways of problem solutions in major cities, as well as the main directions of urban development reforms. The main objectives of the urban development policy are the development of social and economic level of small towns, activities for the conservation of historical, cultural and natural heritage of Russia, the use of modern theories of urban planning, the development of research in this area (both abstract and applied, conducting statistical base of urban development activities. The authors describe the schemes of entry into long-term ownership of land under the current system of urban regulation and the system based on zoning, which acts in real estate market conditions. Among other things, the article offers an idea of the method of socio-controlled planning, which supposes the development plans of the city's buildings and areas, different urban systems (based on the analysis of the existing problems and the needs that must be met.

  4. Fiscal policy lags and income adjustment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► There are delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system. ► Both delays affect fiscal policy outcomes. ► The system of differential equations with two delays may be chaotic. ► Fiscal policy outcomes might be inconsistent with their stabilization purposes. - Abstract: The interest in the impact of fiscal policy lags on economic stability increased in the last decade. Several studies have been made on delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system, where lags exist between the accrual and the payment of taxes. Nevertheless there is in the literature no model where time delays in government expenditures and in tax revenues are considered together as it happens in the real world. In this paper we remedied this defect and proposed a macro-dynamic model where two delays appear: the first pertains to the public expenditure, the second, to the tax revenue. The resulting system of delayed differential equations is studied qualitatively and numerically. The analysis suggests that only particular combinations of the two delays make the system stable. Prevalently the system is unstable and chaotic motions may arise. This implies that the economy may need appropriate structural changes in the public sector to improve fiscal policy outcomes in such a way they may really be consistent with their stabilization purposes.

  5. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  6. Microbial processes in banded iron formation deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    , remains unresolved. Evidence of an anoxic Earth with only localized oxic areas until the Great Oxidation Event ca 2·45 to 2·32 Ga makes the investigation of O2-independent mechanisms for banded iron formation deposition relevant. Recent studies have explored the long-standing proposition that Archean......Banded iron formations have been studied for decades, particularly regarding their potential as archives of the Precambrian environment. In spite of this effort, the mechanism of their deposition and, specifically, the role that microbes played in the precipitation of banded iron formation minerals...... banded iron formations may have been formed, and diagenetically modified, by anaerobic microbial metabolisms. These efforts encompass a wide array of approaches including isotope, ecophysiological and phylogeny studies, molecular and mineral marker analysis, and sedimentological reconstructions. Herein...

  7. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  8. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  9. Process for recovering oil from subterranean formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Improved flooding of oil-bearing formations is obtained by injecting and displacing through the formation a saline solution containing a water-soluble, substantially linear, high molecular weight polymer obtained by irradiating an aqueous solution of an ethylenically unsaturated monomer and a water-soluble salt under controlled conditions of concentration, radiation intensity, conversion, and total radiation dose. The saline water can contain at least 15,000 ppm of TDS (total dissolved solids) and at least 50 ppm and preferably 300 ppm of polyvalent cations. (Auth.)

  10. The Relevance of Theories of the Policy Process to Educational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two case studies of educational decision making are used to test the utility of some current theories of the policy-formation process; a framework for the application of these theories is proposed; and the merits of applying existing theories before seeking new paradigms are stressed. (MSE)

  11. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    processes and capacity for developing, implementing and enforcing local policies and byelaws to improve the adoption ... and integrated agricultural research for development ..... agriculture and natural resource management (soil and water.

  12. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  13. Process Coordination and Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... Liaises with the Resources Planning and Development Officer of the Office of ...

  14. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... plan and coordinating the update of the Division's work plan by all managers; ...

  15. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-09-01

    This review is 2nd part of the report published at January 1982 (JAERI-M-9902). A compilation includes the survey of the data of the cross sections of H - and D - ion formations and the neutralization of these ions. This is also presented new information about the photosensitization by laser beam in dissociative-resonance electron capture of sulfur hexafluoride reported by Chen et al., for reference to enhancement of D - ions in discharge. For neutralization, the data of mutual neutralization and photodetachment are also presented. (author)

  16. Mathematical modeling of biomass fuels formation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaska, Krzysztof; Wandrasz, Andrzej J.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for thermal and electric energy in many branches of industry and municipal management accounts for a drastic diminishing of natural resources (fossil fuels). Meanwhile, in numerous technical processes, a huge mass of wastes is produced. A segregated and converted combustible fraction of the wastes, with relatively high calorific value, may be used as a component of formed fuels. The utilization of the formed fuel components from segregated groups of waste in associated processes of co-combustion with conventional fuels causes significant savings resulting from partial replacement of fossil fuels, and reduction of environmental pollution resulting directly from the limitation of waste migration to the environment (soil, atmospheric air, surface and underground water). The realization of technological processes with the utilization of formed fuel in associated thermal systems should be qualified by technical criteria, which means that elementary processes as well as factors of sustainable development, from a global viewpoint, must not be disturbed. The utilization of post-process waste should be preceded by detailed technical, ecological and economic analyses. In order to optimize the mixing process of fuel components, a mathematical model of the forming process was created. The model is defined as a group of data structures which uniquely identify a real process and conversion of this data in algorithms based on a problem of linear programming. The paper also presents the optimization of parameters in the process of forming fuels using a modified simplex algorithm with a polynomial worktime. This model is a datum-point in the numerical modeling of real processes, allowing a precise determination of the optimal elementary composition of formed fuels components, with assumed constraints and decision variables of the task

  17. Dross formation during laser cutting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B S; Aleem, B J Abdul [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petoleum and Minerals, Dhahran 32161 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-04-07

    Melt formation during laser cutting of metallic substrates is considered and the melt thickness is formulated using a lump parameter analysis. The droplet diameter is also predicted and compared with the experimental results. A CO{sub 2} laser with variable pulse frequency is used in the experiment. Oxygen, as assisting gas, impinging coaxially with the laser beam, is used at different pressures. SEM and XRD are carried out to obtain micrographs and oxide compounds formed in the dross. It is found that the liquid layer thickness increases with increasing laser output power and reduces with increasing assisting gas velocity. The droplet formed is spherical and the droplet size predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  18. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic ...

  19. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  20. Why UFI nudges will get stuck in the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua; Howard, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    User financial incentives (UFI), in the context of behavioural public policy, have the potential to shape Canadian health policy by replacing or augmenting traditional information-based mechanisms and by imparting a viewpoint that has traditionally been foreign to the public sphere. Whether or not UFI and more traditional "nudges" should be used, they will likely be limited by traditional moral, efficacy and cost/ benefit challenges, as well as the political and bureaucratic impediments that emerge throughout the policy implementation process. These challenges will likely preclude UFI and nudges from having a transformative effect on public policy, but this new school of thought will likely gain prominence through more amorphous means as more individuals learn and adopt its central theory. We should be excited about the potential of UFI and the use of behavioural public policy, but should temper our excitement with realistic expectations about how extensively such an approach should and will be used.

  1. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  2. Theoretical Grounds of Formation of the Efficient State Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyrak Oksana S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts historical and analytical analysis of views on the role of state administration in the sphere of economic relations by various economic directions in order to allocate traditional and newest essential reference points of the modern theory of state regulation of economy. It identifies specific features of modern models of economic policy that envisage setting goals by the state, selection of relevant efficient tools and mathematic function, which would describe dependencies between them. It considers the concept of the basic theory of economic policy of Jan Tinbergen, its advantages and shortcomings. It studies prerequisites and conducts analysis of the modern concept of the role of state in economy as a subject of the market. It considers the modern concept of economic socio-dynamics, pursuant to which the main task of the state is maximisation of social usefulness and permanent improvement of the Pareto-optimal. It considers the “socio-dynamic multiplicator” notion, which envisages availability of three main components: social effect from activity of the state, yearning of individuals for creation of something new and availability of formal and informal institutions that united first two elements.

  3. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  4. Spark formation as a moving boundary process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ute

    2006-03-01

    The growth process of spark channels recently becomes accessible through complementary methods. First, I will review experiments with nanosecond photographic resolution and with fast and well defined power supplies that appropriately resolve the dynamics of electric breakdown [1]. Second, I will discuss the elementary physical processes as well as present computations of spark growth and branching with adaptive grid refinement [2]. These computations resolve three well separated scales of the process that emerge dynamically. Third, this scale separation motivates a hierarchy of models on different length scales. In particular, I will discuss a moving boundary approximation for the ionization fronts that generate the conducting channel. The resulting moving boundary problem shows strong similarities with classical viscous fingering. For viscous fingering, it is known that the simplest model forms unphysical cusps within finite time that are suppressed by a regularizing condition on the moving boundary. For ionization fronts, we derive a new condition on the moving boundary of mixed Dirichlet-Neumann type (φ=ɛnφ) that indeed regularizes all structures investigated so far. In particular, we present compact analytical solutions with regularization, both for uniformly translating shapes and for their linear perturbations [3]. These solutions are so simple that they may acquire a paradigmatic role in the future. Within linear perturbation theory, they explicitly show the convective stabilization of a curved front while planar fronts are linearly unstable against perturbations of arbitrary wave length. [1] T.M.P. Briels, E.M. van Veldhuizen, U. Ebert, TU Eindhoven. [2] C. Montijn, J. Wackers, W. Hundsdorfer, U. Ebert, CWI Amsterdam. [3] B. Meulenbroek, U. Ebert, L. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 195004 (2005).

  5. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  6. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  7. Impact of policy game on insight and attitude to inter sectoral policy processes - EU country cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Glümer, Charlotte; Spitters, Hilde

    of the collaboration process in NL (100%). The fraction of participants who enhanced their insight to leadership aspects of their network varied across aspects of leadership and across countries, from 14% in NL to 86% in RO. The fraction of participants being more positive towards use of knowledge varied across...... collaboration and use of knowledge. Differences between countries may be a result of diversity in potential for change in game participant groups and game processes. Key message: The policy game encountered changes at the domains ‘organization network’, ‘collaboration’, ‘leadership’ and ‘use of knowledge...... change insight and attitude towards inter sectoral policy processes, such as the organization network, collaboration, and use of knowledge in HEPA policy making in three European countries. Methods The Netherlands (NL), Denmark (DK) and Romania (RO), partners in the REPOPA program, have carried out...

  8. Interactive policy processes: a challenge for street-level bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Damgaard, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    public managers are expected to work closely and directly with affected stakeholders in order to solve cross-cutting ‘wicked problems’. More interactive and participative collaborative policy processes increasingly require public managers to move from back-office work to front-office work, in effect...... in order to secure transparent processes that keep the rule of law and that support well-functioning local communities – or in more broad terms: skills needed to secure democracy and economic efficiency....

  9. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  10. Dual-process theory and consumer response to front-of-package nutrition label formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjari, S Setareh; Jahn, Steffen; Boztug, Yasemin

    2017-11-01

    Nutrition labeling literature yields fragmented results about the effect of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition label formats on healthy food choice. Specifically, it is unclear which type of nutrition label format is effective across different shopping situations. To address this gap, the present review investigates the available nutrition labeling literature through the prism of dual-process theory, which posits that decisions are made either quickly and automatically (system 1) or slowly and deliberately (system 2). A systematically performed review of nutrition labeling literature returned 59 papers that provide findings that can be explained according to dual-process theory. The findings of these studies suggest that the effectiveness of nutrition label formats is influenced by the consumer's dominant processing system, which is a function of specific contexts and personal variables (eg, motivation, nutrition knowledge, time pressure, and depletion). Examination of reported findings through a situational processing perspective reveals that consumers might prefer different FOP nutrition label formats in different situations and can exhibit varying responses to the same label format across situations. This review offers several suggestions for policy makers and researchers to help improve current FOP nutrition label formats. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The African Renaissance, NEPAD and Skills Formation: An Identification of Key Policy Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikly, Leon

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the article is to critically consider the implications of the African Renaissance project for skills formation policies and priorities with a focus on the education and training systems of sub-Saharan Africa. The article commences with an account of the origins of the African Renaissance idea and its latest incarnation in the New…

  12. The Formation of Gender Education Policies in Taiwan, 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao-Chin, Hsieh; Shu-Ching, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of gender equity education policies in Taiwan between 1995 and 1999. The first part of the article presents a general description of Taiwan's women's movement, the education reform movement, and the development of women's/gender studies after the lifting of martial law in 1987. The second part of the article…

  13. On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Rohdin, Patrik; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25's energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled. - Highlights: ► The paper presents major challenges in regard to the formation of Swedish energy policy for the industry and building sectors. ► The theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks is introduced. ► Regional differences are important to take into account when designing energy policies for the industry and building sectors.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice – truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. - Highlights: •Britain's nuclear power policy is failing due to high costs and problems of finance. •This has implications for European countries who want to use the same financing model. •The continued pursuit of a failing policy is due to poor advice from civil servants. •Lack of expertise in the media and lack of public engagement have contributed. •Parliamentary processes have not provided proper critical scrutiny.

  16. Crisis, neoliberal health policy, and political processes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican case represents an orthodox neoliberal health policy in the context of the structural adjustment adopted by the Mexican government in 1983. The social costs of this strategy are very high, including an increase in unemployment, wage depression, regressive redistribution of wealth, and profound changes in social policies. These transformations are reflected in the health sector, where the four main axes of neoliberal policy--expenditure restrictions, targeting, decentralization, and privatization--have been implemented. This represents a change in social policy from a model based on citizens' social rights and the state's obligation to guarantee them, to a model characterized by selective public charity. This strategy has been imposed on society as a result of the Mexican corporative political regime based on a state party system. Since 1985, however, there has been a growing process of independent organization of civil society. This led in the presidential elections of 1988 to the defeat of the candidate of the governing party by the candidate of a popular-democratic opposition front. Although the government party imposed its candidate through electoral fraud, social mobilization against neoliberal policies continues in the midst of an important political crisis that can only be resolved by profound democratization of Mexican society.

  17. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  18. Identification of Optimal Policies in Markov Decision Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    46 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 558-570 ISSN 0023-5954. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economy and Industry. České Budějovice, 15.06.2009-18.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/0107; GA ČR GA402/07/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : finite state Markov decision processes * discounted and average costs * elimination of suboptimal policies Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/sladky-identification of optimal policies in markov decision processes.pdf

  19. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.

  20. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  1. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  2. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  3. Factors of formation of the dividend policy of joint stock companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to justification of factors of formation of the dividend policy of Ukrainian public joint stock companies (PJSC at the modern stage of development of corporate relations. It analyses specific features of the dividend policy of Ukrainian PJSC, which, in particular, shows that their financial results practically do not influence the practice of net profit distribution. It identifies main factors of formation of the corporate dividend policy and provides theoretical justification of the governing practice of net profit distribution by Ukrainian PJSC under the modern state of the stock market. It justifies that the unrepresentative listing of stock exchanges, extremely high concentration of capital and rather limited influence of institutes of joint investment are key factors that cause a very weak reaction of the Ukrainian securities market on payment of dividends, which, in its turn, is the main reason of rejection of expediency of development and realisation of the consistent dividend policy by overwhelming majority of joint stock companies. The article draws a conclusion that the basis of evolution changes in the corporate vision of the dividend policy should be creation of the institutional environment, which would be adequate to the needs of sustainable development. The article offers to fix, at the legislative level and while being at the transitional stage, the right of minor shareholders to get income from owning ordinary shares of companies, which aggregate joint participation of co-owners is more than 75%.

  4. PROCESS APPROACH TO CULTURAL POLICY IN THE REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Lavryshsheva

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of cultural policy, as a process, i.e. procedural approach, allows us to see the specific aspects of interaction of subjects over the governmental authorities. However, due to the fact, that in its scale cultural process is the same as political environment of the state, some scientists identify it either with politics in general or with the totality of the shares of behavioral government entities, change their status and influence. Supporters of the institutional approach associates the cultural political process with the functioning and the transformation of the government institutionы, based on a set of the political system reactions on the environmental challenges. As we speak in the current economic conditions in Ukraine is actual the development of anti-crisis measures for the rehabilitation and development of the conceptual approach of cultural policies in the region. As such, the obvious is the development of a measures set by all courses of the plan, that will mutualize the key goals, objectives and tools into a uniform system of measures. This plan should provide the combined model in the region and provide a transition to the zonal management principle of the transition period. In the plan it is also should be provided institutional support for the proposed measures, namely the mechanisms of technological and socio-cultural issues implementation in range of the cultural policy of the society [1, p.18].

  5. Membrane formation : diffusion induced demixing processes in ternary polymeric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvers, Albertus Johannes

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the mechanism of membrane formation by means of immersion precipitation is studied. Immersion of a concentrated polymer solution film into a nonsolvent bath induces an exchange of solvent and nonsolvent in the film by means of diffusion. This process results in an asymmetric polymer

  6. Emptiness formation probability of XX-chain in diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2004-01-01

    We study the distribution of emptiness formation probability of XX-model in the diffusion process. There exits a Gaussian decay as well as an exponential decay. The Gaussian decay is caused by the existence of zero point in the Fermi distribution function. The correlation length for each point of scaling factor varies up to the initial condition, monotonically or non-monotonically

  7. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  8. Academic Formation and Formative Research Integration Management for the Culmination of Studies Process in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Cruz Rizo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the up- dated international difficulties in the completion of studies process, theoretical and practical studies developed in this field are surprisingly scarce. Particularly, there has been a limited quantity of students that support their diploma thesis after completing their credits at the School of Languages and Linguistics at the University of Guayaquil. Consequently, this paper faces the problem of the insufficiencies in the culmination of studies process in relation to the management of the academic and scientific formation. Thus, the objective is: to improve the completion of studies or degree- obtaining processes in university education, through the implementation of a praxiological proposal of academic formation and formative research integration. Accordingly, the author´s experiences systematization is the methodology mainly used. The essential logic for the management of the academic formation and formative research integration was revealed as the main proposal, therefore this is the solution to the problem diagnosed. This is based on a curricular structure, in which each of the subjects was interrelated to each of the essential stages of the scientific research. As main results obtained, the students were able to solve real-life problems diagnosed at educative institutions, also they drew up the draft of their theses.

  9. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  10. Formation process of Malaysian modern architecture under influence of nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    宇高, 雄志; 山崎, 大智

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Formation Process of Malaysian Modern Architecture under Influence of Nationalism,through the process of independence of Malaysia. The national style as "Malaysian national architecture" which hasengaged on background of political environment under the post colonial situation. Malaysian urban design is alsodetermined under the balance of both of ethnic culture and the national culture. In Malaysia, they decided to choosethe Malay ethnic culture as the national culture....

  11. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. THE FEATURES OF PROCESSES OF SKILLS (SPECIAL COMPETENCIES FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pechnikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The present article continues a series of the authors’ publications devoted to key problems of a modern educational process organization and ensuring its efficiency. A starting point of the latest investigation stage has been a gap between the available models of formation and diagnostics of special competencies and the tasks for predicting a degree of success of development student’s skills in order to take adequate decisions on managing the process.The aim of the article is justification of a new methodological approach to formation of skills (special competencies of students.Methodology and research methods. The methods of analysis and synthesis; fundamental principles of didactics, qualimetry, the efficiency theory and the decision-making theory were used.Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical bases of evaluation procedures of pupils’ skills created during training are stated. Reference points for the choice of learning process characteristics are designated; by following those characteristics it is possible to provide better development of skills. The tasks of analysis of the studied problem, information acquisition and modeling of the “situation mechanism” of special competencies formation are considered. It is proved that for educational process management optimization it is necessary to evaluate not only its result, but also its quality process, as well its quality system that provides the organization process. The combination of factors to exert the dominating influence over educational process effectiveness are singled out: a type of the applied pedagogical influence; a type of the realized didactic system; a set of personal trainee characteristics which include levels of his/her educational motivation, learning ability, creativity and enables to model and predict training results. It is shown that each of possible combinations of the leading factors represents separate version of a solution to the

  13. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  14. Profiles of the stochastic star formation process in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of spiral arms in disc galaxies is generally attributed to the effects of spiral density waves. These relatively small (i.e. 5 per cent) non-axisymmetric perturbations of the interstellar medium cause spiral arms highlighted by O and B type stars to be created. In this paper another mechanism for spiral arm formation, the stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) process is examined. The SSPSF process combines the theory that shock waves from supernovae will compress the interstellar medium to create new stars, some of which will be massive enough to also supernova, with a disc galaxy's differential rotation to create spiral arms. The present work extends this process to the case where the probability of star formation from supernova shocks decreases with galactic radius. Where this work and previous investigations overlap (namely the uniform probability case), the agreement is very good, pretty spirals with various numbers of arms are generated. The decreasing probability cases, taken to vary as rsup(-j), still form spiral arms for 0 1.5 the spiral structure is essentially non-existent. (author)

  15. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  16. Knowledge Cluster Formation as a Science Policy in Malaysia: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Dieter Evers; ZEF University of Bonn; Solvay Gerke; Centre for Development Research, University of Bonn

    2015-01-01

    Regional science policy aims to create productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination. These so-called K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Many governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. This paper looks at Malaysia's path towards a knowledge-based economy and offers some evidence on the current state of kno...

  17. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  18. COMMUNICATION COMPONENT FORMATION OF TEACHERS’ COMPETENCE IN THE MENTORING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera T. Sopegina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the integration process and special pedagogical competence in solving production and pedagogical challenges in the educational organizations and production enterprises engaged in the training of mentors.Methods. The methods involve the analysis of psycho-pedagogical and methodological literature on the issue; analysis of the Federal State Educational Standards and professional standards; modeling of processes.Results and scientific novelty. The problems of formation of communicative competence in the preparation of teachers are considered. The characteristic of the formation levels of mentoring such as «mentor-formal»; «mentor-theoretician», a «mentor-coach»; «mentor-adviser»; «mentor-professional» are given. The pedagogical potential of the phenomenon of «mentoring» is disclosed; an innovative way of mentoring within the competence approach is shown. The integrative activity of the teacher in solving production and pedagogical problems is analysed.Practical significance. The results can be used by trainers and mentors in the formation of communicative competence of students. The implementation of integration model of pedagogical and production tasks will provide the formation of communicative competence as part of vocational training. Using the obtained results can improve the effectiveness of vocational teacher education.

  19. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  20. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  1. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have ...

  2. THE FORMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY IN UKRAINE: REGIONAL SPECIFICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol’

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of national environmental policy formation and functioning are researched. A conclusion that the environmental crisis is a result of imperfections in the social and economic system mechanisms is received. The role of the environmental component in political and economic problems solving is determined. The problems of implementation modern national environmental policy are analyzed. The necessity of its further improving is substantiated and the priority directions of its further development are determined. The implementation of the reform process of the national economic policy sustainable use and recreation of natural resources and objects within all industrial and territorial complexes in Ukraine, that distinguished by high resource and energy consumption, was associated primarily with the need to overcome the environmental and economic crisis events. In aspect of the environmental and economic development of Ukraine in 1992- 2015 can be divided into two stages: - general ecological and economic crisis with a simultaneous significant reducing of the main natural resources using (1992-2000 - water, mineral, partly land, reducing emissions into the air etc.; - relative stabilization and revival beginning (since 2000 of industrial and agricultural manufacturing with increasing in certain regions of the polluted water volume, the harmful substances emissions and others.The current in Ukraine system of indicators for assessing the ecological environment and natural resources management is largely based on the parameters of 70th years statistical reporting. To change this evaluation methodology should concentrate on the following directions of the formation of sustainable using and reproduction of natural resources principles: - the scientific substantiation for internal needs of Ukraine in various types of natural resources; - accelerated implementation of the prevention measures of the irreversible violations of environment ecological

  3. Destruction and formation of organic micropollutants in incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascolo, G.; Bagnuolo, G.; Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results obtained from a lab-scale investigation carried out with a system for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS) aimed to study the effect of some process variables during incineration. The study has been focused on (I) gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation, (II) thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds, (III) products of incomplete combustion (PICs) formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics, (IV) PICs formation during process failure modes, (V) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during urban sludge thermal degradation and (VI) influence of conditioning polymer on PICs emission during sludge incineration. The study about gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation has been carried out with 2, 4, 6-trichloro- and 2, 4, 6 -tribromo-phenol that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 800 0 C in an air atmosphere. Both phenols showed the formation of the same tetra-halo-dioxin isomers that were further degraded at higher temperature. Furthermore, chlorine-containing dioxins showed higher thermal stability than bromine-containing dioxins. The study about thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds has been carried out with chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 1000 0 C in an inert as well as air atmosphere. Results show that in all experimental conditions tetrachloroethylene and toluene are the most and less thermal stable compounds respectively. Also, all compounds are more thermal resistant during pyrolytic experiments and less thermal resistant when they are treated as a whole mixture. The study about PICs formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics has been carried out by thermally degrading urban sludge alone or spiked with the above reported three organics at different conditions of temperature and oxygen

  4. Seeing the State through Youth Policy Formation: The Case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the way in which one of the largest semi-autonomous states in India, the state of Jharkhand, is developing policies that target the youth. It also looks at ways in which it is providing room for youths to participate in processes of decision making. Studying the state government's position, ideology and ...

  5. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  6. Knowledge Cluster Formation as a Science Policy in Malaysia: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional science policy aims to create productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination. These so-called K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Many governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. This paper looks at Malaysia’s path towards a knowledge-based economy and offers some evidence on the current state of knowledge cluster formation in that country. If the formation of a knowledge cluster has been the government policy, what has been the result? Is there an epistemic landscape of knowledge clusters? Has the main knowledge cluster really materialised? Data collected from websites, directories, government publications and expert interviews have enabled us to construct the epistemic landscape of Peninsular Malaysia, and Penang in particular. We identify and describe several knowledge clusters with a high density of knowledge producing institutions and their knowledge workers. An analysis of the knowledge output, measured in terms of scientific publications, patents and trademarks, shows that knowledge clusters have indeed been productive – as predicted by cluster theory – although the internal working of clusters require further explanation.

  7. The Fundamentals of Formation of the State Budget and Tax Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichniy Mykola D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation and development of the theoretical and methodological definitions as to formation of the State budget and tax policy in the current conditions of economic transformations. The issues of developing the directions and measures of fiscal policy in line with the priorities of social and economic development of the country and its administrative-territorial units have been explored. Attention has been focused on the importance of assessing the impacting of the economic growth by not the tax burden only, but the tax structure as well, in the context of the major classifications. The article substantiates the importance of enhancing the efficiency of use of budgetary funds, separation of social and economic efficiency of the budget expenditures. Of particular interest are the issues relating to strengthening of the institutional foundations of the budget and tax policy, implementation of measures for introduction of the medium-term budget planning. Priorities of the budget policy in the sphere of the inter-budgetary relations and regulation of the budget deficit have been allocated.

  8. Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of ∼1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment

  9. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process : an application for naval ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.J.M.; Basten, R.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult

  10. The reciprocal relationship between the state and union formation across Western Europe: policy dimensions and theoretical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brienna Perelli-Harris; Nora E. Sánchez Gassen

    2010-01-01

    Although cohabitation and childbearing within cohabitation has increased dramatically in Europe over the past decades, the variation across Europe remains remarkable. Most studies on changing union formation have not explicitly addressed how state policies may be facilitating cohabitation or, alternatively, stalling the increase of cohabitation by privileging marriage. Indeed, the relationship between policies and union formation is complicated, as states may have passed legislation in respon...

