WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy development implementation

  1. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  2. Implementing care policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.; Phishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    How do chief executives of Western companies, from their plush offices, keep tabs on what happens at chemical plants in developing countries? Many point out that it is difficult to operate a Responsible Care policy in countries where industry associations have not yet started a coordinated initiative. 'Responsible Care is a program that has primarily a geographic dimension and is organized country by country by the industry associations,' note Kaspar Eigenmann, head of corporate unit safety and environment at Ciba (Basel). Where there is a campaign, the local Ciba company participates, he says. 'It's obvious that the industrialized countries are taking the lead,' adds Eigenmann

  3. Stakeholder engagement for improved school policy: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.

  4. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  5. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  6. From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schizophrenia, alcohol use disorders and bi-polar disorder account for a third of years ... Objective: This paper identifies the key barriers to mental health policy implementation in Ghana and suggests ways of overcoming them. Method: The ... of health workers trained and supervised in mental health care, and mental health ...

  7. Developing and implementing an oral care policy and assessment tool.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stout, Michelle

    2012-01-09

    Oral hygiene is an essential aspect of nursing care. Poor oral care results in patients experiencing pain and discomfort, puts individuals at risk of nutritional deficiency and infection, and has an adverse effect on quality of life. This article describes how an oral care policy and assessment tool were updated to ensure the implementation of evidence-based practice at one hospital in the Republic of Ireland.

  8. Nine questions to guide development and implementation of Health in All Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Peters, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Based on the policy science literature, we formulate nine core questions that can guide the formulation, negotiation, development and implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). Each question is grounded in the political and policy science literature and culminates in checklist items that HiAP

  9. Chain-computerisation for interorganisational public policy implementation : A new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve public policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In two articles the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures requires a new approach,

  10. Exportled Development in Korea: Policy Implementations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Ho Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several keys explored to explain the effective Korea’s export-led development model. Korean government promoted the private sector’s specialization in most of the strategic industries although subsidizing them by public financing. Although the Korean economy suffered setback in 1980, 1998, and 2009 for external shocks and internal problems, there always remained strong fundamentals to help the economy spring back up thanks to the achievements through R&D and human resources. The government-business communications and the industry-academic-research centers tripartite collaboration more facilitated the model than brought in improper or collusive relationship. Korean export industries have intensive forward and backward linkages with the other domestic sectors. Although the Korean economy has been highly dependent on trade, its vulnerability to external shock has not materialized seriously because its export structure is diversified.

  11. The Policy Implementation in Development Water Front City in District Senapelan Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca Setyo Prihatin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring urban areas, especially the Pekanbaru City, is necessary given the problem of development of Pekanbaru City is more and more complex and highly in need of a better arrangement, especially concerning on the improvement of the environment (Water Front City in Siak River surroundings. This is a descriptive qualitative research with population sample of the Office of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure of Pekanbaru City, Senapelan District Government, NGOs, community leaders, and private parties. Data are collected through interview, observation and documentation, which is then analyzed using qualitative analysis technique. This research finds that the policy of the development of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru is not implemented optimally. This situation can be seen through a variety of indicators related to the implementation of development policies of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru in that the effect of interest policies, benefits, desire for change, the process of decision-making, implementing programs and supporting resources have not been implemented effectively. The curbing factors in implementing development policies in the District Water Front City Senapelan Pekanbaru are mostly due to the lack of human resources, process of compensation and other inadequate financing, and managerial instruments that are unsupported to the implementation of development programs of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru.

  12. Energy. Policy and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroop, A.

    2006-01-01

    Why does the government have an energy policy? What form does it take? Who is involved in implementing that policy? These and similar questions are answered in the latest Energy Report. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) argues that the objectives are feasible as long as the energy policies are matched by suitable implementation measures [nl

  13. The Implementation Of Development Policy Of Airport And Road Transport Infrastructure In Malinau District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The implementation of development policy the airport and road transport in South Kayan District and the Kayan upstream in Malinau Regency is not yet optimal observe through observation perspective of Grindle 1980 as well as Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980 who saw the implementation of policies from the side of the interests of which are affected type benefits degrees change actorthe executive agency and technical difficulties. Geographical location of both districts that located between Indonesia and Malaysia the borded by mountainous dense jungle and the condition of erratic weather causing equipment and materials used in the project being difficult in mobilization of the trip to the region. In addition the executive policy the airport transportation and the General Working Agency to road infrastructure has a duty which includes a broad and diverse all areas East Kalimantan so that the both district was not development priority. Inland Border Area Management Board and Disadvantaged Areas BPKP2DT who specialized in shape to manage of border areas tend to only perform the function of coordination course so it does not have the authority in the implementation of development directly. So it is with telecommunication limited means of located in the area so that obstructed of coordination and oversight. However residents in the south kayan district kayan upstream support the governments policy in the construction of that infrastructure because policy felt the benefits both in the economic and social.

  14. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  15. Developing implementation indicators for public policy, case study: Tehran and Qom Agricultural Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad Ali Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are problem oriented and solve a public problem. Making decision and policies does not solve problems by itself but they must be executed effectively. As executing policies is a main step of policy making, formulating indicators for implementing policy is necessary. In this article we conducted a content analysis of elites’ opinions to improve implementation of public policies. Therefore, three major factors have been introduced including policy making, environmental policy implementation and organizational structure factors. Sample data were taken from agricultural organizations of Tehran and Qom. For data gathering library research, interview and questionnaire were used. To analyze the data, k-s, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, confirmatory factors analysis and means comparisons were applied using SPSS and LISREL. Results show all of proposed indicators and measures are valid for implementation of public policies and about important of indicators between two participant groups, indicators in Tehran groups is more important.

  16. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  17. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800’s that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950’s, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  18. Development through sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation: Practices of Puerto Princesa City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazztin Jairum P. Manalo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has been considered by many local governments as part of their initiatives for economic upliftment. It is one of the major sources of income through the use of their tourist attraction without compromising the natural resources situated within. The enactment and effective implementation of the local government’s policy have achieved a promising efficient outcome for sustainable tourism.. The city of Puerto Princesa had a long history considering its transformation from an environmentally degraded city into one of the major ecotourism sites around the world. Thus, this paper presents the case of Puerto Princesa and its practices as well as economic development by practicing sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation. The City Ordinance No. 163-91 and 640 has improved the lives of the communities by practicing cleanliness and effective waste management their surrounding and tourist destinations. Economic development and benefits from sustainable tourism reflects the city of Puerto Princesa as a role model for Local Government Units. The passing of City Ordinances on Cleanliness drive have played an important role in effective waste management of the city. The key role of having a strong political will in the local government has strongly maintained its best practices for two decades up to the present.

  19. Law Policy Implementation as the Determinant of the Legal Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakardzhiev Ya. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the forms and mechanism of implementation of law policy, aspects of its interaction with different legal and social factors and determinants specifying its formation and enforcement.

  20. The Politics of Public Accountability: Implications for Centralized Music Education Policy Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses accountability issues that affect music education policy and implementation in the neoliberal education system. Using examples from education reform in Ontario, Canada, the author argues that two forms of accountability imbalances fostered by the neoliberal state--hierarchical answerability over communicative reason and…

  1. Perspectives of greening tourism development – the concepts, the policies, the implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Carić, Hrvoje

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is extensively used as a panacea in the tourism discourse; however, there are still many challenges in its communication, understanding and efficient implementation. The work presented here aims to contribute to those issues by presenting the concept of greening tourism. Greening tourism is a response to the questions of competitiveness and ecological sustainability of tourism, but also the policies of United Nations and European Union. Market demands, available support me...

  2. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  3. Sustainable energy policy - implementation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, M. [Global Energy and Environmental Consultants, Felmersham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Implementation of sustainable energy must address current needs arising from poverty, inequity, unreliability of supplies, social and economic development requirements, and increasing efficiency as well as widening the fuel mix, accelerating the deployment of appropriate new renewable energy schemes, and giving the necessary consideration to protection of the biosphere and the needs of future generations. To achieve these multiple goals markets need to work better, additional investments need to be mobilised in sustainable energy, technological innovation needs to be encouraged, technological diffusion and capacity building in developing countries needs to be supported, and both sounder domestic policies and greater international co-operation are required. (author)

  4. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  5. Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebairn, Louise; Rychetnik, Lucie; Atkinson, Jo-An; Kelly, Paul; McDonnell, Geoff; Roberts, Nick; Whittall, Christine; Redman, Sally

    2017-10-02

    Evidence-based decision-making is an important foundation for health policy and service planning decisions, yet there remain challenges in ensuring that the many forms of available evidence are considered when decisions are being made. Mobilising knowledge for policy and practice is an emergent process, and one that is highly relational, often messy and profoundly context dependent. Systems approaches, such as dynamic simulation modelling can be used to examine both complex health issues and the context in which they are embedded, and to develop decision support tools. This paper reports on the novel use of participatory simulation modelling as a knowledge mobilisation tool in Australian real-world policy settings. We describe how this approach combined systems science methodology and some of the core elements of knowledge mobilisation best practice. We describe the strategies adopted in three case studies to address both technical and socio-political issues, and compile the experiential lessons derived. Finally, we consider the implications of these knowledge mobilisation case studies and provide evidence for the feasibility of this approach in policy development settings. Participatory dynamic simulation modelling builds on contemporary knowledge mobilisation approaches for health stakeholders to collaborate and explore policy and health service scenarios for priority public health topics. The participatory methods place the decision-maker at the centre of the process and embed deliberative methods and co-production of knowledge. The simulation models function as health policy and programme dynamic decision support tools that integrate diverse forms of evidence, including research evidence, expert knowledge and localised contextual information. Further research is underway to determine the impact of these methods on health service decision-making.

  6. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  7. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  8. Developing and implementing mental health policy in Zanzibar, a low income country off the coast of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Said

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zanzibar Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, concerned about mental health in the country, requested technical assistance from WHO in 1997. Aims This article describes the facilitation over many years by a WHO Collaborating Centre, of sustainable mental health developments in Zanzibar, one of the poorest countries in the world, using systematic approaches to policy design and implementation. Methods Based on intensive prior situation appraisal and consultation, a multi-faceted set of interventions combining situation appraisal to inform planning; sustained policy dialogue at Union and state levels; development of policy and legislation, development of strategic action plans, establishment of intersectoral national mental health implementation committee, establishment of national mental health coordination system, integration of mental health into primary care, strengthening of primary-secondary care liaison, rationalisation and strengthening of secondary care system, ensuring adequate supply of medicines, use of good practice guidelines and health information systems, development of services for people with intellectual disability, establishment of formal mechanism for close liaison between the mental health services and other governmental, non-governmental and traditional sectors, mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and research and development. Results The policy and legislation introduced in 1999 have resulted in enhanced mental health activities over the ensuing decade, within a setting of extreme low resource. However, advances ebb and flow and continued efforts are required to maintain progress and continue mental health developments. Lessons learnt have informed the development of mental health policies in neighbouring countries. Conclusions A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme can be effective in achieving considerable strengthening of mental health programmes and services even in extremely low

  9. Developing and implementing mental health policy in Zanzibar, a low income country off the coast of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Mussa, Mahmoud; Haji, Suleiman A; Haji, Mohammed S; Salim, Ahmed; Suleiman, Said; Riyami, Alya S; Wakil, Abdul; Mbatia, Joseph

    2011-02-14

    The Zanzibar Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, concerned about mental health in the country, requested technical assistance from WHO in 1997. This article describes the facilitation over many years by a WHO Collaborating Centre, of sustainable mental health developments in Zanzibar, one of the poorest countries in the world, using systematic approaches to policy design and implementation. Based on intensive prior situation appraisal and consultation, a multi-faceted set of interventions combining situation appraisal to inform planning; sustained policy dialogue at Union and state levels; development of policy and legislation, development of strategic action plans, establishment of intersectoral national mental health implementation committee, establishment of national mental health coordination system, integration of mental health into primary care, strengthening of primary-secondary care liaison, rationalisation and strengthening of secondary care system, ensuring adequate supply of medicines, use of good practice guidelines and health information systems, development of services for people with intellectual disability, establishment of formal mechanism for close liaison between the mental health services and other governmental, non-governmental and traditional sectors, mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and research and development. The policy and legislation introduced in 1999 have resulted in enhanced mental health activities over the ensuing decade, within a setting of extreme low resource. However, advances ebb and flow and continued efforts are required to maintain progress and continue mental health developments. Lessons learnt have informed the development of mental health policies in neighbouring countries. A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme can be effective in achieving considerable strengthening of mental health programmes and services even in extremely low resource settings, but requires sustained input and advocacy if gains are

  10. Policy Implementation: Implications for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Cargo, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation reflects a complex change process where government decisions are transformed into programs, procedures, regulations, or practices aimed at social betterment. Three factors affecting contemporary implementation processes are explored: networked governance, sociopolitical context and the democratic turn, and new public…

  11. High Returns, Low Attention, Slow Implementation: The Policy Paradoxes of India's Clean Energy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoz, Olivier; Swain, Ashwini

    2012-07-01

    India claims to be undertaking a thorough transition to low-carbon electricity, stepping up renewable energy and energy efficiency efforts. Yet, two puzzling paradoxes weigh upon this dynamic. First, although energy efficiency measures offer high collective returns, at least as high as those for renewable energy, the energy efficiency agenda is receiving a lot less attention and priority, even though it would require significantly less investment. Second, within the energy efficiency domain, implementation is lower and slower in sectors where the savings potential is the highest, notably among agricultural and domestic (household) consumers. Drawing on a range of interviews, documentary analysis and policy observations, this paper helps to shed light on this conundrum. In particular, it points out the discrepancy between individual and collective incentives in promoting energy efficiency, the biases and weaknesses of Indian governance at both the central and state levels, the influence of lobbies, the weight of parallel governmental agendas, and the built-in preference of the government, as well as international donors, for a technological rather than a governance focus. Nonetheless, striking a new balance between energy efficiency and renewable energy as complementary agendas is of crucial importance if India is to achieve its developmental, social, environmental and energy security goals. (authors)

  12. The State Investment and Innovation Policy for Development of Forest Sector: the Ecological-Economic Aspects and Mechanisms for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko Oleksandr M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available he need for formation of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector has been substantiated as an important prerequisite for overcoming investment deficits in both the public and the corporate sectors of forest and wood processing production. The main tendencies in the implementation of capital investments by the entities of forestry entrepreneurship, dynamics of involvement of credit resources by forestry enterprises, and shifts in the structure of capital investments in 2016 were analyzed as compared to 2013. It has been found that an important part of the State investment and innovation policy for development of forest sector should be incentives to accelerate the modernization and upgrading of the material-technical base of lumbering and wood processing. The need to form an institutional framework for partnership between the State and business entities in the part of financing the projects of modernization of lumbering and wood processing equipment has been substantiated.

  13. Towards co-operative governance in the development and implementation of cross-sectoral policy: water policy as an example

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacKay, HM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, because it is so fundamental and irreplaceable to humans and their activities, is an all pervasive issue that underpins the social fabric of every society. This means that water policy is cross-sectoral, directly and indirectly affecting...

  14. Building a Culture of Data Sharing: Policy Design and Implementation for Research Data Management in Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project worked with seven existing projects funded by the International Development Research Center of Canada (IDRC to investigate the implementation of data management and sharing requirements within development research projects. The seven projects, which were selected to achieve a diversity of project types, locations, host institutions and subject areas, demonstrated a broad range of existing capacities to work with data and access to technical expertise and infrastructures. The pilot project provided an introduction to data management and sharing concepts, helped projects develop a Data Management Plan, and then observed the implementation of that plan. In examining the uptake of Data Management and Sharing practice amongst these seven groups the project came to question the underlying goals of funders in introducing data management and sharing requirements. It was established that the ultimate goal was a change in culture amongst grantees. The project therefore looked for evidence of how funder interventions might promote or hinder such cultural change. The project had two core findings. First that the shift from an aim of changing behaviour, to changing culture, has both subtle and profound implications for policy design and implementation. A particular finding is that the single point of contact that many data management and sharing policies create where a Data Management Plan is required at grant submission but then not further utilised is at best neutral and likely counter productive in supporting change in researcher culture. As expected, there are significant bottlenecks within research institutions and for grantees in effectively sharing data including a lack of resources and expertise. However, a core finding is that many of the bottlenecks for change relate to structural issues at the funder level. Specifically, the expectation that policy initiatives are implemented, monitored, and evaluated by Program Officers who are

  15. Evaluating Nigeria Cashless Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kket Eko Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced cashless policy initiative to accomplish two main macro-socio-economic policy objectives of increased convenience and greater financial inclusion in Nigeria. This study evaluates Nigeria cashless policy implementation using a four point Likert scale questionnaire administered to six hundred respondents. The results of the study show that the twin policy objectives investigated were partially achieved. Also the study reveals that social infrastructures in power and telecommunications need improvement and expansion and the need to create more awareness to encourage the unbanked to embrace banking culture. This study recommends vigorous investments on cyber security, strengthening of internet protocol and controls in the banks and enactment of relevant legislative laws to curb cybercrimes.

  16. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  17. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  18. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  19. Improving policy implementation through collaborative policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansell, Christopher; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks and ...... collaborative policymaking and adaptive policy implementation might work in theory and practice......We offer a fresh perspective on implementation problems by suggesting that collaborative policy design and adaptive policy implementation will help public policy makers to improve policy execution. Classical implementation theories have focused too narrowly on administrative stumbling blocks...... and New Public Management has reinforced the split between politics and administration. Attempts to improve policy implementation must begin by looking at policy design, which can be improved through collaboration and deliberation between upstream and downstream actors. We provide a broad overview of how...

  20. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  1. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  2. Negotiation as a means of developing and implementing health and safety policy

    OpenAIRE

    Caldart, Charles C.; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    1998-01-01

    In the health, safety, and environmental area, negotiated rulemaking, implementation, and compliance are proposed by their advocates as delivering two primary benefits: reduced rulemaking time and decreased litigation over a final agency rule. The experience to date, however, indicates that negotiated rulemaking cannot be relied upon to deliver either of these benefits. Nonetheless, experience indicates that negotiation can, in appropriate circumstances, facilitate a better understanding of i...

  3. Developing and Implementing Educational Policy in a Hung Parliament: The Tasmanian Green-Labor Accord (2011), and Kingdon's Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, Grant

    2012-01-01

    This paper details how educational policy is developed in an educational authority in a political environment of a hung parliament. The paper begins by looking briefly at the difficulties facing educational policy rollout in Tasmania during the years 2000-2011, and then details how an educational policy dealing with school closures was reshaped in…

  4. Scientific Integrity Policy Creation and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring the integrity of science was a priority for the Obama Administration. In March 2009, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum that recognized the need for the public to be able to trust the science and scientific process informing public policy decisions. In 2010, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a Memorandum providing guidelines for Federal departments and agencies to follow in developing scientific integrity policies. This Memorandum describes minimum standards for: (1) strengthening the foundations of scientific integrity in government, including by shielding scientific data and analysis from inappropriate political influence; (2) improving public communication about science and technology by promoting openness and transparency; (3) enhancing the ability of Federal Advisory Committees to provide independent scientific advice; and (4) supporting the professional development of government scientists and engineers. The Memorandum called upon the heads of departments and agencies to develop scientific integrity policies that meet these requirements. At the end of the Obama Administration, 24 Federal departments and agencies had developed and implemented scientific integrity policies consistent with the OSTP guidelines. This year, there are significant questions as to the Trump Administration's commitment to these scientific integrity policies and interest in the Congress in codifying these policies in law. The session will provide an update on the status of agency scientific integrity policies and legislation.

  5. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  6. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Th Houngbo

    Full Text Available Good governance (GG is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system's responses to change; (v policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported.

  7. The Development of Statewide Policies and Procedures to Implement Telehealth for Part C Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Cole

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of telehealth has been discussed nationally as an option to address provider shortages for children, birth through two, enrolled in Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA Early Intervention (EI programs. Telehealth is an evidence-based service delivery model which can be used to remove barriers in providing EI services to children and their families. In 2016, Colorado’s Part C Early Intervention (EI program began allowing the use of telehealth as an option for providers to conduct sessions with children and their caregivers. This article outlines the process taken to develop the necessary requirements and supports for telehealth to be incorporated into EI current practice.

  8. A retrospective health policy analysis of the development and implementation of the voluntary health insurance system in Lebanon: learning from failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ataya, Nour; El-Ghali, Hana Addam; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-12-01

    Public policymaking is complex and suffers from limited uptake of research evidence, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). In-depth case studies examining health policymaking in the EMR are lacking. This retrospective policy analysis aims at generating insights about how policies are being made, identifying factors influencing policymaking and assessing to what extent evidence is used in this process by using the Lebanese Voluntary Health Insurance policy as a case study. The study examined the policymaking process through a policy tracing technique that covered a period of 12 years. The study employed a qualitative research design using a case study approach and was conducted in two phases over the course of two years. Data was collected using multiple sources including: 1) a comprehensive and chronological media review; 2) twenty-two key informant interviews with policymakers, stakeholders, and journalists; and 3) a document review of legislations, minutes of meetings, actuarial studies, and official documents. Data was analyzed and validated using thematic analysis. Findings showed that the voluntary health insurance policy was a political decision taken by the government to tackle an urgent political problem. Evidence was not used to guide policy development and implementation and policy implementers and other stakeholders were not involved in policy development. Factors influencing policymaking were political interests, sectarianism, urgency, and values of policymakers. Barriers to the use of evidence were lack of policy-relevant research evidence, political context, personal interests, and resource constraints. Findings suggest that policymakers should be made more aware of the important role of evidence in informing public policymaking and the need for building capacity to develop, implement and evaluate policies. Study findings are likely to matter in light of the changes that are unfolding in some Arab countries and the looming

  9. 'Implementation deficit' and 'street-level bureaucracy': policy, practice and change in the development of community nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Ann; While, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines the mechanisms by which health and social care policies put forward by the Government may be translated into community nursing practice. Data from a research project on community nurse case managers were re-examined in the light of two classic theories often cited by policy analysts (i.e. implementation theory and 'street-level bureaucracy'). It was found that the extent to which nurses adopted the case management role, and the model of choice, depended on four major interrelated variables, namely: (1) the clarity of policy guidance; (2) the extent to which it coincided with professional (nursing) values; (3) local practices and policies; and (4) the personal vision of the community nurse. It is argued that this framework may have wider relevance, and this was tested out in two ways. First, major change in one of these variables (Government policy) over time was analysed for its effect on case management practice via the remaining variables. Secondly, an unrelated, but policy-initiated, nursing issue (nurse prescribing) was briefly examined in the light of the framework. It is suggested that this framework may be of some use when considering the likely practice response to policy-related changes in community nursing.

  10. Technical basis, supporting information, and strategy for development and implementation of DOE policy for natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    Policy for addressing natural phenomenon comprises a hierarchy of interrelated documents. The top level of policy is contained in the code of Federal Regulations which establishes the framework and intent to ensure overall safety of DOE facilities when subjected to the effects of natural phenomena. The natural phenomena to be considered include earthquakes and tsunami, winds, hurricanes and tornadoes, floods, volcano effects and seiches. Natural phenomena criteria have been established for design of new facilities; evaluation of existing facilities; additions, modifications, and upgrades to existing facilities; and evaluation criteria for new or existing sites. Steps needed to implement these four general criteria are described. The intent of these criteria is to identify WHAT needs to be done to ensure adequate protection from natural phenomena. The commentary provides discussion of WHY this is needed for DOE facilities within the complex. Implementing procedures identifying HOW to carry out these criteria are next identified. Finally, short and long term tasks needed to identify the implementing procedure are tabulated. There is an overall need for consistency throughout the DOE complex related to natural phenomena including consistent terminology, policy, and implementation. 1 fig, 6 tabs.

  11. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. Methods This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Results Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and

  12. Developing Evidence for Public Health Policy and Practice: The Implementation of a Knowledge Translation Approach in a Staged, Multi-Methods Study in England, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Cattan, Mima

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge translation processes are critical for the development of evidence-based public health policy and practice. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an innovative approach to knowledge translation within a mixed methods study on lay involvement in public health programme delivery. The study design drew on…

  13. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 17. Development of Education Programs at Indonesian Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. All five Indonesian partner universities managed to develop and implement an education program within the timeline of the CASINDO project. UMY (Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Indonesia), UNRAM (University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia) and UNCEN (Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia) have chosen to develop a certificate program. UNDIP (Diponegoro University in Semarang, Java, Indonesia) and USU (University of Sumatra Utara, Medan, Indonesia) have both developed a master program in sustainable energy. UNDIP has already discussed the proposal of their master program with the Ministry of Education and will have to make some improvements. USU will first start the program as a specialisation within the Mechanical Engineering department and in some time continues to make it an independent master program. At all universities both contact persons and lecturers have put a lot of effort in developing the programs and succeeded. Additionally, through CASINDO a network of lecturers between the universities has developed, which will ease future cooperation, after the CASINDO project will have finished.