  11. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  12. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  13. Political Limits to the Processing of Policy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.

  14. Introduction of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Uganda: analysis of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoch, Walter Denis; Kabali, Kenneth; Ankunda, Racheal; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Tetui, Moses

    2015-06-20

    Health policy analysis is important for all health policies especially in fields with ever changing evidence-based interventions such as HIV prevention. However, there are few published reports of health policy analysis in sub-Saharan Africa in this field. This study explored the policy process of the introduction of male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in Uganda in order to inform the development processes of similar health policies. Desk review of relevant documents was conducted between March and May 2012. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Conceptual frameworks that demonstrate the interrelationship within the policy development processes and influence of actors in the policy development processes guided the analysis. Following the introduction of MC on the national policy agenda in 2007, negotiation and policy formulation preceded its communication and implementation. Policy proponents included academic researchers in the early 2000s and development partners around 2007. Favourable contextual factors that supported the development of the policy included the rising HIV prevalence, adoption of MC for HIV prevention in other sub-Saharan African countries, and expertise on MC. Additionally, the networking capability of proponents facilitated the change in position of non-supportive or neutral actors. Non-supportive and neutral actors in the initial stages of the policy development process included the Ministry of Health, traditional and Muslim leaders, and the Republican President. Using political authority, legitimacy, and charisma, actors who opposed the policy tried to block the policy development process. Researchers' initial disregard of the Ministry of Health in the research process of MC and the missing civil society advocacy arm contributed to delays in the policy development process. This study underscores the importance of securing top political leadership as well as key implementing partners' support in policy development processes

  15. Factor analysis of processes of corporate culture formation at industrial enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illiashenko Sergii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.

  16. Postgraduate education and research in Brazil: regulation and reconfiguration processes of academic work formation and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This text analyses some of the processes of formation and production regulation and reconfiguration of the scholarly work in Brazil. Initially we examine the context and meaning of knowledge production in times of flexible accumulation, as well as the current landscape of Postgraduate education in the country. We seek to understand how public policies in the area, particularly the actions of evaluation and promotion, and the new modus operandi of the Postgraduate study and research organization have been reconfiguring the work production of teaching and students within the programs, especially in education. Above all, we seek to highlight the role of promotion and evaluation agencies, increasingly committed to a vision of expansion that drives the production of knowledge associated with demands of economic-productivity, rather than a consistent formative project that would result in a significant advancement in the production and dissemination of knowledge in the different areas.

  17. U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, EPA’s trade and environment policy organization is designed to create a flexible and collaborative mechanism so that EPA can participate fully and effectively in the development and implementation of U.S. trade and environment policy.

  18. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  19. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  20. PSEUDOBULGE FORMATION AS A DYNAMICAL RATHER THAN A SECULAR PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio; Carollo, Marcella [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the formation and evolution of the pseudobulge in 'Eris', a high-resolution N-body + smoothed particle hydrodynamic cosmological simulation that successfully reproduces a Milky-Way-like massive late-type spiral in an cold dark matter universe. At the present epoch, Eris has a virial mass M{sub vir} {approx_equal} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, a photometric stellar mass M{sub *} = 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, a bulge-to-total ratio B/T = 0.26, and a weak nuclear bar. We find that the bulk of the pseudobulge forms quickly at high redshift via a combination of non-axisymmetric disk instabilities and tidal interactions or mergers, both occurring on dynamical timescales, not through slow secular processes at lower redshift. Its subsequent evolution is not strictly secular either, and is closely intertwined with the evolution of the stellar bar. In fact, the structure that we recognize as a pseudobulge today evolved from a stellar bar that formed at high redshift due to tidal interactions with satellites, was destroyed by minor mergers at z {approx} 3, re-formed shortly after, and weakened again following a steady gas inflow at z {approx}< 1. The gradual dissolution of the bar ensued at z {approx} 1 and continues until the present without increasing the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner regions. In this scenario, the pseudobulge is not a separate component from the inner disk in terms of formation path; rather, it is the first step in the inside-out formation of the baryonic disk, in agreement with the fact that pseudobulges of massive spiral galaxies typically have a dominant old stellar population. If our simulations do indeed reproduce the formation mechanisms of massive spirals, then the progenitors of late-type galaxies should have strong bars and small photometric pseudobulges at high redshift.

  1. Concept formation: a supportive process for early career nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Tracey; West, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    Individuals come to understand abstract constructs such as that of the 'expert' through the formation of concepts. Time and repeated opportunity for observation to support the generalisation and abstraction of the developing concept are essential if the concept is to form successfully. Development of an effective concept of the 'expert nurse' is critical for early career nurses who are attempting to integrate theory, values and beliefs as they develop their clinical practice. This study explores the use of a concept development framework in a grounded theory study of the 'expert nurse'. Qualitative. Using grounded theory methods for data collection and analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with registered nurses. The participants were asked to describe their concept of the 'expert nurse' and to discuss their experience of developing this. Participants reported forming their concept of the 'expert nurse', after multiple opportunities to engage with nurses identified as 'expert'. This identification did not necessarily relate to the designated position of the 'expert nurse' or assigned mentors. When the early career nurse does not successfully form a concept of the 'expert nurse', difficulties in personal and professional development including skill/knowledge development may arise. To underpin development of their clinical practice effectively, early career nurses need to be provided with opportunities that facilitate the purposive formation of their own concept of the 'expert nurse'. Formation of this concept is not well supported by the common practice of assigning mentors. Early career nurses must be provided with the time and the opportunity to individually develop and refine their concept of the 'expert nurse'. To achieve this, strategies including providing opportunities to engage with expert nurses and discussion of the process of concept formation and its place in underpinning personal judgments may be of assistance. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing

  2. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  3. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Horie, Takeo; Denker, Elsa; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Smith, William C; Jiang, Di

    2009-06-15

    In the course of embryogenesis multicellular structures and organs are assembled from constituent cells. One structural component common to many organs is the tube, which consists most simply of a luminal space surrounded by a single layer of epithelial cells. The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" essential for swimming. While the early processes of convergent extension in ascidian notochord development have been extensively studied, the later phases of development, which include lumen formation, have not been well characterized. Here we used molecular markers and confocal imaging to describe tubulogenesis in the developing Ciona notochord. We found that during tubulogenesis each notochord cell established de novo apical domains, and underwent a mesenchymal-epithelial transition to become an unusual epithelial cell with two opposing apical domains. Concomitantly, extracellular luminal matrix was produced and deposited between notochord cells. Subsequently, each notochord cell simultaneously executed two types of crawling movements bi-directionally along the anterior/posterior axis on the inner surface of notochordal sheath. Lamellipodia-like protrusions resulted in cell lengthening along the anterior/posterior axis, while the retraction of trailing edges of the same cell led to the merging of the two apical domains. As a result, the notochord cells acquired endothelial-like shape and formed the wall of the central lumen. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented the cell movement and tube formation. Ciona notochord tube formation utilized an assortment of common and fundamental cellular processes including cell shape change, apical membrane biogenesis, cell/cell adhesion remodeling, dynamic cell crawling, and lumen matrix secretion.

  4. Are amphitheater headed canyons indicative of a particular formative process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.; Johnson, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tributary canyons with amphitheater-shaped heads have previously been interpreted as evidence for groundwater seepage erosion, particularly in environments where fluvial processes are assumed to be negligible. However, some have questioned whether this canyon morphology is truly diagnostic of a particular formative process. We seek to determine the relative roles of fluvial and groundwater-related processes and the strength of stratigraphic control on the Colorado Plateau through a combination of fieldwork and GIS analysis. Amphitheater valleys may have overhanging or steep-sided headwalls with a semicircular plan-view pattern. It is reasonable to assume that this form is a result of focused erosion at the base of the headwall (i.e. sapping). Two frequently cited agents may lead to undermining: plunge-pool scour at the base of waterfalls and seepage induced weathering and erosion where the groundwater table intersects the land surface. Both processes are enhanced where weaker, less permeable layers underlie stronger cap rock. We conducted preliminary fieldwork in two locations on the Colorado Plateau, where there are many classic examples of amphitheater headed canyons. The Escalante River landscape is highly variable with a range of canyon and valley-head forms, many of which cut through the thick Navajo Sandstone into the underlying shale and sand of the Kayenta Formation. Northeast of Escalante National Monument, at the base of the Henry Mountains, is Tarantula Mesa. The canyons there are also considerably variable, with nearly all containing at least one abrupt amphitheater knickpoint at the valley head or farther downstream. Our observations are presented here with an analysis of the canyon profiles, surrounding topography, and potential structural controls. We have found that nearly all amphitheaters in both locales show signs of groundwater seepage weathering and plausibly seepage erosion. However, many also contain plunge pools and evidence of substantial

  5. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  6. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy in the Process of Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.

    2002-12-01

    We present deep U-, V-, and I-band images of the ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxy POX 186 obtained with the Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also obtained a near-ultraviolet spectrum of the object with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and combine this with a new ground-based optical spectrum. The images confirm the galaxy to be extremely small, with a maximum extent of only 300 pc, a luminosity of ~10-4L*, and an estimated mass of ~107 Msolar. Its morphology is highly asymmetric, with a tail of material on its western side that may be tidal in origin. The U-band image shows this tail to be part of a stream of material in which stars have recently formed. Most of the star formation in the galaxy is, however, concentrated in a central, compact (d~10-15 pc) star cluster. We estimate this cluster to have a total mass of ~105 Msolar, to be forming stars at a rate of less than 0.05 yr-1, and to have a maximum age of a few million years. The outer regions of the galaxy are significantly redder than the cluster, with V-I colors consistent with a population dominated by K and M stars. From our analysis of the optical spectrum we find the galaxy to have a metallicity Z~=0.06 Zsolar and to contain a significant amount of internal dust [E(B-V)~=0.28] both values agree with previous estimates. While these results rule out earlier speculation that POX 186 is a protogalaxy, its morphology, mass, and active star formation suggest that it represents a recent (within ~108 yr) collision between two clumps of stars of subgalactic size (~100 pc). POX 186 may thus be a very small dwarf galaxy that, dynamically speaking, is still in the process of formation. This interpretation is supported by the fact that it resides in a void, so its morphology cannot be explained as the result of an encounter with a more massive galaxy. Clumps of stars this small may represent the building blocks required by hierarchical models of galaxy formation, and these results

  7. TEACHER ROLE IN FORMATION POLITENESS OF STUDENT LEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Oktavia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Language as a communication tool has an important role in human interaction. Language can be used to convey ideas, ideas, feelings, desires, and so forth to others. To be able to communicate well certainly should be able to adjust the language used. One of the main functions of communication is to maintain the continuity of the relationship between the narrator and hearer. Language is an important pillar in the formation of character, in addition to religious education and moral education. In education, teachers must have pedagogical, professional, personal, and social. Teachers who have a good competence speech acts certainly have a good and well mannered to students. In the learning process, teachers and students communicate in give and receive course materials. The learning process is certainly not only provides knowledge alone, but give the values of character to students. In this case, the teacher must have a principle that must be controlled properly, correctly and precisely. Thus, teachers are expected to master the communication and understanding the principles of politeness in speaking well and correctly. The goal is a description of a form of politeness in the learning process. This research is a descriptive study which seeks to describe a form of politeness in the learning process. Data collection method used is the method refer to the data collection techniques are 1 recording technique using a tape recorder, and 2 technical note on the data card. Furthermore, methods of data analysis using pragmatic frontier.

  8. RELABEL2007, Labels FORTRAN Statements in ENDF Format Processing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RELABEL labels a ENDF/B pre-processing program so that statement labels are in increasing order in increments of 10 within each routine, and cards are identified in columns 73-80 by three alphanumeric characters in columns 73-75 and sequence numbers in columns 76-80 in increments of 10. IAEA1314/10: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Relabel VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): No change since March 2004 version 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RELABEL is designed to maintain ENDF/B processing programs which use a restricted set of FORTRAN statements. As such, this program is not completely general

  9. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  10. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of aromatic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.; Ervens, B.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations have shown substantial concentrations (20-5,500 ng L-1) of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric laboratory conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction rates decreased with increasing organic carbon content. Kinetic data derived from these experiments were used as input to a multiphase box model in order to evaluate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX. Model results will be presented that quantify the SOA amounts from these aqueous phase pathways. The efficiency of this multiphase SOA source will be compared to SOA yields from the same aromatics as treated in traditional SOA models that are restricted to gas phase oxidation and subsequent condensation on particles.

  12. Galaxy formation-a condensation process just after recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, G.

    1998-01-01

    A scenario of galaxy formation is put forward which is a process of sudden condensation just after recombination. It is essentially based on the fact that the cosmic-matter gas after recombination is a general relativistic Boltzmann gas which runs within a few 10 6 years into a tate very close to collision-dominated equilibrium. The mass spectrum of axially symmetric condensation 'drops' extends from the lower limit M ≅ 10 5 M to the upper limit M ≅ 10 12 M. The lower-limit masses are spheres whereas the upper-limit masses are thin pancakes. These pancakes contract within a time of about 2.5 · 10 9 y to rotating spiral galaxies with ordinary proportions. In this final state they have a redshift z ≅ 3. At an earlier time during their contraction they are highly active and are observed with a redshift z ≅ 5

  13. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  14. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  15. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  16. A linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic systems with data (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Timmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises similar

  17. A linear process-algebraic format for probabilistic systems with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Timmer, Mark; Gomes, L.; Khomenko, V.; Fernandes, J.M.

    This paper presents a novel linear process algebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises similar

  18. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  19. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  20. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  1. The formation and the evolution process of the Jilin meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyang, Z.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the data from an integrated study by a multidisciplinary group on the Jilin meteorite, we discuss the following aspects concerning its formation and evolution: (1) The fractionation-condensation of the solar nebula was examined based on the condensation and solidification age and the mineral composition of the Jilin meteorite. (2) The thermometamorphic history of the Jilin parent body was discussed based on the data on the loss of rare gases, the chemical composition of the whole rock, the self-purification of rare-earth elements and the composition stability of olivine and orthopyroxene. (3) The cooling process of the Jilin parent body was analyzed according to the Ni content and the width of taenite, and the retentivity of argon and fission tracks in the minerals. (4) The breakup of the Jilin parent body and its cosmic ray irradiation history: Based on the measurements of the cosmogenic nuclides as He 3 , Ne/sup 20,21,22/, Ar 38 , Na 22 , Al 26 , Mn 54 , Mn 53 , Co 60 etc., a two-stage model of the irradiation history of the Jilin meteorite was proposed. From the data on the Jilin meteorite parent body of the first stage (the age = 10--11 MY and r = 10 m) and that of the second stage (the age = 0.3--0.5 MY and r = 80--90 cm). The relative positions of samples in the parent body, their burial depths as well as the post-atmospheric loss by ignition were determined. (5) The falling process of the Jilin meteorite: The orbits of the Jilin meteor in the solar system and in the atmosphere, and its falling process were discussed

  2. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of environmental education policy. Further questions .... for Environmental Management (in Ketlhoilwe, 2003) calls for an informed and environmentally ..... As priority issues such as HIV/AIDS, poverty, water resources and solid.

  3. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trood, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  4. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  5. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima

    2004-11-01

    Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.

  6. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Verso, E; Roccasalva Firenze, M; Sansone, M; Bracale, M [University of Naples, Federico II, Electronic Engineering Department, Bioengineering Unit, Via Claudio, 21 - 80125 Naples (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors) 16 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  7. FORMATION PROCESS AND HISTORICAL FUNCTIONS OF OLD AKIHA ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yoji; Okuda, Masao; Kani, Yukihiko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu

    An object of this study is the old Akiha road located along the southern parts of the Akaishi Mountains in Sizuoka Prefecture. The old Akiha road between Hamamatsu city in Enshu and Iida city in Shinshu had been utilized by people for the purposes of making a pilgrimage, megalithic faith, transporting obsidian since the primitive age, practicing the mountaineering asceticism, operating the military activities in the warlike age, transporting salt from coastal area to mountainous area and so on. Through the investigation of literature, site reconnaissance and hearing, the formation process and the historical functions of the old Akiha road were studied, including the situation in medieval times or before. As the results, it was elucidated that the oldest road between two cities had located over the Hyoukoshi Pass, the road routes had the lowering trend from mountainside to riverside, and the historical functions of old Akiha road were the passage for transportation of various kinds of goods and human being, faith and culture.

  8. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Verso, E.; Roccasalva Firenze, M.; Sansone, M.; Bracale, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors)

  9. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Loogma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an  important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools.

  10. The Process Of Advocacy In Romanian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influencing public policy in favor of interest groups can be achieved through advocacy associations legally constituted whose mission is to: promovate professional excellence in the application of advanced practices of advocacy, strengthen civil society participation in development of public policies and continuously develop policies to private firms.. Through advocacy associations can uphold and enforce the values of entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Any resource used in advocacy efforts associations should generate added value and impact, contribute to the progress, development and improved quality of life. Advocacy associations must primarily promotes technical and professional skills of advocacy for any civil society interested group with honesty, dignity, mutual respect, transparency and social responsibility in order to strengthen the system of participatory democracy to which they are signatories.

  11. Democratic Dialogue as a Process to Inform Public Policy: Reconceptualizing a Supervisory Officer’s Qualification Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre M. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An exploration of the collaborative reconceptualization of a provincial Supervisory Officer’s Qualification Program (SOQP through the use of dialogic approaches is the focus of this inquiry. The stories, perspectives, and lived experiences of supervisory officers, principals, teachers, parents, students, and members of the public in Ontario were included as essential voices and information sources within policy development conversations. These narratives of experience revealed the forms of knowledge, skills, dispositions, and ethical commitments necessary for effective supervisory officers today and in the future. They also illustrated the transformative nature of narrative dialogue to enlighten, deepen understanding, and alter perspec- tives. The policy development processes used in this publicly shared educational initiative serve as a model of democratic dialogue. The inclusive and dialogic methods employed to collectively reconceptualize a supervisory officer formation program illustrate an innovative framework for developing policies governing the public good.

  12. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  13. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  14. Evidence of biogeochemical processes in iron duricrust formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Alan; Gagen, Emma; Shuster, Jeremiah; Rintoul, Llew; Tobin, Mark; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Bambery, Keith; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Southam, Gordon

    2016-11-01

    Canga is a moderately hard iron-rich duricrust primarily composed of goethite as a result of the weathering of banded iron formations. Canga duricrusts lack a well-developed soil profile and consequently form an innate association with rupestrian plants that may become ferruginised, contributing to canga possessing macroscopic biological features. Examination of polished canga using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealed the biological textures associated with canga extended to the sub-millimetre scale in petrographic sections and polished blocks. Laminae that formed by abiotic processes and regions where goethite cements were formed in association with microorganisms were observed in canga. Biological cycling of iron within canga has resulted in two distinct forms of microbial fossilisation: permineralisation of multispecies biofilms and mineralisation of cell envelopes. Goethite permineralised biofilms frequently formed around goethite-rich kaolinite grains in close proximity to goethite bands and were composed of micrometre-scale rod-shaped, cocci and filamentous microfossils. In contrast, the cell envelopes immobilised by authigenic iron oxides were primarily of rod-shaped microorganisms, were not permineralised and occurred in pore spaces within canga. Complete mineralisation of intact rod-shaped casts and the absence of permineralisation suggested mineralised cell envelopes may represent fossilised iron-oxidising bacteria in the canga ecosystem. Replication of these iron-oxidising bacteria appeared to infill the porous regions within canga. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy demonstrated that organic biomarkers were poorly preserved with only weak bands indicative of aliphatic methylene (CH2) associated with permineralised microbial biofilms. High resolution imaging of microbial fossils in canga that had been etched with oxalic acid supported the poor preservation of organic biomarkers within canga

  15. Types of tectonic structures, sedimentary volcanogenetic formations of a mantle, favourable processes for exogenetic and polygenetic uranium deposits formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Komarnitskij, G.M.; Levin, V.N.; Shumlyanskij, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors, affecting mineralization processes are considered. Characteristic features of uranium-bearing provinces are as follows: the presence of crust of continental type; deep-seated tectonic structures-rises and saggings, roofs, gneiss domes, rift zones and transform fractures; specialization for uranium of sedimentary and magmatic formations; the presence of manifestation regions of deep thermal and gaseous flow, etc. In uranium-bearing provinces territories favourable for the manifestation of different types of uranium mineralization: metamorphogenetic, polygenetic and exogenetic ones, are singled out. Different epochs of uranium ore formation are established. In sedimentary masses tectonic regime and climate are of special importance, and for epigenetic deposits, formed with an aid of underground waters-hydrogeological conditions. In the limits of the main structural elements of the Earth crust and geotectonic structures of higher orders the following types of sedimentary and volcanic formations can be singled out: 1-formations with exogenous uranium mineralization; 2-formations, accumulated in the epochs of epigenous ore formation; 3-formations fav ourable for epigenous uranium deposit formation; 4-formations unfavourable for the formation and localization of uranium mineralization

  16. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  17. State Education Policy Formation: The Case of Arizona's English Language Learner Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This historical case study focuses on policy making at the state level by analyzing the development of a new policy for English language learners (ELLs) in Arizona. "New institutionalism" is used as a framework, with political culture and educational regimes acting as environmental factors affecting state policy choices. Key events…

  18. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  19. A formal communication process: Pathway to improved policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Robison, A.C.; Seidler, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will examine the efforts made and the steps taken by the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) to establish and keep open lines of communication with officials in Nye County, Nevada, the location of Yucca Mountain, the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. These efforts include creating policies and procedures for conducting oversight of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), as well as developing programs for engaging in technical studies, requests for impact assistance and financial assistance, and ensuring there's a continuous flow of information to the residents of Nevada

  20. Dislocation processes in quasicrystals-Kink-pair formation control or jog-pair formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    A computer simulation of dislocation in a model quasiperiodic lattice indicates that the dislocation feels a large Peierls potential when oriented in particular directions. For a dislocation with a high Peierls potential, the glide velocity and the climb velocity of the dislocation can be described almost in parallel in terms of the kink-pair formation followed by kink motion and the jog-pair formation followed by jog motion, respectively. The activation enthalpy of the kink-pair formation is the sum of the kink-pair formation enthalpy and the atomic jump activation enthalpy, while the activation enthalpy of the jog-pair formation involves the jog-pair enthalpy and the self-diffusion enthalpy. Since the kink-pair energy can be considerably larger than the jog-pair energy, the climb velocity can be faster than the glide velocity, so that the plastic deformation of quasicrystals can be brought not by dislocation glide but by dislocation climb at high temperatures

  1. Precooking as a Control for Histamine Formation during the Processing of Tuna: An Industrial Process Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Farzana; Nolte, Fred; Colton, James; De Beer, John; Weddig, Lisa

    2018-02-23

    An experiment to validate the precooking of tuna as a control for histamine formation was carried out at a commercial tuna factory in Fiji. Albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) were brought on board long-line catcher vessels alive, immediately chilled but never frozen, and delivered to an on-shore facility within 3 to 13 days. These fish were then allowed to spoil at 25 to 30°C for 21 to 25 h to induce high levels of histamine (>50 ppm), as a simulation of "worst-case" postharvest conditions, and subsequently frozen. These spoiled fish later were thawed normally and then precooked at a commercial tuna processing facility to a target maximum core temperature of 60°C. These tuna were then held at ambient temperatures of 19 to 37°C for up to 30 h, and samples were collected every 6 h for histamine analysis. After precooking, no further histamine formation was observed for 12 to 18 h, indicating that a conservative minimum core temperature of 60°C pauses subsequent histamine formation for 12 to 18 h. Using the maximum core temperature of 60°C provided a challenge study to validate a recommended minimum core temperature of 60°C, and 12 to 18 h was sufficient to convert precooked tuna into frozen loins or canned tuna. This industrial-scale process validation study provides support at a high confidence level for the preventive histamine control associated with precooking. This study was conducted with tuna deliberately allowed to spoil to induce high concentrations of histamine and histamine-forming capacity and to fail standard organoleptic evaluations, and the critical limits for precooking were validated. Thus, these limits can be used in a hazard analysis critical control point plan in which precooking is identified as a critical control point.

  2. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buf...... from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces...

  3. Single molecule image formation, reconstruction and processing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Piestun, Rafael; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2016-07-01

    The ability to image at the single molecule scale has revolutionized research in molecular biology. This feature issue presents a collection of articles that provides new insights into the fundamental limits of single molecule imaging and reports novel techniques for image formation and analysis.

  4. Defining Sustainable Universities Following Public Opinion Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaptcioglu Celikdemir, Deniz; Gunay, Gonca; Katrinli, Alev; Penbek Alpbaz, Sebnem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the sustainable university in Turkey, by considering perspectives of various stakeholders such as experts, intellectual, public, political parties and media using public opinion formation analysis. The paper aims to re-define the "sustainable university" with all dimensions including…

  5. DECREASE IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT BASE INDUSTRIES BY FORMATION OF EFFECTIVE REGIONAL POLICY OF SUPPORT SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clause is devoted to an actual problem of decrease in negative consequences of technological development of key economic branches of the industry at a regional level. During social and economic transformations to Russia to the beginning of 90th years XX of a century there has been begun complex process of re-structuring of key economic branches of the industry, including technological, social and economic transformations. During re-structuring by one of key directions of the decision of existing social problems there is a formation of effective policy of support of small business at a regional and local level. Creation of favorable conditions for development of small business allows for short time and at rather low expenses to smooth disproportions of social and economic development of territories arising at re-structuring. Flexibility inherent in small business, mobility and adaptibility to changeable market conditions can promote the decision of problems of social stability, maintenance of employment and saturation of the consumer market. Creation of the enterprises of small business on the basis of local natural-economic resources raises social and economic potential of industrial territories.

  6. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  7. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  8. Influence of Process Parameters on Nitrogen Oxide Formation in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of burner operating conditions, burner geometry and fuel parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxide during combustion of pulverized coal. Main attention has been paid to combustion test facilities with self-sustaining flames, while extensions have been made...... to full scale boilers and furnace modeling. Since coal combustion and flame aerodynamics have been reviewed earlier, these phenomena are only treated briefly....

  9. Transformation Directions of the Financial Policy in the Process of Stabilisation of the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriya V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is consideration of theoretical provisions with respect to the state financial policy. The article considers the role of the financial policy in ensuring stabilisation of the Ukrainian financial system. It presents conceptual provisions regarding main goals, mechanisms and instruments of the stabilisation financial policy of the state. It develops economic indicators of its efficiency. The use of indicators of economic efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy by the bodies of state authority in their practical activity would provide the society with a possibility to assess expediency of measures of this policy increasing its efficiency and decreasing criticism at the government. A necessary direction of achievement of effectiveness and efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy is taking into consideration interests of all social groups (population, entrepreneurs, financial institutes and companies, etc. by the bodies of state authority in the process of its development and realisation.