  14. Never the twain shall meet?--a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Ståhl, Christian; Roback, Kerstin; Cairney, Paul

    2013-06-10

    Many of society's health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. There are many common issues in

  15. Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of society’s health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Discussion Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. Summary

  16. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 19. Development or improvement of infrastructure for knowledge valorisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. All five universities managed to organise workshops visited each by 30-60 participants. At these workshops the relationship and possibilities for co-operation between university, industry, companies, communities etc. were discussed. In total 13-14 workshops have been organised. Most workshops focussed on a specific topic interesting to both local industry and university. Although the contents, audience and (in-depth) discussions were very different at each university, it can be said that ties with local industry in all regions have been improved.

  17. Costs and Benefits of Implementing Green Building Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Ke; Wei, G; Qian, K.; Chan, E

    2017-01-01

    Green building (GB) policies have been implemented to promote GB and address climate change. Most of the existing literatures have studied the costs and benefits of developing GB, without considerations of GB policies’ impacts. This paper aims to study costs and benefits of implementing GB policy

  18. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy in Central Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumardi, R. Rizal Isnanto; Firdausi, Aulia Latifah Insan [Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2012-01-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects.

  19. Facilitators for the development and implementation of health promoting policy and programs – a scoping review at the local community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion, with a focus on multidimensional upstream factors and an ecological, life-course approach, is establishing itself as the guiding philosophy for addressing public health. Action at the political and programmatic level on the Social Determinants of Health has proven effective for promoting and building public health at all levels but has been particularly evident at the national and international levels – due in large part to available documents and guidelines. Although research and experience establish that health promotion is most effective when settings-based, the development of health promoting policies and programs at the local level is still difficult. This study intended to investigate available knowledge on the development and implementation of health promoting policies and programs at the local level and identify factors most important for facilitating capacity building and outcome achievement. Methods We used a scoping review in order to review the current literature on local policy development and program implementation. Keywords were chosen based on results of a previous literature review. A total of 53 articles were divided into two categories: policy and implementation. Critical analysis was conducted for each article and a summary assembled. Data was charted with specific focus on the aims of the study, data acquisition, key theories/concepts/frameworks used, outcome measures, results, and conclusions. Results The articles included in this study primarily focused on discussing factors that facilitate the development of health promoting policy and the implementation of health promotion programs. Most significant facilitators included: collaborative decision-making, agreement of objectives and goals, local planning and action, effective leadership, building and maintaining trust, availability of resources, a dynamic approach, a realistic time-frame, and trained and knowledgeable staff. Within

  20. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...

  1. Improved clean development mechanism and joint implementation to promote holistic sustainable development - an integrated policy and methodology for international energy collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kua Harn Wei

    2007-07-01

    The current Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation framework does not emphasize on wholistic sustainability of energy projects. The Golden Standard was a good example of how this framework can be fine-tuned. However, it does not explicitly incentivize the adoption of the sustainability standards it outlines. A 4-element integrated policy strategy is proposed. A Sustainability Assessment Matrix is constructed to evaluate project proposals' sustainability performance. The Probational Sustainability Performance Demand requires continual monitoring of this performance of approved projects throughout a designated probation period. The involved countries will be awarded Sustainability Credits (measured with the matrix) in installments according to their performance within this period. The Probational Emission Reduction Demand requires investing countries to meet moderated emission reduction targets in order for them to claim the certified emission reductions/ emission reduction credits and their share of Sustainability Credits. These credits are converted into Sustainability Assistance Funds, which can be channeled back to finance either the approved projects or independent renewable energy projects in the involved countries. The MIT Energy Cost Model is used to estimate the required amount and identify the forms of such assistance package. Finally, an integrated policymaking framework is suggested to execute and monitor these interconnected policy elements. (auth)

  2. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  3. Guidelines for biomass energy policy implementation in Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategeka, A.; Karenzi, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reports on the energy scene in Rwanda, and discusses the evolution of the energy development concept in the framework of national development policy, biomass and other energy sources, biomass supply and demand, and commercialised wood and biomass consumption. Prospects to stabilise the biomass cycle are examined, and the implementation of biomass energy policy in Rwanda is considered. (UK)

  4. Business Model Canvas and Strategies to Develop Biodiesel Industry of PT. XYZ in Order to Implement CPO Supporting Fund Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Mustika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered as one of the alternative eco-friendly fuels. Besides, the government also issued policy related to biodiesel that is CPO Supporting Fund (CSF Policy. The aim of the research is to identify Business model canvas (BMC biodiesel industry in PT XYZ and to know the strategies to develop business from biodiesel industry in line with the CPO supporting fund policy. The analysis tool used in this research is BMC, SWOT and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM. The research results in identifying BMC of PT XYZ is customer segment that the company serves in the form of domestic as well international customers. The value the company offers is biodiesel quality that is in accordance with SNI standard and the distribution is at the company’s cost; the relationship built with the customers is by communities and co-creation; the marketing network through stock exchanges and commodity exchanges; the revenue obtained from selling biodiesel and the price difference between biodiesel and solar from BPDPKS; the company’s resources are human resource, raw material resource, and financial resource; the main activities carried out by the company is CPO process to become biodiesel and sale; the company’s partners are GAPKI, BPDPKS and APROBI; the cost structure is operational cost, workers’ salary, and CPO levy fund. Furthermore, the strategy to develop biodiesel industry in line with the rapid increase of competitiveness is to increase the biodiesel production capacity and communication improvement and CRM to improve customers’ service.Keywords: biodiesel, CPO supporting fund (CSF, levy fund, vegetable oil (BBN, business model canvas (BMC

  5. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  6. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy in Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosyidi Sri Atmaja P.; Lesmana, Surya Budi Lesmana [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Chapter 2 provides a review of the national, regional and local policy and programs on energy access for poor communities that have been implemented in Yogyakarta region. However, the two villages, i.e., Dusun Srumbung, Segoroyoso village, Pleret District, Bantul Regency and Dusun Wirokerten, Botokenceng Village, Banguntapan District, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Region, selected as locations for energy need assessments in this project have not received any support from the energy programs mentioned in this section. Chapter 3 gives the criteria used to select the locations. Chapter 4 provides the results and analysis of the participatory rural appraisal used for the energy needs assessments which have been carried out in the selected locations. Chapter presents the renewable energy potentials in the study area. Chapter 6 gives the results of a stakeholder analysis for implementing the proposed programmes and roadmap. Chapter 7 is the roadmap for RE project implementation for poor community and provincial budget analysis.

  7. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  8. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 4. Inception report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M.; Lemmens, L. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia); Winarno, O.T. [Institute of Technology of Bandung ITB, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2009-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This inception report presents the proposed programmes for addressing the identified training needs, the proposed changes to the monitoring framework and other relevant issues discussed during the inception phase.

  9. The establishment and implementation of safety culture policy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, A.R.; Suharno; Arbie, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in the establishment and implementation of safety culture in Indonesia, especially in BATAN, with special attention given to the development of safety culture indicators. The spirit of safety culture implementation is marked firstly by declaration of Policy Statement by the Head of BATAN. In order to monitor the implementation of safety culture, six indicators are established. Based on those indicators, it is seemed that at present the progress of implementation of safety culture is quite good enough. (author)

  10. Free Teacher Education Policy Implementation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagin, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Chinese central government implemented the Free Teacher Education Policy (FTEP), which offered qualifying students admission to prestigious national universities, four years of free tuition, room and board, and a stipend in exchange for a commitment to teach in their home province for ten years; the first two of those years in a rural…

  11. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  12. Practical Recommendations for the Development and Implementation of Youth Policy in the University as a Tool for Development of Student Public Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Sergey G.; Komarova, Nataliya M.; Khairullina, Elmira R.; Rapatskaia, Liudmila, A.; Miftakhov, Radik R.; Khusainova, Liana R.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the increase of social responsibility of universities for improvement of the quality of higher education and development of students' socio-professional values. In terms of the conflicting realities of modern society the youth policy at the University is the most important tool to form students' commitment to…

  13. Handling stress during policy implementation: Developing a classification of “coping” by frontline workers based on a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); E. Vink (Evelien); M. Musheno (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractStress is endemic to street-level work. How frontline workers handle conflicting pressures and changes in their environment bears substantially on policy performance and the delivery of human services. ‘Coping’ is the current term for understanding frontline workers responses to stress.

  14. Bahasa Indonesia: Policy, Implementation, and Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa R. Simanjuntak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Language policy or language planning is still in the surge for familiarity and importance. However, this paper argues that in the case of Bahasa Indonesia current implementations should be evaluated based on its relevance and future plan. The historical perspectives will reveal the roots of the current policy and therefore make foundations for further discussions. From the study of literature, this paper is arguing that new paradigm for nationalism, roles in the global competition, as well as regional languages as competitive advantage could be well adopted to nurture a more inclusive and progressive Bahasa Indonesia.  

  15. The Role of Family and Community Involvement in the Development and Implementation of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Davey, Cynthia S.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are several evidence-based recommendations directed at improving nutrition and physical activity standards in schools, these guidelines have not been uniformly adopted throughout the United States. Consequently, research is needed to identify facilitators promoting schools to implement these recommendations. Therefore,…

  16. Technical analysis, contestation and politics in policy agenda setting and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Why issues get on the policy agenda, move into policy formulation and implementation while others drop off in the process is an important field of enquiry to inform public social policy development and implementation. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy

  17. Developing a Tool to Assess the Capacity of Out-of-School Time Program Providers to Implement Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Goetz, Joshua; Moore, Alexis; Tessman, Nell; Wiecha, Jean L

    2016-08-11

    Little is known about public health practitioners' capacity to change policies, systems, or environments (PSEs), in part due to the absence of measures. To address this need, we partnered with the Alliance for a Healthier Generation (Alliance) to develop and test a theory-derived measure of the capacity of out-of-school time program providers to improve students' level of nutrition and physical activity through changes in PSEs. The measure was developed and tested through an engaged partnership with staff working on the Alliance's Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) Initiative. In total, approximately 2,000 sites nationwide are engaged in the HOST Initiative, which serves predominantly high-need children and youths. We partnered with the Alliance to conduct formative work that would help develop a survey that assessed attitudes/beliefs, social norms, external resources/supports, and self-efficacy. The survey was administered to providers of out-of-school time programs who were implementing the Alliance's HOST Initiative. Survey respondents were 185 out-of-school time program providers (53% response rate). Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor model that explained 44.7% of the variance. Factors pertained to perceptions of social norms (6 items) and self-efficacy to build support and engage a team (4 items) and create (5 items) and implement (3 items) an action plan. We report initial development and factor analysis of a tool that the Alliance can use to assess the capacity of after-school time program providers, which is critical to targeting capacity-building interventions and assessing their effectiveness. Study findings also will inform the development of measures to assess individual capacity to plan and implement other PSE interventions.

  18. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related institution. The development of technology audit policy for national interest requires provision of mandatory audit implementation, accompanied by tools for developing technology auditor’s competence and technology audit institutional’s mechanism. To guide technology auditor’s competence, concept of national audit technology policy shall classify object of technology audit into product technology, production technology, and management of technology, accompanied by related parameters of technology performance evaluation.

  19. Fiscal Policy and the Implementation of the Walsh Contract for Central Bankers

    OpenAIRE

    Haizhou Huang; A. Jorge Padilla

    2002-01-01

    We develop a simple macroeconomic model where the time inconsistency of optimal monetary policy is due to tax distortions. If fiscal policy is exogenously fixed at its optimal level, a Walsh contract (Walsh, 1995) offered to an independent central bank implements the optimal monetary policy. When fiscal policy is determined endogenously, however, this contract is subject to strategic manipulation by the government, which results in a suboptimal policy mix. Implementing the optimal policy mix ...

  20. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  1. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  2. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 24. Regional Energy Efficiency Planning 2011 [for Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahara, Pamungkas Jutta; Hariadi, T.K. [Universitas Muhammadiyah PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Increasing energy demand and decreasing energy supply has to be faced by strategic measures. Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) faces the same problem with more burdens since DIY depends on energy supply from other region. One strategic measure is to reduce energy consumption across sectors. There are, in total, 805.468 electricity consumers in Yogyakarta in the household, social and industrial sector. Through direct measures electricity consumption can be reduced and financial resources can be saved. One of the measures is energy conservation campaign to all sectors in the region which expected to reduce the energy spent, for example to switch off electronic devices totally instead of to put them in standby mode. Survey in the region indicated there are various use of electronic devices in household dominated by refrigeration, television, and AC's. In industries and social, AC and motors are dominating the sector. By applying inverter technology and refrigerant retrofitting to air conditioner can reduce significantly the energy consumption. Changing from old refrigerator with new energy saver refrigerator would also reduce energy consumption. Strategic energy policy and tools has to be identified to push the community to apply the recommended measure. Energy labeling, tax reduction program and energy price increase would make the energy conservation program more feasible and create an environment where inventing in energy efficiency is more attractive. Furthermore a financial resource policy has to be prepared for community education through promotion

  3. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  4. The Policy-Implementation-Results Linkage for Education Development and Aid Effectiveness in the "Education 2030" Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2018-01-01

    "Education 2030", the new global agenda for educational development, emphasises inclusion and learning outcomes. The top-down programme-based approach, a mainstay of international aid, has up to now failed in helping developing countries to meet these objectives because it tends to overlook where the link is broken between policy…

  5. Developing low-carbon transport policies in Peru with capacity-building for their implementation: Draft Transport NAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, N. A.; Ramirez, C.

    2012-01-01

    Transport has been identified as one of the biggest sectors that contribute to climate change (23%) due to its energy demand and polluting emissions and therefore one of the sectors that needs to take action to mitigate its impact. A few countries in Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Colombia) have started their transport NAMA development and are at different stages in the process. Peru has started this process more recently and this report aims at facilitating the NAMA development and...

  6. 'The way things are around here': organisational culture is a concept missing from New Zealand healthcare policy, development, implementation, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane L

    2012-01-20

    Internationally, healthcare sectors are coming under increasing pressure to perform and to be accountable for the use of public funds. In order to deliver on stakeholder expectation, transformation will need to occur across all levels of the health system. Outside of health care it has been recognised for some time that organisational culture (OC) can have a significant influence on performance and that it is a mediator for change. The health sector has been slow to adopt organisational theory and specifically the benefits of understanding OC and impacts on performance. During a visit to health research units in the United Kingdom (UK) I realised the stark differences in the practice of health reform and its evaluation. OC is a firmly established concept within policy development, implementation and research in the UK. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for New Zealand. There has been unrelenting reform and structural redesign, particularly of the primary healthcare sector under multiple governments over the past 20 to 30 years. However, there has been an underwhelming focus on the human aspects of organisational change. This seems set to continue and the aim of this viewpoint is to introduce the concept of OC and outline why New Zealand policy reformists and health services researchers should be thinking explicitly about OC. Culture is not solely the domain of the organisational scientist and current understandings of the influence of OC on performance are outlined in this commentary. Potential benefits of thinking about culture are argued and a proposed research agenda is presented.

  7. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  8. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 27. Biogas Construction Plan in Segoroyoso Village Yogyakarta Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesmana, Surya Budi; Putra, Sri Atmaja [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. To achieve the CASINDO objective seven Technical Working Groups have been established with the aim to conduct the technical activities under the various work packages and to produce the agreed deliverables. This report presents results from Technical Working Group IV on Renewable Energy project development. Its main aims were: To identify suitable non-hydro RE projects that can be developed in the province; To conduct an energy needs assessment in a selected location; To develop a business plan for a proposed solution to the identified main energy problem of the target community; To identify potential investors; To construct the project.

  9. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 24. Energy Efficiency in Central Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windarto, Joko; Nugroho, Agung; Hastanto, Ari; Mahartoto, Gigih [Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2012-01-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Energy has a very important role and has become a basic necessity in national sustainable development. Therefore, energy should be used sparingly and in a rational manner so that present and future energy demand can be met. Given the importance of using energy efficiently Government needs to devise a framework regulating the utilization of energy resources through the efficient application of technology and stimulating energy-saving behaviours. The purpose of this technical working group in CASINDO project is to research the steps and policy measures needed to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption in the household, industrial, and commercial buildings sector for Central Java. The government's efforts in promoting energy efficiency in Indonesia are still hampered by public awareness factor. This study exists to promote public awareness of energy efficiency by describing the financial benefits and possibilities of savings energies in order to support the government's energy saving program, replacement of old equipment that uses high power consumption with a new low-power one, reduction of unnecessary lighting, appreciation to the people who find and develop energy-efficient power utilization, persuade industries to uses the speed controller driver for production and fan motor to streamline the electrical energy usage.

  10. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy in Papua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awaluddin, Duha [University of Cenderawasih, Jayapura (Indonesia)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. The need for energy is a very basic requirement for human life. All human activity relates directly or indirectly to the utilization of energy. Energy derived from fossil fuels (petroleum), will run out at a certain point. Because of this, the utilization of new and renewable energy becomes very important and will need to be improved and encouraged. CASINDO, in collaboration with several universities in Indonesia, including the University of Cenderawasih in Jayapura, Papua, has helped facilitate the implementation of new and renewable energy utilization in a target location in Papua. After a lengthy process, it was decided that Enggros village would be the target location for activities in TWG V, in accordance with pre determined criteria. Enggros is a fishermen village located just outside the city of Jayapura, which falls in the category of poor villages and has very limited access to electricity. Several energy laws and policies of central and local governments have been reviewed to assess their impact on the poor. Many of them claim they aim to accommodate the interests of the poor, but the application and implementation of those programs as they occur in the field, is very far from expectations. Most of the poor in the province of Papua, especially in mountainous and remote areas, still do not have access to any form of electricity. This calls for a more integrated over sight and planning for implementation of all the pro-poor energy policies and programs. In addition, an energy needs assessment has been conducted in the target location to obtain a

  11. Implementing Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rydin, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the scope for making progress towards sustainable development through changes in current practices and decision-making processes that do not need international agreements. It outlines seven key areas for improving implementation, including: using monitoring and evaluation (and the information these produce) to change attitudes and behaviour; participation that involves the public constructively; better use of “soft” instruments of persuasion and communication; and ensuri...

  12. Forging Consensus for Implementing Youth Socialization Policy in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development,…

  13. Design and implementation of a voluntary collective earthquake insurance policy to cover low-income homeowners in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda, M.; Cardona, O.; Mora, Miguel; Barbat, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Understanding and evaluating disaster risk due to natural hazard events such as earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. The use of models for earthquake risk evaluation allows obtaining outputs such as the loss exceedance curve, the expected annual loss and the probable maximum loss, which are probabilistic metrics useful for risk analyses, for designing strategies for risk reduction and mitigation, for emergency...

  14. Disability Policy Implementation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy.

  15. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy In North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeharwinto [University of Sumatra Utara, Medan (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. A key component of the recent political reforms undertaken in Indonesia is the decentralization and regional autonomy that were implemented in 2001. This process has devolved almost all powers and responsibilities from the central government to the local government, including responsibilities for energy sector development. This means that regional governments are now responsible for formulating their energy policy and, consequently, must reform their institutional structure and strengthen their human capacity to be able to carry out this new responsibility. In Indonesia, people living in urban areas generally have access to efficient and modern energy supplies. However, the rural communities are generally less fortunate and continue to rely on traditional fuels of firewood, because the energy and electricity production system available to them are costly and inefficient. The aim of CASINDO's Technical Working Group V (TWG V) on Identification of Energy Needs and Assessment for Poor Communities was to establish energy-related needs and priorities of poor communities in selected locations in the Province of Central Java. The target location for Casindo TWG V activities was the village of Sruni, in the Boyolali district, because it is a district which produces a great amount of milk from dairy cows (greatest amount in Central Java); and secondly, because it does not receive any funds from other development programs, as well as from other institutions, while other subdistricts do. In order to identify actual energy needs successfully, the Participatory

  16. Prohibiting physicians' dual practice in Iran: Policy options for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Jahanmehr, Nader; Behzadi, Faranak; Moghri, Javad; Doshmangir, Leila

    2018-04-23

    In Iran, based on the recent national policy documents, physician dual practice (PDP) has been prohibited. This study aimed to develop policy options (POs) to implement physicians' dual practice prohibition law in Iran. International evidence published in English and local documents published in Persian about PDP analyzed and results (advantages, disadvantages, challenges and requirements to ban PDP, and applied policies to limit the dual practice) were extracted. Results discussed among the research team in 5 rounds of meetings. In each meeting, any possible PO to limit PDP in Iran was proposed based on brainstorming technique and 12 POs were developed. These 12 POs and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in a focus group discussion attended by 14 informed policy makers, and 3 additional POs were added. Fifteen POs were developed. Each PO has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is worth to highlight that not only are the proposed POs not mutually exclusive but they are also mutually reinforcing; that is, each of these POs can be applied alone or they can be implemented alongside each other simultaneously. No single optimal PO exists for dealing with the dual practice in Iranian health system. Implementing a mix of POs could reduce possible complications of each PO and increase the chance of successful implementation of the law. It is advisable to follow a conservative and incremental approach and start with POs that will cause less resistance and political challenges. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Disability Policy Implementation from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a…

  18. Work-life balance policies: challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Caroline; Koekemoer, Frieda Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Helping employees to balance their work and family lives is a business imperative. Work–life balance policies (like flexitime) aim to support employees to do so. However, implementing these policies is problematic. Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy. Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This r...

  19. Towards local implementation of Dutch health policy guidelines: a concept-mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuunders, T.J.M.; Bon-Martens, M.J.H. van; Goor, I.A.M. van de; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Oers, H.A.M. van

    2017-01-01

    To develop a targeted implementation strategy for a municipal health policy guideline, implementation targets of two guideline users [Regional Health Services (RHSs)] and guideline developers of leading national health institutes were made explicit. Therefore, characteristics of successful

  20. Towards local implementation of Dutch health policy guidelines : A concept-mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuunders, T.J.M.; Van Bon-martens, M.J.H.; Van De Goor, L.A.M.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Van Oers, J.A.M.

    To develop a targeted implementation strategy for a municipal health policy guideline, implementation targets of two guideline users [Regional Health Services (RHSs)] and guideline developers of leading national health institutes were made explicit. Therefore, characteristics of successful

  1. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 20. Installation of Demonstration Units at the Indonesian Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Each of the five Indonesian partner universities has managed to choose, purchase and install demonstration equipment within the timeline of the Casindo project. This equipment will be presented to students, visitors, lecturers, government personnel and staff of other organizations. Next to this, researchers made research proposals in which use of the demonstration equipment is presented according to the research agenda of the university. The procedure of purchasing and installing equipment has been delayed in several ways, but all universities have managed to finalise the procedure and install the equipment. First research results have been presented and more results will follow in the next months.

  2. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 14. Fast-track program at UNDIP and UNCEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. (ed.) [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. The relationship between UNDIP (Diponegoro University in Semarang, Java, Indonesia) and TU/e (Eindhoven University of Technology) has improved because of organising two additional activities together. The chosen topics of the two workshops offered a good opportunity to get to know each other. The level of knowledge in sustainable energy and energy efficiency at UNDIP is already on a high level. The relationship between UNCEN (Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia) and TU/e has also improved much through the organisation of two additional activities. Staff of UNCEN took the opportunity to organise two workshops improving their knowledge in the field of sustainable energy and energy efficiency.

  3. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  4. Local Voice and Benefit in the Implementation of RWM Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In several countries key decisions have been taken on the options for the long-term management of radioactive waste and most have opted for deep geological disposal as the best available approach; in a few cases (Finland, Sweden, USA, France), progress has been made towards the selection of a site for a repository. The author considers that, as the emphasis shifts from the assessment of options to the implementation of proposals so there is a corresponding shift from generic to specific concerns and from national policy to specific and local siting issues. Questions of local voice and benefit, of involvement in decision making and the well being of communities come more and more to command the attention of policy makers. In setting out strategies for implementation it is necessary to take into account the contextualising elements which influence the framing and development of policy, among which three elements in particular: timescale, discourse, and community. Each of these three contextualising elements poses issues for the continuing implementation of policies and programmes of radioactive waste management. For the author, these key issues are fairness, power, and well being, and although there is manifestly a new approach to radioactive waste management, most countries are only at the beginning of the process of implementation. The politics and practicalities of introducing innovative approaches designed to transform perceptions and practices poses some difficult problems which can be identified by asking the questions: Where? How? When? and Who?