  10. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  11. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  12. Application of Hydroforming Process in Sheet Metal Formation

    OpenAIRE

    GRIZELJ, Branko; CUMIN, Josip; ERGIĆ, Todor

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the theory and application of a hydroforming process. Nowadays automobile manufacturers use high strength sheet metal plates. This high strength steel sheet metal plates are strain hardened in the process of metal forming. With the use of high strength steel, cars are made lightweight, which is intended for low fuel consumption because of high energy prices. Some examples of application of a hydroforming process are simulated with FEM.

  13. Energy shocks, crises and the policy process: A review of theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases — one from the U.S., the other from Germany — are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. - Highlights: • An analysis of the idea of “crisis” and its application to energy. • A review of theories and models of the policy process and of policy change. • Theory applied to two energy cases. • Suggestion as to how the analysis of energy policymaking might be approached in the future

  14. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  15. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, M [Electricite de France, Generation and Transmission, Nuclear Power Plant Operations, Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs.

  16. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pont, M.

    1997-01-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs

  17. Shewanella putrefaciens Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Food Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, Mette; Johansen, Charlotte; Huber, Ingrid; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter were reached in 8 h at 25°C and reflected the cell density in suspension. Numbers of adhering bacteria from a suspension containing 108 CFU/ml were much lower in a laminar flow system (modified Robbins device) (reaching 102 CFU/cm2) than in a batch system (reaching 107 CFU/cm2), and maximum numbers were reached after 24 h. When nutrients were supplied, S. putrefaciens grew in biofilms with layers of bacteria. The rate of biofilm formation and the thickness of the film were not dependent on the availability of carbohydrate (lactate or glucose) or on iron starvation. The number of S. putrefaciens bacteria on the surface was partly influenced by the presence of other bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) which reduced the numbers of S. putrefaciens bacteria in the biofilm. Numbers of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. PMID:11319118

  18. Searching for fossil fragments of the Galactic bulge formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    We have discovered that the stellar system Terzan5 (Ter5) in the Galactic bulge harbors stellar populations with very different IRON content (delta[Fe/H] 1 dex, Ferraro+09, Nature 462, 483) and AGES (12 Gyr and 4.5 Gyr for the sub-solar and super-solar metallicity populations, respectively, Ferraro+16, ApJ,828,75). This evidence demonstrates that Ter5 is not a globular cluster, and identifies it as (1) a site in the Galactic bulge where recent star formation occurred, and (2) the remnant of a massive system able to retain the iron-enriched gas ejected by violent supernova explosions. The striking chemical similarity between Ter5 and the bulge opens the fascinating possibility that we discovered the fossil remnant of a pristine massive structure that could have contributed to the Galactic bulge assembly.Prompted by this finding, here we propose to secure deep HST optical observations for the bulge stellar system Liller1, that shows a similar complexity as Ter5, with evidence of two stellar populations with different iron content. The immediate goal is to properly explore the main sequence turnoff region of the system for unveiling possible splits due to stellar populations of different ages. As demonstrated by our experience with Ter5, the requested HST observations, in combination with the K-band diffraction limited images that we already secured with GeMS-Gemini, are essential to achieve this goal.The project will allow us to establish if other fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch do exist, thus probing that the merging of pre-evolved massive structures has been an important channel for the formation of the Galactic bulge.

  19. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  20. Researching implementation of formative assessment in different educational cultures in order to change educational policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from a four year international research project, Assess Inquiry in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (ASSIST-ME) involving 10 partners in 8 European countries (http://assistme.ku.dk/), running 2012-2016. The project combines research on implementation of innovative ...... assessment methods with a policy aspect in order to influence educational policy....

  1. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    A presentation of a conceptual framework for viewing the admissions management process in higher education institutions and a discussion of the pricing policy process, particularly of private colleges and universities, precedes an examination of the stochastic utility model, a statistical model of the college choice process. Using student choice…

  2. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  3. Dataflow Interchange Format and a Framework for Processing Dataflow Graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keceli, Fuat

    2004-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications are often designed with tools based on dataflow graphs and the increasing number of such tools shows the need for a common intermediate graph representation for exchanging dataflow information...

  4. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  5. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  6. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  7. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  8. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  9. The Physics of Weldpool Formation: Phase Transition Process In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... phase transition took place but did not significantly alter the microstructure of the weldment. This study also supports the claims made by different investigators about the different heat treatments given to metals to determine a particular hardenability level. This heat treatment process is an indicator of phase change.

  10. Strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation of road pricing packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Isaksson, Karolina; Macmillen, James

    2014-01-01

    Fee scheme implemented in 2001, this paper identifies a selection of strategies which appear to have supported the policymakers' capacity to implement effective road pricing schemes. Together, these three examples offer a sound empirical basis from which to infer a set of strategies......In the transport policy domain, as in other highly-contested spheres of public policy, it is commonplace for certain policy measures to emerge as promising only to then remain unimplemented. Road pricing is one example of a theoretically well-developed transport policy measure that has proven...... for the formulation and implementation of politically-contentious road pricing packages-addressing issues of measure combination, flexibility, legitimacy, communication, timing and organisational dynamics. While acknowledging the primacy of broader external and contextual issues, the conclusion is that taking...

  11. Novelty processing and memory formation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Berendse, H W; Foncke, E M J; van der Werf, Y D; van den Heuvel, O A; Theeuwes, J; Meeter, M

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells, resulting in dopamine depletion. This depletion is counteracted through dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). Dopamine has been suggested to affect novelty processing and memory, which suggests that these processes are also implicated in PD and that DRT could affect them. To investigate word learning and novelty processing in patients with PD as indexed by the P2 and P3 event-related potential components, and the role of DRT in these processes. 21 patients with PD and 21 matched healthy controls were included. Patients with PD were tested on and off DRT in two sessions in a counterbalanced design, and healthy controls were tested twice without intervention. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured while participants performed a word learning Von Restorff task. Healthy controls showed the typical Von Restorff effect, with better memory for words that were presented in novel fonts, than for words presented in standard font. Surprisingly, this effect was reversed in the patients with PD. In line with the behavioral findings, the P3 was larger for novel than for standard font words in healthy controls, but not in patients with PD. For both groups the P2 and P3 event-related components were larger for recalled versus forgotten words. DRT did not affect these processes. Learning of novel information is compromised in patients with PD. Likewise, the P2 and P3 components that predict successful memory encoding are reduced in PD patients. This was true both on and off DRT, suggesting that these findings reflect abnormalities in learning and memory in PD that are not resolved by dopaminergic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FORMATION OF SIX SIGMA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE CORONARY STENTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Taner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how a tertiary care center in Turkey operating mainly in cardiology initiated Six Sigma principles to reduce the number of complications occuring during coronary stent insertion process. A Six Sigma’s Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC model for coronary stent insertion is suggested. Data were collected for 24-months. Twenty-two Critical-to-Quality (CTQ factors were identified for successful coronary stent insertion. The most frequent causes of complications in the process were found to be patients with previous bypass surgery or PCI, inexperience of staff members, highly damaged vessel structure, thin and/or long vessel diameter, inappropriate selection of stent type, inappropriate selection of balloon type and poor image quality.

  13. Process-induced formation of imidazoles in selected foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Mujahid, Claudia; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-08-01

    The presence of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI), 2-methylimidazole (2-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in some foods may result from the usage of caramel colorants E150c and E150d as food additives. This study demonstrates that alkylimidazoles are also byproducts formed from natural constituents in foods during thermal processes. A range of heat-processed foods that are known not to contain caramel colorants were analyzed by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS to determine the contamination levels. Highest 4-MEI concentrations (up to 466µg/kg) were observed in roasted barley, roasted malt and cocoa powders, with the concomitant presence of 2-MEI and/or THI in some cases, albeit at significantly lower levels. Low amounts of 4-MEI (foods such as breakfast cereals and bread toasted to a brown color (medium toasted). The occurrence of 4-MEI in certain processed foods is therefore not a reliable indicator of the presence of the additives E150c or E150d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  16. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  17. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of Danish primary education policy with the purpose of exploring what is put at stake when contemporary management discourses describe the object of management as fluid and emergent processes rather than as entities, persons and things. The article examines how...... such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...

  18. Network formation determined by the diffusion process of random walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nobutoshi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diffusion process of random walkers in networks formed by their traces. This model considers the rise and fall of links determined by the frequency of transports of random walkers. In order to examine the relation between the formed network and the diffusion process, a situation in which multiple random walkers start from the same vertex is investigated. The difference in diffusion rate of random walkers according to the difference in dimension of the initial lattice is very important for determining the time evolution of the networks. For example, complete subgraphs can be formed on a one-dimensional lattice while a graph with a power-law vertex degree distribution is formed on a two-dimensional lattice. We derived some formulae for predicting network changes for the 1D case, such as the time evolution of the size of nearly complete subgraphs and conditions for their collapse. The networks formed on the 2D lattice are characterized by the existence of clusters of highly connected vertices and their life time. As the life time of such clusters tends to be small, the exponent of the power-law distribution changes from γ ≅ 1-2 to γ ≅ 3

  19. The Decision to Form the Kangan Committee--A Case Study in the Educational Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John

    1983-01-01

    The postsecondary education policymaking process in Australia, rather than being goal-oriented and rational, is a series of adjustments to existing policy dictated by political expediency, often over many years and changes of government and leading to decisions reflecting unstable origins. This committee's broad influences illustrate this process.…

  20. Engaging policy-makers, heath system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Ghassemi, Marco; Diaz, Sanober; Pham, Ba'; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2018-02-12

    It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016. We included any type of study describing strategies, barriers and facilitators, or assessing the impact of engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Frequency and thematic analyses were conducted. After screening 8395 titles and abstracts followed by 394 full-texts, 84 unique documents and 7 companion reports fulfilled our eligibility criteria. All 84 documents were published in the last 10 years, and half were prepared in North America. The most common type of knowledge synthesis with knowledge user engagement was a systematic review (36%). The knowledge synthesis most commonly addressed an issue at the level of national healthcare system (48%) and focused on health services delivery (17%) in high-income countries (86%). Policy-makers were the most common (64%) knowledge users, followed by healthcare professionals (49%) and government agencies as well as patients and caregivers (34%). Knowledge users were engaged in conceptualization and design (49%), literature search and data collection (52%), data synthesis and interpretation (71%), and knowledge dissemination and application (44%). Knowledge users were most commonly engaged as key informants through meetings and workshops as well as surveys, focus groups, and interviews either in-person or by telephone and emails

  1. Processes of hypernuclei formation in relativistic ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botvina Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of hypernuclei in relativistic ion collisions open new opportunities for nuclear and particle physics. The main processes leading to the production of hypernuclei in these reactions are the disintegration of large excited hyper-residues (target- and projectile-like, and the coalescence of hyperons with other baryons into light clusters. We use the transport, coalescence and statistical models to describe the whole reaction, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach: These reactions lead to the abundant production of multi-strange nuclei and new hypernuclear states. A broad distribution of predicted hypernuclei in masses and isospin allows for investigating properties of exotic hypernuclei, as well as the hypermatter both at high and low temperatures. There is a saturation of the hypernuclei production at high energies, therefore, the optimal way to pursue this experimental research is to use the accelerator facilities of intermediate energies, like FAIR (Darmstadt and NICA (Dubna.

  2. Processes of hypernuclei formation in relativistic ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvina, Alexander; Bleicher, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    The study of hypernuclei in relativistic ion collisions open new opportunities for nuclear and particle physics. The main processes leading to the production of hypernuclei in these reactions are the disintegration of large excited hyper-residues (target- and projectile-like), and the coalescence of hyperons with other baryons into light clusters. We use the transport, coalescence and statistical models to describe the whole reaction, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach: These reactions lead to the abundant production of multi-strange nuclei and new hypernuclear states. A broad distribution of predicted hypernuclei in masses and isospin allows for investigating properties of exotic hypernuclei, as well as the hypermatter both at high and low temperatures. There is a saturation of the hypernuclei production at high energies, therefore, the optimal way to pursue this experimental research is to use the accelerator facilities of intermediate energies, like FAIR (Darmstadt) and NICA (Dubna).

  3. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  4. Energy consumption estimation for greenhouse gas separation processes by clathrate hydrate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hideo; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Kiyono, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    The process energy consumption was estimated for gas separation processes by the formation of clathrate hydrates. The separation process is based on the equilibrium partition of the components between the gaseous phase and the hydrate phase. The separation and capturing processes of greenhouse gases were examined in this study. The target components were hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a) from air, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) from nitrogen, and CO 2 from flue gas. Since these greenhouse gases would form hydrates under much lower pressure and higher temperature conditions than the accompanying components, the effective capturing of the greenhouse gases could be achieved by using hydrate formation. A model separation process for each gaseous mixture was designed from the basis of thermodynamics, and the process energy consumption was estimated. The obtained results were then compared with those for conventional separation processes such as liquefaction separation processes. For the recovery of SF 6 , the hydrate process is preferable to liquefaction process in terms of energy consumption. On the other hand, the liquefaction process consumes less energy than the hydrate process for the recovery of HFC-134a. The capturing of CO 2 by the hydrate process from a flue gas will consume a considerable amount of energy; mainly due to the extremely high pressure conditions required for hydrate formation. The influences of the operation conditions on the heat of hydrate formation were elucidated by sensitivity analysis. The hydrate processes for separating these greenhouse gases were evaluated in terms of reduction of global warming potential (GWP)

  5. Renewable energy support policy in Spain : An analysis of the decision-making process (1994-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leston, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-making process behind the RE support policy will be explored in order to answer the following research questions: “why has the policy-making process been revised so many times?” and “how can such a drastic change on the RE support policy be explained?” The answer is found

  6. FORMATION OF THE ENTITY'S ACCOUNTING POLICIES WITH REGARD TO RELATED PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article solved the problem concerning the development and practical application of accounting policies with regards to related parties. One element of the company’s accounting policies is to establish the principles of classification of related parties and their list considering materiality relations. In addition, the company must determine its related entities for the purposes of transfer pricing. Based the criteria definition and classification of related parties, proposed that the significance of the impact of one party to another based on the content of operations, their volume, the results and how such operations significantly affect the financial, investment and commercial activities. Only an analysis of all the factors together contribute to reliable estimates list of related parties. The critical analysis are made of methods for determining transfer prices for transactions, designed piece order of accounting policies, which reflected information about related parties.

  7. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  8. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  9. Process Approach to Formation of the Strategy of Innovation Development of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhymenko Vita V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development on the basis of the process approach. The author studies and identifies the most significant cause-effect interrelations between the factors that influence efficiency of the process of formation of the strategy of innovation development of enterprises and their consequences. The article offers a process approach to building the K. Ishikawa diagram based on empirical assessment of management of business processes at railway engineering enterprises. The author’s approach would help solving multiple problems of railway engineering and also could be used in other sectors of economy.

  10. [The effect of encoding on false memory: examination on levels of processing and list presentation format].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Hideki

    2004-04-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the effects of lists presentation format (blocked/random) and levels of processing of critical nonpresented lures were examined. A levels-of-processing effect in a blocked presentation order was not observed for lures. Rates of false recognition and remember judgments for lures in a shallow level of processing were significantly lower than those in a deep level of processing when items from various themes were inter-mixed instead of blocked. Results showed an interaction between levels of processing and list presentation format. It is thus concluded that encoding of each word and whole list should be both considered in understanding false memory.

  11. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  12. European External Trade Policy: The Role of Ideas in German Preference Formation - www-publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the literature examining European Union external trade policy, the relative influence of the Commission, the member states and interest groups are an issue of ongoing debate. This article will argue that member states can still play an important role and that a focus on member state preferences

  13. Economical assumption for formation of independent energy policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamonis, M.; Kveselis, V; Klevas

    1996-01-01

    This study concerning the power production and consumption problems in developing countries analyses the following aspects: energy efficiency, fuel prices, technological advances, management of energy demand and environment policy. To obtain background data for state support power programs economical, legal and socio-psychological conditions are considered. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Comparison of different procedures to stabilize biogas formation after process failure in a thermophilic waste digestion system: Influence of aggregate formation on process stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyböcker, A.; Liebrich, M.; Kasina, M.; Kraume, M.; Wittmaier, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of process recovery with calcium oxide. ► Formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids and phosphate. ► Adsorption of VFAs by the precipitates resulting in the formation of aggregates. ► Acid uptake and phosphate release by the phosphate-accumulating organisms. ► Microbial degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. - Abstract: Following a process failure in a full-scale biogas reactor, different counter measures were undertaken to stabilize the process of biogas formation, including the reduction of the organic loading rate, the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the introduction of calcium oxide (CaO). Corresponding to the results of the process recovery in the full-scale digester, laboratory experiments showed that CaO was more capable of stabilizing the process than NaOH. While both additives were able to raise the pH to a neutral milieu (pH > 7.0), the formation of aggregates was observed particularly when CaO was used as the additive. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed calcium phosphate compounds in the core of the aggregates. Phosphate seemed to be released by phosphorus-accumulating organisms, when volatile fatty acids accumulated. The calcium, which was charged by the CaO addition, formed insoluble salts with long chain fatty acids, and caused the precipitation of calcium phosphate compounds. These aggregates were surrounded by a white layer of carbon rich organic matter, probably consisting of volatile fatty acids. Thus, during the process recovery with CaO, the decrease in the amount of accumulated acids in the liquid phase was likely enabled by (1) the formation of insoluble calcium salts with long chain fatty acids, (2) the adsorption of volatile fatty acids by the precipitates, (3) the acid uptake by phosphorus-accumulating organisms and (4) the degradation of volatile fatty acids in the aggregates. Furthermore, this mechanism enabled a stable process performance

  15. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.; Shikhmurzaev, Y.D.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem

  16. [The ethic dimension of daily tasks in the formation process of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; Rosa, Darci de Oliveira Santa; Vieira, Therezinha Teixeira; Sadigursky, Dora

    2008-06-01

    This theoretical article had as its object of study the ethic dimension of the formation process of nurses taking in consideration the National Curricular Directives for Nursing Courses. It was based on the presuppositions of ethics and their relationship with the implementation of changes in the formation process of nurses, using as reference elements of ethical behavior in the formation and attempting to bring the reflection to current times and thus contribute to define a direction to Nursing education. It was concluded that the ethical dimension in the formation of nurses involves values that permeate the relations between the subjects of this process and nature itself. The study points out the need to transform the practices of students and teachers and change the current curriculum framework, highlighting elements that indicate that the concern with ethics when developing the curriculum framework is not limited to how a discipline is taught, but pass through as practices that take place in the education process.

  17. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  18. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katayeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC with polymethacrylic acid (PMA have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  19. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Katayeva; R. Mangazbayeva; R. Abdykalykova

    2012-01-01

    The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with polymethacrylic acid (PMA) have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  20. The emergence and workings of a process view in public education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Pors, Justine; Ratner, Helene Gad

    2017-01-01

    such a process view of organisation allows policy makers to imagine innovative change, but also how a process view interacts in particular ways with financial pressures and become entangled to increased performance measurements. We conclude that in this particular case, a conception of the object of management...... as processes is utilised to stabilise a belief that undoing organisational structures and categories offer an almost limitless resource for a simultaneous improvement of performance and reduction of expenses....

  1. The actor set-up of TV advertising. A new process for hybrid formats

    OpenAIRE

    von Rimscha, M Bjørn; Rademacher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a basic description of the advertising process in TV advertising and discusses how this process might be altered when 30 second spots are replaced by hybrid advertising formats such as sponsoring and placements. For each actor in the process the potential benefit of hybrid advertising is identified and the respective interest in changing the process is deduced. A qualitative interview study with representatives from each actor in the process is used to illustrate that con...

  2. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  3. The comparative evaluation of expanded national immunization policies in Korea using an analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taeksoo; Kim, Chun-Bae; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Hyo-Youl; Cha, Byung Ho; Uh, Young; Lee, Joo-Heon; Hyun, Sook-Jung; Lee, Dong-Han; Go, Un-Yeong

    2009-01-29

    The purpose of this paper is to propose new evaluation criteria and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model to assess the expanded national immunization programs (ENIPs) and to evaluate two alternative health care policies. One of the alternative policies is that private clinics and hospitals would offer free vaccination services to children and the other of them is that public health centers would offer these free vaccination services. Our model to evaluate the ENIPs was developed using brainstorming, Delphi techniques, and the AHP model. We first used the brainstorming and Delphi techniques, as well as literature reviews, to determine 25 criteria with which to evaluate the national immunization policy; we then proposed a hierarchical structure of the AHP model to assess ENIPs. By applying the proposed AHP model to the assessment of ENIPs for Korean immunization policies, we show that free vaccination services should be provided by private clinics and hospitals rather than public health centers.

  4. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  5. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  6. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Various processes occurring in strong interactions between heavy ions: Compound nucleus formation, incomplete fusion, and quasifission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of various deep processes occurring when two complex nuclei enter in collision. It is suggested that very deep inelastic processes may lead to either a compound nucleus or a composite system which shortly decays into two fission fragments (quasifission process). Particularly for heavy projectiles and targets, the predominant Coulomb potential inhibits the compound nucleus formation for low l waves. Then a critical angular momentum can be defined as the limit below which both processes (quasifission and compound nucleus formation) occur. For the heaviest nuclei, nearly all l waves below l) contribute to the quasifission phenomenon

  8. Spilitization processes in the Proterozoic Ongeluk Andesite Formation in Griqualand West, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.S.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Ongeluk Formation is a thick succession of lavas which crops out over a large portion of the region. The formation thickness is poorly constrained and considered to be equivalent to the Hekpoort Basalts in the Transvaal, but large facies changes in the sedimentary formations obscure the correlation. At least two alteration events can be recognized in the Ongeluk Lava: a spilitization process, and a locally restricted hydrothermal event and oxidation process which obscures the spilitization process. The Ongeluk lavas probably covered a much greater area of Griqualand West than at present and could have provided a significant source of manganese, deposited in the Kalahari Manganese Field. A connection between the volcanic origin and alteration of the Ongeluk Formation and the Kalahari Manganese-type mineralization is demonstrated by Gresens' equations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Analysis of the packet formation process in packet-switched networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meditch, J. S.

    Two new queueing system models for the packet formation process in packet-switched telecommunication networks are developed, and their applications in process stability, performance analysis, and optimization studies are illustrated. The first, an M/M/1 queueing system characterization of the process, is a highly aggregated model which is useful for preliminary studies. The second, a marked extension of an earlier M/G/1 model, permits one to investigate stability, performance characteristics, and design of the packet formation process in terms of the details of processor architecture, and hardware and software implementations with processor structure and as many parameters as desired as variables. The two new models together with the earlier M/G/1 characterization span the spectrum of modeling complexity for the packet formation process from basic to advanced.

  10. Simulating the formation of keratin filament networks by a piecewise-deterministic Markov process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Michael; Lück, Sebastian; Fleischer, Frank; Portet, Stéphanie; Arendt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Volker

    2009-02-21

    Keratin intermediate filament networks are part of the cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. They were found to regulate viscoelastic properties and motility of cancer cells. Due to unique biochemical properties of keratin polymers, the knowledge of the mechanisms controlling keratin network formation is incomplete. A combination of deterministic and stochastic modeling techniques can be a valuable source of information since they can describe known mechanisms of network evolution while reflecting the uncertainty with respect to a variety of molecular events. We applied the concept of piecewise-deterministic Markov processes to the modeling of keratin network formation with high spatiotemporal resolution. The deterministic component describes the diffusion-driven evolution of a pool of soluble keratin filament precursors fueling various network formation processes. Instants of network formation events are determined by a stochastic point process on the time axis. A probability distribution controlled by model parameters exercises control over the frequency of different mechanisms of network formation to be triggered. Locations of the network formation events are assigned dependent on the spatial distribution of the soluble pool of filament precursors. Based on this modeling approach, simulation studies revealed that the architecture of keratin networks mostly depends on the balance between filament elongation and branching processes. The spatial distribution of network mesh size, which strongly influences the mechanical characteristics of filament networks, is modulated by lateral annealing processes. This mechanism which is a specific feature of intermediate filament networks appears to be a major and fast regulator of cell mechanics.

  11. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34 were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of

  12. Russia and Islam: state policy on formation of tolerance of Muslims in Western Siberia (1773–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Counteraction to Islamic extremism is the major problem in the modern world. The government of the Russian Empire solved this problem through purposeful education of confessional tolerance of Muslims in 1773–1917. Authors compare understanding of tolerance in Russia and in Western Siberia in 1773-1917, emphasizing that in the Tyumen region society understood this term the same as now. On the basis of earlier unknown archival documents of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan authors consider a state policy on formation of a certain option of Islam which provides religious tolerance in Russia. In article the main attention is paid to Western Siberia as exactly there the confessional state policy made the greatest success. The main directions of a state policy were: to unify Muslim culture according to orthodox samples; to keep the Siberian option of Islam; to create obstacles for distribution of standard Islam; to develop the state measures which would show respect for Muslims and care of them. Authors consider ways of deformation of Muslim culture in Western Siberia: change of architectural forms of mosques and necropolises, deformation of cult objects (existence of a religious sculpture, selection of literature in Muslim libraries, the facilitated conditions for examinations on the mullah's rank, appointment to positions of muftis without spiritual education in the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting, creation of obstacles for commission of a hajj to Mecca for mullahs.

  13. Politics, policies and processes: a multidisciplinary and multimethods research programme on policies on the social determinants of health inequity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon

    2017-12-21

    The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions. Policy case studies will use publicly available documents (policy documents, published evaluations, media coverage) and interviews with informants (policy-makers, former politicians, civil society, private sector) (~25 per case). NVIVO software will be used to analyse the documents to see how 'social and health equity' is included and conceptualised. The interview data will include qualitative descriptive and theory-driven critical discourse analysis. Our quantitative methodological work assessing the impact of public policy on health equity is experimental that is in its infancy but promises to provide the type of evidence demanded by policy-makers. Our programme is recognising the inherently political nature of the uptake, formulation and implementation of policy. The early stages of our work indicate its feasibility. Our work is aided by a Critical Policy Reference Group. Multiple ethics approvals have been obtained with the foundation approval from the Social and Behavioural Ethics Committee, Flinders University (Project No: 6786).The theoretical, methodological and policy engagement processes established will provide improved evidence for policy-makers who wish to reduce health inequities and inform a new generation of policy savvy knowledge on social determinants. © Article author

  14. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-04-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes. This work promotes storing DICOM studies in MSD format to reduce the metadata processing time. A set of experiments are performed that update the metadata of a set of DICOM studies for deidentification and migration. The studies are stored in both the traditional single frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The results show that it is faster to update studies' metadata in MSD format than in SFD format because the bulk data is separated in MSD and is not retrieved from the storage system. In addition, it is space efficient to store the deidentified studies in MSD format as it shares the same bulk data object with the original study. In summary, separation of metadata from pixel data using the MSD format provides fast metadata access and speeds up applications that process only the metadata.

  15. The Experiences in Processing Policies and Contracts by Adult ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiog, Evalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the experiences of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) readers in processing legal texts prior to entering a financial agreement. A preliminary survey was conducted to determine the commonly read policies and contracts of adult ESL reader-consumers, which revealed those of banks and life-insurance companies; hence,…

  16. Simulating stakeholder support in a policy process: An application to river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, Pieter; Rotmans, Jan; Krywkow, Jorg; van der Veen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an agent-based model representing a policy process among stakeholders of river management. For evaluating the different river management alternatives, the agent-based model is coupled to an integrated river model that describes the impacts of river management, such as flood risk,

  17. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  18. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  19. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1975-01-01

    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  20. Discounted semi-Markov decision processes : linear programming and policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1974-01-01

    For semi-Markov decision processes with discounted rewards we derive the well known results regarding the structure of optimal strategies (nonrandomized, stationary Markov strategies) and the standard algorithms (linear programming, policy iteration). Our analysis is completely based on a primal

  1. Policies lost in translation? Unravelling water reform processes in African waterscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink-Seyoum, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s a major change took place in public policies for water resources management. The role of governments shifted under this reform process from an emphasis on investment in the development, operation and maintenance of water infrastructure to a focus on managing water resources systems

  2. Formation of Globular Clusters with Internal Abundance Spreads in r -Process Elements: Strong Evidence for Prolonged Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    Several globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to show internal abundance spreads in r -process elements (e.g., Eu). We propose a new scenario that explains the origin of these GCs (e.g., M5 and M15). In this scenario, stars with no/little abundance variations first form from a massive molecular cloud (MC). After all of the remaining gas of the MC is expelled by numerous supernovae, gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch stars can be accumulated in the central region of the GC to form a high-density intracluster medium (ICM). Merging of neutron stars then occurs to eject r -process elements, which can be efficiently trapped in and subsequently mixed with the ICM. New stars formed from the ICM can have r -process abundances that are quite different from those of earlier generations of stars within the GC. This scenario can explain both (i) why r -process elements can be trapped within GCs and (ii) why GCs with internal abundance spreads in r -process elements do not show [Fe/H] spreads. Our model shows (i) that a large fraction of Eu-rich stars can be seen in Na-enhanced stellar populations of GCs, as observed in M15, and (ii) why most of the Galactic GCs do not exhibit such internal abundance spreads. Our model demonstrates that the observed internal spreads of r -process elements in GCs provide strong evidence for prolonged star formation (∼10{sup 8} yr).

  3. On applications of excess level processes to (N,D-policy bulk queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni H. Dshalalow

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with queueing systems in which N- and D-policies are combined into one. This means that an idle or vacationing server will resume his service if the queueing or workload process crosses some specified fixed level N or D, respectively. For the proposed (N,D-policy we study the queueing processes in models with and without server vacations, with compound Poisson input, and with generally distributed service and vacation periods. The analysis of the models is essentially based on fluctuation techniques for two-dimensional marked counting processes newly developed by the author. The results enable us to arrive at stationary distributions for the embedded and continuous time parameter queueing processes in closed analytic forms, enhancing the well-known Kendall formulas and their modifications.

  4. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  5. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires

  6. Other factors to consider in the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters in oil processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Siew, Wai Lin; Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri; Kuntom, Ainie; Abd Razak, Raznim Arni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the processing steps of extracting palm oil from fresh fruit bunches in a way that may impact on the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters (3-MCPD esters), particularly during refining. Diacylglycerols (DAGs) do not appear to be a critical factor when crude palm oils are extracted from various qualities of fruit bunches. Highly hydrolysed oils, in spite of the high free fatty acid (FFA) contents, did not show exceptionally high DAGs, and the oils did not display a higher formation of 3-MCPD esters upon heat treatment. However, acidity measured in terms of pH appears to have a strong impact on 3-MCPD ester formation in the crude oil when heated at high temperatures. The differences in the extraction process of crude palm oil from current commercial processes and that from a modified experimental process showed clearly the effect of acidity of the oil on the formation of 3-MCPD esters. This paper concludes that the washing or dilution step in palm oil mills removes the acidity of the vegetative materials and that a well-optimised dilution/washing step in the extraction process will play an important role in reducing formation of 3-MCPD esters in crude palm oil upon further heat processing.

  7. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  8. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  9. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  10. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  11. IMPROVING DEPOSIT POLICY BANK ON THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEPOSIT PORTFOLIO STRUCTURE ON FORMATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viadrova I.

    2018-01-01

    . The main problems, which arise in the process of deposit-taking banks’ activities, including lack of resource support for active operations to ensure the country’s economic development and ways to improve deposit policy. Conclusions. The basis for the formation of the deposit portfolio structure is the implementation of effective deposit policy, which is extremely important for banking institutions at the present stage of development, as it promotes the improvement of banking activity in the process of attracting funds as an investment resource. The savings of Ukraine’s population have significant potential for further investment. That is why there is a need to build the infrastructure of the financial sector, improve legislation, and increase the overall financial literacy of the population, which should become a prerequisite for investment activity in Ukraine. In today’s conditions of development of the national economy, the question of improving the financial mechanism of converting savings into investment resources is very important, as the investment potential, which is concentrated in the savings of the population, is significant for expanding the boundaries of investment activity in the country.

  12. Introducing payment for performance in the health sector of Tanzania- the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhutu, Victor; Tjomsland, Marit; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-09-02

    Prompted by the need to achieve progress in health outcomes, payment for performance (P4P) schemes are becoming popular policy options in the health systems in many low income countries. This paper describes the policy process behind the introduction of a payment for performance scheme in the health sector of Tanzania illuminating in particular the interests of and roles played by the Government of Norway, the Government of Tanzania and the other development partners. The study employed a qualitative research design using in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations and document reviews. Thirteen IDIs with key-informants representing the views of ten donor agencies and government departments influential in the process of introducing the P4P scheme in Tanzania were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Oslo, Norway. Data was collected on the main trends and thematic priorities in development aid policy, countries and actors perceived to be proponents and opponents to the P4P scheme, and P4P agenda setting in Tanzania. The initial introduction of P4P in the health sector of Tanzania was controversial. The actors involved including the bilateral donors in the Health Basket Fund, the World Bank, the Tanzanian Government and high level politicians outside the Health Basket Fund fought for their values and interests and formed alliances that shifted in the course of the process. The process was characterized by high political pressure, conflicts, changing alliances, and, as it evolved, consensus building. The P4P policy process was highly political with external actors playing a significant role in influencing the agenda in Tanzania, leaving less space for the Government of Tanzania to provide leadership in the process. Norway in particular, took a leading role in setting the agenda. The process of introducing P4P became long and frustrating causing mistrust among partners in the Health Basket Fund.

  13. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saretzki, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Since James Carroll (1971) made a strong case for "participatory technology", scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the public at large have seen quite a number of different approaches to design and implement participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy. As these participatory experiments and practices spread over the last two decades, one could easily get the impression that participation turned from a theoretical normative claim to a working practice that goes without saying. Looking beyond the well-known forerunners and considering the ambivalent experiences that have been made under different conditions in various places, however, the "if" and "how" of participation are still contested issues when questions of technology are on the agenda. Legitimation problems indicate that attempts to justify participation in a given case have not been entirely successful in the eyes of relevant groups among the sponsors, participants, organizers or observers. Legitimation problems of participatory processes in technology assessment and technology policy vary considerably, and they do so not only with the two domains and the ways of their interrelation or the specific features of the participatory processes. If we ask whether or not participation is seen as problematic in technology assessment and technology policy-making and in what sense it is being evaluated as problematic, then we find that the answer depends also on the approaches and criteria that have been used to legitimize or delegitimize the call for a specific design of participation.

  14. "Formative ""Use"" of Assessment Information: It's a Process, so Let's Say What We Mean"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Good

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The term formative assessment is often used to describe a type of assessment. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the use of this phrase given that formative assessment as a noun phrase ignores the well-established understanding that it is a process more than an object. A model that combines content, context, and strategies is presented as one way to view the process nature of assessing formatively. The alternate phrase formative use of assessment information is suggested as a more appropriate way to describe how content, context, and strategies can be used together in order to close the gap between where a student is performing currently and the intended learning goal.

  15. hPDB – Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in protein data bank format

    OpenAIRE

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. Findings I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The propo...

  16. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  17. Structural modification of silicon during the formation process of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Palma, R.J.; Pascual, L.; Landa-Canovas, A.R.; Herrero, P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Direct examination of porous silicon (PS) by the use of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) allowed us to perform a deep insight into the formation mechanisms of this material. In particular, the structure of the PS/Si interface and that of the silicon nanocrystals that compose porous silicon were analyzed in detail. Furthermore, image processing was used to study in detail the structure of PS. The mechanism of PS formation and lattice matching between the PS layer and the Si substrate is analyzed and discussed. Finally, a formation mechanism for PS based on the experimental observations is proposed

  18. Managing fear in public health campaigns: a theory-based formative evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Witte, Kim

    2005-10-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection rate of Ethiopia is one of the world's highest. Prevention campaigns should systematically incorporate and respond to at-risk population's existing beliefs, emotions, and perceived barriers in the message design process to effectively promote behavior change. However, guidelines for conducting formative evaluation that are grounded in proven risk communication theory and empirical data analysis techniques are hard to find. This article provides a five-step formative evaluation process that translates theory and research for developing effective messages for behavior change. Guided by the extended parallel process model, the five-step process helps message designers manage public's fear surrounding issues such as HIV/AIDS. An entertainment education project that used the process to design HIV/AIDS prevention messages for Ethiopian urban youth is reported. Data were collected in five urban regions of Ethiopia and analyzed according to the process to develop key messages for a 26-week radio soap opera.

  19. Socio-psychological processes of identity formation among EE/ESD enthusiast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Lysgaard, Jonas Greve

    Introduction: When engaging with normative educational ideals such as education for sustainable development (ESD), such ideals heavily influence socio-psychological processes of identity formation among individuals and groups. This is especially important when looking into enthusiasts...... developing educational participatory activities. Describing group dynamics and how they draw on the normative and ideological discourse qualities is one thing, but through this paper we also want to stress the importance of the individual and subjective identity formation and meaning making processes when...... navigating the often contradictionary field of ESD, Methods: This paper is a theoretical study drawing on theories focusing on socio-psychological processes of identity formation such as psychoanalysis, European-continental social psychology and micro-sociology. The paper also draws on recent empirical...

  20. Raman and terahertz spectroscopical investigation of cocrystal formation process of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Xia, Yi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Cocrystallization can improve physical and chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient, and this feature has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid under grinding condition has been characterized by Raman and terahertz spectroscopical techniques. The major vibrational modes of individual starting components and cocrystal are obtained and assigned. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman and THz spectra. The formation rate is pretty fast in first several 20 min grinding time, and then it becomes slow. After ∼35 min, such process has been almost completed. These results offer us the unique means and benchmark for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic during cocrystal formation process in pharmaceutical fields.

  1. Numerical investigation of micro-pore formation during substrate impact of molten droplets in spraying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Lavernia, E.J.; Rangel, R.H.; Muehlberger, E.; Sickinger, A.

    1994-01-01

    The porosity that is commonly associated with discrete droplet processes, such as plasma spraying and spray deposition, effectively degrades the quality of the sprayed material. In the present study, micro-pore formation during the deformation and interaction of molten tungsten droplets impinging onto a flat substrate in spraying processes is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is accomplished on the basis of the full Navier-Stokes equations and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) function by using a 2-domain method for the thermal field and solidification problem and a two-phase flow continuum model for the flow problem with a growing solid layer. The possible mechanisms governing the formation of micro-pores are discussed. The effects of important processing parameters, such as droplet impact velocity, droplet temperature, substrate temperature, and droplet viscosity, on the micro-pore formation are addressed

  2. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  3. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  4. Variability of contrail formation conditions and the implications for policies to reduce the climate impacts of aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Victoria; Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to balance the climate benefits of contrail reduction against the penalties incurred when cruise altitudes are restricted. Altitude restrictions are targeted by selecting, for each 6-h period, the altitude that provides the greatest reduction in contrail for the lowest increase in carbon dioxide emission. Calculations are for western Europe. This paper discusses the variability in contrail formation conditions in the region and presents contrail reductions and carbon dioxide emission increases obtained with this optimised approach, which compare favourably with fixed altitude restrictions. A new method is also developed to estimate contrail fractions within three-dimensional grids. Conclusions discuss potential operational issues associated with a varying altitude restriction policy. (Author)

  5. THE FORMATION OF SUBJECTIVITY AND NORMS IN THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION OF YOUNG EMPLOYEES AT THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to determine the interrelation of the formation of subjective qualities and norms process of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise.Methods. The research methodology involves a comprehensive combination of the theoretical analysis and the results of applied research at the enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region. The dialectical method and comparative analysis are used.Results and theoretical novelty. The questions of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise are considered. The concepts of «subjectivity» and «norms» in philosophy are analyzed. Subjectivity is presented as a personal basis of social activity of the young worker at the entity; regulations – as a method of adaptation of the personality, individual to that community in which it emerged to be. The characteristics of the youth working at the industrial enterprise are disclosed on the basis of socio-philosophical analysis; youth policy at the industrial enterprises is described; the formation of values and norms of young workers in the process of adapting the enterprise is observed. The personal subjectivity as the basis of social activity of the young worker in the enterprise is demonstrated. It is shown that relevance of subject qualities forming and regulations at youth is caused not only by the need of development of the identity of young workers, but also by economic safety of industrial enterprises wellbeing where their working career begins.Practical significance consists in the social-philosophical substantiation of interrelation of formation of subjective qualities and norms in the process of adaptation of young employees in the company, of the main provisions for the development of programs of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise; in providing the teaching social and humanitarian disciplines for bachelors and masters majoring in «Organization of Work with Youth». 

  6. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  7. WHO policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyne James

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. This article analysed the WHO policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine. Methods The decision-making processes for one malaria intervention and four vaccines were classified through (1 consultations with staff and expert advisors to WHO's Global Malaria Programme (GMP and Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals Department (IVB; (2 analysis of the procedures and recommendations of the major policy-making bodies of these groups; (3 interviews with staff of partnerships working toward new vaccine availability; and (4 review and analyses of evidence informing key policy decisions. Case description WHO policy formulation related to use of intermittent preventive treatment in infancy (IPTi and the following vaccine interventions: Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV, rotavirus vaccine (RV, and human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV, five interventions which had relatively recently been through systematic WHO policy development processes as currently constituted, was analysed. Required information was categorized in three areas defined by a recent WHO publication on development of guidelines: safety and efficacy in relevant populations, implications for costs and population health, and localization of data to specific epidemiological situations. Discussion and evaluation Data needs for a malaria vaccine include safety; the demonstration of efficacy in a range of epidemiological settings in the context of other malaria prevention interventions; and information on potential rebound in which disease increases subsequent to the intervention. In addition, a malaria vaccine would require attention to additional factors, such as costs and cost-effectiveness, supply and demand, impact of use on other interventions, and

  8. Role of Evidence in Maternal Health Policy Processes in Vietnam, India and China: Findings from the HEPVIC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Green, Andrew; Gerein, Nancy; Pearson, Stephen; Bird, Philippa; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Ramani, Karaikurichi; Qian, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang; Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee; Soors, Werner

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of evidence in maternal health policy processes in Vietnam, India and China. Both formal and informal types of evidence were used; and differences were found between the stages of policy processes. Evidence used mostly covered easily quantifiable issues and clearly identifiable technical solutions. Different policy…

  9. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...... compare the VPA negotiations in Cameroon (2006–2009) with three different ‘ideal’ models of participatory policy-making: the rationalist, the communicative incremental and the mixed model, which we expect have different implications for legitimacy. We conclude that the Cameroonian process is closest...

  10. XAFS studies of monodisperse Au nanoclusters formation in the etching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lina; Huang, Ting; Liu, Wei; Bao, Jie; Huang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Yuanjie; Yao, Tao; Sun, Zhihu; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the formation mechanism of gold nanoclusters is essential to the development of their synthetic chemistry. Here, by using x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, UV-Vis and MS spectra, the formation process of monodisperse Au 13 nanoclusters is investigated. We find that a critical step involving the formation of smaller Au 8 -Au 11 metastable intermediate clusters induced by the HCl + HSR etching of the polydisperse Au n precursor clusters occurs firstly. Then these intermediate species undergo a size-growth to Au 13 cores, followed by a slow structure rearrangement to reach the final stable structure. This work enriches the understanding of cluster formation chemistry and may guide the way towards the design and the controllable synthesis of nanoclusters. (paper)

  11. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Merse Stane; Urbancic Andreja; Sucic Boris; Pusnik Matevz

    2012-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO) has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and opt...

  12. Embracing the Complexity of Policy Processes in Sanitation: Insights from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hueso, Andrés; Boni Aristizábal, Alejandra; Fernández-Baldor, Álvaro

    2018-01-01

    [EN] Different stakeholders tried participatory approaches to boost progress in rural sanitation in India. The policy processes around these experiences, despite shaping their outcomes, remain a knowledge gap this paper addresses. Evidence show that the interests of the actors involved resulted in the national campaign being construction-focused. Therefore, participatory approaches could only be successfully introduced through networks with political champions at their centre. Moreover, polit...

  13. The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are

  14. Educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture the Formation integral in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Fernández-Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently article is approached important relating theoretical the in artistic education, that facilitate the formation integral in university students, the educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture artistic manifestation, with which one works methodologically. However, it is necessary to establish a methodological theoretical position in this respect to be able to evidence the relationship education-culture the understanding of the artistic education in that relationship and their contribution to the formation integral. From the didactic point of view, it is sustained in the basics of the teaching-learning process, related with the Didactics of the Superior Education and in the analysis and valuation of the components of the process of teaching learning where the dynamics of the relationships is revealed among these that it is constituted in a dialectical process where starting from the created conditions the fellow appropriates of the necessary tools for interaction with the reality.

  15. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  16. EXPERIENCE OF INTRODUCTION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS FOR FORMATION OF ACTIVE MATHEMATICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shishko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annotation In this article is described the information an experience of introduction in educational process of pedagogical program systems of support of practical activities for example pedagogical software "Algebra, 8 class" and also aspect of formation of mathematical activity during algebra studying.

  17. Processes Underlying Developmental Reversals in False-Memory Formation: Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona

    2008-01-01

    C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) reviewed compelling evidence of developmental reversals in false-memory formation (i.e., younger children exhibit lower false-memory rates than do older children and adults) and proposed that this phenomenon depends on the development of gist processing (i.e., the ability to identify and process…

  18. A review on the formation, causes, measurement, implications and reduction of neps during cotton processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available and processing as far back as the late 1700s, no comprehensive review has been published on the formation, composition, measurement, consequences and ways to reduce the effects of neps, only a limited review has been published in 1999 [1 M.H.J. van der Sluijs...

  19. Level of Processing Modulates the Neural Correlates of Emotional Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on…

  20. Analysis of the hydrolysis process in the formation of supergene zone mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstjuk N.P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of processes of hydrolysis of silicates and alumosilicat which arrive in a landscape from tails of enrichment of iron ore is carried out. Assessment and forecast formation of minerals zone hipcrhenezu iron deposits was carried out.

  1. The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Benefits in the Satisfaction Formation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Prevo; P. Leunisse; H. Roest (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate the mediating role of psychosocial benefits in the customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction formation process. Most research on this subject deals with the causality direction of psychosocial benefits and satisfaction, sometimes preceded by an overall functional

  2. Numerical study on formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas using electron injection from outside magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao; Sanpei, Akio; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas, we calculate the orbits of electron injected in the stochastic magnetic field when the closed helical magnetic surfaces is correspond with the equipotential surfaces. Contrary to the experimental observation, there are no electrons inward penetrating. (author)

  3. The Professional Competence Formation in the Training Process in Higher Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burganova, Roza I.; Abdugalina, Sairan E.; Shaiheslyamova, Kazyna O.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of professional competence formation in the specialists' training process at the university in contemporary socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions originating in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The emphasis is laid on new scientific and pedagogical approaches to its solution. Special attention is paid to the…

  4. Processing of evaluated neutron data files in ENDF format on personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    1991-11-01

    A computer code package - FDMXPC - has been developed for processing evaluated data files in ENDF format. The earlier version of this package is supplemented with modules performing calculations using Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance parameters. The processing of evaluated neutron data files by personal computers requires special programming considerations outlined in this report. The scope of the FDMXPC program system is demonstrated by means of numerical examples. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  5. The Process of Word Formation and Phrase Structure of Android Application Names

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Heny

    2013-01-01

    Android is an operating system for mobile device, such as smartphones and tablet computers that was developed by Google. In this era, android is a popular operating system that is searched by people because of necessary of information. The process and structure of android application names are interesting to be analyzed since they have different structure of words in general. The purpose research is to describe and explain which word formation processes and phrase structure that are commonly ...

  6. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  7. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study employed a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under ...

  8. Thermal physics of gas-thermal coatings formation processes. State of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialko, N.M.; Prokopov, V.G.; Meranova, N.O.; Borisov, Yu.S.; Korzhik, V.N.; Sherenkovskaya, G.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of state of investigations of gas-thermal coatings formation processes in presented. Classification of approaches to mathematical simulation of thermal phenomena studies is offered. The general characteristics of three main approaches to the analysis of heat transport processes is given. Some problems of mathematical simulation of single particle thermal interaction with solid surface are considered in details. The main physical assumptions are analysed

  9. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend...... payment is changed by a fixed and a proportional cost, meaning that if ξ is paid out by the company, the shareholders receive kξ−K, where k and K are positive. The aim is to maximize expected discounted dividends until ruin. It is proved that when the jumps belong to a certain class of light...

  10. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  11. Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Formation and Aggregation Process Revealed by Light Scattering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Čadež

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP attracts attention as a precursor of crystalline calcium phosphates (CaPs formation in vitro and in vivo as well as due to its excellent biological properties. Its formation can be considered to be an aggregation process. Although aggregation of ACP is of interest for both gaining a fundamental understanding of biominerals formation and in the synthesis of novel materials, it has still not been investigated in detail. In this work, the ACP aggregation was followed by two widely applied techniques suitable for following nanoparticles aggregation in general: dynamic light scattering (DLS and laser diffraction (LD. In addition, the ACP formation was followed by potentiometric measurements and formed precipitates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results showed that aggregation of ACP particles is a process which from the earliest stages simultaneously takes place at wide length scales, from nanometers to micrometers, leading to a highly polydisperse precipitation system, with polydispersity and vol. % of larger aggregates increasing with concentration. Obtained results provide insight into developing a way of regulating ACP and consequently CaP formation by controlling aggregation on the scale of interest.

  12. Formation of a Methodological Approach to Evaluating the State of Management of Enterprise Flow Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzobko Iryna P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a methodological approach to evaluating management of the state of enterprise flow processes has been considered. Proceeding from the developed and presented in literary sources theoretical propositions on organization of management of enterprise flow processes, the hypothesis of the study is correlation of quantitative and qualitative evaluations of management effectiveness and formation of the integral index on their basis. The article presents stages of implementation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes, which implies indicating the components, their characteristics and methods of research. The composition of indicators, on the basis of which it is possible to evaluate effectiveness of management of enterprise flow processes, has been determined. Grouping of such indicators based on the flow nature of enterprise processes has been performed. The grouping of indicators is justified by a pairwise determination of canonical correlations between the selected groups (the obtained high correlation coefficients confirmed the author’s systematization of indicators. It is shown that a specificity of the formation of a methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes requires expansion in the direction of aggregation of the results and determination of factors that influence effectiveness of flow processes management. The article carries out such aggregation using the factor analysis. Distribution of a set of objects into different classes according to the results of the cluster analysis has been presented. To obtain an integral estimation of effectiveness of flow processes management, the taxonomic index of a multidimensional object has been built. A peculiarity of the formed methodological approach to evaluating the state of management of enterprise flow processes is in the matrix correlation of integral indicators calculated on

  13. Formation of low-dimensional crystalline nucleus region during insulin amyloidogenesis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe lag-phase crystallization process in insulin. ► The crystallization is a result of the formation of higher order oligomers. ► The crystallization also changes the secondary structure of the protein. ► The spectroscopic signature can be used for amyloid inhibitors assay. -- Abstract: Insulin, as other amyloid proteins, can form amyloid fibrils at certain conditions. The self-assembled aggregation process of insulin can result in a variety of conformations, starting from small oligomers, going through various types of protofibrils, and finishing with bundles of fibrils. One of the most common consensuses among the various self-assembly processes that are suggested in the literature is the formation of an early stage nucleus conformation. Here we present an additional insight for the self-assembly process of insulin. We show that at the early lag phase of the process (prior to fibril formation) the insulin monomers self-assemble into ordered nanostructures. The most notable feature of this early self-assembly process is the formation of nanocrystalline nucleus regions with a strongly bound electron–hole confinement, which also change the secondary structure of the protein. Each step in the self-assembly process is characterized by an optical spectroscopic signature, and possesses a narrow size distribution. By following the spectroscopic signature we can measure the potency of amyloid fibrils inhibitors already at the lag phase. We further demonstrate it by the use of epigallocatechin gallate, a known inhibitor for insulin fibrils. The findings can result in a spectroscopic-based application for the analysis of amyloid fibrils inhibitors.

  14. Framework for assessing the capacity of a health ministry to conduct health policy processes--a case study from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib N; Green, Andrew; Van Kalliecharan, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    An adequate capacity of ministries of health (MOH) to develop and implement policies is essential. However, no frameworks were found assessing MOH capacity to conduct health policy processes within developing countries. This paper presents a conceptual framework for assessing MOH capacity to conduct policy processes based on a study from Tajikistan, a former Soviet republic where independence highlighted capacity challenges. The data collection for this qualitative study included in-depth interviews, document reviews and observations of policy events. Framework approach for analysis was used. The conceptual framework was informed by existing literature, guided the data collection and analysis, and was subsequently refined following insights from the study. The Tajik MOH capacity, while gradually improving, remains weak. There is poor recognition of wider contextual influences, ineffective leadership and governance as reflected in centralised decision-making, limited use of evidence, inadequate actors' participation and ineffective use of resources to conduct policy processes. However, the question is whether this is a reflection of lack of MOH ability or evidence of constraining environment or both. The conceptual framework identifies five determinants of robust policy processes, each with specific capacity needs: policy context, MOH leadership and governance, involvement of policy actors, the role of evidence and effective resource use for policy processes. Three underlying considerations are important for applying the capacity to policy processes: the need for clear focus, recognition of capacity levels and elements, and both ability and enabling environment. The proposed framework can be used in assessing and strengthening of the capacity of different policy actors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE PROCESS OF BUSINESS ENGLISH SKILLS FORMATION IN FUTURE DOCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Русалкіна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the structure and organization of medical students’ business English teaching process. The main attention is spared to the problem of creation of the experimental model of future doctors’ business English skills formation. The suggested model is aimed at productive mastering of lexical and grammar communicative skills, at formation of business English communicative abilities of students-medics; it has communicative direction and is professionally oriented. The exercises correspond to English language knowledge of the future doctors and are set in sequence of increasing complexity.