  5. The nuclear research and technology development in the GDR from 1945 to 1965. Framework conditions, policy of the State party and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The study follows the development of the nuclear research and nuclear technology in the GDR between 1945 and 1965. The GDR as an industrial country was highly dependent on brown coal, which was the only available primal energy source in the former GDR. Therefore the civil use of nuclear power called the attention of the executive and party leadership. This consideration was supported by the fact of large uranium deposits on the territory of former East Germany. After the foundation of the GDR, a first attempt to establish an independent nuclear power industry had failed. From 1955 on, the efforts in this direction have been stepped up. Despite the enormous effort of material and human resources the development of an independent East German nuclear industry never got off the ground. In 1965 it was decided to continue the buildup of an East German nuclear industry on base of the nuclear technology of the former Soviet Union. This decision marked a turning point in the East German energy policy and the end to ambitious plans of an independent nuclear industry. The research shows the frame, the preconditions and objectives of the development of the East German nuclear industry on the base of relevant documents from the government of the former GDR, the political machine of the Communist Party (SED) and the Academy of Science Berlin. The research is implementing the context of international nuclear research and technical progress against the background of the Cold War and the international nuclear euphoria as well as within the range of global politics. The discussion focusses on two points. Along with high expectations to an independent energy production and an exporting nuclear industry, the Communist party aimed for clear political results. The author will show the connection between plans of the executive and party leadership of the SED for an ambitious nuclear energy development and the international acceptance of the East German State in the German-German rivalry.

  6. Towards guideline implementation for integrated local health policies : Evaluation of an experimental implementation strategy in regional health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuunders, T.J.M.; Cloin, J.C.M.; van Bon, M.J.H.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance implementation of a Guideline for integrated local health policy, a draft implementation strategy (DIS) was developed. It was hypothesized that the DIS would be feasible and effective to enhance the use of a Guideline for integrated local health policy. To examine its feasibility and

  7. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  8. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  9. NIGERIA AND THE ENIGMA OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Osita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    This calls for a change of attitude on the part of policy implementers and the target .... implementation by policy decision makers while it is often taken that once a policy is ... only to attract public acclaim and attention with less regard to their.

  10. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance.......; and specifics including organized dentistry's efforts to create global policy to restrict environmental contamination by mercury. Dentistry must participate in interprofessional collaborations and build on such experiences to be optimally placed for ongoing interprofessional policy development. Current areas...

  11. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  12. Interorganizational Policy Studies: Lessons Drawn from Implementation Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1993-01-01

    Contingency approaches to organizing suggest that policy objectives are more likely to be achieved if the structures employed for implementation mesh with the policy objectives being sought. Interorganizational arrangements are used increasingly in carrying out public programs, and contingency logic

  13. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  14. E-government Policy and its Implementation in the Czech Republic: Selected Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špaček David

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the specifics and challenges of e-government policy, and then discusses the apparent shortcomings of policy implementation and challenges for further development in the Czech Republic. It draws attention to problems in national e-government policy and in practical policy implementation (instability of governance, low quality of evaluation, low involvement of stakeholders in project design, and public procurement issues.

  15. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  16. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  17. Policy alienation of public professionals: The development of a scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractToday, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programs they implement. That is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We develop a quantitative scale to measure

  18. Implementing European climate adaptation policy. How local policymakers react to European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available EU policy and projects have an increasing influence on policymaking for climate adaptation. This is especially evident in the development of new climate adaptation policies in transnational city networks. Until now, climate adaptation literature has paid little attention to the influence that these EU networks have on the adaptive capacity in cities. This paper uses two Dutch cities as an empirical base to evaluate the influence of two EU climate adaptation projects on both the experience of local public officials and the adaptive capacity in the respective cities. The main conclusion is that EU climate adaptation projects do not automatically lead to an increased adaptive capacity in the cities involved. This is due to the political opportunistic use of EU funding, which hampers the implementation of climate adaptation policies. Furthermore, these EU projects draw attention away from local network building focused on the development and implementation of climate adaptation policies. These factors have a negative cumulative impact on the performance of these transnational policy networks at the adaptive capacity level in the cities involved. Therefore, in order to strengthen the adaptive capacity in today’s European cities, a context-specific, integrative approach in urban planning is needed at all spatial levels. Hence, policy entrepreneurs should aim to create linkage between the issues in the transnational city network and the concerns in local politics and local networks.

  19. Technical analysis, contestation and politics in policy agenda setting and implementation : the rise and fall of primary care maternal services from Ghana’s capitation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Why issues get on the policy agenda, move into policy formulation and implementation while others drop off in the process is an important field of enquiry to inform public social policy development and implementation. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy agenda

  20. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question here is: what combinations of background factors and implementation strategies lead to successful implementations in health care? Methods: Sources for this study are evaluations of 72 completed imple...

  1. From policy to practice: implementation of physical activity and food policies in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Public policies targeting the school setting are increasingly being used to address childhood obesity; however, their effectiveness depends on their implementation. This study explores the factors which impeded or facilitated the implementation of publicly mandated school-based physical activity and nutrition guidelines in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 school informants (17 principals - 33 teacher/school informants) to examine the factors associated with the implementation of the mandated Daily Physical Activity (DPA) and Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) guidelines. Coding used a constructivist grounded theory approach. The first five transcripts and every fifth transcript thereafter were coded by two independent coders with discrepancies reconciled by a third coder. Data was coded and analysed in the NVivo 9 software. Concept maps were developed and current theoretical perspectives were integrated in the later stages of analysis. Results The Diffusion of Innovations Model provided an organizing framework to present emergent themes. With the exception of triability (not relevant in the context of mandated guidelines/policies), the key attributes of the Diffusion of Innovations Model (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) provided a robust framework for understanding themes associated with implementation of mandated guidelines. Specifically, implementation of the DPA and FBSS guidelines was facilitated by perceptions that they: were relatively advantageous compared to status quo; were compatible with school mandates and teaching philosophies; had observable positive impacts and impeded when perceived as complex to understand and implement. In addition, a number of contextual factors including availability of resources facilitated implementation. Conclusions The enactment of mandated policies/guidelines for schools is considered an essential step in

  2. Improving Safe Sleep Modeling in the Hospital through Policy Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Rachel; Nilles, Ester K; Jeans, Ashley; Moreland, Jackie; Clarke, Chris; McDonald, Morgan F; Warren, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Sleep-related infant deaths are major contributors to Tennessee's high infant mortality rate. The purpose of this initiative was to evaluate the impact of policy-based efforts to improve modeling of safe sleep practices by health care providers in hospital settings across Tennessee. Methods Safe sleep policies were developed and implemented at 71 hospitals in Tennessee. Policies, at minimum, were required to address staff training on the American Academy of Pediatrics' safe sleep recommendations, correct modeling of infant safe sleep practices, and parent education. Hospital data on process measures related to training and results of crib audits were compiled for analysis. Results The overall observance of infants who were found with any risk factors for unsafe sleep decreased 45.6% (p ≤ 0.001) from the first crib audit to the last crib audit. Significant decreases were noted for specific risk factors, including infants found asleep not on their back, with a toy or object in the crib, and not sleeping in a crib. Significant improvements were observed at hospitals where printed materials or video were utilized for training staff compared to face-to-face training. Discussion Statewide implementation of the hospital policy intervention resulted in significant reductions in infants found in unsafe sleep situations. The most common risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths can be modeled in hospitals. This effort has the potential to reduce sleep-related infant deaths and ultimately infant mortality.

  3. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  4. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 16. Development and execution of pilot research projects at the CASINDO partner universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Each of the five Indonesian universities managed to develop pilot research projects and wrote research proposals to outline and strengthen their ideas. All of the universities also purchased equipment for the purpose of executing this research. UNCEN (Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia) and UNDIP (Diponegoro University in Semarang, Java, Indonesia) managed to finalize their research within the project period and wrote reports on their results. The other universities could not yet present results due to delay in one or several of the steps within the procedure.

  5. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 22. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2007. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hasibi, R.A. [Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2007.

  6. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 23. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2008. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hasibi, R.A. [Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2008.

  7. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 21. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2006. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2006.

  8. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  10. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question

  11. Arts Curriculum Implementation: "Adopt and Adapt" as Policy Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sian; Wright, Peter; Pascoe, Robin

    2018-01-01

    This article examines macro, meso, and micro understandings of policy enactment within Western Australian primary school arts education where a new national arts curriculum is being revised and implemented through a process colloquially known as "adopt and adapt." This article focuses on how a government-led implementation policy has…

  12. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  13. Ideology, Policy and Implementation: Comparative Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an exposition and interpretation of the language policies of two African universities, namely the University of Yaoundé 1 in Cameroon and the University of the Western ... Keywords: Language Ideologies, Language Attitudes, Language Policy, University of the Western Cape, University of Yaoundé 1 ...

  14. An Analysis of Campus Violence Threat Assessment Policy Implementation at Michigan Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Russell T., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation evaluated campus violence threat assessment policy and procedure implementation at the community college level of higher education. The importance of this topic was to provide a manageable and collaborative initiative for leadership at institutions of higher learning to identify, develop, implement, and evaluate a policy that can…

  15. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…

  16. Implementing a voluntary wage policy: Lessons from the Irish and Spanish wages policies before the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance given by the Post-Keynesian thought to wage and incomes policies, little attention has been paid to the institutional elements that would favour the unions’ acceptance of a voluntary moderation of wage claims. Recent wage policies have been implemented in European countries, like Ireland and Spain, which do not fulfil the requirements assumed by corporatist analysis for a successful implementation of wage policies. The success of wage policies in Ireland and Spain, in terms of economic performance and the length of current wage policies, offers a valuable insight on how wages policies can be implemented as a key piece of macroeconomic policy: It also helps our understanding of the institutional framework that favours the implementation of voluntary wages policies.

  17. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  18. Implementing WIPO's Development Agenda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... does not (or does no longer) reflect the real purpose of the Development Agenda. .... I appreciate their sacrifices during the time I spent writing, editing, and ... during the many days I was travelling for project-related meetings and events.

  19. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  20. Nurses' engagement in AIDS policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M S; Mill, J; Muller, C E; Kahwa, E; Etowa, J; Dawkins, P; Hepburn, C

    2013-03-01

    A multidisciplinary team of 20 researchers and research users from six countries - Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa - are collaborating on a 5-year (2007-12) program of research and capacity building project. This program of research situates nurses as leaders in building capacity and promotes collaborative action with other health professionals and decision-makers to improve health systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) nursing care. One of the projects within this program of research focused on the influence of workplace policies on nursing care for individuals and families living with HIV. Nurses are at the forefront of HIV prevention and AIDS care in these countries but have limited involvement in related policy decisions and development. In this paper, we present findings related to the barriers and facilitators for nurses' engagement in policymaking. A participatory action research design guided the program of research. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 51 nurses (unit managers, clinic and healthcare managers, and senior nurse officers) for interviews. Participants expressed the urgent need to develop policies related to AIDS care. The need to raise awareness and to 'protect' not only the workers but also the patients were critical reason to develop policies. Nurses in all of the participating countries commented on their lack of involvement in policy development. Lack of communication from the top down and lack of information sharing were mentioned as barriers to participation in policy development. Resources were often not available to implement the policy requirement. Strong support from the management team is necessary to facilitate nurses involvement in policy development. The findings of this study clearly express the need for nurses and all other stakeholders to mobilize nurses' involvement in policy development. Long-term and sustained actions are needed to address

  1. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  2. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    OpenAIRE

    O’Doherty Travis; Fitzgerald Brian G.; Moles Richard; O’Regan Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by...

  3. Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriti, Jacopo; Hassan, Mohamed G.; Leach, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, load growth, increases in intermittent generation, declining technology costs and increasing recognition of the importance of customer behaviour in energy markets have brought about a change in the focus of Demand Response (DR) in Europe. The long standing programmes involving large industries, through interruptible tariffs and time of day pricing, have been increasingly complemented by programmes aimed at commercial and residential customer groups. Developments in DR vary substantially across Europe reflecting national conditions and triggered by different sets of policies, programmes and implementation schemes. This paper examines experiences within European countries as well as at European Union (EU) level, with the aim of understanding which factors have facilitated or impeded advances in DR. It describes initiatives, studies and policies of various European countries, with in-depth case studies of the UK, Italy and Spain. It is concluded that while business programmes, technical and economic potentials vary across Europe, there are common reasons as to why coordinated DR policies have been slow to emerge. This is because of the limited knowledge on DR energy saving capacities; high cost estimates for DR technologies and infrastructures; and policies focused on creating the conditions for liberalising the EU energy markets. (author)

  4. Implementation of Ecological Policies in Danube Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Belacurencu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Public authorities and the local community have become lately increasingly aware of the complex relationship between the environment and the economic activity and of the need for integrating environmental requirements into economic activities. Therefore, a strategy that aims at a sustained development which takes into account the environmental aspects is imperative. Environmental policies represent a set of measures and tools with the objective of controlling and limiting the process of deterioration of environment quality. The design of environmental policies for the Danube Delta is not an easy task, due primarily to the major changes that affect the deltaic ecosystem, the patterns of behavior and consumption, poverty and isolation of the local communities, etc. The environmental policies in the Danube Delta have no longer an auxiliary role, rather reactive, but instead they are meant to set objectives at the economic, legal, educational and social levels and to guide the strategy for their achievement. In this paper I have outlined both the objectives of the environmental policies and the types of measures (general, direct and indirect for their implementation in the area of the Danube Delta.

  5. How to manage barriers to formation and implementation of policy packages in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerman, Jonas; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore success factors and barriers to the formation and implementation of single policy measures and policy packages in transport, and to identify strategies to manage such barriers. As a first step, we developed a typology of barriers and success factors...... for policy formation and implementation. Secondly, we carried out an empirical analysis of barriers and success factors in four cases of policy packaging: Urban Congestion Charging; National Heavy Vehicle Fees; Aviation in the European Emissions Trading System and The EU’s First Railway Package. The third...... and final task was to identify more general strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation. A main conclusion in this report is that a conscious application of these strategies may contribute significantly to successful formation and implementation of even controversial policies...

  6. FLEXIBLE AND IMPROVED IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela SLUSARCIUC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Neighbourhood Policy is at crossroads meaning that the actual frame of geopolitical movements imposes a new reshaping mainly on the Eastern side caused by the Ukraine issue. The implementation of the ENP through the European Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument, financial umbrella for the Joint Operational Programmes (JOPs, is already a challenging exercise for the Member States working together with the Partner Countries in order to develop an area of prosperity and good neighbourliness. This paper proposes a pack of features and recommendations arisen from the experiences gained by the implementation bodies of the JOPs along the European Union Eastern border, beneficiaries and other experts in cross-border cooperation. The main issues approached aim the improvement of the future cross-border programmes in terms of flexibility, transparency and efficiency: stakeholders consultation all along the programme cycle, a new mix of funding sources, gradual involvement of new types of beneficiaries and programme evaluation.

  7. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran: balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. The QA policy cycle forms a tight monitoring system to assure hospital quality by combining mandatory and voluntary methods in Iran. The licensing, annual evaluation and grading, and regulatory inspections statutorily implemented by the government as a national package to assure and improve hospital care quality, while implementing quality management systems (QMS) was voluntary for hospitals. The government's strong QA policy legislation role and support has been an important factor for successful QA implementation in Iran, though it may affected QA assessment independency and validity. Increased hospital evaluation independency and repositioning, updating standards, professional involvement and effectiveness studies could increase QA policy impact and maturity. The study highlights the current QA policy implementation cycle in Iranian hospitals. It provides a basis for further quality strategy development in Iranian hospitals and elsewhere. It also raises attention about finding the optimal balance between different QA policies, which is topical for many countries. This paper describes experiences when implementing a unique approach, combining mandatory and voluntary QA policies simultaneously in a developing country, which has invested considerably over time to improve hospital quality. The experiences with a mixed obligatory/voluntary approach and comprehensive policies in Iran may contain lessons for policy makers in developing and developed countries.

  8. Africa Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marnia Lazreg, City University of New York, USA. Takyiwaa Manuh, IAS, University of Ghana. Jomo Kwame Sunderan, Assistant Secretary General, UNO, NY. Nouria Ramaoun, CRASC, Oran, Algérie. Lloyd Sachikonye, Institute of Development Studies, Zimbabwe. Fatou Sow, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.

  9. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  10. Evaluation of complete streets policy implementation by metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the last ten years, communities around the country have begun to implement comprehensive reforms : designed to ensure that roadway users of all ages and abilities can safely utilize the transportation system. : This complete streets policy frame...

  11. Policy Implementation Decentralization Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardin M. Simanjuntak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization in Indonesia is that reforms not completed and until the current implementation is not maximized or have not been successful. The essence of decentralization is internalising cost and benefit' for the people and how the government closer to the people. That's the most important essence of essence 'decentralization’. However, the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia is still far from the expectations. It is shown that only benefits of decentralization elite and local authorities, decentralization is a neo-liberal octopus, decentralization of public services are lacking in character, decentralization without institutional efficiency, decentralization fosters corruption in the area, and quasi-fiscal decentralization.

  12. Adopting and Implementing Globalised Policies of Intercultural Education: The Example of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation has heavily influenced the terrain of intercultural education policy development and implementation in multiple countries around the world. To this end, in this article, we seek to introduce a broader focus of analysis encompassing not only the development of globalised policies of intercultural education, but also the adoption,…

  13. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  14. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  15. Scandinavian Development policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Thorsten Borring

    2017-01-01

    peace operations have been reduced to a minimum, the Nordics continue to provide considerable support for UN development organisations and programmes, and they also continue to support UN peace operations in other ways. But the Nordic-UN relationship has become more instrumental. Support for the UN......This analysis explains the evolution of the Nordic-UN relationship as the result of continuous interaction between international and national factors and argues that the level and nature of Nordic UN support has ebbed and flowed depending on how their interests, ideals and national identities...... interacted. Nordic support for the UN was low in the early years because the UN was viewed with scepticism and seen as a potential source of entrapment in the Cold War. Peacekeeping contributions were made with reluctance and the Nordic aid contributions were ranked at the bottom in the annual statistics...

  16. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... charge for Federal agencies to implement the National Ocean Policy, the National Ocean Council developed... dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and national security. Next...

  17. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  18. Three Decades of Implementation Research in Higher Education: Limitations and Prospects of Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article adopts a comparative approach to review three periods of theory development in research into higher education policy implementation. Given the conceptual affinity between Cerych and Sabatier's 1986 seminal study into higher education policy implementation and public policy implementation theory, the field of public policy is chosen for…

  19. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW - Madison: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. (The policy in its entirety can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/grad-students/policies-procedures/medical-and-family-leave-policy.) This is the first of two presentations describing our policy implementation using a "bottom-up" approach, beginning with the graduate students. I will present the perspective of the graduate students who led the effort and will discuss the steps we took to put our policy in place, from the conception of the plan to the full implementation. These steps included identifying faculty allies, becoming knowledgeable about university policies and resources, involving department staff, and anticipating procedural and bureaucratic hurdles in order to come up with creative solutions in advance. Although each individual institution and department's path to implementing a similar plan will be unique, we hope the methods used to implement our policy at UW - Madison may serve as an example.

  20. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  1. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  2. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 13. Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies in the national curriculum SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report focuses on the achievements for settling a national curriculum for Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) within the framework of national programme SPECTRUM, which includes all curricula of the medium technical schools in Indonesia.

  3. Realistic nurse-led policy implementation, optimization and evaluation: novel methodological exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Lewis, Mary; Bennett, Virginia; Widdas, David; Brombley, Karen

    2014-01-01

    To report the first large-scale realistic nurse-led implementation, optimization and evaluation of a complex children's continuing-care policy. Health policies are increasingly complex, involve multiple Government departments and frequently fail to translate into better patient outcomes. Realist methods have not yet been adapted for policy implementation. Research methodology - Evaluation using theory-based realist methods for policy implementation. An expert group developed the policy and supporting tools. Implementation and evaluation design integrated diffusion of innovation theory with multiple case study and adapted realist principles. Practitioners in 12 English sites worked with Consultant Nurse implementers to manipulate the programme theory and logic of new decision-support tools and care pathway to optimize local implementation. Methods included key-stakeholder interviews, developing practical diffusion of innovation processes using key-opinion leaders and active facilitation strategies and a mini-community of practice. New and existing processes and outcomes were compared for 137 children during 2007-2008. Realist principles were successfully adapted to a shorter policy implementation and evaluation time frame. Important new implementation success factors included facilitated implementation that enabled 'real-time' manipulation of programme logic and local context to best-fit evolving theories of what worked; using local experiential opinion to change supporting tools to more realistically align with local context and what worked; and having sufficient existing local infrastructure to support implementation. Ten mechanisms explained implementation success and differences in outcomes between new and existing processes. Realistic policy implementation methods have advantages over top-down approaches, especially where clinical expertise is low and unlikely to diffuse innovations 'naturally' without facilitated implementation and local optimization. © 2013

  4. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  5. Joint implementation: methodology and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, Klaus; Meyer, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of the present paper is on joint implementation (JI) projects between countries in Western and Eastern Europe and especially on the problems of constructing credible references (baselines). A number of the present EU countries are anticipated to have severe problems in meeting their greenhouse gas reduction commitments and they have already announced that they shall take advantage of JI in this connection. As stated in the Kyoto Protocol, JI emission reductions must be real and measurable. However, in most cases the reductions obtained by a JI project do not occur at the project site but elsewhere in the energy system. Therefore, when a number of JI projects are implemented concurrently and other changes in the energy system take place over time, there is no way to measure the reductions obtained by individual projects. Because the emission reduction obtained is a property of the entire energy system, it cannot be estimated a priori on the basis of a project baseline alone. A baseline must refer to the national energy system of which the project is a part. It is argued in this paper that baselines should be derived from national energy systems databases and models, which serve to ensure that JI projects effectively contribute to the fulfillment of the Kyoto Protocol objectives. In addition, they should provide governments with comprehensive energy information systems needed to address long-term climate mitigation and energy demand and supply issues in a rational, least-cost manner. Compared to other climate mitigation costs and the costs of failure to meet the Kyoto commitments the costs involved in the preparation of the databases needed and the implementation of systems analysis and documentation programs will be small. If these costs are carried by national governments, the investors in JI projects will benefit from lower transaction costs

  6. National ownership in the implementation of global climate policy in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the history, from a developing country perspective, of how external interventions to implement global policies on the Climate Convention and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been integrated into national development policy frameworks in the period 1990-2005. The main...... question asked is to what extent external interventions have formed part of a country-driven approach in Uganda. The conflicting national and global priorities concerning the need for adaptation to the impacts of climate change versus the need for global mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are explored...... first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited...

  7. Knowledge integration in One Health policy formulation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Esposito, Roberto; Canali, Massimo; Aragrande, Maurizio; Häsler, Barbara; Rüegg, Simon R

    2018-03-01

    The One Health concept covers the interrelationship between human, animal and environmental health and requires multistakeholder collaboration across many cultural, disciplinary, institutional and sectoral boundaries. Yet, the implementation of the One Health approach appears hampered by shortcomings in the global framework for health governance. Knowledge integration approaches, at all stages of policy development, could help to address these shortcomings. The identification of key objectives, the resolving of trade-offs and the creation of a common vision and a common direction can be supported by multicriteria analyses. Evidence-based decision-making and transformation of observations into narratives detailing how situations emerge and might unfold in the future can be achieved by systems thinking. Finally, transdisciplinary approaches can be used both to improve the effectiveness of existing systems and to develop novel networks for collective action. To strengthen One Health governance, we propose that knowledge integration becomes a key feature of all stages in the development of related policies. We suggest several ways in which such integration could be promoted.