  16. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  18. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Full characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton formation process using a digital holographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, F; Miccio, L; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; De Nicola, S

    2009-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton writing process in a lithium niobate crystal is presented. An interferometric approach based on a digital holographic technique has been used to reconstruct the complex wavefield at the exit face of the crystal. Temporal evolution of both intensity and phase profile of the writing beam has been analysed. The effective changes of the refractive index of the medium during the writing process and after the soliton formation are determined from the optical phase distribution. This method provides a reliable way to observe the process of soliton formation, whereas the determination of the intensity distribution of the output beam does not show clearly whether the soliton regime has been achieved or not. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the soliton in a steady-state situation and under different writing conditions is presented and discussed

  20. 3. The Formation of Musical Competences: Methodological Approachesin the Process of Artistic-Aesthetic Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crişciuc Viorica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article hereby includes conceptual aspects of the musical competences formation. It describes the realization of this process operating with the concepts of well-known occidental, Russian and local researchers. One of the ideas characteristic to the researchers’ pedagogical thinking is that, during the process of musical competence formation through art, the acquisition process mechanism is happening. For integrity in insuring the practical realization at of a musical education, the methodology we propose is based on research, an imposing theoretical network of successful pedagogical practices of remarkable scientists from all over the world. The analyzed theories are a source of inspiration and constitute the theoretical universe which contributes to as truthful as possible musical education.

  1. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  2. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  3. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  4. Investigation of the gas formation in dissolution process of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinfen; Liao Yuanzhong; Chen Yongqing; Sun Shuyun; Fan Yincheng

    1987-12-01

    The gas formation in dissolution process of two kinds of nuclear fuels was studied. The results shows that the maximum volume flow released from dissolution system is composed of two parts. One of them is air remained in dissolver and pushed out by acid vapor. The other is produced in dissolution reaction. The procedure of calculating the gas amount produced in dissolution process has been given. It is based on variation of components of dissolution solution. The gas amount produced in dissolution process of spent UO 2 fuel elements was calculated. The condenser system and loading volume of disposal system of tail gas of dissolution of spent fuel were discussed

  5. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yourtaev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  7. The role of the dinuclear system in the processes of nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fusion, quasi-fission, fission and cluster formation in an excited nucleus are considered as the processes of the formation and evolution of the dinuclear system. This approach allows one to reveal new aspects of nuclear fusion, to show that quasi-fission plays an important role in nuclear reactions used to synthesise superheavy elements. A qualitative picture is given of the fission process of an excited nucleus and an important role of cluster formation in this process is shown

  8. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

  9. Unpacking policy processes for addressing systemic problems in technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline S.; Negro, Simona O.

    2017-01-01

    While empirical studies on technological innovation systems (TIS) usually focus on policy instruments and their suitability for curing identified weaknesses of such emerging systems, the underlying policy processes and their effects have been largely disregarded. We address this gap by exploring the

  10. CULTURAL PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY – DETERMINANTS OF CULTURAL POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MIHAELA NITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural phenomena and processes in the contemporary society, influenced by the social development models and by the fact that the constitutive elements of the culture have become the decisive factors of social change, are the determinants of the cultural policies. They are centered on the active process of cultural globalization that emphasizes besides the assimilation of the European principles, also the preservation of the cultural dialog without identity loss. Contemporary culture cannot be appreciated unless we know the main processes and phenomena that lately have generated impressive changes in the area of technology and means of communication. Due to these transformations we witness a change of the cultural paradigms, a mutation of values.

  11. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  12. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  13. Science and environmental policy-making : bias-proofing the assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKitrick, R.

    2005-01-01

    Politicians and policy-makers appeal to the concept of peer-reviewed research as a foundation for decision-making. However, peer review does not typically guarantee that data and methods are open to scrutiny or that results are reproducible. This paper argued that additional checks and balances are needed for scientific assessment reports when they are being used to justify major policy investments. The need for such mechanisms was examined with reference to the debate in climate change, which allowed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to downplay fundamental scientific uncertainties in research in order to claim that the 1990s were the warmest decade of the millennium. Two mechanisms were proposed to address biases in expert assessment panels. The creation of a scientific audit or permanent agency was recommended that would act independently of assessment panels to identify key studies influencing panel decisions to ensure that data are publicly available and that statistical methods are fully described and correctly implemented. The creation of a counterweight panel was also advised, which would then be convened to prepare the strongest possible counter argument to the conclusions of an assessment panel. It was concluded that, given the far-reaching implications of policy decisions that are based on expert assessments, audits and counterweight panels should be integrated into the process by which science is used to guide decision-making. 17 refs., 4 figs

  14. Executive federalism and Medicaid demonstration waivers: implications for policy and democratic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank J; Burke, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    Executive federalism emphasizes collaboration between the executive branches at the national and state levels to transform grant programs through the implementation process. In this regard, Medicaid demonstration waivers loomed large during the presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. This article documents and compares the volume and substance of section 1115 Medicaid waiver activity under the two presidencies. From the perspective of policy performance, Medicaid demonstration waivers provide modest support for the view that states serve as laboratories for policy learning in the health care arena. More broadly, the waivers have not yielded a major solution to the problem of the uninsured and are unlikely to do so. At the same time, they have not (as some have suggested) been a subterranean force for the erosion of Medicaid. To the contrary, these waivers have often enhanced health services for low-income people; above all, they have helped preserve Medicaid as an entitlement by undercutting support for those seeking to convert the program into a block grant. From the perspective of the democratic process, we find that Congress has been a more significant player in shaping waivers than the executive federalism model suggests. While the decision processes surrounding Medicaid waivers often fall short of democratic standards with respect to transparency and opportunities for public input, they still compare favorably to certain alternatives.

  15. HPDB-Haskell library for processing atomic biomolecular structures in Protein Data Bank format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Michał Jan

    2013-11-23

    Protein DataBank file format is used for the majority of biomolecular data available today. Haskell is a lazy functional language that enjoys a high-level class-based type system, a growing collection of useful libraries and a reputation for efficiency. I present a fast library for processing biomolecular data in the Protein Data Bank format. I present benchmarks indicating that this library is faster than other frequently used Protein Data Bank parsing programs. The proposed library also features a convenient iterator mechanism, and a simple API modeled after BioPython. I set a new standard for convenience and efficiency of Protein Data Bank processing in a Haskell library, and release it to open source.

  16. The information technologies in the initial formation process of the professional of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliurca Padilla García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities should give the students methods, aids and ways to obtain knowledge, in correspondence with the scientific development reached, so that they can assume a transformer position in the different acting contexts. In this sense, the information technologies not only provide the student with tools and resources of information, but also propitiate an environment that promotes interactions and educative exchange experiences between the students and teachers. Deepening about the role these resources play in the educational environment is of great importance to get its integration in a systematic and systemic way to the initial formation process of the professional of education so, its application in their formation surpasses the traditional concept of using de aims, and becomes an element that significantly strikes in a new configuration of the didactic approach of the process in the nowadays conditions.

  17. Power characteristics of the metal compounds formation process during the friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzaev Radmir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of the power characteristics on the formation process of the uniform metals compound during the welding with friction stirringis being examined in this article.A dependency between the machine-tool engine power input and the instrument tilt during the FSW for the aluminum alloy AD31, copper alloy M1, titanium alloy OT4-1 and steel St-3 low-alloyed has been explored. A question of the stabilization of power consumption process while the establishment of superplastic condition of welded metal during the FSW has also been reviewed. A dependency revealed between the power characteristics, the geometry of the formation, the rotation speeds, the longitudinal displacement of the tool and its dimensions for fixed values of the parameters during the FSW.

  18. Health and equity in all policies in local government: processes and outcomes in two Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Heimburg, Dina; Hakkebo, Berit

    2017-08-01

    To identify key factors in implementing Health and Equity in All Policies (HEiAP) at the local level in two Norwegian municipalities in order to accelerate the progress of promoting health, well-being and equity in other local governments. This case study is presented as a narrative from policy-making processes in two Norwegian municipalities. The story is told from an insider perspective, with a focus on HEiAP policy makers in these two municipalities. The narrative identified key learning from implementing HEiAP at the local level, i.e. the importance of strengthening system and human capacities. System capacity is strengthened by governing HEiAP according to national legislation and a holistic governance system at the local level. Municipal plans are based on theory, evidence and local data. A 'main story' is developed to support the vision, defining joint societal goals and co-creation strategies. Policies are anchored by measuring and monitoring outcomes, sharing accountability and continuous dialogue to ensure political commitment. Human capacity is strengthened through participatory leadership, soft skills and health promotion competences across sectors. Health promotion competence at a strategic level in the organization, participation in professional networks, crowd sourcing toward common goals, and commitment through winning hearts and minds of politicians and other stakeholders are vital aspects. Our experience pinpoints the importance of strengthening system and human capacity in local governments. Further, we found it important to focus on the two strategic objectives in the European strategy 'Health 2020': (1) Improving health for all and reducing health inequalities; (2) improving leadership and participatory governance for health.

  19. NJOY. A comprehensive system for the processing of ENDF formatted nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1990-07-01

    An introduction to the program system NJOY is given which processes data files of evaluated neutron nuclear data coded in ENDF format. NJOY is primarily used for neutron and photon transport calculations for nuclear power reactor design. The NJOY code is not available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section but may be obtained from the Reactor Shielding Information Center, Oak Ridge, USA. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  20. Children's processing of new advertising formats: how to improve children's dispositional and situational advertising literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudders, Liselot; De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Panic, Katarina; Zarouali, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Compared to traditional advertising formats, contemporary advertising is characterized by a more subtle, less intrusive commercial nature. Commercial messages are now frequently integrated in or merged with highly entertaining and fun media content, which distract the users from systematically and critically processing the content. This makes it difficult for consumers, especially young consumers with limited advertising literacy, to evaluate the persuasion attempt critically. Not only do...

  1. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO, Milagro; ROJAS, Héctor; DUQUE, Zoilabet; SUÁREZ, Paula; CONTRERAS, Monica; GARCÍA-AMADO, M. Alexandra; ALCIATURI, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce sur...

  2. Formation of iron nanoparticles and increase in iron reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R; Jickells, Timothy D; Benning, Liane G

    2009-09-01

    The formation of iron (Fe) nanoperticles and increase in Fe reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing was investigated using high-resolution microscopy and chemical extraction methods. Cloud processing of dust was experimentally simulated via an alternation of acidic (pH 2) and circumneutral conditions (pH 5-6) over periods of 24 h each on presieved (formation of Fe-rich nanoparticle aggregates, which were not found initially. Similar Fe-rich nanoparticles were also observed in wet-deposited Saharen dusts from the western Mediterranean but not in dry-deposited dust from the eastern Mediterranean. Sequential Fe extraction of the soil samples indicated an increase in the proportion of chemically reactive Fe extractable by an ascorbate solution after simulated cloud processing. In addition, the sequential extractions on the Mediterranean dust samples revealed a higher content of reactive Fe in the wet-deposited dust compared to that of the dry-deposited dust These results suggestthat large variations of pH commonly reported in aerosol and cloud waters can trigger neo-formation of nanosize Fe particles and an increase in Fe reactivity in the dust

  3. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    and NVNA in meat. Secondly data on the occurrence of VNA and NVNA in processed meat products on the Danish market were to be generated and used for an evaluation of the exposure level resulting from consumption of processed meat products. A method allowing for the simultaneous determination of both VNA......, NPIP, NTCA and NMTCA were inversely related to the amount of erythorbic acid (396-1104 mg kg-1). The levels of the individual NA were reduced with up to 20 to 75%. No additional protection against NA formation was obtained by also adding ascorbyl palmitate, a fat soluble antioxidant. Sodium chloride...

  4. Angular scattering in electron capture and loss D- beam formation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.; Hodges, R.V.; Huestis, D.L.; Peterson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of high energy (> 150 keV) neutral beams for heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices depends on the ability to produce well-collimated negative ion beams. The double capture charge-exchange technique is a known, scalable method. In order to maximize the overall efficiency of the process and to achieve the desired beam characteristics, it is necessary to examine the optical qualities of the beams as well as the total efficiency of beam production. A combined modeling and experimental study of the angular scattering effects in negative ion formation and loss processes has therefore been undertaken

  5. Iron behaviour in the process of stratum-infiltration uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmariovich, E.M.; Golubev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated has been the behaviour of iron in the process of stratum infiltration uranium mineralization. Iron is partially avacuated from the forward part of the stratum oxidation zone during the development of infiltration uranium mineralization in pyritiferous rocks. This phenomenon is characterized quantitatively and described on the basis of equations of physical chemistry and dynamics of geochemical processes. Local regions of epigenetic ferruginization caused by opposite diffusion of iron and its precipitation in oxygenous conditions often occur at the sections of sharp moderation of limonitization zone advance. Formation of similar ferruginous margins takes place in a very short geological period (less than thousand years)

  6. Laboratory and Cloud Chamber Studies of Formation Processes and Properties of Atmospheric Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, T.; Abdelmonem, A.; Benz, S.; Brinkmann, M.; Möhler, O.; Rzesanke, D.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of ice in tropospheric clouds controls the evolution of precipitation and thereby influences climate and weather via a complex network of dynamical and microphysical processes. At higher altitudes, ice particles in cirrus clouds or contrails modify the radiative energy budget by direct interaction with the shortwave and longwave radiation. In order to improve the parameterisation of the complex microphysical and dynamical processes leading to and controlling the evolution of tropospheric ice, laboratory experiments are performed at the IMK Karlsruhe both on a single particle level and in the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA. Single particle experiments in electrodynamic levitation lend themselves to the study of the interaction between cloud droplets and aerosol particles under extremely well characterized and static conditions in order to obtain microphysical parameters as freezing nucleation rates for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation. They also allow the observation of the freezing dynamics and of secondary ice formation and multiplication processes under controlled conditions and with very high spatial and temporal resolution. The inherent droplet charge in these experiments can be varied over a wide range in order to assess the influence of the electrical state of the cloud on its microphysics. In the AIDA chamber on the other hand, these processes are observable under the realistic dynamic conditions of an expanding and cooling cloud- parcel with interacting particles and are probed simultaneously by a comprehensive set of analytical instruments. By this means, microphysical processes can be studied in their complex interplay with dynamical processes as for example coagulation or particle evaporation and growth via the Bergeron - Findeisen process. Shortwave scattering and longwave absorption properties of the nucleating and growing ice crystals are probed by in situ polarised laser light scattering measurements and infrared extinction

  7. Bromate Formation Characteristics of UV Irradiation, Hydrogen Peroxide Addition, Ozonation, and Their Combination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Kishimoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromate formation characteristics of six-physicochemical oxidation processes, UV irradiation, single addition of hydrogen peroxide, ozonation, UV irradiation with hydrogen peroxide addition (UV/H2O2, ozonation with hydrogen peroxide addition (O3/H2O2, and ozonation with UV irradiation (O3/UV were investigated using 1.88 μM of potassium bromide solution with or without 6.4 μM of 4-chlorobenzoic acid. Bromate was not detected during UV irradiation, single addition of H2O2, and UV/H2O2, whereas ozone-based treatments produced . Hydroxyl radicals played more important role in bromate formation than molecular ozone. Acidification and addition of radical scavengers such as 4-chlorobenzoic acid were effective in inhibiting bromate formation during the ozone-based treatments because of inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation and consumption of hydroxyl radicals, respectively. The H2O2 addition was unable to decompose 4-chlorobenzoic acid, though O3/UV and O3/H2O2 showed the rapid degradation, and UV irradiation and UV/H2O2 showed the slow degradation. Consequently, if the concentration of organic contaminants is low, the UV irradiation and/or UV/H2O2 are applicable to organic contaminants removal without bromate formation. However, if the concentration of organic contaminants is high, O3/H2O2 and O3/UV should be discussed as advanced oxidation processes because of their high organic removal efficiency and low bromate formation potential at the optimum condition.

  8. Family physicians' professional identity formation: a study protocol to explore impression management processes in institutional academic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Schweyer, Francois-Xavier; López-Roig, Sofia; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Burns, Jane; Hugé, Sandrine; Pastor-Mira, Maria Ángeles; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Spencer, Sarah; Fiquet, Laure; Pereiró-Berenguer, Inmaculada

    2014-09-06

    Despite significant differences in terms of medical training and health care context, the phenomenon of medical students' declining interest in family medicine has been well documented in North America and in many other developed countries as well. As part of a research program on family physicians' professional identity formation initiated in 2007, the purpose of the present investigation is to examine in-depth how family physicians construct their professional image in academic contexts; in other words, this study will allow us to identify and understand the processes whereby family physicians with an academic appointment seek to control the ideas others form about them as a professional group, i.e. impression management. The methodology consists of a multiple case study embedded in the perspective of institutional theory. Four international cases from Canada, France, Ireland and Spain will be conducted; the "case" is the medical school. Four levels of analysis will be considered: individual family physicians, interpersonal relationships, family physician professional group, and organization (medical school). Individual interviews and focus groups with academic family physicians will constitute the main technique for data generation, which will be complemented with a variety of documentary sources. Discourse techniques, more particularly rhetorical analysis, will be used to analyze the data gathered. Within- and cross-case analysis will then be performed. This empirical study is strongly grounded in theory and will contribute to the scant body of literature on family physicians' professional identity formation processes in medical schools. Findings will potentially have important implications for the practice of family medicine, medical education and health and educational policies.

  9. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium (∼400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials

  10. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  11. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  12. Is it Feasible to Use Students' Self-reported Step Data in a Local School Policy Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....

  13. Formation of the Cycle of Business Processes of Management of Marketing Activity of a Transport Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horielov Dmytro O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of organisation of the process of management of marketing activity of an enterprise. It specifies the model of services of a transport enterprise and provides levels of services and their structure: basic, real, expanded, expected and prospective. The article offers to differentiate planning and realisation of the transportation service by its levels, each of which would correspond with a separate business process of management. It reveals specific features of use of instruments of the traditional, internal and interactive marketing in the market of transportation services. It identifies the structure of the object when managing marketing activity of a transportation enterprise. The article uses the Deming cycle to formulate general principles of formation of business processes of management of marketing activity: “Motivation – Plan – Do – Check – Act”. The proposed cycle would ensure continuous improvement of the said business processes of an enterprise in accordance with international quality standards (ISO.

  14. Formation of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Moonkeun; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Shin, Hong-Sik; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of metal and dielectric liners using a solution process for deep trench capacitor application. The deep Si trench via with size of 10.3 microm and depth of 71 microm were fabricated by Bosch process in deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) system. The aspect ratio was about 7. Then, nano-Ag ink and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) were used to form metal and dielectric liners, respectively. The thicknesses of the Ag and PVPh liners were about 144 and 830 nm, respectively. When the curing temperature of Ag film increased from 120 to 150 degrees C, the sheet resistance decreased rapidly from 2.47 to 0.72 Omega/sq and then slightly decreased to 0.6 Omega/sq with further increasing the curing temperature beyond 150 degrees C. The proposed liner formation method using solution process is a simple and cost effective process for the high capacity of deep trench capacitor.

  15. Hydraulic experimental investigation on spatial distribution and formation process of tsunami deposit on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.

    2017-12-01

    An important aim of the study of tsunami deposits is to estimate the characteristics of past tsunamis from the tsunami deposits found locally. Based on the tsunami characteristics estimated from tsunami deposit, it is possible to examine tsunami risk assessment in coastal areas. It is considered that tsunami deposits are formed based on the dynamic correlation between tsunami's hydraulic values, sediment particle size, topography, etc. However, it is currently not enough to evaluate the characteristics of tsunamis from tsunami deposits. This is considered to be one of the reasons that the understanding of the formation process of tsunami deposits is not sufficiently understood. In this study, we analyze the measurement results of hydraulic experiment (Yamamoto et al., 2016) and focus on the formation process and distribution of tsunami deposits. Hydraulic experiment was conducted with two-dimensional water channel with a slope. Tsunami was inputted as a bore wave flow. The moving floor section was installed as a seabed slope connecting to shoreline and grain size distribution was set some cases. The water level was measured using ultrasonic displacement gauges, and the flow velocity was measured using propeller current meters and an electromagnetic current meter. The water level and flow velocity was measured at some points. The distribution of tsunami deposit was measured from shoreline to run-up limit on the slope. Yamamoto et al. (2016) reported the measurement results on the distribution of tsunami deposit with wave height and sand grain size. Therefore, in this study, hydraulic analysis of tsunami sediment formation process was examined based on the measurement data. Time series fluctuation of hydraulic parameters such as Froude number, Shields number, Rouse number etc. was calculated to understand on the formation process of tsunami deposit. In the front part of the tsunami, the flow velocity take strong flow from shoreline to around the middle of slope. From

  16. Deciphering the influence of the thermal processes on the early passive margins formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Romain; Nalpas, Thierry; Ballard, Jean-François; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Chelalou, Roman; Clerc, Camille

    2015-04-01

    Many large-scale dynamic processes, from continental rifting to plate subduction, are intimately linked to metamorphic reactions. This close relation between geodynamic processes and metamorphic reactions is, in spite of appearances, yet poorly understood. For example, during extension processes, rocks will be exposed to important temperature, pressures and stress changes. Meanwhile less attention has been paid to other important aspects of the metamorphic processes. When reacting rocks expand and contract, density and volume changes will set up in the surrounding material. While several tectonic models are proposed to explain the formation of extensive basins and passive margins ( simple shear detachment mantle exhumation .... ) a single thermal model (McKenzie , 1978), as a dogma, is used to understanding and modeling the formation and evolution of sedimentary basins . This model is based on the assumption that the extension is only by pure shear and it is instantaneous. Under this approach, the sedimentary deposits occur in two stages. i) A short step , 1 to 10 Ma , controlled by tectonics. ii) A longer step , at least 50 Ma as a result of the thermal evolution of the lithosphere.
However, most stratigraphic data indicate that less thermal model can account for documented vertical movements. The study of the thermal evolution , coupled with other tectonic models , and its consequences have never been studied in detail , although the differences may be significant and it is clear that the petrological changes associated with changes in temperature conditions , influence changes reliefs.
In addition, it seems that the relationship between basin formation and thermal evolution is not always the same:
- Sometimes the temperature rise above 50 to 100 Ma tectonic extension. In the Alps, a significant rise in geothermal gradient Permo -Triassic followed by a "cold" extension , leading to the opening of the Ligurian- Piedmont ocean, from the Middle Jurassic .

  17. The formulation of public policies for rural youth in Brazil and the constituent elements of social process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Botton Barcellos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the research problem occurred in trying to investigate the configuration of public policies for the rural youth and how this political agenda was introduced in the State of the Brazil. The main issue in the research is how the process of configuration of public policies for rural youth in federal government has occurred. The methodology for this study used was qualitative research procedures were triggered participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis. During the research the actors, the formulated policies and rural youth category expressed during this process were highlighted.

  18. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  19. Challenges in Australian policy processes for disinvestment from existing, ineffective health care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E; Tunis, Sean R; Moss, John R

    2007-10-31

    Internationally, many health care interventions were diffused prior to the standard use of assessments of safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Disinvestment from ineffective or inappropriately applied practices is a growing priority for health care systems for reasons of improved quality of care and sustainability of resource allocation. In this paper we examine key challenges for disinvestment from these interventions and explore potential policy-related avenues to advance a disinvestment agenda. We examine five key challenges in the area of policy driven disinvestment: 1) lack of resources to support disinvestment policy mechanisms; 2) lack of reliable administrative mechanisms to identify and prioritise technologies and/or practices with uncertain clinical and cost-effectiveness; 3) political, clinical and social challenges to removing an established technology or practice; 4) lack of published studies with evidence demonstrating that existing technologies/practices provide little or no benefit (highlighting complexity of design) and; 5) inadequate resources to support a research agenda to advance disinvestment methods. Partnerships are required to involve government, professional colleges and relevant stakeholder groups to put disinvestment on the agenda. Such partnerships could foster awareness raising, collaboration and improved health outcome data generation and reporting. Dedicated funds and distinct processes could be established within the Medical Services Advisory Committee and Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to, a) identify technologies and practices for which there is relative uncertainty that could be the basis for disinvestment analysis, and b) conduct disinvestment assessments of selected item(s) to address existing practices in an analogous manner to the current focus on new and emerging technology. Finally, dedicated funding and cross-disciplinary collaboration is necessary to build health services and policy research capacity

  20. Logic of historical development of the formation process of architectural and construction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Valeriy Aleksandrovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In research field of development processes of architectural and construction decisions (ACD there is already very considerable scientific, normative and technical material. And still in the end of the research boom in this area (the 90th many authors stated their weak return in practical design. High methodological potential gives understanding of the act of ACD formation as a special kind of activity, and its structure - as historical phenomenon that allows to put two main methodological principles in the basis of the research: the principle of activity and the principle of level organization of historically formed objects. As a result it was succeeded to reveal 6 main stages of historical development of ACD formation process and 6 levels of its modern organization. Origin stage - is the transition from animal to human construction and emergence of the first stage of ACD formation - a measurement. The reproductive stage is characterized by centuries-old reproduction of steady volume forms of constructions. At a composite stage professional presentation detaches external form of a construction from architectural and construction actions and techniques. There occurs transformation into a subject of architectural and construction activity and creation of a method of composition on this basis. At a constructive stage engineers are involved in construction process, there is a change of style of thinking, emergence of construction designs and emergence of a new function of ACD means of configuration, and, at last, final allocation and separation of architectural and construction design from construction. Technological stage is a product of industrialization of construction on which systematization is carried out not only on the level of subject, but also in respect to the operational contents that leads to emergence of ACD program formation. At the sixth, methodological stage of development of ASP, a leading way change of the ACD formation becomes a

  1. Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Mikael

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis various aspects of the diesel engine fuel injection, combustion and emission formation processes have been evaluated. Several types of evaluation tools and methods have been applied. Fuel spray momentum was used to characterize injection rate and hole-to-hole variations in fuel injectors. Using both instantaneous fuel impulse rates and instantaneous mass flow measurements, spray velocity and nozzle flow parameters were evaluated. Several other hole-to-hole resolved injector characterization methods were used to characterize a set of fuel injectors subjected to long term testing. Fuel injector nozzle hole-to-hole variations were found to have a large influence on engine efficiency and emissions. The degree of hole-to-hole variations for an injector has been shown to correlate well with the performance deterioration of that injector. The formation and atomization of fuel sprays, ignition onset and the development of diffusion flames were studied using an optical engine. Flame temperature evaluations have been made using two different methods. NO-formation depends strongly on flame temperature. By applying a NO-formation evaluation method based on both heat release rate and flame and gas temperature it was possible to achieve a reasonable degree of correlation with measured exhaust emissions for very varying operating conditions. The prediction capability of the NO-formation evaluation method was utilized to evaluate spatially and temporally resolved NO-formation from flame temperature distributions. This made it possible to pinpoint areas with a high degree of NO-formation. It was found that small hot zones in the flames can be responsible for a large part of the total amount of NO that is produced, especially in combustion cases where no EGR is used to lower the flame temperature. By applying optical diagnostics methods the combustion and emission formation phenomena encountered during production engine transients were evaluated. The transient

  2. Production inventory policies for defective items with inspection errors, sales return, imperfect rework process and backorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Chandra K.; Khanna, Aditi; Kishore, Aakanksha

    2016-03-01

    In order to sustain the challenges of maintaining good quality and perfect screening process, rework process becomes a rescue to compensate for the imperfections present in the production system. The proposed model attempts to explore the existing real-life situation with a more practical approach by incorporating the concept of imperfect rework as this occurs as an unavoidable problem to the firm due to irreparable disorders even in the reworked items. Hence, a production inventory model is formulated here to study the combined effect of imperfect quality items, faulty inspection process and imperfect rework process on the optimal production quantity and optimal backorder level. An analytical method is employed to maximize the expected total profit per unit time. Moreover, the results of several previous research articles namely Chiu et al (2006), Chiu et al (2005), Salameh and Hayek (2001), and classical EPQ with shortages are deduced as special cases. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, and to observe the effects of key parameters on the optimal replenishment policy, a numerical example along with a comprehensive sensitivity analysis has been presented. The pertinence of the model can be found in most of the manufacturing industries like textile, electronics, furniture, footwear, plastics etc. A production lot size model has been explored for defectives items with inspection errors and an imperfect rework process.