  8. [The development of population policies in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M

    1991-12-01

    Influencing demographic dynamics in order to improve the welfare of the population is the fundamental objective of a population policy. The efficacy of a population policy cannot be satisfactorily evaluated without referring to the objectives of the overall development strategy, of which the population policy is only one component. At the time of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, the positions of the developed and developing countries were polarized. The developing countries were accused of impeding their own socioeconomic development by their high fertility rates and rapid population growth, while the industrialized world was blamed for environmental degradation and exhaustion of nonrenewable resources due to overconsumption by households and industry. Despite the near total disagreement about what constituted the problem, a "World Population Plan of Action" was adopted almost unanimously, indicating agreement at least on the existence of a problem even if ther was no consensus on its content. The Plan affirmed that each nation has a sovereign right to formulate and implement its own population policies, that international cooperation is needed in population matters, and that population policies are components of social and economic development policies and not substitutes for them. Interest in African population dates back to the beginning of the colonial era, when the imperial powers wished to control population movements, estimate the taxable population, and control depopulation due to pathological infertility. Colonial population legislation was somewhat more liberal in English-speaking countries than in those under the sway of France because of the influence of Malthusianism in Great Britain and the movement for birth control that developed there. By the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico, the governments of African countries had adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning the African Population and Autonomous Development

  9. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related ...

  10. Highlights of policies, programmes and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Energy consumption in India is growing at a steady rate of 6% per annum from 649 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 1973 to 2019 MTOE in 1993. At this rate, the per capita consumption of energy is projected to increase by 145% by the year 2010 from 226 kg to 554 kg of oil equivalent. Oil consumption is likely to grow by 5.25% per year to 149 MMT by the year 2010 from 62.4 MMTs in 1993-94, assuming a modest GDP growth rate of 5%. The share of oil and gas in primary energy consumption in India would be in the region of 38 to 40 per cent compared with the world average of 60 percent to 61 percent. India's demand for petroleum products is growing at a rapid rate, having virtually doubled from 30 million tonnes a year in 1980-81 to almost 60 million tonnes in 1992-93. Current estimates indicate that it would reach a level of about 80 million tonnes by 1996-97 and increase further to about 100 million tonnes by the year 2001-02. With a view to meeting this growing demand, the New Hydrocarbon Policy aims at a significant increase in investment in oil exploration and production

  11. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 15. Research agendas of the Indonesian partner universities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report provides an overview of the status of development of research agendas at the five partner universities. The research agendas consists of a research proposals, purchasing and installation of research equipment, cooperation with industries and conducting the research proposals. Start of the development of the agendas is determining the fields of interest and formulating research projects. Research development is an ongoing process and therefore by the end of 2011 part 2 of this report will be prepared which will present the new developments in the research agendas over the coming year.

  12. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2009-01-01

    With the point of departure in the otherwise extensive knowledge on reform and routine within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU), this paper argues that: (1) in order to fully appreciate the insights provided we need to look into the complementary nature of ideational...... of policy development that may be used for other areas of study, which both draws on the insights into bargaining processes as offered by rational choice institutional theory and the insight into arguing processes as offered by constructivist approaches....

  13. Explaining the non-implementation of health-improving policies related to solid fuels use in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Clancy, Joy S.; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2014-01-01

    In 1998, the South African government developed an energy policy that focused on a pro-poor agenda. Its objectives included addressing the health impacts of solid fuel use in households. Fourteen years later, and with household electrification at over 80%, millions still use solid fuels and yet ambitious policy objectives to address this situation are not being met. Using three theoretical frameworks; institutional capacity, policy inheritance and the symbolic use of policy, this paper analyses the reasons why household energy policy objectives related to solid fuels and health, as stated in the 1998 South African energy policy, have not been implemented. The results of the analysis show that the symbolic use of policy, including meanings of objects used for meeting policy objectives is the most critical explanation. The paper illustrates that political and historical contexts are critical to understanding policy outcomes in developing and transition countries which often experience tensions between implementing what may seem as objective policies, and that matches their political and historical experiences and aspirations. We recommend that policy analysts in the energy sector complement currently common methods to include political contexts of policy development and implementation in order to better understand why policy makers chose to implement certain policies over others. - Highlights: • Policy non-implementation in developing countries focuses on lack of resources. • We add policy inheritance and policy symbolism to assess non-implementation. • South Africa's racial politics affect how policies are perceived and implemented. • Politically, firewood and electricity symbolise repression and emancipation. • Electricity and firewood's symbolic meanings affect policy makers' focus on these

  14. Effects of Poland’s Pro‑Export Policy Implementation in the Context of the Plan for Responsible Development – a Preliminary Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary assessment of Poland’s export expansion policy in relation to the export of commodities, which is a result of the Government’s Plan for Responsible Development, in the context of existing barriers and the external and internal conditions reported by small and medium‑sized enterprises sector (SMEs. In the latest ranking of its competitive position in the global market for the period 2016-2017, Poland ranked 36th in the world. It should also be stressed that in this most recent world ranking Poland held the 16th position among EU Member States. A positive phenomenon in relation to Poland’s foreign trade in 2016, as compared to previous years, was that the value of export exceeded import, which allowed for a turnover surplus of nearly EUR 4.8 billion, i.e. two times higher than in 2015. In 2016 (and also in the first half of 2017 there was a favorable diversification of Polish export, demonstrating an increase in export to non‑EU markets of economically developed countries. After two years of relatively slow growth, export to this group of countries in 2016 increased by 5.6% (to EUR 12 billion, i.e. nearly 2.5 times faster than the total export. Despite the tariff‑free and quota‑free access to the single European market, there are still limits and barriers to the free movement of goods, and especially services. There are also many internal barriers in small and medium‑sized enterprises’ export to foreign markets, which limit their export expansion. Despite the gradual increase in export observed in recent years, the internationalization of non‑Polish enterprises is still much lower than in Western European countries. As a result, the share of Polish SMEs in the EU market is one third smaller than the EU average.

  15. Safety management - policy, analysis and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear industry is moving towards a period of ever increasing emphasis on business performance and profitability. Safety has, of course, always been a major concern of management in the nuclear industry and elsewhere. The civil aviation industry , for example, has had a similar concern for safety. Other industry sectors are also developing safety management as a response to events within and outside their sectors. In this paper the way that the risk management process as a whole is being addressed is looked at. Can we use risk management, initially a safety-orientated tool, to improve business performance? (author)

  16. The role of EU institutions in implementing its monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia GEORGIEVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current article is to illustrate in detail the powers of the EU institutions to implement its monetary policy. The methods used to explore the topic and to draw the conclusions and interpret the findings are based on deduction and induction. On the grounds of the information presented in the article the following conclusions have been drawn: the relations between the EU institutions responsible for implementing its monetary policy (the European Central Bank, the European Parliament, the Council, the European Commission and others are entirely based on fundamental principles laid down for all its institutions; the commitments of the institutions implementing the EU monetary policy are strictly stipulated in its primary legislation and are mostly related to the establishment of the EU Economic and Monetary Union, the framing, planning and implementing of the common monetary policy, the management of the Monetary Union. In the conditions of world financial and economic crisis the EU has attempted to respond adequately to its monetary policy problems, commensurate with the scope and matching the specific nature of this crisis.

  17. Analysis of selected policies towards universal health coverage in Uganda: the policy implementation barometer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Twalo, Thembinkosi; Mwendera, Chikondi; Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Mukuru, Moses; Kasasa, Simon; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at

  18. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  19. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 11. Report on the in-house trainings by TEDC. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-02-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the in-house trainings given by TEDC (Technical Education Development Centre) to 7 SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) that are currently involved in CASINDO regarding the background of, the approach to and the steps taken for the development of operational curricula at SMK level. The report also explains the results of the in-house trainings.

  20. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 10. Report on the in-house trainings by TEDC. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the in-house trainings given by TEDC (Technical Education Development Centre) to 4 SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) that are currently involved in CASINDO regarding the background of, the approach to and the steps taken for the development of operational curricula at SMK level. The report also explains the results of the in-house trainings.

  1. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  2. Implementation of a financial guarantee policy at the CNSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) to replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Prior to the coming in force of the NSCA, financial guarantees associated with licensed activities were not prescribed in the Atomic Energy Control Act or its regulations. Under the NSCA, the Commission Tribunal 'the Commission' was given authority to impose conditions in licences requiring financial guarantees from licensees. Other provisions of the NSCA provided information on the application of financial guarantees and for refunds when decommissioning obligations had been met. Since 2000, the application of financial guarantees has been primarily focussed on licences issued pursuant to the Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations and the Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations. This was to assure that the requirements for financial guarantees were initially directed at the high risk, complex facilities licensed by the CNSC. However, all licensees have not yet been required to provide a financial guarantee for all licensed facilities, activities or licence types. Additionally, CNSC expectations in relation to when financial guarantees, associated decommissioning plans and cost estimates need to be reviewed, updated and submitted, and what they should entail have been evolving, indicating a need for a clear CNSC policy on the subject. Consequently, the CNSC is proceeding with the development of a financial guarantee policy and implementation plan to assure that generators of nuclear waste will have the financial resources available to decommission nuclear facilities, operations and devices and that this activity will not fall to government as a future liability. This program will require approval by the Commission, planned for 2012. This paper will further describe this policy and its possible outcomes. (author)

  3. Strategies for implementing a mitigation policy for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Hammond, R.P.; Catton, I.; Dooley, J.L.; Castle, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Possible strategies are considered for implementing a regulatory policy requiring that power reactor containment enclosures be modified to resist severe core-melt accidents without release of radioactive materials. Such modification was found to be feasible, reliable and cost effective in the work reported in previous studies in this NRC series. Incentives, goals, costs and sources of funding are discussed, and a series of possible implementation steps are presented. 11 refs

  4. Cultural policy for national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsekela, A J

    1977-02-01

    Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)

  5. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 25. Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report is expected to become a reference for government and private sectors in the development of renewable energy in West Nusa Tenggara Province, not only the development of renewable energy for electricity generation, but also for other needs such as fuel for industry and cooking fuel for households. The Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province is a follow-up of the enactment of Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006 concerning National Energy Policy, which the Central Government has set a target utilization of renewable energy by 2025 by 17%. Furthermore, this document contains data and information regarding current utilization of renewable energy, renewable energy potential and development opportunities, target of renewable energy development and action plans necessary to achieve the targets.

  6. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 27. Biogas construction plan in Jeruk Manis Village in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, A. [University of Mataram, Mataram (Indonesia)

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. The proposed small-scale renewable energy project to be developed under the Casindo Technical Working Group IV in West Nusa Tenggara is focused on household biogas. The project will be implemented in Jeruk Manis, which has been selected as the target location for the implementation of the renewable energy project in the program Casindo. Administratively, the village of 'Jeruk Manis' is located in the district Sikur, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province. The number of households eligible as the target of the program in Jeruk Manis is 63. To implement the project, the Casindo team in WNT has partnered with Hivos and its BIRU program (Biogas Rumah program or Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme). The biogas digester construction will be conducted by BIRU Lombok, in collaboration with a construction partner organization called Yayasan Mandiri Membangun Masyarakat Sejahtera (YM3S) and managed by the Casindo project team from the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Mataram. If the project is implemented, it will bring many benefits for poor people in the target location, which are likely to be sustained for a long time. While the benefits of developing biogas in the selected low-income location are obvious and abundant, there are also many challenges. The main problem for the proposed project is finding other interested funders to support the building of household biogas, as the financial capacity of the target households is very small.

  7. Implementing nationally determined contributions: building energy policies in India’s mitigation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Tan, Qing; Gupta, Ashu; Patel, Pralit

    2018-03-01

    The Nationally Determined Contributions are allowing countries to examine options for reducing emissions through a range of domestic policies. India, like many developing countries, has committed to reducing emissions through specific policies, including building energy codes. Here we assess the potential of these sectoral policies to help in achieving mitigation targets. Collectively, it is critically important to see the potential impact of such policies across developing countries in meeting national and global emission goals. Buildings accounted for around one third of global final energy use in 2010, and building energy consumption is expected to increase as income grows in developing countries. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study finds that implementing a range of energy efficiency policies robustly can reduce total Indian building energy use by 22% and lower total Indian carbon dioxide emissions by 9% in 2050 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Among various policies, energy codes for new buildings can result in the most significant savings. For all building energy policies, well-coordinated, consistent implementation is critical, which requires coordination across different departments and agencies, improving capacity of stakeholders, and developing appropriate institutions to facilitate policy implementation.

  8. Progress with Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies in the G8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    At the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, leaders reaffirmed the critical role improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic objectives. They went even farther than in previous Summits and committed to maximising implementation of the 25 IEA energy efficiency recommendations prepared for the G8. The imperative to enhance energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. To support governments with their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of a broad range of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 Summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations from these Summits covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and power utilities. If governments want to significantly improve energy efficiency, the IEA considers that no single policy implemented in isolation will be effective at achieving this aim. The IEA Secretariat recommends that governments implement a full set of appropriate measures. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save around 8.2 GtCO2/yr by 2030 -- equivalent to twice the EU's yearly emissions. This report evaluates the progress of the G8 countries in implementing energy efficiency policy, including the 25 G8/IEA recommendations. Information in this report is current up to 31 March 2009.

  9. Implementing section 1332, Energy Policy Act of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, T.

    1993-01-01

    Sections 1332 Clean Coal Technology, and 1608 Environmental Technology of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) describe two technology Transfer Programs for creating jobs and reducing the trade deficit for the US, through providing financial assistance for projects to improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental emissions including open-quotes Greenhouse Gases.close quotes These projects are to be located in countries which are supported by the Agency for International Development (AID) or in countries with an economy in transition from a non-market to a market economy. The legislation requires a very similar approach for the two programs. Working with AID the DOE is to: (1) complete in 150 days an agreement with the appropriate US agencies for conducting the program in the host countries; (2) issue in 240 days a list of potential projects; (3) within one year issue a solicitation and (4) within 120 days after receipt of proposals make selection. In addition, the programs are to develop a procedure for providing financial assistance to projects applying for solicitations in other countries. After an initial consultation with US Treasury, Export-Import Bank, Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC), and AID concerning Organization for Economic Cooperative Development rules for export credits, and the most appropriate means of financing projects under the Transfer Programs, it became apparent that, in addition to providing financing for projects through DOE programs, a more efficient, economical and prudent approach to implementing a transfer program would involve the financing of projects through organizations already experienced in the development of overseas investments. The program approach for implementation of these technology transfer programs is discussed

  10. Climatic change and local policy, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Policy options and implementation strategies to reduce emission of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schol, E.; Van den Bosch, A.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Roemer, J.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Dinkelman, D.H.; Kok, I.C.; De Paauw, K.F.B.

    1998-04-01

    Insight is given into the local policy options with respect to climate change, in this case within the sphere of influence of Amsterdam local authorities. A list of new policy options for CO2-reduction has been made with the assistance of local policy makers and representatives of interest groups. These policy options have been divided into three qualitative scenarios: Institutional Cultural Change, Technological Innovation and Least Regrets. The environmental, economic and other effects have been described for each policy option. The three most interesting policy options have been selected by local policy makers and representatives of interest groups during a workshop. Implementation strategies have been developed for the options selected. These strategies have been discussed during a second workshop. The reduction target, stabilization of CO2-emissions in 2015 compared to 1993, can be realized by a combination of all the new policy options. The three selected policy options count for 40% of this total CO2-emission reduction. Finally, a general outline on the methodology to construct local policies for climate protection has been described. This methodology can also be applied to other cities and municipal administrators, e.g. participants of Cities for Climate Protection, an initiative of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, or the Netherlands Climate Association. 136 refs

  11. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 8. Report on general competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report presents an overview of the training activities on general renewable energy technologies competencies conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre), for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in the CASINDO project. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency.

  12. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  13. Financing and funding health care: Optimal policy and political implementability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuscheler, Robert; Roeder, Kerstin

    2015-07-01

    Health care financing and funding are usually analyzed in isolation. This paper combines the corresponding strands of the literature and thereby advances our understanding of the important interaction between them. We investigate the impact of three modes of health care financing, namely, optimal income taxation, proportional income taxation, and insurance premiums, on optimal provider payment and on the political implementability of optimal policies under majority voting. Considering a standard multi-task agency framework we show that optimal health care policies will generally differ across financing regimes when the health authority has redistributive concerns. We show that health care financing also has a bearing on the political implementability of optimal health care policies. Our results demonstrate that an isolated analysis of (optimal) provider payment rests on very strong assumptions regarding both the financing of health care and the redistributive preferences of the health authority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  15. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    by creatingan increasingly demanding set of regulations with which each member state must comply. National AEPimplementation may, however, maintain original characteristics and fail to adopt or transform as EUpolicy implementation proceeds or when EU policies develop. This creates a potential gap between...

  16. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 12. Report on the approach to roll-out to other SMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the different strategic options for rolling-out the integration of the renewable energy technologies to other SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) than those that are currently involved in CASINDO. The report also contains the justification for one strategic option and of the first actions taken to make this strategy work.

  17. Making a Historical Survey of a State's Nuclear Ambitions. Impact of Historical Developments of a State's National Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy on Additional Protocol Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    In 1998, SKI initiated a project to conduct a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research for the period 1945-1972. IAEA became interested and accepted it in 2000 as a support program task to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. The main purpose of the Additional Protocol is to make the IAEA control system more efficient with regard to nuclear material, facilities and research. Other countries have now shown interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of their past nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research. The most important aim is to produce basic information for IAEA on the nuclear activities of the past and to refine and strengthen the instruments of the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. The first objective of this report is to present a short summary of the Swedish historical survey, as well as similar projects in other countries dealing with nuclear-related and nuclear weapons research reviews. These tasks are dealt with in chapter 2. Secondly, the objective is to present a general model of how a national base survey can be designed. The model is based on the Swedish experiences and it has been designed to also serve as a guideline for other countries to strengthen their safeguards systems within the framework of the Additional Protocol. Since other States declared that they would make similar historical surveys, the SKI decided to work out a model that could be used by other countries intending to conduct such studies. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are participating in a co-operation project to carry out such nationally base surveys under the auspices of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Finland is also conducting such a survey, but it is done independently, albeit in close exchange of views between SKI and its Finnish counterpart, STUK. This is described in chapter 3. The third objective is to develop a pedagogic methodology for teaching

  18. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  19. Barriers to implementing a health policy curriculum in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.

  20. Strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation of road pricing packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Isaksson, Karolina; Macmillen, James

    2014-01-01

    Fee scheme implemented in 2001, this paper identifies a selection of strategies which appear to have supported the policymakers' capacity to implement effective road pricing schemes. Together, these three examples offer a sound empirical basis from which to infer a set of strategies......In the transport policy domain, as in other highly-contested spheres of public policy, it is commonplace for certain policy measures to emerge as promising only to then remain unimplemented. Road pricing is one example of a theoretically well-developed transport policy measure that has proven...... for the formulation and implementation of politically-contentious road pricing packages-addressing issues of measure combination, flexibility, legitimacy, communication, timing and organisational dynamics. While acknowledging the primacy of broader external and contextual issues, the conclusion is that taking...

  1. Implementing ITI for urban development locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyfallia Katsavounidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Programming Period (2014-2020 the European Commission has introduced a new strategic instrument, the Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI, which shifts the decisions on allocation of funds to the local level and, most importantly, enables drawing of funds from several priority axes and from several European Structural and Investment Funds. Greece is one of EU member countries that has committed on using ITIs as a tool for urban development. In August 2016, in the Region of Central Macedonia, urban authorities with a population of over 10.000 inhabitants were invited by the Managing Authority of the Regional Operational Programme to submit a Strategy for Sustainable Urban Development (SUD, through the mandatory implementation of the ITI tool. The paper focuses on one of these municipalities, the city of Veria, where the ITI approach has been implemented for the design of an ITI of urban scale (ITI-SUD. The integrated approach prescribed by regional authorities forced Municipalities to adopt government approaches uncommon until now: to involve multiple stakeholders in the entire process, from strategy development to project selection and implementation. The paper describes the benefits and challenges of the new approach as applied in the local context, showing the vertical and horizontal connections of urban development strategies. Most importantly, in the context of ‘procedural learning’ happening in Europe in the field of territorial cohesion, it offers an insight on how European cohesion policy strategies and tools are tested at the local level.

  2. Guide to Considering Children's Health When Developing EPA Actions: Implementing Executive Order 13045 and EPA's Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations on integrating children's health considerations into EPA's Action Development Process (ADP). Also how to identify economically significant actions, disproportionate risk, and developing the Analytical Blueprint.

  3. From Tobacco to Obesity Prevention Policies: A Framework for Implementing Community-Driven Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lauren; Dumke, Kelly; Oliva, Ariana; Caesar, Emily; Phillips, Zoë; Lehman, Nathan; Aragon, Linda; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2018-04-01

    Efforts to reverse the obesity epidemic require policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies. Despite the availability of evidence-based and other promising PSE interventions, limited evidence exists on the "how-to" of transitioning them into practice. For the past 13 years, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has been building capacity among community residents and other stakeholders to create effective community coalitions and to implement well-designed policy strategy campaigns using an evidence-based approach to policy change, the policy adoption model (PAM). Implementing a phase-based approach to policy change, the PAM was initially used to support the passage of over 140 tobacco control and prevention policies in Los Angeles County. Following these successes, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health applied the PAM to obesity prevention, operationalizing the policy process by training community residents and other stakeholders on the use of the model. The PAM has shown to be helpful in promoting PSE change in tobacco control and obesity prevention, suggesting a local-level model potentially applicable to other fields of public health seeking sustainable, community-driven policy change.

  4. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  5. Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Valaitis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health systems in Canada have undergone significant policy renewal over the last decade in response to threats to the public’s health, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is limited research on how public health policies have been implemented or what has influenced their implementation. This paper explores policy implementation in two exemplar public health programs -chronic disease prevention and sexually-transmitted infection prevention - in Ontario, Canada. It examines public health service providers’, managers’ and senior managements’ perspectives on the process of implementation of the Ontario Public Health Standards 2008 and factors influencing implementation. Methods Public health staff from six health units representing rural, remote, large and small urban settings were included. We conducted 21 focus groups and 18 interviews between 2010 (manager and staff focus groups and 2011 (senior management interviews involving 133 participants. Research assistants coded transcripts and researchers reviewed these; the research team discussed and resolved discrepancies. To facilitate a breadth of perspectives, several team members helped interpret the findings. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used, reflected by the inclusion of academics as well as decision-makers on the team and as co-authors. Results Front line service providers often were unaware of the new policies but managers and senior management incorporated them in operational and program planning. Some participants were involved in policy development or provided feedback prior to their launch. Implementation was influenced by many factors that aligned with Greenhalgh and colleagues’ empirically-based Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations Framework. Factors and related components that were most clearly linked to the OPHS policy implementation were: attributes of the innovation itself; adoption by individuals

  6. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...... of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices...... is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms....

  7. Employers and the Implementation of Active Labor Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bredgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.

  8. Describing management attitudes to guide forest policy implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Ragnhild Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    management attitudes and practices: (1) the production-oriented owner, (2) the classic forest owner, (3) the environmental/recreational owner, and (4) the indifferent forest owner. Owners in Clusters 1 and 2 are mainly motivated by financial and wood production aspects, whereas owners in Cluster 3......Forest policy in Denmark aims to increase the environmental values of forests. For policy implementation it is essential to know how to motivate private owners. Based on a survey among private forest owners in Denmark, four types of owners have been identified, clustered according to their forest...... are to a greater extent motivated by environmental and recreational aspects. Cluster 4 is the least motivated cluster. For effective policy intervention, the clusters should be addressed by different means. Owners in Clusters 1 and 2 should be met on their agricultural-production logic, Cluster 3 on their interest...

  9. 77 FR 2514 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Ocean Council developed actions to achieve the Policy's nine priority objectives, and to address some of..., contribute trillions of dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and... departments, agencies, and offices developed the actions in the draft Implementation Plan with significant...

  10. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  11. Contribution of Rostechnadzor in Implementing the State Nuclear Safety Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The report considers major areas of Rostechnadzor activities on implementation of the state policy in the area of nuclear safety, including actions to be implemented. Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety in the use of atomic energy is one of the most important components of the national security of the Russian Federation. On March 1, 2012, the President of the Russian Federation approved the Basics of State Policy in the Area of Nuclear and Radiation Safety aimed at consistent reduction of risks associated with man-made impact on the public and the environment in using atomic energy, as well as at prevention of emergencies and accidents in nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities. Rostechnadzor is an authorized body for state safety regulation in the use of atomic energy, which implements functions of regulatory and legal control, licensing of various types of activity and federal state supervision of the atomic energy facilities. The activity in the area of regulatory and legal control is implemented in compliance with the Concept of Enhancement of Regulatory and Legal Control of Safety and Standardization in the Area of the Use of Atomic Energy and the Plan of Implementation of this Concept, which envisages the completion of reviewing the regulatory and legal documents by 2023. Corresponding to the Basics of State Policy in the Area of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Russian Federation for the Period of 2025, Rostechnadzor successfully implemented the actions of the Federal Target Programme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety up to 2015, creating all conditions for phased reduction of the amounts of nuclear legacy and ensuring radical increase in their level of nuclear and radiation safety. In 2016, Rostechnadzor embarked on implementation of the Federal Target Programme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety up to 2030, with creation of infrastructure facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management and definitive response to the challenges of nuclear

  12. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National environmental education policy is essential for guiding and coordinating environmental education activities within a country. The Zimbabwean Environmental Education Policy development process took place between 2000 and 2001.This paper looks at stages in the policy development process, the factors that ...

  13. Manpower development - planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, V.W.

    1978-01-01

    The demands of a nuclear technology programme on the manpower resources of a developing country are very onerous. Unlike other industries, as well as the planning and operating staff, nuclear technology requires an additional administrative infrastructure to regulate the various activities. To minimize the effect of manpower shortage, the planning and development of manpower resources need to be carried out on a national scale. To introduce a nuclear programme, a special preparatory phase is required. During this phase the special conditions appertaining to the country are first considered, as are the evaluation and then the promotional aspects of the programme. In a second phase, all the partners involved in the implementation are considered, with reference to their roles and interrelationships. Their various tasks and obligations are fully assessed. This is a wide-ranging study covering, in addition to the construction of a nuclear power plant, the industrial collaboration and licensing agreements, and the utility operational training schemes. Finally, the third phase considers the different and necessary educational requirements, and the existent and developed level of the manpower, with respect to the scope and content of the know-how transfer. When all the relevant aspects have been considered, the expansion of the universities and educational establishments must be carried out. This whole phase needs to be started as early as possible because it involves a period of some years. (author)

  14. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW-Madison: The Department Chair Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. Building on the graduate student perspective of Gosnell (2012), I will discuss the process of this successful development of a departmental family and medical leave policy for graduate students from the perspective of a faculty member and chair. In particular I will discuss implications of university policies, the importance of faculty and staff support, the role of private funds, and issues of effort certification.

  15. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  16. A Case for Rethinking Inclusive Education Policy Creation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Carrington, Suzanne; Ioelu, Ailini

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of the development and implementation of the 2014 inclusive educational policy in Samoa. While Samoan culture is traditionally founded on inclusive social practices, rather than reflecting these practices in their policy, Samoan policy developers have been under pressure to adopt or borrow policy from…

  17. Implementing a gender policy in ACORD: strategies, constraints, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipateras, A

    1997-02-01

    ACORD, a consortium of 11 nongovernmental organizations from Europe, Asia, and North America devoted to poverty alleviation in Africa, formally adopted a gender policy in 1990 aimed at reducing gender-based inequities in communities where ACORD works. A 1994-96 survey of field programs indicated that the greatest gains for women had been recorded in the areas of welfare, access to resources, conscientization (awareness of and will to alter gender inequalities), and, to a lesser extent, participation; minimal progress was noted in shifting the prevailing gender-based imbalance of power and control in public or private spheres. The research identified several programming and organizational strategies that have promoted positive outcomes for women: gender-awareness training for staff and community members, working with mixed groups, working with women-only groups, promotion of female leadership, gender-aware participatory planning and evaluation, spreading responsibility throughout the organization for implementing the gender policy, recruitment and promotion of women staff, networks for women staff, and direct field involvement in research. Also identified were internal and external factors that weakened policy implementation: a lack of clarity as to its aims, culture-based resistance, confusion regarding responsibilities and procedures, weak accountability mechanisms, lack of gender impact indicators, training inadequacies, underrepresentation of women staff, and inadequate resources. As a result of the review process, ACORD has given gender issues centrality in its current 5-year strategic plan.

  18. Public policy for children in Brazil – the process of implementation of a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Stumpf González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently happened the 25th anniversary of the approval of the Child and Adolescent Statute. Which goals are achieved? What changed? This work analyses the Brazilian case in implementation of a new paradigm of children rights and his impact in the definition of aconcrete agenda of public policies, doing an evaluation of the new model and the changes, with focus of the development of a agenda of policies in four subjects: creation of councils, attention for the young lawbreakers, exploitation of child labour and sexual violence against children. At the end are discussed motivation for partial success in implementation of the agenda and responsibilities of the institutional actors involved.

  19. Guest Commentary: Fat and other taxes, lessons for the implementation of preventive policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Cowburn, Gill

    2015-08-01

    Fat, sugar or sweetened beverage taxes are part of an overall public health nutrition approach to healthy eating. They are not approaches that on their own are likely to bring about change. Policy evidence from existing food tax implementation suggest that taxes need to be paralleled by subsidies and other interventions to encourage healthy eating. Such dual methods help not only contribute to nutrition outcomes but also ensure political support for food taxes. Politicians and policy makers are suspicious of taxes, using subsidies and revenue monies from taxes to support healthy eating is more likely to encourage both political and public support. Building support for policies is never just a matter of academic evidence. Public health advocates need to show more ambition by developing skills in implementing pricing policies to support healthy eating. Key opponents to taxes are the food industry who use a range of arguments to prevent taxation being implemented. Public health advocates are weak in tackling the issues of corporate power and providing evidence to maintain policy and political support. The public health movement needs to continue to develop the political will among politicians and the public for taxes on food. A new way of looking at policy formation is required and this includes addressing the power of corporate interests and the role of professionals in shaping or combating these influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovation policies and SMEs development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are the backbone of the European economy, states create policies to foster research. These mentioned policies changed in the time and it is possible to observe that the national policies of the European Union (EU member states are interconnected at an EU level. In the science field, the European Union is generally moving towards a multilevel governance. The central issue of this paper is to show the systematic importance of an effective government policies and institutional interaction in the field of R&D. The article will show that a well framed policy is essential and furthermore it fosters a better cooperation between the private and public sector.

  1. Improving the implementation of health workforce policies through governance: a review of case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Shaw, Daniel Mp; Zwanikken, Prisca

    2011-04-12

    Responsible governance is crucial to national development and a catalyst for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. To date, governance seems to have been a neglected issue in the field of human resources for health (HRH), which could be an important reason why HRH policy formulation and implementation is often poor. This article aims to describe how governance issues have influenced HRH policy development and to identify governance strategies that have been used, successfully or not, to improve HRH policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We performed a descriptive literature review of HRH case studies which describe or evaluate a governance-related intervention at country or district level in LMIC. In order to systematically address the term 'governance' a framework was developed and governance aspects were regrouped into four dimensions: 'performance', 'equity and equality', 'partnership and participation' and 'oversight'. In total 16 case studies were included in the review and most of the selected studies covered several governance dimensions. The dimension 'performance' covered several elements at the core of governance of HRH, decentralization being particularly prominent. Although improved equity and/or equality was, in a number of interventions, a goal, inclusiveness in policy development and fairness and transparency in policy implementation did often not seem adequate to guarantee the corresponding desirable health workforce scenario. Forms of partnership and participation described in the case studies are numerous and offer different lessons. Strikingly, in none of the articles was 'partnerships' a core focus. A common theme in the dimension of 'oversight' is local-level corruption, affecting, amongst other things, accountability and local-level trust in governance, and its cultural guises. Experiences with accountability mechanisms for HRH policy development and implementation were lacking. This review shows that the term

  2. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  3. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  4. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  5. The Private Tutoring Industry in Taiwan: Government Policies and Their Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that attending private tutoring has become a necessity to many primary and secondary students in East Asia. Educational policies and their effective implementation are crucial to guarantee the healthy development of the private tutoring industry and thus protect the rights of students and their families. Under the framework…

  6. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  7. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  8. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 9. Report on specific competency trainings (basic level) by TEDC for SMK teachers from the five CASINDO regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2011-03-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report describes the trainings conducted by TEDC Bandung (Technical Education Development Centre) on specific competencies for the teachers of the 11 SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) involved in CASINDO in the renewable energy technologies micro hydropower , solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass, biogas and energy efficiency. The report also contains a description of the Training of Trainers activities conducted by the CASINDO consortium for TEDC staff in the renewable energy technologies micro hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass , biogas and energy efficiency. Additionally, the report describes training activities that are closely linked to and highly relevant for CASINDO.

  9. Policy Options for Effective REDD+ Implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Jensen, Moeko; Sikor, Thomas; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... degradation, due to high opportunity costs. REDD+ finance may be more effectively used to reward small-scale dispersed activities that enhance carbon stocks, such as those already happening under Indonesia's community nursery programme. The analysis indicates the necessity for forest tenure reform...

  10. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest...

  11. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  12. The stuttering implementation of language policies in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article decries the lack of commitment on the part of native speakers of indigenous African languages, in some instances, to invest in their languages, as a retrogressive step in the promotion and development of these languages. Keywords: Language policy, African languages, multilingualism, indigenous African ...

  13. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  14. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Cleanliness Policy Implementation: Evaluating Retribution Model to Rise Public Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiati, Surya; Hernimawati; Prihati; Chintia Utami, Bunga

    2018-05-01

    This research is based on the principal issues concerning the evaluation of cleanliness retribution policy which has not been optimally be able to improve the Local Revenue of Pekanbaru City and has not improved the cleanliness of Pekanbaru City. It was estimated to be caused by the performance of Garden and Sanitation Department are not in accordance with the requirement of society of Pekanbaru City. The research method used in this study is a mixed method with sequential exploratory strategy. The data collection used are observation, interview and documentation for qualitative research as well as questionnaires for quantitative research. The collected data were analyzed with interactive model of Miles and Huberman for qualitative research and multiple regression analysis for quantitative research. The research result indicated that the model of cleanliness policy implementation that can increase of PAD Pekanbaru City and be able to improve people’s satisfaction divided into two (2) which are the evaluation model and the society satisfaction model. The evaluation model influence by criteria/variable of effectiveness, efficiency, adequacy, equity, responsiveness, and appropriateness, while the society satisfaction model influence by variables of society satisfaction, intentions, goals, plans, programs, and appropriateness of cleanliness retribution collection policy.

  16. Public-Private Collaboration on Productive Development Policies in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eslava; Marcela Meléndez Arjona; Guillermo Perry

    2014-01-01

    This Working Paper analyzes the institutions that shape public-private collaboration for the design and implementation of productive development policies in Colombia. These policies are increasingly designed in the context of formal institutions and venues, with public-private collaboration being a pillar of that formal design. This paper focuses on two specific case studies: the Private Council for Competitiveness and its role in the National Competitiveness System and the Productive Transfo...

  17. Monitoring of agricultural policy developments in the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    VOLK TINA; REDNAK MIROSLAV; ERJAVEC EMIL; ZHLLIMA EDVIN; GJECI GRIGOR; BAJRAMOVIĆ SABAHUDIN; VAŠKO ŽELJKO; OGNJENOVIĆ DRAGANA; BUTKOVIĆ JAKUB; KEROLLI-MUSTAFA MIHONE; GJOKAJ EKREM; HOXHA BEKIM; DIMITRIEVSKI DRAGI; KOTEVSKA ANA; STAMENKOVSKA IVANA JANESKA

    2017-01-01

    This reports provides the analysis of the monitoring of agricultural policy in the Western Balkans (WB) countries. This reports attempts to show (i) the main development patterns in production and trade in WB; (ii) an overview of the new policy framework (new programming documents from the period 2013-2015) and its implementation; (iii) the scope and structure of budgetary transfers to agriculture in regional comparison and also in terms of approximation with the CAP; and (iv) the main charac...

  18. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  19. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  20. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  1. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  2. Good governance in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Chen, Goh Kai; Zainal, Rozlin

    2017-10-01

    The National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced in 2007 under the Act 672. The execution of NSWMP involves stakeholders from various government agencies and a collaboration with the private sectors. Despite the initiatives taken by the stakeholders, the objectives of NSWMP failed to materialise. One of the major constraints is weak governance among stakeholders with regards to the NSWMP implementation. This paper will explore the good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders. Identifying the current good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders is crucial as it will serve as a guideline to improve good governance practice in the future. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires involved in the NSWMP implementation. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings of this study show that there are several good governance practices implemented in policy promotion, participation of stakeholders, and capacity enhancement programme for the staff. This study also proposed some points on good governance practices in the context of policy promotion and staff development. A paradigm shift by the stakeholders is imperative so as to enhance the good governance practice in NSWMP implementation towards an efficient solid waste management in Malaysia.

  3. The nuclear research and technology development in the GDR from 1945 to 1965. Framework conditions, policy of the State party and implementation; Die Kernforschung und Kerntechnologieentwicklung in der DDR 1945-1965. Rahmenbedingungen, Politik der Staatspartei und Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Olaf

    2012-06-07

    The study follows the development of the nuclear research and nuclear technology in the GDR between 1945 and 1965. The GDR as an industrial country was highly dependent on brown coal, which was the only available primal energy source in the former GDR. Therefore the civil use of nuclear power called the attention of the executive and party leadership. This consideration was supported by the fact of large uranium deposits on the territory of former East Germany. After the foundation of the GDR, a first attempt to establish an independent nuclear power industry had failed. From 1955 on, the efforts in this direction have been stepped up. Despite the enormous effort of material and human resources the development of an independent East German nuclear industry never got off the ground. In 1965 it was decided to continue the buildup of an East German nuclear industry on base of the nuclear technology of the former Soviet Union. This decision marked a turning point in the East German energy policy and the end to ambitious plans of an independent nuclear industry. The research shows the frame, the preconditions and objectives of the development of the East German nuclear industry on the base of relevant documents from the government of the former GDR, the political machine of the Communist Party (SED) and the Academy of Science Berlin. The research is implementing the context of international nuclear research and technical progress against the background of the Cold War and the international nuclear euphoria as well as within the range of global politics. The discussion focusses on two points. Along with high expectations to an independent energy production and an exporting nuclear industry, the Communist party aimed for clear political results. The author will show the connection between plans of the executive and party leadership of the SED for an ambitious nuclear energy development and the international acceptance of the East German State in the German-German rivalry.

  4. Governance and Development: Changing EU Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory article to the special issue on European Union, development policies and governance discusses how notions of ('good') governance have come to dominate development discourses and policies since the mid-1990s. The article argues that governance was part of the

  5. Designing, Developing, and Implementing Diversity Training: Guidelines for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Tanna M.; Horner, Erin R.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses diversity in the workplace and offers guidelines for practitioners in designing, developing, and implementing diversity training. Highlights include linking the diversity initiative to the organization's mission, cultural climate assessments, reviewing policies and procedures, needs assessment, learner analysis, establishing objectives,…

  6. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  7. Policy Implementation Of Poverty Reduction In The District Kutai Kartanegara In East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the implementation of poverty reduction policies of Kutai Kartanegara regency factual research communication in the form of co-ordination Unit SKPD with the Local Government and Regional Work Unit is not maximized so that the Governments poverty reduction of Kutai Kartanegara Regency gives not optimal result as a concept in policy implementation by Goggin 1990 the similarity perception in implementing the policy is an essential condition for the successful implementation of the policy along with the division of functions and roles in the bureaucratic structure that implements public policy should be run and the executor implementor implementation of government policies either parallel or multilevel should make shapes patterns of certain communications in order to facilitate in making the relationship of the parties involved in the implementation of government policy.

  8. Towards the implementation of malaria elimination policy in South Africa: the stakeholders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlongwana, Khumbulani Welcome; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial global reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality due to increased international funding and decisive steps by the international malaria community to fight malaria. South Africa has been declared ready to institute malaria elimination. However, research on the factors that would affect this policy implementation is inadequate. To investigate the stakeholders' understanding of the malaria elimination policy in South Africa, including their perceived barriers and facilitators to effective policy implementation. The study followed a constructivist epistemological approach which manifests in phenomenological study design. Twelve purposively selected key informants from malaria researchers, provincial and national malaria programmes were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interview questions elicited interviewees' knowledge of the policy and its achievability, including any perceived barriers and facilitating factors to effective implementation. The hybrid approach was used to perform thematic data analysis. The dominant view was that malaria remains a problem in South Africa, exacerbated by staff attitudes and poor capacity, lack of resources, lack of new effective intervention tools, lack of intra- and inter-departmental collaboration, poor cross-border collaboration and weak stakeholder collaboration. Informants were concerned about the target year (2018) for elimination, and about the process followed in developing the policy, including the perceived malaria epidemiology shortfalls, regulatory issues and political context of the policy. Achievability of malaria elimination remains a subject of intense debate for a variety of reasons. These include the sporadic nature of malaria resurgence, raising questions about the contributions of malaria control interventions and climate to the transmission trends in South Africa. The shortage of resources, inadequate staff capacity, lack of any new effective intervention tools

  9. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    depending on whether their emphasis is on rationalist bargaining or constructivist arguing processes. Studies also differ in the number of reforms they examine, single or more. The point of departure for this paper is the view that in order to fully appreciate the insights provided by the literature...... of policy reform by bridging insights into bargaining and arguing processes within the CAP, and by covering three attempts to reform the CAP with a time horizon stretching from 1980 to 2003....

  10. Implementing the data preservation and open access policy in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila-Perini, K; Lampén, T; Luukka, P; Alverson, G; Cabrillo, I; Calderon, A; Marco, J; Colling, D; Huffman, A; Hildreth, M; McCauley, T; Sonnenschein, L

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of the CMS policy on long-term data preservation, re-use and open access has started. Current practices in providing data additional to published papers and distributing simplified data-samples for outreach are promoted and consolidated. The first measures have been taken for analysis and data preservation for the internal use of the collaboration and for open access to part of the data. Two complementary approaches are followed. First, a virtual machine environment, which will pack all ingredients needed to compile and run a software release with which the legacy data was reconstructed. Second, a validation framework, maintaining the capability not only to read the old raw data, but also to reprocess them with an updated release or to another format to help ensure long-term reusability of the legacy data.

  11. Implementing the Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance and assistance to NASA officials in carrying out their responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act and the applicable NASA procedures (14 CFR 1216.3, Attachment A to NMI 8800.7). The handbook, as was contemplated by the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, stresses the need for environmental analysis from the time of early planning through environmental assessment and environmental impact statement preparation to implementation of the subject action, and provides for necessary follow up. It stresses the need for NASA officials to draw upon all the appropriate disciplines from the natural and social sciences plus the environmental design arts in planning and decision making on actions which may have an impact on the human environment. The handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations.

  12. Developing a policy for paediatric biobanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hens, Kristien; Van El, Carla E; Borry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    practice for policy makers of biobanks, researchers and anyone involved in dealing with stored tissue samples from children. Actual implementation of the principles will vary according to different jurisdictions.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg...

  13. Wellness programme and health policy development at a large faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's primary recommendations include: taking its employees' cultural and social norms into consideration; addressing issues related to capacity and ... list of recommendations for other resource-constrained NGOs that also wish to develop and implement wellness programmes and health policies in their workplace.

  14. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  15. Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  16. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  17. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  18. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  19. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  20. Education Policy Implementation: A Literature Review and Proposed Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Romane; Pont, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This literature review focuses on education policy implementation, its definition, processes and determinants. It aims to clarify what implementing policies involve in complex education systems to support policy work, building on the literature and country examples. An introduction delves into the reasons behind the need to update the concept of…

  1. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  2. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  3. Israeli Ministry of Education's District Managers' and Superintendents' Role as Educational Leaders--Implementing the New Policy for Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Reingold, Roni

    2018-01-01

    In Israel, the Ministry of Education determines all aspects of educational policy, including teachers' initial teacher education, licensing and professional development. As part of the New Horizon educational reform, the Ministry announced in 2010 a new plan for the professional development of teachers in Israel. The Ministry assigned a mediating…

  4. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  5. Job-Embedded Professional Development Policy in Michigan: Can It Be Successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Michael A.; Pogodzinski, Ben; Hill, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates Michigan's recently implemented job-embedded professional development policy using criteria of relevance, focus, goal orientation and social scope. The authors assert that while Michigan's policy does address all four criteria detailing effective professional development, there are limitations in the policy that may impact the…

  6. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  7. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  8. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  9. TECHNOLOGIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: PUBLIC POLICIES AND SOCIAL APPROPRIATION OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Fiallos, Diego Fernando; Silva Chávez, Judith Alexandra; Indacochea Mendoza, Luis Rene; Núñez Campaña, Jorge Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the implementation of information and communication technologies in higher education with the aim to contribute knowledge on trends regarding their social appropriation. To that effect, documents of public policies and scientific literature containing guidelines developed by international organizations and explaining different alternatives to guide the process of integrating technologies in education were reviewed. Then, some research works on problems deriv...

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POLICY OF REGIONAL EXPANSION IN NORTH MAMUJU REGENCY OF WEST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this study aims to: (1 Analyze and explain the stages of the implementation of the policy of regional expansion, and (2 analyze and explain the factors that support the implementation of the policy of regional expansion, in order to support national integration in North Mamuju Regency of West Sulawesi Province. This research is a kind of exploratory research using qualitative analysis approach. Data collection carried through; observation, interviews, and documents. Informant research include; Assistant I, II, III, Assistant to the Preparatory Committee the establishment of district (PPPK, head of the Central Bureau of statistics, the head of the Agency for the unity of the nation, the head of the Office library, Archives, and documents, the head of the Department of organization and Personnel, the head of the General section of the Secretariat of the Parliament, members of Religious Communication Forum (FKUB, the leadership of Dharma Wanita, professors, students, and community leaders. While the data analysis done in a descriptive qualitative. Technique of data analysis is interactive analysis: Data collection, (2 Data reduction, (3 Data Display, and (4 the Conclusion/verification. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual against objects that are examined. Research results show that; (1 the policy implementation stages of the extraction region North Mamuju Regency has been implemented in accordance with the legislation governing the extraction of such areas; the establishment of local governance devices, preparation of the vision and mission, the preparation of regional development strategies, and preparation of the regional development programs, and the factors that support the implementation of regional expansion policy is the existence of natural resources, capital investment (investment, infrastructure, transport and communications, openness toward outsiders, and support public (community

  11. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini

    2018-02-01

    The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  12. Domestic policy consequences of new implementation models. Consequences for industrial niches; Industripolitiske konsekvenser av nye gjennomfoeringsmodeller. Konsekvenser for nisjebedriftene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to the consequences of domestic policy with the focus on new implementation models used for cost reduction of offshore development projects in Norway. The paper puts the attention to the consequences from implementation models on industrial niches (subcontractors)

  13. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem: The Case of Arizona Charter Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Gregg A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes how Arizona charter school policymakers succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions of the state's charter school program. Identifies four key features of policy implementation that created the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. (SLD)

  14. Governance and Development: Changing EU Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hout, Wil

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory article to the special issue on European Union, development policies and governance discusses how notions of ('good') governance have come to dominate development discourses and policies since the mid-1990s. The article argues that governance was part of the so-called Post-Washington Consensus, which understands governance reform as part of the creation of market societies. Although academics have commonly emphasised the fact that governance concerns the...