  3. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  4. Oil formation in the process of lithogenesis in the light of the systems approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, N.V.

    1977-03-01

    It is suggested that systems analysis techniques be used to reproduce the actual historical process of oil formation as a part of the overall system of a sedimentary rock basin, in order to determine the conditions of transition of one stage of development of the object to another, determine interrelationships between elements of the system and peculiarities of its functioning, provide a detailed description of the mature stage of the process, the primary phase of oil formation, by partial solution of the problem and formulate the new problem of recognition of oil formation, closely related to the search for deposits of oil. The systems approach is a modern methodological orientation which, though it does not guarantee the production of true knowledge, since a great deal is determined by the reliability of the empirical basis of data, skill of the researcher and even such materialistic factors as intuition and creative imagination, does provide the possibility for creation of a single theoretical picture and development of mathematically founded concepts in this area of research.

  5. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  6. Experimental investigation on the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Tashiro, Shinichi; Van Hanh, Bui; Tanaka, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify the weld pool formation process in plasma keyhole arc welding (PKAW). We adopted, for the first time, the measurement of the 3D convection inside the weld pool in PKAW by stereo synchronous imaging of tungsten tracer particles using two sets of x-ray transmission systems. The 2D convection on the weld pool surface was also measured using zirconia tracer particles. Through these measurements, the convection in a wide range of weld pools from the vicinity of the keyhole to the rear region was successfully visualized. In order to discuss the heat transport process in a weld pool, the 2D temperature distribution on the weld pool surface was also measured by two-color pyrometry. The results of the comprehensive experimental measurement indicate that the shear force due to plasma flow is found to be the dominant driving force in the weld pool formation process in PKAW. Thus, heat transport in a weld pool is considered to be governed by two large convective patterns near the keyhole: (1) eddy pairs on the surface (perpendicular to the torch axis), and (2) eddy pairs on the bulk of the weld pool (on the plane of the torch). They are formed with an equal velocity of approximately 0.35 m s-1 and are mainly driven by shear force. Furthermore, the flow velocity of the weld pool convection becomes considerably higher than that of other welding processes, such as TIG welding and GMA welding, due to larger plasma flow velocity.

  7. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  8. Microstructures and formation mechanism of hypoeutectic white cast iron by isothermal electromagnetic rheocast process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wanning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made on the evolution of microstructures of hypoeutectic white cast iron slurry containing 2.5wt.%C and 1.8wt.%Si produced by rheocasting in which the solidifying alloy was vigorously agitated by electromagnetic stirrer during isothermal cooling processes. The results indicated that under the proper agitating temperatures and speeds applied, the dendrite structures in white cast iron slurry were gradually evolved into spherical structures during a certain agitating time. It also revealed that the bent dendrites were formed by either convection force or by the growth of the dendrites themselves in the bending direction; then, as they were in solidifying, they were gradually being alternated into separated particles and into more spherical structures at the end of the isothermal cooling process. Especially, the dendrites were granulated as the bending process proceeding, which suggested that they were caused by unwanted elements such as sulfur and phosphor usually contained in engineering cast iron. Convective flow of the melt caused corrosion on the dendritic segments where they were weaker in strength and lower in melting temperature because of higher concentration of sulfur or phosphor. And the granulation process for such dendrites formed in the melt became possible under the condition. Certainly, dendrite fragments are another factors considerable to function for spherical particles formation. A new mechanism, regarding to the rheocast structure formation of white cast iron, was suggested based on the structural evolution observed in the study.

  9. Process of film formation by anodizing AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Jiangang; Li Di; Zhang Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China)

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics of film-forming process by anodizing AZ91D Mg alloy has been studied by ways of voltage-time and thickness-time curve, and the surface morphology, structure, composition and valence of element, phase constituent of anodic films have been analyzed by SEM, EDS, XPS and XRD respectively. The results show that the film-forming course can be divided into four stages. Formation of dense layer before sparking is the first stage. Formation of porous layer accompanied with a bit of small sparking is the second stage. Porous layer fast growth along with middle sparking is the third stage. Porous layer slowly-growth along with bigger sparking is the fourth stage. The anodic films contains approximately Mg,O,Si and B, which is composed mainly of MgO, MgSiO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}. (orig.)

  10. The Methodology of the Process of Formation of Innovation Management of Enterprises’ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorova Viktoriia V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at forming the methodology of process of innovation management of enterprises’ development in modern conditions. A study on formation of the essence of methodology was carried out, the stages of development of methods and means of scientific cognition were analyzed. The basic components of formation of methodology of innovation management of development of enterprises have been defined, i.e.: methods, types, principles, components, systematized aggregate. The relations of empirical and theoretical methods of scientific cognition were considered and defined. It has been determined that the increase of the volume and scope of scientific views, as well as the deepening of scientific knowledge in the disclosure of laws and regularities of functioning of real natural and social world, lead to the objective fact that is the desire of scientists to analyze methods and means by which modern innovative knowledge and views in the enterprise management system can be acquired and formed.

  11. Policy in the Area of Wages and Its Implementation in the Far East in the 1930s as a Mechanism for the Formation of Social Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Shestak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on documents from state archives, examines Soviet policy in the area of wages through the example of the Far East. The author comes to the conclusion that the wages policy implemented in the USSR in the 1930s was a key mechanism in the formation of a hierarchical social production-type establishment. It would determine the prestige of professions and the functionality of spheres of work activity and underscored the commanding positioning of social groups, thereby setting and ensuring all key criteria for constructing a system of social inequality, on the one hand, and fixing the population to remote and scarcely populated territories, on the other.

  12. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M-dwarfs and small for BDs. Conclusions: The existence of a strong decline in the binary fraction - primary mass diagram will become verifiable in future surveys on BD and VLMS binarity in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The binary fraction - primary mass diagram is a diagnostic of the (non-)continuity of star formation along the mass scale, the separateness of the stellar and BD populations, and the dominant formation channel for BDs and BD binaries in regions of low stellar density hosting dynamically unprocessed populations.

  13. Dynamics of ordering processes in annealed dilute systems: Island formation, vacancies at domain boundaries, and compactification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of the ordering processes in two-dimensional lattice models with annealed vacancies and nonconserved order parameter is studied as a function of temperature and vacancy concentration by means of Monte Carlo temperature-quenching simulations. The models are Ising antiferromagnets...... with couplings leading to twofold-degenerate as well as fourfold-degenerate ordering. The models are quenched into a phase-separation region, which makes it possible for both types of ordering to observe the following scenario of ordering processes: (i) early-time nucleation and growth of ordered domains, (ii......) intermediate-time trapping of the mobile vacancies at the domain boundaries, and (iii) late-time diffusion of vacancies along the domain-boundary network towards the surface. In the case of high dilution, the ordering processes correspond to early-time island formation and late-time coarsening...

  14. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (NDMA with partitioning to droplet must be the source of aqueous

  15. Drebrin controls neuronal migration through the formation and alignment of the leading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xin-peng; Bandeira de Lima, Tiago; Allen, James; Geraldo, Sara; Gordon-Weeks, Phillip; Chilton, John K

    2012-03-01

    Formation of a functional nervous system requires neurons to migrate to the correct place within the developing brain. Tangentially migrating neurons are guided by a leading process which extends towards the target and is followed by the cell body. How environmental cues are coupled to specific cytoskeletal changes to produce and guide leading process growth is unknown. One such cytoskeletal modulator is drebrin, an actin-binding protein known to induce protrusions in many cell types and be important for regulating neuronal morphology. Using the migration of oculomotor neurons as a model, we have shown that drebrin is necessary for the generation and guidance of the leading process. In the absence of drebrin, leading processes are not formed and cells fail to migrate although axon growth and pathfinding appear grossly unaffected. Conversely, when levels of drebrin are elevated the leading processes turn away from their target and as a result the motor neuron cell bodies move along abnormal paths within the brain. The aberrant trajectories were highly reproducible suggesting that drebrin is required to interpret specific guidance cues. The axons and growth cones of these neurons display morphological changes, particularly increased branching and filopodial number but despite this they extend along normal developmental pathways. Collectively these results show that drebrin is initially necessary for the formation of a leading process and subsequently for this to respond to navigational signals and grow in the correct direction. Furthermore, we have shown that the actions of drebrin can be segregated within individual motor neurons to direct their migration independently of axon guidance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  17. Social acceptability of climate change policies; will energy efficiency always fail to win its case through the consultation process? Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pett, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    Which segments of society 'win' as a result of climate change policies? Actors generally support the principle of reduced emissions through decarbonising fuels, and many are convinced that reducing overall energy consumption is an essential strategy to prevent further damaging climate change. However, proposed strategies for ensuring that sufficient action is taken to reduce emissions suffer from complexity, uncertainty and dissent, especially from vested interests. The policy maker has to choose between many options, and many conflicting consultation responses, to select the most politically feasible and socially acceptable pathway. An FP6 funded project into Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for climate change is developing an innovative tool to support policy choice based on a mix of methods, using case studies to test the outputs. Resources include stakeholder deliberation on criteria necessary to evaluate pathway options. The first stage maps energy actors' perspectives of climate change, identifying key issues for socially acceptable policies for the 2012 - 2050 period that would either limit climate change to only 2 deg C increase, or provide a 'soft landing' to a world 5 degrees above present.This paper describes this mapping exercise and indicates the issues of most debate, on which rest the criteria for social acceptability. It describes how deliberative methods can involve stakeholders more effectively in policy formation, contrasts the roles of deliberation and consultation, and discusses the engagement of powerful vested interests with this approach. While there are considerable overlaps in perspectives of different actors, leading to specific points of contention, importantly, decisions on selection and engagement of stakeholders with the process become critical if the criteria for policy decisions are to be accepted by society

  18. [Inclusive education policy: perceptions of managers about the process of changes in Higher Education Institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francilene Jane Rodrigues; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Silva, Cesar Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative descriptive exploratory study, conducted in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) which offers Nursing course, in Joao Pessoa-PB. The study aimed to understand the concept of managers about the need for organizational changes to attend customers with special needs. Four managers participated in the study. A semi-structured interview with guiding questions was used to collect information and to interpret the data we used the method of discourse analysis based on Fiorin. It was noticed that the managers have a concern to meet the demands of inclusive policies, including the adequacy of physical spaces and the pedagogy adopted to meet the students' needs. However, some of them admitted to have little knowledge on how to deal with students with special needs and also mentioned that the institutions do not have an efficient and logistic work which can meet the current legislation of inclusion. We concluded that the process of structural and pedagogical changes is built in a slow and gradual way and it requires an involvement of qualified managers who are committed to execute the policies of inclusion of customers with special needs in a civil and legal way.

  19. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  20. Local Cloudiness Development Forecast Based on Simulation of Solid Phase Formation Processes in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Kliutko, Yauhenia; Krasouski, Alexander; Papko, Iryna; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerical simulation of thundercloud formation processes is of great interest as an actual problem from the practical point of view. Thunderclouds significantly affect airplane flights, and mesoscale weather forecast has much to contribute to facilitate the aviation forecast procedures. An accurate forecast can certainly help to avoid aviation accidents due to weather conditions. The present study focuses on modelling of the convective clouds development and thunder clouds detection on the basis of mesoscale atmospheric processes simulation, aiming at significantly improving the aeronautical forecast. In the analysis, the primary weather radar information has been used to be further adapted for mesoscale forecast systems. Two types of domains have been selected for modelling: an internal one (with radius of 8 km), and an external one (with radius of 300 km). The internal domain has been directly applied to study the local clouds development, and the external domain data has been treated as initial and final conditions for cloud cover formation. The domain height has been chosen according to the civil aviation forecast data (i.e. not exceeding 14 km). Simulations of weather conditions and local clouds development have been made within selected domains with the WRF modelling system. In several cases, thunderclouds are detected within the convective clouds. To specify the given category of clouds, we employ a simulation technique of solid phase formation processes in the atmosphere. Based on modelling results, we construct vertical profiles indicating the amount of solid phase in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we obtain profiles demonstrating the amount of ice particles and large particles (hailstones). While simulating the processes of solid phase formation, we investigate vertical and horizontal air flows. Consequently, we attempt to separate the total amount of solid phase into categories of small ice particles, large ice particles and hailstones. Also, we

  1. NJOY99, Data Processing System of Evaluated Nuclear Data Files ENDF Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B-VI in the US, JEF-2.2 in Europe, JENDL-3.2 in Japan, BROND-2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up-to-date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensive capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photo-atomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high-energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color). More information on NJOY is available from the developer's home page at http://t2.lanl.gov/tour/tourbus.html. Follow the Tourbus section of the Tour area to find notes from the ICTP lectures held at Trieste in March 2000 on the ENDF format and on the NJOY code. NJOY contains the following modules: NJOY directs the flow of data through the other modules and contains a library of common functions and subroutines used by the other modules. RECONR reconstructs pointwise (energy-dependent) cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. BROADR Doppler broadens and thins pointwise cross sections. UNRESR computes effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections in the unresolved energy range. HEATR generates pointwise heat production cross sections (KERMA coefficients) and radiation

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF THE STRATEGY FORMATION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY IN A INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Teodoro Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of strategy formation process with the following starting question: "How the strategy is shaped in an innovative company and how the factors manifesting in the process?". The research builds on a case study of a company considered innovative leader in its industry and a pioneer in providing various services in the area of mobile phone in Brazil. Data collection was through interviews semi-structured with directors and managers involved in strategy formation, supplemented by documents and direct observation. Data analysis is based on the techniques of discourse analysis, from the persuasion strategies suggested by Linhares and Faria (1993. The company's strategy studied can be defined as an entrepreneurial vision, focused on growth supported by a process of diversification of product lines from a new direction composed of three elements: (i componentization; (ii segmentation by products chain and; (iii external to finance leverage in order to resumption of innovative projects. It was concluded that the company's strategy focused on these three factors, supported by a deliberate vision of the future, conditions its historical trajectory type standard cultural, its core values, which acts as a motivator and guide for members of the organization decisions and actions.

  3. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  4. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  5. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeon Kwak

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  6. Features of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, R.M.; Bedilov, M.R.; Sabitov, M.M.; Matnazarov, A.; Niyozov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is known, under interaction of laser radiation with solid surface a power density q > 0.01 W/cm 2 are observed destruction of a solid and issue of electrons, ions, neutrals, neutrons, plasmas, and also radiation in a wide ranges of a spectra. Despite of a plenty of works, devoted to study of processes of interaction, the studies of feature of destruction of solids by laser beam in process of formation multiply charged ions are insufficiently investigated. The results of study feature of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation multiply charged ions are given in this work. In our experiments, we used the mass spectrometer with single-channel laser radiation. The laser installation had the following parameters: a power density of laser radiation q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 ; the angle of incidence a=18 deg. to the target surface Al, (W). It was obtained experimentally dynamics of morphology of destruction and also mass - charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions formed under interaction of laser radiation with Al (W) in the intensity range q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 . These studies showed features of destruction Al(W) by laser radiation, i.e. invariable of value evaporation mass from a surface of a solid increase as the laser intensity q. But thus temperature a pair increases in accordance with increase of flow density of a laser radiation. Increase of temperature the pair gives in formation of multiply charged plasma. It is typical that, as q of the laser increases the maximum charge number of ions in laser plasma considerably increase and their energy spectra extend toward higher energies. For example, under q=0.1 GW/cm 2 and 50 GW/cm 2 the maximum charge number of ions Al (W) are equal to Z max = 1 and 7, respectively. From the experimental data obtained, we can conclude that, the formed multiply charged plasma practically completely absorption laser radiation and 'shielding' a target surface for various metals at power densities

  7. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

  8. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  9. Deployment of military mothers: supportive and nonsupportive military programs, processes, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Petra; Turner, Annette; Agazio, Janice; Throop, Meryia; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Hillier, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Military mothers and their children cope with unique issues when mothers are deployed. In this article, we present mothers' perspectives on how military resources affected them, their children, and their caregivers during deployment. Mothers described beneficial features of military programs such as family readiness groups and behavioral health care, processes such as unit support, and policies on length and timing of deployments. Aspects that were not supportive included inflexibility in family care plans, using personal leave time and funds for transporting children, denial of release to resolve caretaker issues, and limited time for reintegration. We offer recommendations for enhanced support to these families that the military could provide. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. The formation of transnational elite as a factor of modern globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Artemenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the characteristics of the formation of transnational elite and its influence on contemporary political and economic processes in the world, the problems of existence and communication with the Ukrainian national elite. The emergence of transnational elites due to the logic of globalization –transformation of the world in a certain social integrity. In this context, there is a loss of current national elites completeness of legitimacy and the emergence of new transnational subject of history, extending its authority throughout the world space and creates a new format of authority. The author gives his own definition of this phenomenon and proposes to consider the transnational elite association as the most influential members of certain 3 classes. In this article are identified the determinants of the formation of a transnational elite, as well as the basic platforms of its interaction (World Economic Forum, the Bilderberg Group, the Asian forum, and so on. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of communication transnational elite with the Ukrainian national elite, which is directly linked to the future political development of Ukraine, forced to adapt to the challenges of globalization and seek answers to them. In this context, the author notes the importance of the Yalta European Strategy, which is a platform of convergence Ukrainian elite with the worldwide elite. In the article is also reviewed the program «promoting democracy» as an example of conscious realization different political and economic projects around the world by transnational elite.

  12. The nutrition policy process: the role of strategic capacity in advancing national nutrition agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L; Menon, Purnima; Ngo, Tien; Frongillo, Edward A; Frongillo, Dominic

    2011-06-01

    Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the burden of disease in developing countries and has documented effects on social and economic development, yet progress in reducing undernutrition remains slow. This paper identifies the range of factors that have influenced the nutrition agenda in developing countries, in order to inform the implementation of three major global initiatives related to undernutrition. Data sources include interviews with nutrition practitioners at the national and international level, written accounts from six African countries, and observations of the policy process in five countries. Data were thematically coded to identify recurrent factors that facilitated or inhibited progress in addressing undernutrition. The data reveal the following: First, societal conditions and catalytic events pose a variety of challenges and opportunities to enlarge and shape the nutrition agenda. Some countries have been successful in using such opportunities, while others have been less successful and there have been some unintended consequences. Second, disagreements over interventions and strategies are an almost universal feature of the nutrition policy process, occur primarily among mid-level actors rather than among politicians or senior administrators, and are primarily the product of structural factors such as organizational mandates, interests, and differences in professional perspectives. Third, many of these structural factors can be molded, aligned, and/or circumvented through strategic action on the part of the mid-level actors to strengthen movement on the nutrition agenda. This evidence that strategic action can redirect and/or overcome the effects of structural factors has important implications for future efforts to advance the nutrition agenda.

  13. Transformation Directions of the Financial Policy in the Process of Stabilisation of the Ukrainian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushevska Viktoriya V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article is consideration of theoretical provisions with respect to the state financial policy. The article considers the role of the financial policy in ensuring stabilisation of the Ukrainian financial system. It presents conceptual provisions regarding main goals, mechanisms and instruments of the stabilisation financial policy of the state. It develops economic indicators of its efficiency. The use of indicators of economic efficiency of the stabilisation financial policy b...

  14. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part F - Reactive transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournassat, Christophe, E-mail: c.tournassat@brgm.fr [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Alt-Epping, Peter [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, French Geological Survey, Orleans (France); Gimmi, Thomas [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Leupin, Olivier X. [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Wersin, Paul [Gruner Ltd., CH-4020 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate simultaneously solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation during an in-situ experiment in a clay-rock formation. > Opalinus clay formation has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. > Buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system and to the reactivity of clay surfaces (cation exchange, pH buffering). - Abstract: Reactive transport modelling was used to simulate solute transport, thermodynamic reactions, ion exchange and biodegradation in the Porewater Chemistry (PC) experiment at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Simulations show that the most important chemical processes controlling the fluid composition within the borehole and the surrounding formation during the experiment are ion exchange, biodegradation and dissolution/precipitation reactions involving pyrite and carbonate minerals. In contrast, thermodynamic mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions involving alumo-silicate minerals have little impact on the fluid composition on the time-scale of the experiment. With the accurate description of the initial chemical condition in the formation in combination with kinetic formulations describing the different stages of bacterial activities, it has been possible to reproduce the evolution of important system parameters, such as the pH, redox potential, total organic C, dissolved inorganic C and SO{sub 4} concentration. Leaching of glycerol from the pH-electrode may be the primary source of organic material that initiated bacterial growth, which caused the chemical perturbation in the borehole. Results from these simulations are consistent with data from the over-coring and demonstrate that the Opalinus Clay has a high buffering capacity in terms of chemical perturbations caused by bacterial activity. This buffering capacity can be attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the reactivity of

  15. Processing and thin film formation of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-Souni, M.; Kartopu, G.; Habouti, S.; Piorra, A.; Solterbeck, C.H. [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Grenzstr. 3, 24149 Kiel (Germany); Es-Souni, Mar.; Brandies, H.F. [Faculty of Dentistry, Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites containing 4 at% Pt have been processed via spin-coating. Film characterization involved XRD, Raman as well as XPS and scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM). After annealing at 500 C the thin films consisted of nanocrystalline anatase and a few nm Pt nanoclusters. Annealing at 600 C resulted in the formation of a high volume fraction of rutile, {proportional_to}70%, and a coarsening of the microstructure, including Pt nanoparticles which attained a mean particle size of up to 11 nm. These results contrasted with those of pure TiO{sub 2} films obtained at 600 C which showed only a limited amount of rutile formation, namely 9%. Raman spectra of Pt-containing samples exhibited a fluorescence emission, as background to the Raman features, which was attributed to photoinduced luminescence from Pt nanoparticles supported by their surface plasmon resonance. Emission intensity being much higher in 600 C film indicated a difference between the two films in terms of the (Pt) particle size and crystallinity, in agreement with the XRD results. XPS investigations revealed different oxidation states of Pt at the surface and in the film interior. The spectra suggested a slight oxidation of Pt at the surface while mainly metallic Pt was revealed in the film interior. The morphology and distribution of the Pt nanoparticles in the films annealed at 600 C were investigated using SSPM. Discrete Pt nanoparticles, mainly distributed in the vicinity of TiO{sub 2} grain boundaries were revealed. Nanocomposite film formation, Pt distribution and morphology are explained in terms of the limited solubility of Pt in the TiO{sub 2} lattice and its higher surface energy in comparison to that of TiO{sub 2}. Both effects are believed to lead to the formation of Pt nanoparticles at the (anatase or rutile) grain boundaries. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xin; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Liu, Yanfei; Niu, Hongya; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Lingaswamy, A P; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM 2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - concentrations in PM 2.5 were 89.5 μg/m 3 , 24.2 μg/m 3 , 28.1 μg/m 3 , and 32.8 μg/m 3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM 2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-adsorption process of Yb phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, MingYu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Kamiishi, Eigo; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the post-adsorption process of ytterbium (Yb) phosphate nano-particle formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The yeast grown in P-rich medium were exposed to 1.44 × 10-4 mol/L Yb(III) solution for 2-120 h, and 2 months at 25 ± 1 °C at an initial pH of 3, 4, or 5, respectively. Ytterbium concentrations in solutions decreased as a function of exposure time. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses revealed that nano-sized blocky Yb phosphate with an amorphous phase formed on the yeast cells surfaces in the solutions with Yb. These nano-sized precipitates that formed on the cell surfaces remained stable even after 2 months of exposure at 25 ± 1 °C around neutral pHs. The EXAFS data revealed that the chemical state of the accumulated Yb on the cell surfaces changed from the adsorption on both phosphate and carboxyl sites at 30 min to Yb phosphate precipitates at 5 days, indicating the Yb-phosphate precipitation as a major post-adsorption process. In addition, the precipitation of Yb phosphate occurred on cell surfaces during 7 days of exposure in Yb-free solution after 2 h of exposure (short-term Yb adsorption) in Yb solution. These results suggest that the released P from the inside of yeast cells reacted with adsorbed Yb on cell surfaces, resulting in the formation of Yb precipitates, even though no P was added to the exposure solution. In an abiotic system, the EXAFS data showed that the speciation of sorbed Yb on the reference materials, carboxymethyl cellulose and Ln resin, did not change even when the Yb was exposed to P solution, without forming Yb phosphate precipitates. This result strongly suggests that the cell surface of the yeast plays an important role in the Yb-phosphate precipitation process, not only as a carrier of the

  18. THE ROLE OF CRYOGENIC PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF LOESS DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Konishchev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the analysis of the genetic nature of mineral substances in loess deposits. In permafrost under the influence of multiple alternate freezing and thawing in dispersed deposits, quartz particles accumulate the 0.05-0.01 mm fraction, while feldspars are crushed to a coarse fraction of 0.1-0.05 mm. In dispersed sediments formed in temperate and warm climatic zones, the granulometric spectrum of quartz and feldspar has the opposite pattern. The proposed methodology is based on a differential analysis of the distribution of these minerals by the granulometric spectrum. We have proposed two criteria - the coefficient of cryogenic contrast (CCC and the coefficient of distribution of heavy minerals, which allow determination of the degree of participation of cryogenic processes in the formation of loess sediments and processes of aeolian or water sedimentation.

  19. Self-organization processes and nanocluster formation in crystal lattices by low-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshko, I.; Abidzina, V.; Tereshko, A.; Glushchenko, V.; Elkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study self-organization processes that cause nanostructural evolution in nonlinear crystal media. The subjects of the investigation were nonlinear homogeneous and heterogeneous atom chains. The method of computer simulation was used to investigate the interaction between low-energy ions and crystal lattices. It was based on the conception of three-dimensional lattice as a nonlinear atom chain system. We showed that that in homogeneous atom chains critical energy needed for self-organization processes development is less than for nonlinear atom chain with already embedded clusters. The possibility of nanostructure formation was studied by a molecular dynamics method of nonlinear oscillations in atomic oscillator systems of crystal lattices after their low-energy ion irradiation. (authors)

  20. Kinetics of the process of formation and high-temperature oxidation of electrospark coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Chiplik, V.N.; Egorov, F.F.; Lavrenko, V.A.; Podchernyaeva, I.A.; Shemet, V.Z.