  15. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  16. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  17. Universities and Development: Global Cooperation. Policy Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to demonstrate that universities are key organisations in international development. Universities are involved in a wide range of international development activities, including collaborative research projects, developing entrepreneurial and employability skills and the evaluation of non-governmental organisation (NGO)…

  18. Implementing a corporate-wide policy for dealing with naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    With the increased environmental awareness about naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), many companies are adopting policies to address the exposure and contamination issues associated with this material. In developing and implementing a NORM policy, every aspect of a business must be thoroughly evaluated to determine at what point the material is encountered and what processes tend to concentrate the material. Once all areas having elevated levels of NORM are identified, the interrelationships between these areas must be evaluated. Corporate policy regarding NORM is discussed, including employee exposure, environmental contamination, facility and equipment contamination, logistics of moving between facilities covered by different regulations, existing and proposed regulations, trends of proposed regulations, disposal of NORM, training and survey equipment. 14 refs., 7 figs

  19. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  20. Implementation of Compulsory Study 12 Year Policy to Increase Education Quality in Kudus Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Widi Lestari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is an important instrument in improving the human resources quality. Kudus Regency has implemented compulsory study since 2010 through Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 (Twelve Years. While, Central Government issued compulsory study 12 year policy in June 2013 through Ministry of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/2013 about Universal Secondary Education. Obviously, this is a bold step of Kudus Regency Government in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency. The research objectives are: to know, analyze, and describe about Implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education in Kudus Regency; and to know, analyze, and describe about supporting and inhibiting factors toward implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education quality in Kudus Regency. This research resulted that the implementation compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency has been successfully, viewed from the actor that completely carry out their duties and responsibilities; the existence of funding and programs from Kudus Regency Government and Central Government is supporting the mechanism implementation in accordance with the provisions. The compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency had positive impact in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency, it is seen from the increase of Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER for secondary education from 60% in 2008 to 80,59% in 2013. The success in improving the education quality is also seen from achievement of Kudus Regency in obtained champions in various championships. The supporting factors are The content of the Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 Years and the Minister of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/ 2013 about Universal Secondary Education which clear and easy to understand; the willingness of Kudus Society in receiving the compulsory study 12 years policy

  1. E-Policy and higher education: from formulation to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, I provide a basis for discourse about current international trends influencing e-policy in higher education. In conclusion an analysis of the government's (South Africa) e-policy and its impact on the e-policy of higher education is also provided. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (6) 2008: pp. 643- ...

  2. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  3. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  4. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  5. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The ...

  6. Fiscal Policy and Growth in Developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdon, Arnelyn May; Estrada, Gemma Esther; Lee, Minsoo; Park, Donghyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we empirically explore the relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in developing Asia. The region's overall level of taxes and government spending are substantially lower than those prevailing in advanced economies. Nevertheless, there are conceptual grounds why fiscal policy, including the composition of taxes and government spending, can have a significant effect on growth, as our empirical analysis shows. In line with economic theory, property taxes have a more...

  7. Work–life balance policies: Challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Downes

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy. Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This requires human resource practitioners to investigate and understand experiences and perceptions about the challenges and benefits of flexitime. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative research design with an exploratory approach. She drew a nonprobability purposive and voluntary sample (n = 15 from the financial sector. She used semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data and conducted content analyses to analyse and interpret them. Main findings: The researcher extracted four main themes (individual and general challenges, the aspects organisations need to implement flexitime effectively and the benefits that would follow its implementation from the data. Its benefits vary from work–life balance to employee loyalty and commitment. Some challenges are maintaining productivity, a shortage of critical resources and understanding flexitime. Practical/managerial implications: The research identified requirements that human resource practitioners should attend to in order to ensure that organisations use flexitime more effectively. Contribution/value-add: The researcher obtained unique findings about the minimum requirements for implementing flexitime effectively. They could assist organisations to address the challenges that employees face.

  8. The Devil Is in the Details: Development of Policy and Procedure in the Battle River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleddie, Doug L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Guidelines from a variety of jurisdictions for the health-promoting schools (HPS) approach include healthy school policy as a critical element. Research also supports the importance of policy; however, there seems to be a lack of information on how to develop and implement policy. The article examines the processes involved in one…

  9. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  10. THE COMMON EU AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUMBACEAN CLAUDIU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s negotiations to become a European Union member were officially inaugurated on February 15, 2000. Agriculture is the largest negotiation chapter. The enlargement had and will certainly have positive effects upon the Romanian agriculture: stimulation of trade exchanges as a consequence of the dropping up of the customs duties, the increase of the agricultural products and,consequently, of the farmers’ income, the access to a much bigger market, of 450 million inhabitants.In order for the Romanian agricultural and food sector to become a competitive one, priority measures and steps are necessary both in the vegetal sector and in the animal-breeding and meat and diary products processing sectors. Once the enlargement achieved, Romanian agriculture is taking the advantage of different types of assistance within the framework of the CommonAgricultural Policy, but in order to absorb these funds it is important to know the governing principles. The basic principle of the community policy is to stimulate the farmers to adjust to the market signals, to produce what it is required to be produced on the market. Thus, the farmer will be determined to adjust the target with every quantity required, depending upon cost and qualitycompetitiveness. This concept is called “decoupling”, meaning the decoupling of the production subsidies and their connection to the surface.Romania’s tradition in animal-breeding for milk production may be an advantage for the implementation of chances to become an active participant to the intra-community trade. But tradition is not enough for Romania to be able to take advantage of the export opportunities. For this, we will have to improve the raw material milk quality and also of the products resulting from the processing, in order to allow the adjustment to the EU standards. Achieving the quality and cleaning parameters shall be performed by steps, until the end of the year 2009, mainly by adjusting the race

  11. Waste management policy and its implementation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori de Beninson, A.; Palacios, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argentine nuclear programme is an example of an expanding nuclear power development programme which provides for the reprocessing of spent fuel and the recycling of the plutonium produced. It also covers all stages of the natural uranium fuel cycle. The present paper outlines the radioactive waste management policy behind the programme, with particular reference to high-level waste and actinides. The basic criteria are the limitation of individual risks, taking into account the probability of, and doses resulting from, events disrupting the geological insulation, and the optimization of protection engineering aspects, equal monetary weight being given to present and future collective doses. An estimate of the impact (represented by the collective dose due to the repository) per unit of electricity generated by the nuclear programme has been used to analyse the acceptability of the solution adopted. (author)

  12. Waste management policy and its implementation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, G.

    1984-01-01

    Long-term policy for the management of nuclear waste and for decommissioning of nuclear plants was formulated in a Bill to the Swedish Parliament in 1981. This policy is based on the principles that the nuclear utilities as producers of the waste bear the primary responsibility for the safe disposal of the waste; the State bears the ultimate responsibility that the waste is disposed of in a manner which is satisfactory to society; and the costs of the waste management shall be borne by those who benefit from the activity which produces the waste. Based on these principles and the timetable established by the decisions not to use nuclear power after the year 2010, systems for planning and financing nuclear waste disposal have been set up to ensure that the necessary actions are taken by the nuclear utilities and are subject to control by the State. The Swedish organization for carrying out these tasks is described in the paper. The planning system was put into effect in June 1982 when a Radioactive Waste Management Plan - Plan 82 - was presented including a research and development programme and a detailed description of the facilities needed to carry out a waste disposal scheme till about 2060. The total cost for the whole back end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle is estimated at about SEK 39x10 9 (equivalent to US $5.2x10 9 ). More than 60% of the total costs fall after 2010. The financing system has been in force since 1982. The Government has set the fee for 1983 to SEK 0.017 per kW.h (equivalent to US mill 2.3). The future Swedish strategy is to pursue an intensive research and development programme and subsequently to make the decision on how the actual disposal is to be effected. (author)

  13. Implementation science approaches for integrating eHealth research into practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E; Phillips, Siobhan M; Sanchez, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    To summarize key issues in the eHealth field from an implementation science perspective and to highlight illustrative processes, examples and key directions to help more rapidly integrate research, policy and practice. We present background on implementation science models and emerging principles; discuss implications for eHealth research; provide examples of practical designs, measures and exemplar studies that address key implementation science issues; and make recommendations for ways to more rapidly develop and test eHealth interventions as well as future research, policy and practice. The pace of eHealth research has generally not kept up with technological advances, and many of our designs, methods and funding mechanisms are incapable of providing the types of rapid and relevant information needed. Although there has been substantial eHealth research conducted with positive short-term results, several key implementation and dissemination issues such as representativeness, cost, unintended consequences, impact on health inequities, and sustainability have not been addressed or reported. Examples of studies in several of these areas are summarized to demonstrate this is possible. eHealth research that is intended to translate into policy and practice should be more contextual, report more on setting factors, employ more responsive and pragmatic designs and report results more transparently on issues important to potential adopting patients, clinicians and organizational decision makers. We outline an alternative development and assessment model, summarize implementation science findings that can help focus attention, and call for different types of more rapid and relevant research and funding mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Implementing energy efficiency policy in Croatia: Stakeholder interactions for closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, Vesna; Robić, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial efforts made to develop sound energy efficiency policies, the desired effects in terms of achieved energy savings are lacking. This phenomenon is known as the energy efficiency gap and has been extensively investigated in the literature. Barrier models to explain the gap are primarily oriented towards the technical aspects of energy efficiency and often disregard its social aspects. The aim of our research was to identify the social structures that play a prominent role in moving society towards greater energy efficiency, to investigate their perceptions of the levers for and brakes to greater participation in the implementation of energy efficiency measures and to provide recommendations for policy enhancement. Four groups of stakeholders were identified: public institutions, businesses, civil society organisations and the media. A survey was administered to 93 representatives of these groups in Croatia. The results indicate that to encourage the society to adopt energy efficiency improvements, it is crucial for public institutions to play a leading role with the support of strong and visible political commitment. The level of benefit recognition among all groups is weak, which together with the slow progression of dialogue between and within the analysed groups is preventing full policy uptake. - Highlights: • We analyse attitudes of Croatian stakeholders towards energy efficiency. • Responses are gathered from public institutions, businesses, CSOs and media. • Lacking political will and public dialogue dominantly cause and maintain the gap. • Participative policy making and clear leadership in implementing are needed

  15. Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development | Akujuobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on theeconomic development of Nigeria, using multiple regression technique. Itwas found that cash reserve ratio was significant in impacting on theeconomic development of Nigeria at both 1% and 5% levels of significance,treasury bill at 5.6%, minimum ...

  16. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  17. Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger; Ostman, Anders; Lazdinis, Marius; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Arnberg, Wolter; Olsson, Jan

    2003-12-01

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  18. Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sanneving

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective: To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method: Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result: Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions: The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

  19. Designing and implementing science-based methane policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenal growth in shale gas production across the U.S. has significantly improved the energy security and economic prospects of the country. Natural gas is a "versatile" fuel that has application in every major end-use sector of the economy, both as a fuel and a feedstock. Natural gas has also played a significant role in reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector by displacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels. However, emissions of natural gas (predominantly methane) from the wellhead to the burner tip can erode this environmental benefit. Preserving the many benefits of America's natural gas resources requires smart, science-based policies to optimize the energy delivery efficiency of the natural gas supply chain and ensure that natural gas remains a key pillar in our transition to a low-carbon economy. Southwestern Energy (SWN) is the third largest natural gas producer in the United States. Over the last several years, SWN has participated in a number of scientific studies with regulatory agencies, academia and non-governmental entities that have led to over a dozen peer-reviewed papers on methane emissions from oil and gas operations. This presentation will review how our participation in these studies has informed our internal policies and procedures, as well as our external programs, including the ONE Future coalition (ONE Future). In particular, the presentation will highlight the impact of such studies on our Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) program, designing new methane research and on the ONE Future initiatives - all with the focus of improving the delivery efficiency of oil and gas operations. Our experience supports continued research in the detection and mitigation of methane emissions, with emphasis on longer duration characterization of methane emissions from oil and gas facilities and further development of cost-effective methane detection and mitigation techniques. We conclude from our scientific and operational experiences that a

  20. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  1. Moving From Policy to Implementation: A Methodology and Lessons Learned to Determine Eligibility for Healthy Food Financing Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Caroline; Koprak, Julia; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie; Parker, Kathryn M.; Karpyn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Public health obesity prevention experts have recently emphasized a policy systems and environmental change approach. Absent, however, are studies describing how practitioners transition from policy adoption to implementation. In the realm of food policy, financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as “underserved” are underway at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition of eligibility for program applicants and policy administrators. This article outlines a methodology to establish eligibility for healthy food financing programs by describing the work of The Food Trust to coadminister programs in 3 distinct regions. To determine program eligibility, qualitative assessments of community fit are needed and national data sources must be locally verified. Our findings have broad implications for programs that assess need to allocate limited public/private financing resources. PMID:24594793

  2. Implementation of family friendly policy in Lithuania : problems and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Jančaitytė, Raminta

    2006-01-01

    Family friendly policy is workplace policies that assist employees in combining family and work responsibilities. Significant and dominant feature of the contemporary Lithuanian labour market is women's increasing participation while they still predominantly hold domestic role. The focus of reconciling work and family has traditionally been concentrated on women. The article deals with work-family models and a typology of workplace policies that show different approach to problems of reconcil...

  3. Interest Rate Dynamics and Monetary Policy Implementation in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Puriya Abbassi; Dieter Nautz; Christian Offermanns

    2010-01-01

    The maturity of the operational target of monetary policy is a distinguishing feature of the SNB's operational framework of monetary policy. While most central banks use targets for the overnight rate to signal the policy-intended interest rate level, the SNB announces a target range for the three-month Libor. This paper investigates the working and the consequences of the SNB's unique operational framework for the behavior of Swiss money market rates before and during the financial crisis.

  4. Policy Implementation of Government Affairs Devolution Scope of the Ministry of Home Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deconcentration policies held because not all authority/government affairs can be done by using the principle of decentralization. The intent of this policy is to synergize the central and local relations. However, in reality not all of the activities of these policies can produce output in accordance with the plans and policy objectives, including those carried out by the Ministry of the Interior. Such conditions occur because of the policy implementation process has not been going well. This study uses naturalistic methods or qualitative descriptive explanation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the process of policy implementation, identify the factors that influence, as well as the results of policy implementation devolution of government affairs deconcentration scope of the Ministry of the Interior in the province of West Java. The results of this study indicate that in general the result of the implementation of deconcentration policy in West Java province is relatively accordance with the objectives of the implementation of deconcentration policy. Similarly, the output of the implementation of deconcentration program targets as predetermined. Nevertheless, there are still many shortcomings in the implementation process.

  5. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  6. Eating patterns and food systems: critical knowledge requirements for policy design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyomard Hervé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. This paper begins by presenting the main features of eating patterns worldwide. These eating patterns include the relative convergence of diets, more rapid food transition in emerging and developing countries, development of a more complex food chain, and substantial food losses and waste at distribution and final consumption stages. These patterns have negative consequences on health and the environment. The drivers of these patterns are examined to identify knowledge gaps, the filling of which should facilitate the design and implementation of actions and policies aimed at making food systems more sustainable.

  7. Implementing Gender Equity Policies in a University Sport Organization: Competing Discourses from Enthusiasm to Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Susanna; Prat, Maria; Puig, Núria; Flintoff, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gender policies in sports have expanded considerably in most countries in recent decades. Nevertheless, the implementation of these policies in sports organizations is by no means an automatic process. This article explores what happens when gender equity policies are applied in an university sports organization. Participatory action research over…

  8. The role of government policy in service development in a New Zealand statutory mental health service: implications for policy planning and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    To explore the relationship between government policy and service development in a New Zealand statutory mental health provider, Living Well. An organisational case study utilising multiple research techniques including qualitative interviews, analysis of business and strategic documents and observation of meetings. Staff understood and acknowledged the importance of government policy, but there were challenges in its implementation. Within New Zealand's statutory mental health services staff struggled to know how to implement government policy as part of service development; rather, operational concerns, patient need, local context and service demands drove the service development process. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  9. Assessing the implementation and influence of policies that support research and innovation systems for health: the cases of Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwagwa, Julius; Edwards, Daniel; de Haan, Sylvia

    2015-04-18

    Without good policies it will be difficult to provide guidance to research and innovation systems. However, policies need to be followed through and implemented to have the desired effect. We studied the policies and strategies in place to support research and innovation systems for health in Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania, and looked at the extent to which these policies and strategies have been implemented. We reviewed documents and reports and conducted in-depth interviews with 16 key informants representing various actors of the national research for health systems. The results illustrate that there are various policies and strategies governing research and innovation for health in the three countries. However, implementation of these policies and strategies is generally rated as being poor. The reasons highlighted for this include lack of policy coherence, lack of enforcement and accountability mechanisms, and a lack of financing for implementing the policies. These contextual factors seem to be of such importance that even the increased stakeholder involvement and political leadership, as mentioned by the interviewees, cannot guarantee policy implementation. We conclude that due to the contextual realities of the study countries, there is need for greater focus on policy implementation than on developing additional policies. Government institutions should play a central role in all stages of the policy process, and should ensure implementation of defined policies. Strong mechanisms, including financing, that strengthen the position and role of government in policy coordination and the oversight of the policy process will help increase efficient and impactful implementation of research and innovation for health policies.

  10. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Promoting Implementation of Tobacco Control Laws and Policies in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Following an analysis of six possible areas for action, the government chose smoke-free initiatives and taxation disincentives as priorities. This grant will support enforcement of an existing smoke-free policy in Abuja State and its introduction in Osun State, and initiate policy discussion on the use of taxation as a tool for ...

  12. Towards the implementation of the Nigerian cultural policy for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is among one of the African countries that took a cue from Ghana to formulate its national cultural policy at the insistence of the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). Since 1976 when Nigerian formulated her cultural policy till date (2009), gaping loopholes exist which hinder the ...

  13. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Laharnar

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.

  14. The Accounting Policy: Paradoxes of Implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukin Vladimir О.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the contradictions associated with the use of the term of «accounting policy» in Ukraine. It is displayed that in normative documents the formulation of accounting policy does not always meet the requirements of the system of international standards. As a result, accounting policies are often being understand as the measures that are actually related to the accounting organization; an accounting policy is established not only for financial accounting and reporting, but also (not always justified for the managerial and tax accounting. It has been proved that the current accounting policy has not only positive but also negative aspects for the national accounting system.

  15. Memoranda about Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance - Science Policy Council Cancer Guidelines Implementation Workgroup Communication I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memoranda from the Chair of EPA's Science Policy Council to the Science Policy Council and the Science Policy Council Steering Committee regarding Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance.

  16. Progress towards and barriers to implementation of a risk framework for US federal wildland fire policy and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Calkin; Mark A. Finney; Alan A. Ager; Matthew P. Thompson; Krista M. Gebert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review progress towards the implementation of a riskmanagement framework for US federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical methods to measure...

  17. Adopting and Implementing CSR Policies in Travel Agency Business: The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Ioan Moisescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the extent to which Romania’s largest travel agencies adopt and implement corporate social responsibility (CSR policies, correlating these findings with their business performance reflected by their net turnover and net profit. In order to evaluate the level of CSR policies adoption and implementation, an online survey was conducted among top managers from each travel agency. The questionnaire comprised several sets of items reflecting workplace, environmental, marketplace, community, and, respectively, company values policies. Our results point to the fact that the CSR policies adopted and implemented to the highest degree are those concerning the marketplace, while the least embraced CSR policies refer to the environment. Our findings also suggest that there are several CSR policies which are adopted and implemented to a higher degree by larger travel agencies in terms of net turnover, while some other CSR policies are adopted more thoroughly by smaller ones. The results also indicate positive correlations between the profitability of travel agencies and the adoption and implementation of certain CSR policies. Last but not least, our research suggests that marketplace policies adoption and implementation could have a significant positive impact on business performance of travel agencies in terms of both net turnover and net profitability.

  18. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Democratic Model of Public Policy Accountability. Case Study on Implementation of Street Vendors Empowerment Policy in Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulinawaty Kasmadsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy accountability is a form of manifestation of public officials responsible to the people. One form of policy accountability that is discussed here is street vendors policy accountability, because they are a group of citizens who have the economic activities in public spaces. The existence of this policy how-ever, the number of street vendors from year to year increase in Makassar City. Therefore, this study seeks to uncover and explain the democratic policy ac-countability through the street vendors’ responses and expectations to the implementation of street ven-dors empowerment policy in Makassar City; and to uncover and explain the democratic policy account-ability through the stakeholders’ responses and ex-pectations to the implementation of street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City. To achieve these objectives, the study uses democracy theory, in which this theory focuses on togetherness in dis-cussing solutions to the various problems of street vendors and in the policy implementation as well.This study used a qualitative design and case studies strat-egy. Data collection techniques used was observa-tion, interview, and documentation. Data were ana-lyzed with case description its settings. The results of this study pointed out that the interests and needs of the street vendors are not met through the empow-erment policies vendors. This is caused by the ab-sence of accountability forum as a place of togeth-erness all of street vendors empowerment stakehold-ers’. Street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City are designed base on a top-down approach, so they are considered as objects, which must accept all government programs aimed at them.

  1. Institutional aspects of NAMA development and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Sharma, Sudhir; Karavai, Maryna

    This publication analyses how developing countries may arrange their institutional and organizational structures or enhance the existing ones in order to deal with these new developments under the international climate change mitigation regime. Focus is on how to ensure the implementation of NAMAs...

  2. Government Research and Development Policy for Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Linda

    This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…

  3. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  4. Understanding the dynamics of the Seguro Popular de Salud policy implementation in Mexico from a complex adaptive systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; González-Robledo, Luz María; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Adam, Taghreed

    2016-05-13

    In 2003, Mexico's Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS), was launched as an innovative financial mechanism implemented to channel new funds to provide health insurance to 50 million Mexicans and to reduce systemic financial inequities. The objective of this article is to understand the complexity and dynamics that contributed to the adaptation of the policy in the implementation stage, how these changes occurred, and why, from a complex and adaptive systems perspective. A complex adaptive systems (CAS) framework was used to carry out a secondary analysis of data obtained from four SPS's implementation evaluations. We first identified key actors, their roles, incentives and power, and their responses to the policy and guidelines. We then developed a causal loop diagram to disentangle the feedback dynamics associated with the modifications of the policy implementation which we then analyzed using a CAS perspective. Implementation variations were identified in seven core design features during the first 10 years of implementation period, and in each case, the SPS's central coordination introduced modifications in response to the reactions of the different actors. We identified several CAS phenomena associated with these changes including phase transitions, network emergence, resistance to change, history dependence, and feedback loops. Our findings generate valuable lessons to policy implementation processes, especially those involving a monetary component, where the emergence of coping mechanisms and other CAS phenomena inevitably lead to modifications of policies and their interpretation by those who implement them. These include the difficulty of implementing strategies that aim to pool funds through solidarity among beneficiaries where the rich support the poor when there are no incentives for the rich to do so. Also, how resistance to change and history dependence can pose significant challenges to implementing changes, where the local actors use their significant power

  5. 1993 in review: Science policy developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.; Mockler, Susan Bucci

    Looking back over 1993, here are some of the major policy developments affecting the geophysical sciences community:JANUARY: John Gibbons confirmed as Office of Science and Technology Policy director and President Clinton's science advisor… Walter Massey resigns as National Science Foundation director… Hazel O'Leary becomes Department of Energy secretary … House Science, Space and Technology Committee is reorganized, reducing its six subcommittees to five… NSF's Division of Polar Programs elevated to the Office of Polar Programs, now a part of the Office of the Director… Bruce Babbitt confirmed as Secretary of the Interior.

  6. Technology Opportunities: Implementation of Deployment Health Policy in Operational Theaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Lopez, Lester

    2004-01-01

    It is U.S. policy that medical and personnel information systems be designed, integrated, and utilized with military medical surveillance to protect the physical and mental health of Service members throughout...

  7. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  8. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  9. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sherin Susan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a “senior recreation day care” model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  10. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N Sherin Susan; Asirvatham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a "senior recreation day care" model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  11. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Regional media coverage influences the public's negative attitudes to policy implementation success in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tiainen, Anne; Hanning, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    One central aspect of health literacy is knowledge of patients' rights. Being an important source of information about health and health care, the media may influence health literacy and act as a policy implementer. To investigate whether regional news media coverage in Sweden is linked to (i) the public's awareness and knowledge of a patient's rights policy, the waiting-time guarantee and (ii) the public's attitudes to how the guarantee's time limits are met, that is, implementation success. Three types of data are used. First, a national telephone survey of the public's awareness, knowledge and attitudes; second, media coverage information from digital media monitoring; and third, official waiting-time statistics. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses are performed with the 21 Swedish county councils/regions as a base. In the county councils/regions, non-awareness ranged from 1 to 15% and knowledge from 47 to 67%. There are relatively large differences between population groups. The amount of regional media coverage shows no significant correlation to the level of awareness and knowledge. There is, however, a significant correlation to both positive and negative attitudes; the latter remains after controlling for actual waiting times. At the national level, the media function as a policy implementer, being the primary source of information. At the regional level, the media are part of the political communication, reporting more extensively in county councils/regions where the population holds negative views towards the achievement in implementing the guarantee. We conclude that Swedish authorities should develop its communication strategies to bridge health literacy inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Political insights on implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the options available for implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982. The author concludes that the federal and state governments must cooperate because this is a political problem. Two sites must be selected because this gets the Western states supporting the act and provides a backup if problems develop at one site. The author says once 2-4 sites are chosen as finalists, an educational campaign must be done in those states to stress safety. Solving the waste problem will give the nuclear industry a brighter future

  14. IMPLEMENTING AND AUDITING ELECTRONIC RECORDKEEPING SYSTEMS USED IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing hadwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for Research and...