    1986-01-01

    This work is a study of the kinetics of formation and of the heat resistance of electrospark coatings based on the composite TiB 2 -Mo with varying molybdenum content. In the process of electrospark alloying they measured the specific erosion of the anode and the increase in weight of the cathode with an accuracy not worse than 5%. Electrospark coatings of TiB 2 -Mo on steel 45 are marked by improved scaling resistance at temperatures above 900 C. Their scaling resistance and also the effectiveness of the process of electrospark alloying increase with increasing content of the phase B-MoB in the coating because molybdenum borate forms during its high-temperature oxidation. Illustrations and table are included

  1. THE LINK BETWEEN RARE-EARTH PEAK FORMATION AND THE ASTROPHYSICAL SITE OF THE R PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumpower, Matthew R. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); McLaughlin, Gail C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Surman, Rebecca [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Steiner, Andrew W., E-mail: matthew@mumpower.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The primary astrophysical source of the rare-earth elements is the rapid neutron capture process ( r process). The rare-earth peak that is seen in the solar r -process residuals has been proposed to originate as a pile-up of nuclei during the end of the r process. We introduce a new method utilizing Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses in the rare-earth region, that includes self-consistently adjusting β -decay rates and neutron capture rates, to find the mass surfaces necessary for the formation of the rare-earth peak. We demonstrate our method with two types of astrophysical scenario, one corresponding to conditions typical of hot winds from core-collapse supernovae and stellar-mass accretion disks, and one corresponding to conditions typical of the ejection of the material from the tidal tails of neutron star mergers. In each type of astrophysical condition, this method successfully locates a region of enhanced stability in the mass surface that is responsible for the rare-earth peak. For each scenario, we find that the change in the mass surface has qualitatively different features, thus future measurements can shed light on the type of environment in which the r process occurred.

  2. Pulsed electric field and combination processing of mango nectar: effect on volatile compounds and HMF formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Bawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango nectar is a commercially familiar and preferred product. The traditional processing of mango nectar has been by thermal processing which resulted in the alteration of the flavour of the product due to the effect of high temperature. The thermal processing of the nectar also resulted in the production of byproducts of non-enzymatic browning such as 5- hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF. These process induced effects, affect both the nutritive and sensory attributes of the fruit product, making it less preferable. With the growing interest and awareness about the benefits of alternative non-thermal technologies, such as pulsed electric field (PEF, the present work was proposed to use PEF to minimize the loss of volatiles and formation of HMF. The study involves thermal (96 ºC for 300 s and 600 s, PEF (24 µs, 120 Hz and 38 kV/cm and combination processing (PEF + Thermal (96 ºC for 90 s of mango nectar. The effect of these treatments on the volatile composition of mango nectar has been analysed using GC-MS technique. The reduction in the volatile compounds was significant (p 0.05 different from unprocessed sample, proving the fresh-like character of the product.

  3. THE LINK BETWEEN RARE-EARTH PEAK FORMATION AND THE ASTROPHYSICAL SITE OF THE R PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary astrophysical source of the rare-earth elements is the rapid neutron capture process ( r process). The rare-earth peak that is seen in the solar r -process residuals has been proposed to originate as a pile-up of nuclei during the end of the r process. We introduce a new method utilizing Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses in the rare-earth region, that includes self-consistently adjusting β -decay rates and neutron capture rates, to find the mass surfaces necessary for the formation of the rare-earth peak. We demonstrate our method with two types of astrophysical scenario, one corresponding to conditions typical of hot winds from core-collapse supernovae and stellar-mass accretion disks, and one corresponding to conditions typical of the ejection of the material from the tidal tails of neutron star mergers. In each type of astrophysical condition, this method successfully locates a region of enhanced stability in the mass surface that is responsible for the rare-earth peak. For each scenario, we find that the change in the mass surface has qualitatively different features, thus future measurements can shed light on the type of environment in which the r process occurred.

  4. MODELING THE FORMATION OF GIANT PLANET CORES. I. EVALUATING KEY PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levison, Harold F.; Thommes, Edward; Duncan, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in our understanding of planet formation is how Jupiter and Saturn could have formed before the solar nebula dispersed. The most popular model of giant planet formation is the so-called core accretion model. In this model a large planetary embryo formed first, mainly by two-body accretion. This is then followed by a period of inflow of nebular gas directly onto the growing planet. The core accretion model has an Achilles heel, namely the very first step. We have undertaken the most comprehensive study of this process to date. In this study, we numerically integrate the orbits of a number of planetary embryos embedded in a swarm of planetesimals. In these experiments, we have included a large number of physical processes that might enhance accretion. In particular, we have included (1) aerodynamic gas drag, (2) collisional damping between planetesimals, (3) enhanced embryo cross sections due to their atmospheres, (4) planetesimal fragmentation, and (5) planetesimal-driven migration. We find that the gravitational interaction between the embryos and the planetesimals leads to the wholesale redistribution of material-regions are cleared of material and gaps open near the embryos. Indeed, in 90% of our simulations without fragmentation, the region near those embryos is cleared of planetesimals before much growth can occur. Thus, the widely used assumption that the surface density distribution of planetesimals is smooth can lead to misleading results. In the remaining 10% of our simulations, the embryos undergo a burst of outward migration that significantly increases growth. On timescales of ∼10 5 years, the outer embryo can migrate ∼6 AU and grow to roughly 30 M + . This represents a largely unexplored mode of core formation. We also find that the inclusion of planetesimal fragmentation tends to inhibit growth except for a narrow range of fragment migration rates.

  5. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study employed a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions: a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in the shallow condition. FMRI analyses revealed that the right amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex demonstrated the reverse pattern. Furthermore, the association of these regions with the hippocampus was modulated by valence: the amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for negative information, and a prefrontal component that provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for positive information. PMID:20350176

  6. Formation of Nb3Al in powder processed Nb-Al superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.

    1987-05-01

    In high magnetic fields, the critical current density is strongly dependent on the upper critical field, which is determined primarily by the stoichiometry of the Nb 3 Al. The critical temperature (T/sub c/), like the upper critical field, is considered to be a measure of the ''intrinsic'' quality of the superconductor, indicating the stoichiometry, order, and strain. If the A15 phase is stoichiometric and well ordered, a high T/sub c/ (and high H/sub C 2 /) is expected, regardless of the volume fraction of superconductor. On the other hand, if sigma phase is present with the A15, the resultant composition gradient across the sigma-A15 interface(s) requires that some of the A15 be off-stoichiometric, and therefore that the T/sub c/ (and H/sub C 2 /) be low. Thus the extent of the A15 (Nb 3 Al) reaction and the quality of the A15 formed are interdependent. This work focuses on the factors that control the extent of Nb 3 Al formation in Nb/Al powder wires. The morphology and content of the reacted and unreacted wires are studied in optical, SEM, and TEM micrographs. Critical current density data and its dependence on processing are explained in terms of the unreacted microstructure and its effect on the extent of Nb 3 Al formation. As a method of improving the critical current density, a new variation of the conventional powder process for wire manufacturing is developed and tested

  7. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  8. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  9. Numerical analysis of the formation process of aerosols in the alveoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Karsten; Seume, Jörg R.

    2008-11-01

    For a successful diagnosis of lung diseases through an analysis of non-volatile molecules in the exhaled breath, an exact understanding of the aerosol formation process is required. This process is modeled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model shows the interaction of the boundary surface between the streamed airway and the local epithelial liquid layer. A 2-D volume mesh of an alveolus is generated by taking into account the connection of the alveoli with the sacculi alveolares (SA). The Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method is used to model the interface between the gas and the liquid film. The non-Newtonian flow is modeled by the implementation of the Ostwald de Waele model. Surface tension is a function of the surfactant concentration. The VOF-Method allows the distribution of the concentration of the epithelial liquid layer at the surface to be traced in a transient manner. The simulations show the rupturing of the liquid film through the drop formation. Aerosol particles are ejected into the SA and do not collide with the walls. The quantity, the geometrical size as well as the velocity distributions of the generated aerosols are determined. The data presented in the paper provide the boundary conditions for future CFD analysis of the aerosol transport through the airways up to exhalation.

  10. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions: a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in the shallow condition. fMRI analyses revealed that the right amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right ventrolateral PFC demonstrated the reverse pattern. Furthermore, the association of these regions with the hippocampus was modulated by valence: the amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for negative information, and a prefrontal component that provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for positive information.

  11. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  12. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  13. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  14. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  15. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  16. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  17. Study of the sintering process and the formation of a (Th, U) O2 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables in the (Th, U) O 2 sintering process and solid solution formation was studied. ThO 2 , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powder were prepared. The ThO 2 powders were obtained by calcination of thorium at 500 and 750 deg C; the U 3 O 8 powders were derived from the calcination of ADU at 660 and 750 deg C; the UO 2 powder were prepared from ADU and from ATCU. The different characteristics of these materials were determined by measurements of surface area, by scanning electron microscopy, tap density tests, X-ray diffractometry and by measurements of the O/U ratios. The oxide mixtures were chosen in order to produce a final composition with 10 w/o of UO 2 . A mixture of thorium oxalate and ADU was also prepared by calcining these salts in air at 700 deg C, in order to obtain certain amount of solid solution prior to sintering. The sintering operations were developed in an argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 deg C, during interval varying from 1 to 4 hours. The effect of the mixture characteristics on the sintering process and solid solution formation were studied considering the results of densification, microstructure development and X-ray diffractometry. The ThO 2 powder characteristics have a main effect on the mixtures compactability and sinterability, the higher calcining temperatures increasing the green density, but decreasing the final density of the sintered pellets. In the sintering of mixtures containing U 3 O 3 , this oxide is reduced to UO 2 and it is possible to obtain pellets with density and microstructures similar to those produced from mixtures containing UO 2 . But if oxygen in excess is present during sintering, the process is affected, occurring exaggerated grain growth. The densification results were related to the Coble's kinetics equation for second stage of sintering, valid for bulk diffusion, grain boundary acting as vacancy sinks. The sintering activation energy is independent from the powder starting

  18. Flame experiments at the advanced light source: new insights into soot formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A; Michelsen, Hope A; Wilson, Kevin R; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-05-26

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation

  19. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Khoshnaw, Hiro

    2010-06-08

    Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political issue of a minority population, but provides important

  20. The impact of health system governance and policy processes on health services in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Hiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political

  1. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  2. Biogeochemical processes controlling authigenic carbonate formation within the sediment column from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Bai, Shijie; Chen, Zhiyan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.

    2018-02-01

    Authigenic carbonates are one type of conspicuous manifestation in seep environments that can provide long-term archives of past seepage activity and methane cycling in the oceans. Comprehensive investigations of the microbial community functional structure and their roles in the process of carbonate formation are, however, lacking. In this study, the mineralogical, geochemical, and microbial functional composition were examined in seep carbonate deposits collected from the west slope of the northern section of the Okinawa Trough (OT). The aim of this work was to explore the correspondence between the mineralogical phases and microbial metabolism during carbonate deposit formation. The mineralogical analyses indicated that authigenic carbonate minerals (aragonite, magnesium-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite) and iron-bearing minerals (limonite, chlorite, and biotite) were present in these carbonate samples. The carbon and oxygen isotopic values of the carbonate samples varied between -51.1‰ to -4.7‰ and -4.8‰ to 3.7‰, respectively. A negative linear correlation between carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions was found, indicating a mixture of methane-derived diagenetic (low δ13C/high 18O) carbonates and detrital origin (high δ13C/low 18O) carbonates at the OT. GeoChip analyses suggested that various metabolic activities of microorganisms, including methanogenesis, methane oxidation, sulfite oxidation, sulfate reduction, and metal biotransformations, all occurred during the formation process. On the basis of these findings, the following model for the methane cycle and seep carbonate deposit formation in the sediment column at the OT is proposed: (1) in the upper oxidizing zone, aerobic methane oxidation was the main way of methane consumption; (2) in the sulfate methane transition zone, sulfate-dependent AOM (anaerobic oxidation of methane) consumes methane, and authigenic minerals such as aragonite, magnesium-calcite, and sulfide minerals

  3. ION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF COSMIC SILICATES: A POSSIBLE FORMATION PATHWAY TO GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, C.; Sabri, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wendler, E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Th., E-mail: cornelia.jaeger@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Ion-induced processing of dust grains in the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary and planetary disks plays an important role in the entire dust cycle. We have studied the ion-induced processing of amorphous MgFeSiO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} grains by 10 and 20 keV protons and 90 keV Ar{sup +} ions. The Ar{sup +} ions were used to compare the significance of the light protons with that of heavier, but chemically inert projectiles. The bombardment was performed in a two-beam irradiation chamber for in situ ion-implantation at temperatures of 15 and 300 K and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to monitor the alteration of the silicate composition under ion irradiation. A depletion of oxygen from the silicate structure by selective sputtering of oxygen from the surface of the grains was observed in both samples. The silicate particles kept their amorphous structure, but the loss of oxygen caused the reduction of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and the formation of iron inclusions in the MgFeSiO{sub 4} grains. A few Si inclusions were produced in the iron-free magnesium silicate sample pointing to a much less efficient reduction of Si{sup 4+} and formation of metallic Si inclusions. Consequently, ion-induced processing of magnesium-iron silicates can produce grains that are very similar to the glassy grains with embedded metals and sulfides frequently observed in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The metallic iron inclusions are strong absorbers in the NIR range and therefore a ubiquitous requirement to increase the temperature of silicate dust grains in IR-dominated astrophysical environments such as circumstellar shells or protoplanetary disks.

  4. The method of predicting the process of condensation of moisture and hydrate formation in the gas pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Хвостова, Олена Вікторівна

    2014-01-01

    The problem of ensuring the required value of one of the natural gas quality indicators during its transportation to the consumer - moisture content is considered in the paper. The method for predicting possible moisture condensation and hydrate formation processes in gas pipelines considering mixing gas flows with different moisture content was developed.Predicting the moisture condensation and hydrate formation in gas pipelines is an actual task since a timely prevention of these processes ...

  5. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  6. [Study on formation process of honeycomb pattern in dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The authors report on the first investigation of the variations in the plasma parameters in the formation process of the honeycomb pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum in argon and air mixture. The discharge undergoes hexagonal lattice, concentric spot-ring pattern and honeycomb pattern with the applied voltage increasing. The molecular vibration temperature, electron excitation temperature and electronic density of the three kinds of patterns were investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system (C3pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)), the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) and Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) -->1S(3)) and the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm respectively. It was found that the molecular vibration temperature and electron excitation temperature of the honeycomb pattern are higher than those of the hexagonal lattice, but the electron density of the former is lower than that of the latter. The discharge powers of the patterns were also measured with the capacitance method. The discharge power of the honeycomb pattern is much higher than that of the hexagonal lattice. These results are of great importance to the formation mechanism of the patterns in dielectric barrier discharge.

  7. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  8. Formation of extracellular polymeric substances from acidogenic sludge in H2-producing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2007-02-01

    In this study, the formation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and surface characteristics of an acidogenic sludge in anaerobic H(2)-producing process was investigated. Results show that carbohydrates, proteins, and humic substances were the dominant components in bound EPS (BEPS), while in soluble EPS (SEPS), carbohydrates were the main component. The total content of BEPS initially increased but then kept almost unchanged during fermentation from 25 to 35 h; after that, it slightly decreased. The total content of SEPS increased to 172.5 +/- 0.05 mg C g(-1) volatile suspended solid with the time that increased to 23.5 h, and then rapidly decreased until 43 h; thereafter, it kept almost unchanged. The SEPS had good correlations with the specific H(2) production rate, substrate degradation rate, and specific aqueous products formation rate, but the BEPS seemed to have no such correlations with these specific rates. Results also confirm that part of EPS could be utilized by the H(2)-producing sludge. As the substrate was in short supply, the EPS would be hydrolyzed to sever as carbon and energy source.

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  10. Formation and fate of marine snow: small-scale processes with large- scale implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kiørboe

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine snow aggregates are believed to be the main vehicles for vertical material transport in the ocean. However, aggregates are also sites of elevated heterotrophic activity, which may rather cause enhanced retention of aggregated material in the upper ocean. Small-scale biological-physical interactions govern the formation and fate of marine snow. Aggregates may form by physical coagulation: fluid motion causes collisions between small primary particles (e.g. phytoplankton that may then stick together to form aggregates with enhanced sinking velocities. Bacteria may subsequently solubilise and remineralise aggregated particles. Because the solubilization rate exceeds the remineralization rate, organic solutes leak out of sinking aggregates. The leaking solutes spread by diffusion and advection and form a chemical trail in the wake of the sinking aggregate that may guide small zooplankters to the aggregate. Also, suspended bacteria may enjoy the elevated concentration of organic solutes in the plume. I explore these small-scale formation and degradation processes by means of models, experiments and field observations. The larger scale implications for the structure and functioning of pelagic food chains of export vs. retention of material will be discussed.

  11. Using Markov Decision Processes with Heterogeneous Queueing Systems to Examine Military MEDEVAC Dispatching Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    POLICIES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...dispatching policy and three practitioner-friendly myopic baseline policies. Two computational experiments, a two-level, five-factor screening design and a...over, an open question exists concerning the best exact solution approach for solving Markov decision problems due to recent advances in performance by

  12. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  13. Processes for consensus building and role sharing. Lessons learned from HLW policies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This report attempts to obtain lessons in implementation of HLW management policies for Japan by reviewing past experiences and present status of policy formulation and implementation as well as reflection of public opinions and consensus building of selected European countries, such as Finland, Sweden and others. After examining the situations of those countries, the author derives four key aspects that need to be addressed; separation of nuclear energy policies and HLW policies, fundamental support shared among national public, sense of controllability, and proper scheme of responsibility sharing. (author)

  14. Community Psychology as a Process of Citizen Participation in Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Danny

    2018-01-01

    This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy. PMID:29524941

  15. Re-animated heritage. National project Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie (New Dutch Water Defence Line as a format for landscape policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Luiten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape policy has always been characterized, often supported but just as often hindered by its multiple origins in both landscape protection and landscape development. Along the recalcitrant and frequently inconsistent lines of preservation of monuments, nature conservation, land use, open-air recreation and the planting of new woods and shrubs respectively, landscape protection did not develop without difficulty. On a government level landscape protection was most extensively laid down in the Structure Plan for Nature Conservation and Protection of the Countryside. In this Plan the government introduced an extensive series of landscape categories, among which National Parks, National Landscapes, Valuable Agricultural Cultural Landscapes, Natural Heritage Valuable Areas, Large Landscape Unities and Valuable Scenic and/or Historical Views. In the Green Space Structure Plan from 1994 the differentiation of landscape policy was drastically reduced to the category of Valuable Cultural Landscapes and in addition a reference was made to the intended execution of large projects, such as the Randstad Green Structure and the National Ecological Network. In the revision of this Structural Plan in 2002 the category of National Landscapes was reintroduced. From the quarter of landscape development approximately every ten years a policy document is issued. The View on Landscape Creation (dating from the seventies, the View on Landscape (eighties and the Policy Document on Landscape (nineties are to be regarded as attempts at a synthesis of the various motives behind landscape development. The gist of these policy documents shifts from manifests for national green areas towards worked-out, integral concepts and formulas for rural-area development and closes with more and more complicatedly formulated recommendations, such as in the Development-oriented Landscape Strategy. After the Policy Document on Landscape with poorly argued maps of the so

  16. Use of Technologies and Social Nets in the Formative Process of Superior Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Virginia Mero Suárez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks and the uses of technologies for the training process have become indispensable tools in each of the educational scenarios of Higher Education. These resources together with what the web provides become new way of teaching and learning, in which learners become the protagonists of the teaching processes. The present work aimed to analyze the relevance of social networks and the uses of technologies in the educational function in each of the training scenarios in higher education. The importance of social networks was described, as well as the uses of new technologies, highlighting what is related to the strengthening of the new lists of the teacher and student, the interaction of students through each of the resources provided by the Web, and collaborative work, which has substantially favored learning. It was concluded that social networks plow tools that together with the new technologies plows welcomed by the students, constitute to support for the formation process, strengthening autonomy, cooperative work and knowledge management, converting new innovative spaces for new forms of teaching and learning. In addition to the great impact that the internet have and will in the development of new social networks in different contexts; and therefore, teachers cannot ignore them. In this sense, it should also be considered that teachers plow responsible for this change of attitude with respect to the new educational models where it there is the mission to it produces changes in the communicative environment before social uses of the network.

  17. Influence of calcination process on the formation of selected air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydrych Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is to analyze the phenomena of thermal flow in the precalcinator chamber of the exchanger's furnace tower including the combustion of coal dust and decarbonisation of raw lime powder. During the research were provided development of a mathematical model of particulate solid fuels combustion, calcining the raw material, NOx and COx formation. Moreover conducting the number for the current and the upgraded design of the precalcinator and analysis of the results. In this study, a mathematical model based on Euler's method to describe the motion of the gas phase and the Lagrange method to describe the motion of particles [1-4]. In the calculations there were assumed fractional particles raw material and fuel, and the following processes: flow of exhaust gases from the rotary kiln through the precalcinator chamber, heat exchange between the particles of raw material and exhaust gases, the additional fuel combustion in the precalcinator, the process of raw material calcination, transformation of gaseous substances, effect of the additional (tertiary air delivery on the processes in the chamber.

  18. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  19. Learning processes in the professional development of mental health counselors: knowledge restructuring and illness script formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans

    2015-05-01

    An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge structures. Participants were prompted with 20 client problems. They had to explain those problems, the explanations were analyzed using think-aloud protocols. The results show that experts' knowledge is organized in script-like structures that integrate declarative knowledge and professional experience and help experts in accessing relevant information about cases. Novices revealed less integrated knowledge structures. It is concluded that knowledge restructuring and illness script formation are crucial parts of the professional learning of counselors.

  20. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  1. Interpersonal processes affecting early alliance formation in experiential therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Pos, Alberta E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of in-session interpersonal process and pre-therapy interpersonal problems on session-one alliance formation for 32 clients who received short-term experiential therapy for depression. Interpersonal behavior measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, as well as clients' pre-therapy reports of interpersonal problems significantly related to session-one alliance scores. Greater client disclosure independently predicted a stronger session-one bond with the therapist. Both greater client disclosure (positively) and pre-therapy Social Inhibition (negatively) independently predicted early goal agreement. Findings suggest that client disclosure is a marker of early engagement in experiential therapy, as well as support this model's mandate to form interpersonally safe therapeutic environments from the first moments of therapy.

  2. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  3. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  4. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  5. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

  6. Cosmochemical evidence for astrophysical processes during the formation of our solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J; Boss, Alan

    2011-11-29

    Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended up much farther out in the solar system, not only the asteroid belt but even in the comet accretion region, suggesting a huge and efficient process of mass transport. Bi-polar outflows, turbulent diffusion, and marginal gravitational instability are the likely mechanisms for this transport. The presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system, especially (60)Fe, (26)Al, and (41)Ca, requires a nearby supernova shortly before our solar system was formed, suggesting that the Sun was formed in a massive star-forming region similar to Orion or Carina. Solar system formation may have been "triggered" by ionizing radiation originating from massive O and B stars at the center of an expanding HII bubble, one of which may have later provided the supernova source for the short-lived radionuclides. Alternatively, a supernova shock wave may have simultaneously triggered the collapse and injected the short-lived radionuclides. Because the Sun formed in a region where many other stars were forming more or less contemporaneously, the bi-polar outflows from all such stars enriched the local region in interstellar silicate and oxide dust. This may explain several observed anomalies in the meteorite record: a near absence of detectable (no extreme isotopic properties) presolar silicate grains and a dichotomy in the isotope record between (26)Al and nucleosynthetic (nonradiogenic) anomalies.

  7. European experiences as guidelines for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of post-socialist transition in Serbia brings more complex actors environment compared to socialistic period, while institutional arrangements are not enough developed to actively involve different groups of actors in spatial policy formulation process. In order to gather certain knowledge as guidelines for redefining institutional practices in Serbia, institutional framework of Serbia was compared in this paper with institutional framework of three developed European countries, especially in relation to the roles of public, private and civil sector in spatial policy formulation process. The European countries selected for the analysis are United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany because of diverse national administrative traditions, so different institutional arrangements could be researched. By comparing institutional framework in Serbia with the ones in developed European countries following questions are researched: which actors are missing in Serbia, what are the ways institutional arrangements for different groups inclusion into spatial policy formulation process are formed, what are the differences between the roles of certain groups of actors in decision-making process. Current roles of actors in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia are reviewed and possible directions for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in Serbia are discussed in accordance with experiences of developed European countries.

  8. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merse Stane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and optimisation approach has been done, favouring presentation of relations between controls and their effects rather than the elusive optimality of results which can be misleading for small energy systems. Scenario-based planning was integrated into the MESAP (Modular Energy System Analysis and Planning environment, allowing integration of past, present and planned (calculated data in a comprehensive overall system. Within the paper, the main technical, economic and environmental characteristics of the Slovenian energy system model REES-SLO are described. This paper presents a new approach in modelling relatively small energy systems which goes beyond investment in particular technologies or categories of technology and allows smooth transition to low carbon economy. Presented research work confirms that transition from environment unfriendly fossil fuelled economy to sustainable and climate friendly development requires a new approach, which must be based on excellent knowledge of alternative possibilities of development and especially awareness about new opportunities in exploitation of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

  9. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  10. Revamping the Teacher Evaluation Process. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 4, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Rodney S.; Shi, Dingjing; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief explores Senate Enrolled Act 001 (SEA 1), specifically the provisions for how teachers must be evaluated. After a short summary of SEA 1 and its direct changes to evaluation policies and practices, the brief reviews literature in teacher evaluation and highlights important issues for school corporations to consider when selecting…

  11. The process of developing policy based on global environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given on developing policy based on a global environmental risk assessment. The author looks at the global warming issue as if it were a formal problem in risk assessment. He uses that framework to make one or two suggestions as to how the interaction of policy and research might evolve as the climate convention progresses

  12. Study of residue type defect formation mechanism and the effect of advanced defect reduction (ADR) rinse process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Kushida, Yuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Nishimura, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2009-03-01

    Residue type defect is one of yield detractors in lithography process. It is known that occurrence of the residue type defect is dependent on resist development process and the defect is reduced by optimized rinsing condition. However, the defect formation is affected by resist materials and substrate conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the development process condition by each mask level. Those optimization steps require a large amount of time and effort. The formation mechanism is investigated from viewpoint of both material and process. The defect formation is affected by resist material types, substrate condition and development process condition (D.I.W. rinse step). Optimized resist formulation and new rinse technology significantly reduce the residue type defect.

  13. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  14. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanović, Zoran S.; Ignjatović, Nenad [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Wu, Victoria [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Žunič, Vojka [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Veselinović, Ljiljana [Centre for Fine Particles Processing and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Škapin, Srečo [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miljković, Miroslav [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Medicine University of Niš, Dr. Zoran Đinđić Boulevard 81, 18 000 Niš (Serbia); Uskoković, Vuk [Advanced Materials and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7052 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, 9401 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92618-1908 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6 mg/cm{sup 2}. X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37 nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P6{sub 3/m} space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the

  15. Formation of semisolid, oligomerized aqueous SOA: lab simulations of cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Lelia N; Baril, Molly J; Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O; Schill, Gregory P; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2014-02-18

    Glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone form N-containing and oligomeric compounds during simulated cloud processing with small amines. Using a novel hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) system that allows varied humidification times, the hygroscopic growth (HG) of each of the resulting products of simulated cloud processing was measured. Continuous water uptake (gradual deliquescence) was observed beginning at ∼ 40% RH for all aldehyde-methylamine products. Particles containing ionic reaction products of either glyoxal or glycine were most hygroscopic, with HG between 1.16 and 1.20 at 80% RH. Longer humidification times (up to 20 min) produced an increase in growth factors for glyoxal-methylamine (19% by vol) and methylglyoxal-methylamine (8% by vol) aerosol, indicating that unusually long equilibration times can be required for HTDMA measurements of such particles. Glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-methylamine aerosol particles shattered in Raman microscopy impact-flow experiments, revealing that the particles were semisolid. Similar experiments on glycolaldehyde- and hydroxyacetone-methylamine aerosol found that the aerosol particles were liquid when dried for glyoxal > glycolaldehyde = hydroxyacetone, likely caused by the speed of oligomer formation in each system.