  15. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  16. Implementing the European policies for alien species – networking, science, and partnership in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has recognized the need for more stringent action to manage biological invasions and has committed to develop adedicated legislative instrument. Under this upcoming legislation, European countries and their relevant institutions will have additional obligations and commitments in respect to invasive alien species. In September 2012, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC launched the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN to facilitate the exploration of existing alien species information from distributed sources and to assist the implementation of European policies on biological invasions. Subsequent to the launching of EASIN, there was an evident need to define its niche within a complex environment of global, European, regional and national information systems. Herein we propose an organizational chart clearly defining the role of each actor in this framework, and we emphasize the need for collaboration in order to effectively support EU policies.

  17. Implementing plant clinics in the maelstrom of policy reform in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, F.B.; Kjær, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    government commitment and a growing demand for this new type of farmer service, effective implementation of plant clinics turned out to be a challenge.We examine how agricultural policies and institutional setups, and their political context, influenced the implementation of plant clinics from 2010 to 2011...... services. Implementation of plant clinics was further affected by a new district reform and the national elections taking place during the study period. The dual purpose of the plant clinics created uncertainty about their organisational belonging. They fell through the cracks of extension and disease...... the policy and institutional frameworks in which plant clinics operate, but also the effects of political imperatives and donors on policy implementation. This study provides a basis for institutional and policy analysis related to the implementation of plant clinics elsewhere....

  18. Canes Implementation: Analysis of Budgetary, Business, and Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 2014 MBA Professional Rep01t 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  19. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  20. Using deliberative techniques to engage the community in policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Judy; Hartz-Karp, Janette; Watson, Rebecca

    2008-07-16

    This paper examines work in deliberative approaches to community engagement used in Western Australia by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and other planning and infrastructure agencies between 2001 and 2005, and considers whether the techniques could be applied to the development of health policy in Australia. Deliberative processes were used in WA to address specific planning and infrastructure problems. Using deliberative techniques, community participants contributed to joint decision making and policy development. Outcomes from deliberative processes were seriously considered by the Minister and used to influence policy decisions. In many cases, the recommendations generated through deliberative processes were fully adopted by the Minister. The experiences in WA demonstrate that deliberative engagement processes can be successfully implemented by government and can be used to guide policy. The techniques can be adapted to suit the context and issues experienced by a portfolio, and the skills required to conduct deliberative processes can be fostered amongst the portfolio's staff. Health policy makers may be able to learn from the experiences in WA, and adopt approaches to community engagement that allow for informed deliberation and debate in the community about the future of Australia's health system.

  1. Biofuels development and the policy regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Guy, Ken; Ritchie, Rachael J

    2013-01-01

    Any major change to the energy order is certain to provoke both positive and negative societal responses. The current wave of biofuels development ignited controversies that have re-shaped the thinking about their future development. Mistakes were made in the early support for road transport biofuels in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This article examines some of the policies that shaped the early development of biofuels and looks to the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of an all-ages mandatory helmet policy for ice skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Fenerty, Lynne; Wheadon-Hore, Kathie; Walling, Simon; Cusimano, Michael D; Clarke, David B

    2015-12-01

    Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. Observations of helmet use, falls and skater demographics were conducted prior to education/implementation and after policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; 361 skaters were observed pre-implementation, while 358 were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours. Pre-implementation, helmet use ranged from 97% among children under 12 to 10% among adults; post-implementation use in all skaters was 99%. Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged 4-12. An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONETARY POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CUHAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  4. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basistîi Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  5. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  6. Using game theory to analyze green stormwater infrastructure implementation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. K.; Garg, J.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While green stormwater infrastructure is a useful approach in addressing multiple challenges facing the urban environment, little consensus exists on how to best incentivize its adoption by private landowners. Game theory, a field of study designed to model conflict and cooperation between two or more agents, is well-suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to analyze the impacts of three different policy approaches frequently used to incentivize the uptake of green infrastructure by private landowners: municipal regulation, direct grants, and stormwater fees. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest environmental benefits; however, the choice of "best" regulatory approach is dependent on a variety of different factors including political and financial considerations. Policy impacts are also highly dependent on agents' spatial positions within the stormwater network. This finding leads to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  7. Development and implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M.-L.; Yu, Y.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is one of the few Asian countries to have officially adopted Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as one important means towards the achievement of environmental conservation and sustainable development. Despite implementation almost a decade ago, SEA remains premature in its development. This paper analyzes the progress and characteristics of SEA in Taiwan and, through examination of its limited case studies, reveals the positive and apparent influence of SEA on policy making. This paper also identifies the barriers hindering SEA's advancement and concludes with recommendations on strategies to overcome these obstacles

  8. Ergonomics in the development and implementation of organisational strategy for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilson, John R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first phase of an ergonomics study of sustainability in a rail organisation, particularly environmental sustainability. The main emphasis has been on the use of a qualitative approach to carry out in-depth consultation with those in influential and policy setting roles in the organisation, collecting and analysing perceptions on sustainability policy and related business processes. The study identified factors affecting implementation of policy on sustainability and these have been developed to produce a list of requirements for implementing the policy. The findings are valuable in understanding the range of attitudes, aspirations and perceived constraints, from the perspective of those in senior roles in the company, and development of a sustainability strategy for a rail infrastructure owner. There is need for wider consultation, both within the organisation and externally, to validate and refine the understanding of barriers to the implementation of the policy. The role of ergonomics in supporting the work on sustainability is discussed. The study collects in-depth views from senior managers on the challenges of implementing a policy on sustainability in a rail organisation. Outputs include a list of factors affecting implementation of policy and requirements for better implementation of policy in this area. Potential contributions of ergonomics to sustainability in organisational contexts are discussed.

  9. APPRAISING THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY: BACKGROUND, IMPLEMENTATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Longhurst

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article tackles the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP in the context of the European Union’s Eastern neighbours – Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus. Reflected on the May 2011 Communication drafted by the European Commission and High Representative ‘A New Response to a Changing Neighbourhood’, the article focuses on the main steps of ENP’s evolution, looking at the political and economic offer made to the partner countries, the state of the neighbourhood, the progress made in the ENP Eastern countries, the regional component of the policy.

  10. 'Whistle-blowing' and the quandary of policy implementation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as a country has undergone series of economic policies and Programs to bring her economy back on track. These policies range from National Development Plan to the present day whistle-blowing policy. The whistle blowing policy was introduced by the administration of President Buhari in December, 2016, with a ...

  11. Development of a method for a quantitative evaluation of region oriented policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van F.; Stein, A.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Duijvenboden, van W.

    2001-01-01

    Modern environmental policy implementation in many developed countries is increasingly regionally oriented. Regional governments have undertaken measures designed for the specific needs of the region but, so far, the resulting change in environmental quality has hardly been monitored. This study

  12. Challenges of Implementing Renewable Energy Policies at Community Scale: The Case of Strategic Energy Plans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of national energy efficiency targets requires policies at the local scale. It is widely acknowledged that local communities play an important tole to implement these policies: as arena where renewable energy technologies can be combined with socio-economic interests of local...... stakeholders. Although a vast amount of demo projects are well-documented, insufficient attention has been given to the average performing municipalities and their challenges in linking technical energy scenarios with their socio-economic realities in practice. This paper analyses the Strategic Energy Plans...... (SEP) of 17 Danish municipalities on their development, inclusion of local communities, affected stakeholders, and on their impact on the municipalities’ working procedures. The main technical, physical, organisational and socio-economic challenges for local energy policy implementation are illustrated...

  13. Developing, implementing and evaluating a simulation learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The training of undergraduate midwifery students to identify and manage post-partum haemorrhage, is an essential skill in midwifery. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a simulation learning package (SLP) on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students ...

  14. Development and implementation of a bioinformatics online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, there is the need for appropriate strategies of introducing the basic components of this emerging scientific field to part of the African populace through the development of an online distance education learning tool. This study involved the design of a bioinformatics online distance educative tool an implementation of ...

  15. Putting Climate Change Adaptation in the Development Mainstream. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Paris, R.

    2005-03-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable because their economies are generally more dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, and because they are less able to cope with the impacts of climate change. How development occurs has implications, in turn, for climate change and for the vulnerability of societies to its impacts. Climate change adaptation needs to be brought into the mainstream of economic policies, development projects, and international aid efforts. Considerable analytical work has been done on how development can be made climate-friendly in terms of helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, although implementation remains a challenge. Much less attention has been paid to how development can be made more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In a narrow engineering sense, this could involve taking climate changes into account in the siting and design of bridges and other infrastructure. At a policy level, it could involve considering the implications of climate change on a variety of development activities including poverty reduction, sectoral development, and natural resource management. Bridging the gap between the climate change adaptation and development communities, however, is not easy. The two communities have different priorities, often operate on different time and space scales, and do not necessarily 'speak the same language'. Specific information is therefore needed on the significance of climate change for development activities along with operational guidance on how best to adapt to its impacts, within the context of other pressing social priorities. This Policy Brief looks at how far current development policies and programmes are taking climate change risks into account, as well as at ways to improve the 'mainstreaming' of adaptation to climate change in development planning and assistance

  16. 12 CFR 651.3 - Implementation of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material conflicts of interest involving its directors, officers, and employees to: (1) Shareholders... documents supplied to them. (b) The Corporation shall make available to any shareholder, investor, or potential investor, upon request, a copy of its policy on conflicts of interest. The Corporation may charge...

  17. Implementation of disability policy framework in Namibia: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonderai W. Shumba

    2018-04-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed key issues that need to be addressed in reviewing the policy and legal framework so that it is responsive to the current needs of persons with disabilities. Further, the CBR programme needs an evaluation tool to assess its effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the needs of persons with disabilities and also to elicit their experiences and satisfaction.

  18. Local and Regional Authorities as Resources for Implementing Universal Design Policy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The municipalities and regional authorities are in general resources for achieving national goals. Their management and works are crucial to the development and implementation of Universal Design. Through several programmes, national authorities have worked for activating the local and regional levels. The results are visible. We can see a long-term national strategy to help make society accessible to everyone and prevent discrimination. Participating municipalities and regional authorities are now able to create their own policy and strategies and implement solutions. The national programs have involved interested and motivated municipalities. All the 18 counties in Norway have been involved more or less in different periods and the same with up to a third of the about good 400 municipalities.

  19. Analysis of policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.

    2005-04-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source holds a great potential in responding to energy challenges of the future as well as meeting renewable energy targets set by the European Union. The objective of this study was to analyse various policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the European Union, including new Member States (EU-25). The main political driving force behind this investigation was the RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC). The effectiveness of policy instruments regarding the development of electricity from biomass and biogas in the period of 1990-2002, and the framework conditions, i.e. success and risk factors, for this progress were assessed though a 'five-step approach'. Past development in terms of bioelectricity production and generating capacity was assessed based on statistics of Eurostat and the IEA. Policy instruments promoting bioelectricity and the framework factors on the national level in each EU Member State (excluding Cyprus and Malta) were investigated using the EU and governmental documents, independent evaluations and expert contacts as information sources. It became clear that determination of the effectiveness of policy instruments cannot be separated from the environment these mechanisms are applied to: mapping of the frame conditions for development is essential. Instead of selecting distinct policy instruments, successful Member State/bioelectricity combinations were chosen. The most successful combinations were found to be Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Finland, whereas examples of unsuccessful measures were found in Greece, Luxembourg and the new Member States. Bioelectricity has clearly benefited from feed-in tariff system in countries like Germany but the use of biomass has essentially increased even without this measure in Sweden and Finland, where favourable taxation and strong links between forestry and power industries are defining factors for positive development. This study

  20. Development and implementation of integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomov, E.; Nenkova, B.

    2013-01-01

    Risk Engineering Ltd is a private Bulgarian company in the field of scientific technical consultancy and engineering services, established in 1990. The aim of this report is to present the experience of Risk Engineering Ltd. in the development, implementation and operation of an integrated management system. The process of implementation of the system was completed at the end of 2011. In January 2012, the Risk Engineering Integrated Management System was certified by Lloyd's Register for compliance with standards ISO 9001:2008, ISO 140001:2004 and BS OHSAS 18001:2007

  1. FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATION OF LIABILITIES FOR TAXES AND DUTIES UNDER CIRCUMSTANCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Murovana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main problems of accounting organization of liabilities for taxes and duties under current complicated economic and environmental conditions were investigated. Measures for improving tax calculation reflecting, environmental tax and other environmental liabilities in accounting, tax and financial reporting in order to simplify the accounting process, improve organization of business activities, ensure implementation of environmental policy balance were developed.

  2. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  3. Assessment of school wellness policies implementation by benchmarking against diffusion of innovation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriger, Dinah; Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Pruitt, Buzz E; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The School Wellness Policy (SWP) mandate marks one of the first innovative and extensive efforts of the US government to address the child obesity epidemic and the influence of the school environment on child health. However, no systematic review has been conducted to examine the implementation of the mandate. The study examines the literature on SWP implementation by using the Diffusion of Innovations Theory as a framework. Empirically based literature on SWP was systematically searched and analyzed. A theory-driven approach was used to categorize the articles by 4 diffusion stages: restructuring/redefining, clarifying, routinizing, and multiple stages. Twenty-one studies were identified, and 3 key characteristics of the reviewed literature were captured: (1) uniformity in methodology, (2) role of context in analyzing policy implementation, and (3) lack of information related to policy clarification. Over half of the studies were published by duplicate set of authors, and only 1 study employed a pure qualitative methodology. Only 2 articles include an explicit theoretical framework to study theory-driven constructs related to SWP implementation. Policy implementation research can inform the policy process. Therefore, it is essential that policy implementation is measured accurately. Failing to clearly define implementation constructs may result in misguided conclusion. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  4. Towards Developing an Entrepreneurship Policy for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the background information to the national entrepreneurship policy statement and sets out a blueprint to drive entrepreneurship. A vision for an entrepreneurial society is established and measures to further improve the environment for entrepreneurship are outlined. The report looks at a number of key issues in detail and identifies areas for further development in improving the entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurship in the education system and entrepreneurial activity...

  5. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  6. Immediate challenge of combating climate change: Effective implementation of energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvaj, Zoran; Bukarica, Vesna

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. Therefore, it is the focus of energy and climate change policies world wide. The results of these policies are still missing in the desired extent, even in the EU, which has the most advanced energy efficiency policy. The main reason behind this policy failure is a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake. Embracing full-scale energy management systems in public and business sectors and mobilisation of and cooperation between all stakeholders are the way towards higher efficiency.

  7. Implementing Indigenous Education Policy Directives in Ontario Public Schools: Experiences, Challenges and Successful Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Milne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ontario Ministry of Education has declared a commitment to Indigenous student success and has advanced a policy framework that articulates inclusion of Indigenous content in schooling curriculum (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2007. What are the perceptions among educators and parents regarding the implementation of policy directives, and what is seen to encourage or limit meaningful implementation? To answer these questions, this article draws on interviews with 100 Indigenous (mainly Haudenosaunee, Anishinaabe, and Métis and non-Indigenous parents and educators from Ontario Canada. Policy directives are seen to benefit Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. Interviews also reveal challenges to implementing Indigenous curricular policy, such as unawareness and intimidation among non-Indigenous educators regarding how to teach material. Policy implications are considered.

  8. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  9. U.S. weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective

  10. A Policy Analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuya Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Methods Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. Results The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. Conclusions OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government’s role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for

  11. A policy analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Timothy; Njuki, Rebecca; Warren, Charlotte E; Okal, Jerry; Obare, Francis; Kanya, Lucy; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2012-07-23

    Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA) have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW) implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government's role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for opportunities to utilize existing platforms to scale up such

  12. Indirect policy instruments and implementation success: the Case of the Food Subsidy Programme in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvani-Silva, Flavia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world face the dilemma of limited resources and increasingly tighter fiscal targets on one hand, and, on the other hand, growing pressure to deliver quality public services. The situation is particularly problematic in developing countries where the gap between resources available and demand for basic public services is much wider. Government policies, plans, targets, such as the Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, often remain on paper or are partially and poorly implemented for lack of resources and institutional frameworks that are weak and outmoded. In this context, governments have been searching for alternatives and experimenting with new approaches to bridge this gap and put their policies into effect. Many of the new approaches and tools being used by governments share a significant common feature: they are highly indirect, that is, they rely on third parties to deliver publicly services and pursue publicly authorized purposes - these include contracting, grants, vouchers, loan guarantees among many others. As a result, third parties are now intimately involved in the implementation, and often the management, of the public´s business and a major share of the discretion over the operations of public programmes now routinely rests outside the responsible government agency (Salamon 2002.

  13. Non-Standard Monetary Policies Implemented By The European Central Bank After The Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Filiz Baştürk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis which began in the U.S. in 2007 influenced all economies on a global scale followingthe collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. As a response to the crisis, central banksstarted to implement non-standard monetary policy tools as well as short-term interest rates alsoknown as standard policy tools in order to help monetary policy transmission channels work effectively.The European Central Bank (ECB implemented non-standard monetary policies as in additionto the standard policy tools during this period. The non-standard monetary policies introducedby the ECB were different from those implemented by other central banks (Fed, Bank of England interms of implementation and results. Firstly, the policies of the ECB were not specific to one singlecountry. Secondly, the banking system was the major source of finance in Europe, which had an impacton the policies. In this regard, the ECB introduced a policy of enhanced credit support consistingof five main elements in order to maintain price stability over the medium term following the crisis.By 2010, public debt in some member countries of the European Union reached high levels, requiringthem to take additional measures. The Securities Markets Programme was introduced to that end.Initially focusing on the debt securities of Greece, Ireland, and Portugal, the Securities Markets Programmewas expanded in August 2011 to cover the debt securities of Italy and Spain. In addition, twoLong-term Refinancing Operations (LTROs were introduced. This article presents a descriptive analysisof the non-standard monetary policy tools introduced by the ECB following the financial crisis.However, the monetary policy implemented in the Euro zone is not specific to one single country, andevery country has a different financial structure, both of which limit the effectiveness of the policiesimplemented. The changing structure of the monetary policy implemented in the aftermath of the crisisaims to

  14. Liquidity regulation and the implementation of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Morten L. Bech; Todd Keister

    2013-01-01

    In addition to revamping existing rules for bank capital, Basel III introduces a new global framework for liquidity regulation. One part of this framework is the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), which requires banks to hold sufficient high-quality liquid assets to survive a 30-day period of market stress. As monetary policy typically involves targeting the interest rate on loans of one of these assets — central bank reserves — it is important to understand how this regulation may impact the ef...

  15. The development and implementation of a waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhall, G.A.; Vickery, P.; Edmiston, L.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past forty years BNFL has operated 4 nuclear sites in the UK. Commercial operations on these sites span the full nuclear fuel cycle from enrichment, fuel fabrication, electricity generation, reprocessing, waste management, and decommissioning. Through the recent merger with Magnox Electric BNFL has acquired a further 8 Magnox reactor sites in the UK. Prior to 1980 BNFL adopted a policy of storing wastes generated by its activities in an unconditioned state in purpose built stores. This paper shows how BNFL's waste management strategy has developed to ensure how volume reduction technologies have been implemented for low level waste. Whilst immobilisation technologies have been implemented for high and intermediate level wastes. The paper describes how continual review of the strategy ensures waste management processes are continually monitored against progress and optimised to ensure all waste arisings are conditioned for final disposal. Finally the paper will show how the strategy can be used to develop waste management plans for customer sites. (author)

  16. Implementation of Monetary Policy: How Do Central Banks Set Interest Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin M. Friedman; Kenneth N. Kuttner

    2010-01-01

    Central banks no longer set the short-term interest rates that they use for monetary policy purposes by manipulating the supply of banking system reserves, as in conventional economics textbooks; today this process involves little or no variation in the supply of central bank liabilities. In effect, the announcement effect has displaced the liquidity effect as the fulcrum of monetary policy implementation. The chapter begins with an exposition of the traditional view of the implementation of ...

  17. Awareness, Facilitators, and Barriers to Policy Implementation Related to Obesity Prevention for Primary School Children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah

    2018-03-01

    To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.

  18. An Unfinished Experiment: Ambiguity and Conflict in the Implementation of Higher Skills Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The higher skills policy of the UK New Labour Government emerged from the recommendations of the Leitch Review of Skills, and was implemented in England between 2007 and 2010. The policy aimed to encourage higher education (HE) institutions to engage with employers and employer representative bodies to design and deliver HE provision that…

  19. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  20. Researching implementation of formative assessment in different educational cultures in order to change educational policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from a four year international research project, Assess Inquiry in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (ASSIST-ME) involving 10 partners in 8 European countries (http://assistme.ku.dk/), running 2012-2016. The project combines research on implementation of innovative ...... assessment methods with a policy aspect in order to influence educational policy....

  1. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  2. Performing Compliance: The Work of Local Policy Workers during the Implementation of National Health Promotion Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmelmann, Camila Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how the local policy workers front-staged some…

  3. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to

  4. From Policies to Implementation of Open Distance Learning in Rwanda: A Genealogical and Governmentality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Evode

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the interplay between policy formulation and implementation in terms of the historical practices of open distance learning (ODL) in Rwanda. This paper draws on the Foucauldian genealogical and governmentality analysis. The paper examines government aspirations as depicted in policy statements starting from…

  5. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.; Goldberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  6. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...

  7. The application of municipal renewable energy policies at community level in Denmark: A taxonomy of implementation challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of national renewable energy targets requires policies at the local level. Communities are considered as key arenas of transforming policies into actions, where technical configurations intersect with socioeconomic interests. Local governments put great efforts into developing...... and applying energy strategies. Although many frontrunner projects are well-documented, insufficient attention is paid to the average-performing municipalities that are challenged in linking technical energy scenarios with socioeconomic realities. The following implementation gap between national policy...... and local practice leads to a non-attainment of national energy targets. This paper analyses the Strategic Energy Plans (SEP) of 17 Danish municipalities based on their development, scope, and inclusion of local communities. As a synopsis, the main technical, physical, organizational and socioeconomic...

  8. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  9. Comments on "Women, Development Planning and Government Policies in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary on Shahnaz and Bilquees Raza's paper on women in development in Pakistan is supportive of the content analysis of the Sixth and Seventh 5-Year Plans and policies, but critical of the methods used n the analysis. The parallel to survey research methods was made in that there was a specification of 1) the unit of analysis (reference to each policy measure, each chapter, each page of the plan), 2) the rationale for the plan, 3) specific objectives of the examination, and 4) the criteria for analysis. Missing also was the identification of policy trends from the Fourth and Fifth 5-Year Plans. The question is never answered as to why gender issues were not directed to the agricultural sector. The conclusion that there was a hugh gap between intentions and implementation was an issue not unique to women's issues, and a deeper analysis may have been required in order to understand the nature and magnitude of the gaps for women's policies and their productive roles. Questions should have been directed to the issues of the root causes of gaps in planning and implementation of policies and programs for women in development, and the identification of quantitative and qualitative indicators of gaps. Questions arise as to whether the gaps have changed with changes in the strength of political and social will in various decades. Recognition was given by the authors to the low budget allocations between 1955 and 1970 to education and health which affected both men and women, but there was scant mention of the strong social, not political, will to enhance women's welfare prevalent at this time. Information was lacking on the differences between the Sixth and Seventh sectoral plans for agricultural employment and women and the working groups plans that did include women in agricultural employment; the question is why the working plans were not incorporated into the final plans, and why the working groups did not protest this omission. The lack of political and social

  10. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  12. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to eliminate plastic shopping bags from South Africa's environment has resulted in the formation and implementation of the Plastic Carrier Bags and Plastics Flat Bags Regulations (hereafter referred to as the Plastic Bags Regulations).The new law requires manufacturers to produce thicker, reusable and ...

  13. Policy implementation lessons from six road pricing cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Annema, J.A.; Wee, B. van

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing has been limited worldwide despite the notion that road pricing is generally considered to be a potentially effective measure to reduce externalities, in particular traffic congestion. By means of a content analysis of 106 scientific papers, this paper aims to

  14. Towards implementing a records management policy at the National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of a proposed ... good governance in all business operations at NUST, the study sought to establish ... Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches data were collected using ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  15. 76 FR 63763 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... sensitive resources; or involving genetically engineered organisms, unless the proposed activity would be... category, and three environmental impact statement categories. Other changes modify and clarify DOE's... document, ``existing rule'' refers to DOE's current NEPA implementing regulations (as last modified in 2003...