  16. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS, while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  17. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Rojas, Héctor; Duque, Zoilabet; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Alciaturi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  18. La biblioteca escolar y la formación lectora School Library and Reader Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Calonje Daly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute los conceptos ideológicamente legitimados que dan sustento a las nociones socialmente predominantes acerca de la relación entre formación lectora y biblioteca escolar y, alternativamente, plantea las condiciones que deberían ser asumidas por esa misma relación para que se torne enriquecedora: grosso modo, el sentido de las prácticas que comprometen a la totalidad de la comunidad educativa, la creación de entornos favorables, las interacciones con diversos tipos de texto, las nuevas relaciones con los textos, las formas de organización diferentes, el carácter de los procesos para hacerse lector, el sentido del conocimiento, la biblioteca y los maestros y los bibliotecarios como mediadores.This article points out the relation between the school library and the reader formation as legitimated concepts that support predominant notions. Indeed, it supports the conditions that should be assumed by that same relationship for enriching the learning process. In this case, the educative community should be the main participant in this relation. It can create favorable environments, interactions with multiple kinds of texts, new relationships with texts, different kinds of organization, making the process of becoming a reader, knowledge purpose, finally library and teachers, and librarians as mediators.

  19. Pore Formation Process of Porous Ti3SiC2 Fabricated by Reactive Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous Ti3SiC2 was fabricated with high purity, 99.4 vol %, through reactive sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2, silicon (Si and graphite (C elemental powders. The reaction procedures and the pore structure evolution during the sintering process were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Our results show that the formation of Ti3SiC2 from TiH2/Si/C powders experienced the following steps: firstly, TiH2 decomposed into Ti; secondly, TiC and Ti5Si3 intermediate phases were generated; finally, Ti3SiC2 was produced through the reaction of TiC, Ti5Si3 and Si. The pores formed in the synthesis procedure of porous Ti3SiC2 ceramics are derived from the following aspects: interstitial pores left during the pressing procedure; pores formed because of the TiH2 decomposition; pores formed through the reactions between Ti and Si and Ti and C powders; and the pores produced accompanying the final phase synthesized during the high temperature sintering process.

  20. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  1. A note on optimal (s,S) and (R,nQ) policies under a stuttering Poisson demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a new efficient algorithm is proposed to find an optimal (s, S) replenishment policy for inventory systems with continuous reviews and where the demand follows a stuttering Poisson process (the compound element is geometrically distributed). We also derive three upper bounds...

  2. Process of defect formation in alkaline halogenides contaminated with Eu2+ induced by non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroza M, M.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Castaneda, B.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of defects in polluted alkaline halogenides with divalent impurities exposed to ionizing radiation is explained by means of the creation of auto trapped excitons (STE), which can be formed by means of the excitement of the halogen ion or through the trapping of electrons in centers V K taken place during the process of ionization of the halogen ion. The luminescent recombination of the exciton auto trapped produces a characteristic exciton luminescence and the recombination non radiative causes the formation of the Frenkel type defects, even of centers F - H. Experimentally has been demonstrated that the same type of glasses, exposed to radiation non ionizing of the type UV of around 230 nm, they produce defects similar Frenkel. The situation is interesting all time that photons of 230 nm (5.3 eV) they cannot create excitons directly since they are in an energy level of approximately 2.4 inferior eV to the necessary energy for the production of the same ones. In order to investigating the type of process of creation of defects with UV light energy below the energy of the band prohibited in polluted alkaline halogenides with Eu 2+ , mainly looking for experimental information that allows to explain the creation of defects taken place by the radiation non ionizing, one carries out the present work. It was found that, independently of the energy of the radiation used for the excitement, the emission comes from the transition 4f 6 5d(t 2g )-4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) of the ion Eu 2+ characterized by a wide band centered in 420 nm and an additional component in 460 nm of possibly intrinsic origin. It was determined that so much the F centers and F z participate in the thermoluminescent processes and of optically stimulated luminescence, achieving to identify those peaks of Tl strictly associated to the F centers (peak in 470 K for the KCl: Eu 2+ ) and F z (peak in 370 K). Also, by means of a process of selective photo stimulation evidence was obtained that the F

  3. Discursive Mechanisms and Human Agency in Language Policy Formation: Negotiating Bilingualism and Parallel Language Use at a Swedish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källkvist, Marie; Hult, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the enactment of Sweden's Language Act in 2009 and in the face of the growing presence of English, Swedish universities have been called upon by the Swedish Higher Education Authority to craft their own language policy documents. This study focuses on the discursive negotiation of institutional bilingualism by a language policy…

  4. Observations and Simulations of Formation of Broad Plasma Depletions Through Merging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Song; Retterer, J. M.; Beaujardiere, O. De La; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D.E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Broad plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere near dawn are region in which the plasma density is reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude over thousands of kilometers in longitude. This phenomenon is observed repeatedly by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during deep solar minimum. The plasma flow inside the depletion region can be strongly upward. The possible causal mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions is that the broad depletions result from merging of multiple equatorial plasma bubbles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the merging mechanism with new observations and simulations. We present C/NOFS observations for two cases. A series of plasma bubbles is first detected by C/NOFS over a longitudinal range of 3300-3800 km around midnight. Each of the individual bubbles has a typical width of approx 100 km in longitude, and the upward ion drift velocity inside the bubbles is 200-400 m/s. The plasma bubbles rotate with the Earth to the dawn sector and become broad plasma depletions. The observations clearly show the evolution from multiple plasma bubbles to broad depletions. Large upward plasma flow occurs inside the depletion region over 3800 km in longitude and exists for approx 5 h. We also present the numerical simulations of bubble merging with the physics-based low-latitude ionospheric model. It is found that two separate plasma bubbles join together and form a single, wider bubble. The simulations show that the merging process of plasma bubbles can indeed occur in incompressible ionospheric plasma. The simulation results support the merging mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions.

  5. Effect of pores formation process and oxygen plasma treatment to hydroxyapatite formation on bioactive PEEK prepared by incorporation of precursor of apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabutsuka, Takeshi; Fukushima, Keito; Hiruta, Tomoko; Takai, Shigeomi; Yao, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    When bioinert substrates with fine-sized pores are immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the pH value or the temperature is increased, fine particles of calcium phosphate, which the authors denoted as 'precursor of apatite' (PrA), are formed in the pores. By this method, hydroxyapatite formation ability can be provided to various kinds of bioinert materials. In this study, the authors studied fabrication methods of bioactive PEEK by using the above-mentioned process. First, the fine-sized pores were formed on the surface of the PEEK substrate by H 2 SO 4 treatment. Next, to provide hydrophilic property to the PEEK, the surfaces of the PEEK were treated with O 2 plasma. Finally, PrA were formed in the pores by the above-mentioned process, which is denoted as 'Alkaline SBF' treatment, and the bioactive PEEK was obtained. By immersing in SBF with the physiological condition, hydroxyapatite formation was induced on the whole surface of the substrate within 1day. The formation of PrA directly contributed to hydroxyapatite formation ability. By applying the O 2 plasma treatment, hydroxyapatite formation was uniformly performed on the whole surface of the substrate. The H 2 SO 4 treatment contributed to a considerable enhancement of adhesive strength of the formed hydroxyapatite layer formed in SBF because of the increase of surface areas of the substrate. As a comparative study, the sandblasting method was applied as the pores formation process instead of the H 2 SO 4 treatment. Although hydroxyapatite formation was provided also in this case, however, the adhesion of the formed hydroxyapatite layer to the substrate was not sufficient even if the O 2 plasma treatment was conducted. This result indicates that the fine-sized pores should be formed on the whole surface of the substrate uniformly to achieve high adhesive strength of the hydroxyapatite layer. Therefore, it is considered that the H 2 SO 4 treatment before the O 2 plasma and the 'Alkaline SBF' treatment

  6. CURRICULUM POLICY MAKERS PERCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS BASED ON SOLO TAXONOMY IN SECONDARY LEVEL SCHOOLS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    P. H. Kusumawathie; Norhisham Mohamad; Ferdous Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual awareness of curriculum policy makers on curriculum development process based on SOLO Taxonomy curriculum approach in secondary level schools. Further, the study explored the relationship between the curriculum development inputs and the SOLO based curriculum development process. The curriculum development inputs are teacher effectiveness, school community, school environment and technology availability. Method: Data was collecte...

  7. A Fresh Look at Spatio-Temporal Remote Sensing Data: Data Formats, Processing Flow, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, R.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing number of experimental and operational satellites in orbit, remote sensing based mapping and monitoring of the dynamic Earth has entered into the realm of `big data'. Just the Landsat series of satellites provide a near continuous archive of 45 years of data. The availability of such spatio-temporal datasets has created opportunities for long-term monitoring diverse features and processes operating on the Earth's terrestrial and aquatic systems. Processes such as erosion, deposition, subsidence, uplift, evapotranspiration, urbanization, land-cover regime shifts can not only be monitored and change can be quantified using time-series data analysis. This unique opportunity comes with new challenges in management, analysis, and visualization of spatio-temporal datasets. Data need to be stored in a user-friendly format, and relevant metadata needs to be recorded, to allow maximum flexibility for data exchange and use. Specific data processing workflows need to be defined to support time-series analysis for specific applications. Value-added data products need to be generated keeping in mind the needs of the end-users, and using best practices in complex data visualization. This presentation systematically highlights the various steps for preparing spatio-temporal remote sensing data for time series analysis. It showcases a prototype workflow for remote sensing based change detection that can be generically applied while preserving the application-specific fidelity of the datasets. The prototype includes strategies for visualizing change over time. This has been exemplified using a time-series of optical and SAR images for visualizing the changing glacial, coastal, and wetland landscapes in parts of Alaska.

  8. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  9. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Counterterrorism Policies on the PKK-inflicted Violence during the Democratization Process of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ciftci; Sedat Kula

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to explore the relationship between soft-line governmental policy interventions of Turkey and the responses of the PKK (The Kurdistan Workers’ Party) by using time series data from 1995 to 2010. The negative binomial specifications for two models, the number of incidents and the number casualties are used. The aggregated impact of soft-line policies on the level of violence is found to be positive and significant. In one hand, Turkey’s EU accession process had a decreasing im...

  10. “Failures of the State”: Factors of Formation and Mechanisms of Influence on Economic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of genesis and influence on real economic processes of “failures of the state”. The article designates the objective functions inherent in the state the realization of which can increase the efficiency of economic interactions reducing transaction expenses. Besides, the key factors of non-optimal activity of the state as well as actual “failures of the state” are considered. The approaches to the definition of “failures of the state” are analyzed. Taking into account functional approach the author proposes the model definition allowing to separate “failures of the state” from factors and conditions of their emergence. Among the emergence factors of “failures of the state” the author analyzes in detail the key division of economy subjects to net-payers and net-recipients of the income, the fact of distribution of consequences of state regulation to the sectors which are not direct objects of regulation as well as the influence of short-term decisions for long-term prospects are designated. The author also analyzes the range of “failures of the state”, including such as formation of monopolies, tax discouraging, failures of social security, nature of “state business”, derivation of resources and workers from economy, formation of an inequality and calculational (price chaos in economy. The key consequences and volume of the economic damage formed by “failures of the state” are considered, the corresponding quantitative estimates are given. The most important vectors of optimization of activity of the state which provide minimization of “failures of the state” and the related economic damage are designated. According to the author, such vectors include the priority of market self-regulation under the condition of refusal from substitutes in the form of “approach” of public sector to market standards. The minimization of public sector activity aimed at the exclusion of

  11. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This documented briefing is intended to provide options for U.S. policy that will enhance China's participation in the control of international transfers of destabilizing military or dual use technology...

  12. Study on Formation Mechanism of Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) by Solid State Reaction in Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongbing; Peng, Bing; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhao, Zongwen; Liu, Degang; Peng, Ning; Wang, Dawei; He, Yinghe; Liang, Yanjie; Liu, Hui

    2018-04-01

    The sintering behaviors among SiO2, FeS and Fe3O4 were detected to reveal the formation mechanism of Fe2SiO4. The results indicated that the formation mechanism is divided into five steps: (1) migration of O2- induced by S2- under a reducing atmosphere; (2) formation of Fe3O4- β ; (3) migration of Fe(II) into a ferrite cluster structure to gain oxygen and form Fe3- x O4; (4) Fe(II) invaded the silicon atomic position and released Si(IV); and (5) formation of the stable structure of Fe2SiO4 through chemical diffusion between cations of Fe(II) and Si(IV). These findings can provide theoretical support for controlling the process of the recovery of valuable metals in copper slag through the combined roasting modification-magnetic separation process.

  13. Examining the use of health systems and policy research in the health policymaking process in Israel: views of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Lavis, John N; Shemer, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process. A survey of researchers who have conducted HSPR in Israel was developed. The survey consisted of a demographics section and closed questions, which focused on support both within the researchers' organisations and the broader environment for KTE activities, perceptions on the policymaking process, and the potential influencing factors on the process. The survey was sent to all health systems and policy researchers in Israel from academic institutions, hospital settings, government agencies, the four health insurance funds, and research institutes (n = 107). All responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For close-ended questions about level of agreement we combined together the two highest categories (agree or strongly agree) for analysis. Thirty-seven respondents participated in the survey. While many respondents felt that the use of HSPR may help raise awareness on policy issues, the majority of respondents felt that the actual use of HSPR was hindered for many reasons. While facilitators do exist to support the use of research evidence in policymaking, numerous barriers hinder the process such as challenges in government/provider relations, policymakers lacking the expertise for acquiring, assessing, and applying HSPR and priorities in the health system drawing attention away from HSPR. Furthermore, it is perceived by a majority of respondents that the health insurance funds

  14. Process, paper policy and practice : a case study of the introduction of a formal extension policy in Queensland, Australia 1987 - 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutts, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the policy element of public sector agricultural extension. It was contended that this policy element lacked an adequate framework. Without such a framework, there was a risk that major policy - or operational - issues would be neglected in policy formulation. The study

  15. Northern Steps of EU Enlargement: The Impact of “Cohesion” Policies on Iceland’s Accession Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Di Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the EU accession process of Iceland, reading the latest northern steps of EU enlargement under a “cohesion” perspective, i.e., through the lens of the cohesion “theory”, namely the method resulting from interactions of the general principles of subsidiarity and cooperation or partnership. From the Mediterranean to the Arctic, the territorial dimension of cohesion policies, as grounded in different EU policies, plays different roles and meets a wide range of economic and social needs. By implementing Nordicum-Mediterraneum analogies, a cohesion-minded EU enlargement approach requires the overall reframing of territorial-based policies and a better allocation of shared responsibilities at the more efficient level of governance.

  16. Review of the investigation of mixture formation and combustion process using rapid compression machine and direct visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaat, M.; Khalid, Amir; Manshoor, B.; Ramsy, Him

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews of some applications of optical visualization systems to compute the fuel-air mixing process during early stage of mixture formation in Diesel Combustion Engines. A number of studies have contributed to the understanding of fuel air mixing in DI diesel engine. This review has shown that the mixture formation process affects initial flame development. The review also found that injection pressure has a great effect on the mixture formation then the flame development and combustion characteristics. The method of the simulation of real phenomenon of diesel combustion with optical access rapid compression machine is also reviewed and experimental results are presented. The application of these methods to the investigation of diesel sprays highlights mechanisms which govern propagation and distribution of the formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture. A summary of the implementation of constant volume chamber and optical visualization system are shown in the accompanying tables and figures. The visualization of the formation process of diesel spray and its combustion in the diesel combustion chamber of diesel engine has been recognized as one of the best ways to understand the characteristics of the mixture formation.

  17. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    been identified within the soil columns because they are fragile; i.e. they are euhedral, unabraded, and unfractured, strongly suggesting in situ formation. Their presence in Antarctic samples is another indication that diagenic processes are active in cold-desert environments. The presence of zeolites, and other clays along with halites, sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates are to be expected within the soil columns on Mars at the Gusev and Isidis Planitia regions. The presence of such water-bearing minerals beneath the surface supplies one of the requirements to support biological activity on Mars.

  18. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules.

  19. Brittle fracture in viscoelastic materials as a pattern-formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, M.; Pilipenko, D.; Spatschek, R.; Brener, E. A.

    2011-04-01

    A continuum model of crack propagation in brittle viscoelastic materials is presented and discussed. Thereby, the phenomenon of fracture is understood as an elastically induced nonequilibrium interfacial pattern formation process. In this spirit, a full description of a propagating crack provides the determination of the entire time dependent shape of the crack surface, which is assumed to be extended over a finite and self-consistently selected length scale. The mechanism of crack propagation, that is, the motion of the crack surface, is then determined through linear nonequilibrium transport equations. Here we consider two different mechanisms, a first-order phase transformation and surface diffusion. We give scaling arguments showing that steady-state solutions with a self-consistently selected propagation velocity and crack shape can exist provided that elastodynamic or viscoelastic effects are taken into account, whereas static elasticity alone is not sufficient. In this respect, inertial effects as well as viscous damping are identified to be sufficient crack tip selection mechanisms. Exploring the arising description of brittle fracture numerically, we study steady-state crack propagation in the viscoelastic and inertia limit as well as in an intermediate regime, where both effects are important. The arising free boundary problems are solved by phase field methods and a sharp interface approach using a multipole expansion technique. Different types of loading, mode I, mode III fracture, as well as mixtures of them, are discussed.

  20. Formation and magic number characteristics of clusters formed during solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rangsu; Dong Kejun; Tian Zean; Liu Hairong; Peng Ping; Yu Aibing

    2007-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation study has been performed for a large-sized system consisting of 10 6 liquid metal Al atoms to investigate the formation and magic number characteristics of various clusters formed during solidification processes. The cluster-type index method (CTIM) is adopted to describe various types of cluster by basic clusters. It is demonstrated that the icosahedral cluster (12 0 12 0) is the most important basic cluster, and that it plays a critical role in the microstructure transition. A new statistical method has been proposed to classify the clusters as some group levels according to the numbers of basic clusters contained in each cluster. The magic numbers can be determined by the respective peak value positions of different group levels of clusters, and the magic number sequence in the system is 13, 19, 25(27), 31(33), 38(40), 42(45), 48(51), 55(59), 61(65), 67,... the numbers in the brackets are the second magic number of the corresponding group levels of clusters. This magic number sequence is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained by Schriver and Harris et al, and the experimental results can be reasonably well explained

  1. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  3. FORMATION OF THE LEADING TEACHER IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Bicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication purpose – to reveal intrinsic characteristics of the leading teacher and to develop pedagogical conditions of formation of leadership skills of students – future preschool teachers in educational process of higher education institution. Methodological principles of article are the theory of leadership and development of the personality. When carrying out a research were used the analysis of scientific-theoretical provisions of the concept "leader" of the system of modern professional and pedagogical knowledge.Content – the analysis of the studied problem has allowed authors to define that the leading teacher is a personality to whom trust and who is recognized; capable to lead group of children (parents, colleagues, awakening their activity and interest; to influence interaction process, regulating relationship; to responsibly organize performance of this or that activity. The conclusion is drawn that in the conditions of modernization of educational system the leading teacher becomes the important strategic resource of all transformations capable to generate and perceive innovations, ready to show activity and creativity.The fundamental qualities causing purposeful development of the important personal and professional characteristics leading the personality to the leader's position have defined independence and responsibility.Three groups of the pedagogical conditions in total forming special leader space, approving social, active and creative essence of the identity of students and forming qualities of the successful leading teacher are proved: reflexive and motivational, substantial and informative and activity.Authors join in structure of qualities of the leading teacher: the motivational focused, intellectual and strong-willed, behavioural, social and communicative qualities. It is shown that existence of the marked-out qualities though increases development of the teacher as leader, but possession of them not

  4. The Formation of Chimeric Nanomorphologies, as a Reflection of Naturally Occurring Thermodynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziris, N.; Demetzos, C.

    2017-11-01

    The self-assembly process of different in nature biomaterials leads to the morphogenesis of various nano-structures, where the individual molecule properties (e.g. hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic balance and elasticity), profoundly affect the intermediate surfaces’ interfacial thermodynamics. Herein, the mixing of a phospholipid and an amphiphilic block copolymer, through the thin-film hydration method, gave different morphologies, among which there were vesicles (i.e. liposomes and polymersomes), micelles and worm-like structures. The formation of such variety of structures is attributed to divergent entropic pathways, which are determined by a number of parameters, such as the lipid:polymer molar ratio and the polymer composition. The developed nanosystems are considered as chimeric/mixed, because of the two different in type biomaterials that compose them. The vesicles also exhibited membrane “irregularities”, which are connected with their biophysical behavior. Nature has “chosen” vesicular forms to be the thermodynamically stable “biological apartments”, in which life was enclosed and additionally, vesicles provided compartmentalized systems, where the intracellular environment was built. Phospholipid properties result in membranes/bilayers that harmonically assimilate other molecules, like proteins and retain their integrity and functionality, while gaining additional features. A cause that alters this relationship might induce changes in the membrane composition and morphology, with respect to lipid rafts/domains, what has been linked with the activation and development of certain human disorders/diseases. The self-assembly of two different biomaterials into various structures that present distinct membrane phenomena is believed to simulate these natural processes.

  5. Process comparison for fracture-induced formation of surface structures on polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Using three different splitting approaches such as point-load splitting, tension-splitting and peeling–splitting, different surface ripples were produced on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based polymer films. Independent of the splitting approaches, the spatial wavelength of the surface structures is a linear function of the film thickness with the approximately same differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness. The apparent surface residual stress was calculated from the thickness dependence of the spatial frequency, and the magnitude of the apparent surface stress increased with the increase of the film thickness. After exposing the aged PMMA-based photoresist at liquid state to gamma-irradiation, the effects of aging and the gamma-irradiation were investigated on the splitting-induced formation of surface structures. For the peeling–splitting process, the differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness for the aged samples is larger than that for non-aged samples. The point-load splitting could not produce any surface pattern on the gamma-irradiated films. None of the splitting approaches could form surface structures for polymer films exposed to irradiation of high dose. Both the spatial wavelength and the apparent surface stress increased with the film thickness for the irradiated polymer films. - Highlights: • Using splitting processes, surface ripples were formed on polymer films. • The surface ripples were induced by compressively apparent surface stress. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is a linear function of the film thickness. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by gamma-ray irradiation. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by aging.

  6. Interdisciplinary process driven performative morphologies : A morphogenomic approach towards developing context aware spatial formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biloria, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Architectural praxis is in continuous state of change. The introduction of information technology driven design techniques, constantly updating building information modeling protocols, new policy demands coupled together with environmental regulations and cultural fluctuations are all open-ended

  7. Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Mavoa, Helen; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; McCabe, Marita; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-07-01

    The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were presented to higher

  8. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to ...

  9. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  10. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  11. Examining Data Driven Decision Making via Formative Assessment: A Confluence of Technology, Data Interpretation Heuristics and Curricular Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Gerry; Mazur, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Although the term data-driven decision making (DDDM) is relatively new (Moss, 2007), the underlying concept of DDDM is not. For example, the practices of formative assessment and computer-managed instruction have historically involved the use of student performance data to guide what happens next in the instructional sequence (Morrison, Kemp, &…

  12. The ethical formation process of the learners who study Marxism-leninism and History. Particularities o f this process in Rafael Maria de Mendive teachers training university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cabrera Domínguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the systematization of the work of different authors about the theme discussed and the analysis made by the author according to the characteristics of the process of ethic formation of the students form the Marxism Leninism and History carrer during the initial formation stage, centred in an interdisciplinary perspective in ̈Rafael Maria de Mendive ̈ University of Pedagogical Sciences ̈ form Pinar del Rio. This work takes as a starting point the materialistic and dialectical method, in the relation man-society, in the Pedagogy and General Didactics and in the current situation of this process.

  13. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  14. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  15. The process of construction of evidence: An analysis of the use of indicators in two decisions of innovation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, N.; Moniz, A.; Laranja, M.

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing calls for evidence-based policies, knowledge about the practical use of evidences remains limited. This paper studies the process of construction of evidences in decisions of innovation policy to understand how evidences were used. It analysis the use of indicators and other evidences through interviews conducted to inquire about the two decisions: an electric mobility policy and a nanotechnology laboratory. Results show indicators and other evidences were brought to decision processes according to their availability and capacity to support the different interests of the actors and the stakeholders. Their role was influenced by the particular situation of the decision makers. More importantly, the use of persuasive analytical evidences appears to be related with the adversity of the policy context. In addition, research suggests that indicators are one tool among others to foster innovation decisions. In fact, the relatively minor instrumental role of indicators suggests that indicators are mostly a complementary instrument of decision. When used relevantly, indicators can offer support to a decision. But there are other significant influences that need to be taken into account to understand the specific role indicators and other evidences play, such as the social relations of the decision makers and their emotional-intuitive decisions. (Author)

  16. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  17. PHASE COHERENT STAR FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE DISKS OF GRAND DESIGN SPIRALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BECKMAN, JE; CEPA, J; KNAPEN, JH

    1991-01-01

    We show examples of a new technique we have devised to compare star formation efficiencies in the arms and discs of spirals. First results show striking evidence of the presence and influence of density wave systems of star formation in grand design galaxies.

  18. Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, A B; Subhedar, K M; Hyam, R S; Talaptra, A; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Pawar, S H

    2005-01-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB 2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB 2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods. (rapid communication)

  19. Dense CO2 as a Solute, Co-Solute or Co-Solvent in Particle Formation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. M. Nunes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of dense gases in particle formation processes has attracted great attention due to documented advantages over conventional technologies. In particular, the use of dense CO2 in the process has been subject of many works and explored in a variety of different techniques. This article presents a review of the current available techniques in use in particle formation processes, focusing exclusively on those employing dense CO2 as a solute, co-solute or co-solvent during the process, such as PGSS (Particles from gas-saturated solutions®, CPF (Concentrated Powder Form®, CPCSP (Continuous Powder Coating Spraying Process, CAN-BD (Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer®, SEA (Supercritical Enhanced Atomization, SAA (Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Atomization, PGSS-Drying and DELOS (Depressurization of an Expanded Liquid Organic Solution. Special emphasis is given to modifications introduced in the different techniques, as well as the limitations that have been overcome.

  20. Investigation of the formation process of two piracetam cocrystals during grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e.,piracetam-citric acid and piracetam......-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than...... for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form...