  16. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  17. From Policy to Practice: A South-African Perspective on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Sigamoney

    2007-01-01

    The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…

  18. IAEA safeguards instrumentation: Development, implementation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive development efforts over the last 5 years have produced a number of new instruments to help the IAEA meet its safeguards obligations. Implementation of these new instruments is proceeding at a necessarily slower pace. To optimize the performance and reliability of the instrumentation systems when used in safeguards applications, increasing attention is needed to be spent on performance monitoring and control of the instruments. (author)

  19. Nigeria: Positioning Rural Economy for Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Michael Okunola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as nation has over the years engaged in lots of developmental activities without actions which makes achievements to elude the people. Development of societies doesn’t happen in the vacuum. Thus, the adoption of Structural Adjustment Program, SAP, by Nigeria leading to the neglect of the custom periodic National Plan at a time when Nigeria had no structure for development was the beginning of journey to widened inequality and large poverty incidence, depth and severity. To close the gap between the rich and the poor, the Nigeria government had designed and implemented some programs and policies whose implementation has not solved the inherent problems. In year 2000, the world leaders subscribed to the Millennium Development Goals to ensure synergized global approach to solving the poverty menace. Programs designed in Nigeria to achieve the MDGs focused on the urban centers thereby relegating the rural areas which are responsible for the feeding of the teeming population of the urban dwellers. Farming households and the general rural communities do not have access to clean water, quality education and health facilities, good feeder roads, affordable and safe energy as well as other socioeconomic and socio-infrastructural facilities that would ensure sustainable living for the people whose contribution to the national economy cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore looks at the structural actions the Nigeria government should embarked upon to ensure that the rural dweller have access to life. As the government would be developing programs and policies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals whose priority is the end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030, this study reveals how to position the rural economy for developmental attention from the policy makers.

  20. MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on variety of impacts that tourism poses over national economies, each country is interested in supporting its development. Moreover, everyone urges measures for increasing the number of tourists who are eager in meeting their travel and tourism preferences. Since the motive for tourism flows lies in natural or cultural background, it is necessary to find solutions for enhancing such basis. This paper supports the fact that tourism development may not be addressed if environment is neglected. For that purpose, the research is focused on environmental policy as a precondition for preserving safe and sound grounds for tourism development. In this respect, the case of Macedonia is investigated with its corpus of environmental laws being in a state of approximation with the ‘horizontal’ legislation of the European Union. So, the contribution of this paper lies in the fact that provides overview and facts at glance not only on the environmental protection legislation in Macedonia, but on the constitutional regulation as well. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis for obtaining national environmental legislation fully in line with already established international standards. Hence, one may argue that environmental policy provides basis and legal opportunities for strengthening tourism development.

  1. The Policy of Principals Regarding the Implementations of Library School in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Arya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation‟s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of  principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in  schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act  No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The reseach was conducted in 6 schools and the quuesionnare was distributed to 6 prinsipals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out og 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.

  2. The Policy of Principals Regarding the Implementations of Library School in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Arya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation’s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The research was conducted in 6 schools and the questionnaire was distributed to 6 principals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out of 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.

  3. USDA Snack Policy Implementation: Best Practices From the Front Lines, United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Chriqui, Jamie; Chavez, Noel; Odoms-Young, Angela; Handler, Arden

    2016-06-16

    The Smart Snacks in Schools interim final rule was promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (PL 111-296) and implementation commenced beginning July 1, 2014; however, in the years leading up to this deadline, national studies suggested that most schools were far from meeting the USDA standards. Evidence to guide successful implementation of the standards is needed. This study examined snack policy implementation in exemplary high schools to learn best practices for implementation. Guided by a multiple case study approach, school professionals (n = 37) from 9 high schools across 8 states were recruited to be interviewed about perceptions of school snack implementation; schools were selected using criterion sampling on the basis of the HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) database. Interview transcripts and internal documents were organized and coded in ATLAS.Ti v7; 2 researchers coded and analyzed data using a constant comparative analysis method to identify best practice themes. Best practices for snack policy implementation included incorporating the HUSSC: SL award's comprehensive wellness approach; leveraging state laws or district policies to reinforce snack reform initiatives; creating strong internal and external partnerships; and crafting positive and strategic communications. Implementation of snack policies requires evidence of successful experiences from those on the front lines. As federal, state, and local technical assistance entities work to ensure implementation of the Smart Snacks standards, these best practices provide strategies to facilitate the process.

  4. An interoperable architecture and principles for implementing strategy and policy in operational processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's economy managers expect new strategies and policies to be implemented quickly. Yet practice shows that current systems are not able to implement changes within a short time frame. Nowadays a variety of technologies including semantic web services, business rules and software agents are

  5. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  6. Evaluation of implementation viability gap funding (VGF) policy on toll road investment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Iris; Tamin, Rizal Z.; Pribadi, Krishna S.; Wibowo, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    VGF policy for toll road investment in Indonesia must be reviewed. Since 2012 the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has issued viability gap funding (VGF) policy for PPP infrastructure project through ministry of finance decision (PMK) No.223/2012. One of VGF purpose is to improve the financial feasibility. In the toll road investment in Indonesia, the implementation of this policy has some problems. This study aimed to evaluate the policy by seeking implementation constraints so can be given an alternative. This research was conducted qualitatively, included aspects of implementation process VGF policy. The analysis process is based on literature study and in-depth interviews to related parties include business entity, ministry of finance, and the ministry of public works, Indonesia Toll Road Authority (BPJT) and professional societies. The literature review conducted by reviewing existing policies and best practices in countries that already practice VGF. The conclusion of this study are 1) There is a conflict of regulation in viability gap funding (VGF) for toll road investment in Indonesia; 2) If Government of Indonesia (GOI) want implement construction grant as VGF, so the regulation must improve in time limited for submission and clearly define limited given in regulation; 3) If GOI want implement partial construction as VGF, so the regulation must be improve in guideline for submission and given.

  7. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  8. Safety policy for nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    The report discusses various aspects of the safety policy for nuclear power development in Japan. Nuclear power development over three decades in Japan has led to operating performance which is highly safe and reliable. This has been appreciated internationally. Discussed here is the Japanese basic safety policy for nuclear power development that is essential first to design, manufacture and construction using high technology. The current careful quality assurance and reliable operation management by skilled operators are relied upon, on the basis of the fact that measures to prevent abnormal events are given first priority rather than those to mitigate consequences of abnormal events or accidents. Lessons learned from accidents and failures within or outside Japan such as the TMI accident and Chernobyl accident have been reflected in the improvement of safety through careful and thorough examinations of them. For further improvement in nuclear safety, deliberate studies and investigations on severe accidents and probabilistic safety assessment are considered to be important. Such efforts are currently being promoted. For this purpose, it is important to advance international cooperation and continue technical exchanges, based on operation experience in nuclear power stations in Japan. (Nogami, K.)

  9. A snapshot of cancer in Chile:Analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy

    OpenAIRE

    De Jimenez La Jara, Jorge; Bastias, Gabriel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Moscoso, Cristian; Sagues, Sofia; Cid, Camilo; Bronstein, Eduardo; Herrera, Cristian; Nervi, Bruno; Corvalan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Ethel V.; Gonzalez, Pamela; Castellon, Enrique; Bustamante, Eva; Oñate, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. Objectives: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impa...

  10. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of citi...

  11. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of cities in Slovenia.

  12. Understanding development trajectories for biotechnology governance frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa: the policy kinetics model

    OpenAIRE

    Mugwagwa, Julius; King'Iri, Ann; Muraguri, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Using case studies on development and implementation of biotechnology governance frameworks in four African countries, we introduce and build the case for a policy kinetics (PK) approach to analysing and unpacking complex policy processes. The PK approach proposes a comprehensive approach to understanding how various ‘pieces of the policy puzzle’ interact in arenas to facilitate or constrain attainment of desired outputs. Borrowing from reaction kinetics in chemistry, which is the study of ra...

  13. The Influence Of Policy Implementation From The Change Of Institutional Status Toward Quality Of Patient Service In Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Kusnadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fenomenon and comunity problem in goverment hospital management not aware to wont and need public. Silent safety and consumen satisfaction is fenomenon lack quallity care. Goal this research goal for analysis about influence of policy implementation of hospital change institution status to the quality of patien service in Hospital. Kind of reserch is the quantity desain on approach the eksplanatory survey research analysis regresi linier multipel with analysis method validitas product moment pearson exam and reliability exam is alpha cronbach technique to hypotesis exam is path analysis and statistic exam t. Datum transformation is Skala Likert with measurement the method succesive interval. The population one thausand seventh two person with sample technique stratified random sampling the instrument research is quesioner and interview patien on caunter imforman. The result of assuming research that it is anticipated that implementation of change policy of institution status of hospital X there is significant influence to quality of service of patient Y is 66.31 and the other factor e is 33.69. In the implementation factor is significant to positif influence to quality service is communication X1 is 049 human resources X2 is 025 disposition X3 is 032 and structure birocratic X4 is 033. The conculsion from four factor independen variable X is the implementation of policy to quality service patient Y to influence and can receive in knowledge. To concept the development in implementation of policy need culture job factor because every product policy to contac direct with the community as to basic public policy.

  14. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  15. Policy Implementation Study on Spatial Planning for Environmental Conflict (Study Location: Rembang Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusyuniadi, Indraya

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to see the impact and benefits as an outcome of a policy, where this policy is in the form of spatial planning (Regional Planning). As known RTRW is a product that can be regarded as "the book of development" in every region both in the provincial and regional levels. One of them is as a decision tool for investors (investors) in increasing local development investment, spatial planning (RTRW) is also expected to maintain the environment, in order to support the sustainability of regional development. In reality, there are still many conflicts of interest in the implementation process of regional development, especially between economic and environmental interests. Often the interests of regional sustainability are placed at a lower level (less priority) than investment / economy. Land conversion that is inconsistent with district / city spatial planning RTRW is relatively still occurring, especially for economic purposes. Lack of policy called spatial plan in this case RTRW Province and Regency in responding to existing condition in field. How can a product that is said to be "Scripture" a regional planning is powerless in fulfilling the space for investment in the form of industry, commercial, housing and so forth. There are several results that can be concluded in this study. Basically, the importance of the environment at least can be used as the basis or priority of the main decision makers above economic interests and other politic interests. The current Spatial Plan / RTRW document still holds a big question whether at the time of compilation it follows the norms and rules in a plan (data accuracy, through input process from the community).

  16. Policy Implementation Study on Spatial Planning for Environmental Conflict (Study Location: Rembang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusyuniadi Indraya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to see the impact and benefits as an outcome of a policy, where this policy is in the form of spatial planning (Regional Planning. As known RTRW is a product that can be regarded as "the book of development" in every region both in the provincial and regional levels. One of them is as a decision tool for investors (investors in increasing local development investment, spatial planning (RTRW is also expected to maintain the environment, in order to support the sustainability of regional development. In reality, there are still many conflicts of interest in the implementation process of regional development, especially between economic and environmental interests. Often the interests of regional sustainability are placed at a lower level (less priority than investment / economy. Land conversion that is inconsistent with district / city spatial planning RTRW is relatively still occurring, especially for economic purposes. Lack of policy called spatial plan in this case RTRW Province and Regency in responding to existing condition in field. How can a product that is said to be "Scripture" a regional planning is powerless in fulfilling the space for investment in the form of industry, commercial, housing and so forth. There are several results that can be concluded in this study. Basically, the importance of the environment at least can be used as the basis or priority of the main decision makers above economic interests and other politic interests. The current Spatial Plan / RTRW document still holds a big question whether at the time of compilation it follows the norms and rules in a plan (data accuracy, through input process from the community.

  17. Policy Diversity as an Engine of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2004-06-01

    policy diversity to operate as a means to foster economic development; that there might be a paradigmatic cycle in the dynamic of economic policies

  18. National public health policy in a local context--implementation in two Swedish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Elisabeth; Fosse, Elisabeth; Tillgren, Per

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the wide-ranging Swedish National Public Health Policy (SNPHP), with a focus on health determinants, was adopted by the Swedish parliament. In the context of multilevel governance, SNPHP implementation is dependent on self-governed municipalities and counties. The aim of the study is, from a municipal perspective, to investigate public-health policies in two municipalities. Content analysis of documents and interviews provided a foundation for an explorative case study. The SNPHP at national level is overriding but politically controversial. At local level, a health-determinants perspective was detectable in the policies implemented, but none regarding to health equality. At local level, the SNPHP is not regarded as implementable; rather, limited parts have, to varying degrees, been reconciled with local public-health goals, according to municipal needs and conditions. A success-promoting factor in the two municipalities was the presence of committed and knowledgeable actors/implementers. Also, the municipality with a more centrally controlled and stable party-political leadership succeeded better in implementing structural and intersectoral community-wide policies for coordinated local health promotion. The contents of national and local public-health policies differ, and municipalities that have implemented their own local health policies do not seem to regard the SNPHP as justifiable or adoptable. If the SNPHP overall aim regarding equal health is to be achieved homogeneously in Swedish municipalities, its contents and purpose need clearer management and negotiation, so that implementation of the national policy locally is understandable and motivated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahman, Max

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles, the effect of government programmes, and the importance of technical flexibility in government support schemes. The focus is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a systems approach drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy including R and D, demonstration programmes and market support guided by long-term strategic plans. The role of the Government has been that of a conductor in the development process supplying both R and D support and artificially created niche markets, and easing the way for targeted technologies by means of legislation and standards. Despite this, the targeted technology (the BPEV) has not been established on the market. However, the recent market success of the HEV can partly be attributed to the government support of the BPEV technology. The enabling component, the electric drivetrain, was developed for automotive use within the BPEV programmes offered by the MITI. This technology was later utilised in the HEV. The history of BPEVs in Japan demonstrates that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Despite a sustained and ambitious policy by the MITI, the development of alternative vehicles never unfolded according to plan. The success factors for policy seem more related to technology specific features than the particular policy style. Our conclusion is that flexibility, adaptability and cooperation in terms of technical choice is necessary in policy. This increases the chances of a technology

  20. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Technology Development: From Idea to Implementation - 12131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires, Renee H. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    integrated into complicated flow sheets. Then fully informed decisions can be made to usher technology development ideas through project implementation. Examples from active technology development projects, Tank 48 Treatment and Enhanced Chemical Cleaning, are presented. This model for technology development integrates several tools and activities to provide a logical method for maturing new ideas and technologies. It provides a framework to develop a good idea into a full up design/build project. This model defines a set of integrated tasks to mature the technology and define scope, cost and schedule necessary to make business decisions for implementing technology development. (authors)

  4. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  5. Integrating guideline development and implementation: analysis of guideline development manual instructions for generating implementation advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines are important tools that inform healthcare delivery based on best available research evidence. Guideline use is in part based on quality of the guidelines, which includes advice for implementation and has been shown to vary. Others hypothesized this is due to limited instructions in guideline development manuals. The purpose of this study was to examine manual instructions for implementation advice. Methods We used a directed and summative content analysis approach based on an established framework of guideline implementability. Six manuals identified by another research group were examined to enumerate implementability domains and elements. Results Manuals were similar in content but lacked sufficient detail in particular domains. Most frequently this was Accomodation, which includes information that would help guideline users anticipate and/or overcome organizational and system level barriers. In more than one manual, information was also lacking for Communicability, information that would educate patients or facilitate their involvement in shared decision making, and Applicability, or clinical parameters to help clinicians tailor recommendations for individual patients. Discussion Most manuals that direct guideline development lack complete information about incorporating implementation advice. These findings can be used by those who developed the manuals to consider expanding their content in these domains. It can also be used by guideline developers as they plan the content and implementation of their guidelines so that the two are integrated. New approaches for guideline development and implementation may need to be developed. Use of guidelines might be improved if they included implementation advice, but this must be evaluated through ongoing research.

  6. Innovation through conservation : public sector leadership in policy, education and implementation of true change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, V. [St. Lawrence College, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a newly proposed working model aimed at saving large amounts of energy through conservation, to the point that it would eliminate the need for any immediate new energy production capacity. In particular, the model proposed that the public sector should lead in the areas of policy, education and implementation of energy conservation strategies. Ontario's St. Lawrence College was provided as an example of what can be accomplished when an educational agenda promotes conservation and renewable energies as part of the mainstream. It was emphasized that hydro and other renewables offer opportunities in real time, on a much more rapid timeline, and are much safer than coal, fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The measures needed to achieve broad educational curricula in elementary, secondary and post-secondary institutions to support conservation strategies were discussed along with the need to create partnerships for the successful development of such ideas. Educational concepts adopted by other jurisdictions were also reviewed. The availability of trained technical personnel is perceived as a basis for successful deployment of renewable energies. It was noted that Ontario has a shortage of approximately 1000 engineers and maintenance technicians needed to achieve its target of 10,000 MW renewables by 2010. Therefore, training initiatives must work in cooperation with establishing market and policy incentives. It was concluded that a broad commitment to conservation and alternative energy generation by both the public and government sectors, would push the agenda forward. It was emphasized that the agenda should consider the dual holistic view of conservation and alternative energies that will provide the greatest benefit to the environment, businesses and homes. A strong focus on public policy and education is needed, starting with public awareness and integration of renewable energies and policies into all levels of educational curricula. 8 refs

  7. Implementing parallel spreadsheet models for health policy decisions: The impact of unintentional errors on model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie L; Bono, Rose S; Nash, Denis; Kimmel, April D

    2018-01-01

    Spreadsheet software is increasingly used to implement systems science models informing health policy decisions, both in academia and in practice where technical capacity may be limited. However, spreadsheet models are prone to unintentional errors that may not always be identified using standard error-checking techniques. Our objective was to illustrate, through a methodologic case study analysis, the impact of unintentional errors on model projections by implementing parallel model versions. We leveraged a real-world need to revise an existing spreadsheet model designed to inform HIV policy. We developed three parallel versions of a previously validated spreadsheet-based model; versions differed by the spreadsheet cell-referencing approach (named single cells; column/row references; named matrices). For each version, we implemented three model revisions (re-entry into care; guideline-concordant treatment initiation; immediate treatment initiation). After standard error-checking, we identified unintentional errors by comparing model output across the three versions. Concordant model output across all versions was considered error-free. We calculated the impact of unintentional errors as the percentage difference in model projections between model versions with and without unintentional errors, using +/-5% difference to define a material error. We identified 58 original and 4,331 propagated unintentional errors across all model versions and revisions. Over 40% (24/58) of original unintentional errors occurred in the column/row reference model version; most (23/24) were due to incorrect cell references. Overall, >20% of model spreadsheet cells had material unintentional errors. When examining error impact along the HIV care continuum, the percentage difference between versions with and without unintentional errors ranged from +3% to +16% (named single cells), +26% to +76% (column/row reference), and 0% (named matrices). Standard error-checking techniques may not

  8. Implementing and developing cloud computing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarna, David E Y

    2010-01-01

    From small start-ups to major corporations, companies of all sizes have embraced cloud computing for the scalability, reliability, and cost benefits it can provide. It has even been said that cloud computing may have a greater effect on our lives than the PC and dot-com revolutions combined.Filled with comparative charts and decision trees, Implementing and Developing Cloud Computing Applications explains exactly what it takes to build robust and highly scalable cloud computing applications in any organization. Covering the major commercial offerings available, it provides authoritative guidan

  9. Strategies for developing and implementing specialized training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous strategies can be used to develop and implement specialized training. In order to achieve effective specialized training, however, two items are especially critical: use of a systematic approach and sensitiwity towards a good needs analysis. Sensitivity towards these items includes involving representatives of the target population in all phases of training, identifying student characteristics and their impact on training setting and delivery, preparing a scope document that addresses the terminal and enabling objectives of training in terms understandable to the customer, and emphasizing flexibility in the use of alternative training delivery methods and training resources. Increasing sensitivity towards these factors will increase participant satisfaction and the ultimate use of the training provided

  10. EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage.

  11. Development of Taiwanese government’s climate policy after the Kyoto protocol: Applying policy network theory as an analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2014-01-01

    Given its limited involvement in and recognition by international organizations, Taiwan is not presently a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this study is to analyze how and the extent to which changes in an exogenous factor, namely the Kyoto Protocol and Post-Kyoto climate negotiations, affect and ultimately lead to the formulation of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. This study applies policy network theory to examine the development of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. The results demonstrate that international climate agreements and negotiations play a key role in the development of, changes to, and transformation of Taiwan's climate policy. Scarce evidence was found in this study to demonstrate that domestic or internal factors affect climate change policy. Despite its lack of participation in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has adopted national climate change strategies, action plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, these climate policies and measures are fairly passive and aim to only conform to the minimal requirements for developing countries under international climate agreements and negotiations. This process results in inconsistent and variable climate policies, targets, and regulations. - Highlights: • Taiwan is not a signatory to the UNFCCC or its Kyoto Protocol. • International climate agreements strongly affected Taiwan's climate policy. • Little evidence was found that domestic factors affect Taiwan's climate policy. • New climate policies, regulations, and laws are formulated and implemented. • Climate policies, targets, and regulations change frequently and are inconsistent

  12. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sustainable tourism development on Curacao - the implementation challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.; Brebbia, C.A; Pineda, F.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 1997, a comprehensive policy program for sustainable tourism was adopted by the Netherlands Antilles government. This paper is empirically-oriented and analyses the implementation of two measures of this policy on one of the five islands, Curaçao, for the period 1998-2005. It investigates the

  14. A glossary of terms for understanding political aspects in the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneka, Goldameir; Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Muntaner, Carles; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Mahabir, Deb Finn; Freiler, Alix; O'Campo, Patricia; Shankardass, Ketan

    2017-08-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process. Thus, studies that aim to 'build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP' abound. Conversely, there is little emphasis on the political aspects of HiAP implementation. Neglecting the role of politics in shaping the use of HiAP is problematic, since health and the strategies by which it is promoted are partially political.This glossary addresses the politics gap in the existing literature by drawing on theoretical concepts from political, policy, and public health sciences to articulate a framework for studying how political mechanisms influence HiAP implementation. To this end, the glossary forms part of an on-going multiple explanatory case study of HiAP implementation, HARMONICS (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods on International Case Studies, harmonics-hiap.ca), and is meant to expand on a previously published glossary addressing the topic of HiAP implementation more broadly. Collectively, these glossaries offer a conceptual toolkit for understanding how politics explains implementation outcomes of HiAP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  16. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM; and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP. This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model.We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy; Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs; and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals. Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data.Five main findings emerged from our research: (1 Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s for hospital funding reform; (2 Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3 Perception of the primary goal(s of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4 Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains

  17. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Evans, Jenna M; Marani, Husayn; Russell, Kirstie K; Martin, Danielle; Ivers, Noah M

    2018-01-01

    As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM); and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP). This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model. We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy); Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs); and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals). Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data. Five main findings emerged from our research: (1) Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s) for hospital funding reform; (2) Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3) Perception of the primary goal(s) of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4) Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains misunderstood; and

  18. The implementation of language policy: The case of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossío, Consuelo Yánez

    1991-03-01

    Ecuador is implementing a programme of indigenous bilingual intercultural education. Work began systematically in 1978 through a research centre of the Catholic University, and throughout the 1980s the government has become increasingly committed to the principle of indigenous education. In 1980 agreement was reached on a common alphabet for all indigenous languages. In the same year the government accepted that vernacular languages might be used for education, and the "Macac" educational model was devised by the Catholic University's research centre. By 1984 there were 300 bilingual primary schools, but the government then suspended its experiment. This was restored four years later, with the addition of secondary education and teacher training colleges. What is stressed by NGOs active in promoting indigenous education is not only its use of vernacular languages, but the need for intercultural exchange, recognizing in a modified curriculum the cultural values of the indigenous population and their socioeconomic reality. This change has not been understood by all government agencies, although a new Directorate for Bilingual Intercultural Education was established in 1988 to provide education for people of all ages in indigenous communities. The traditional Spanish-language formal education system has exercised a restricting influence on innovation, and the response of the dominant Spanish-speaking majority has generally been indifference.

  19. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Trappel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  20. Canada's implementation of the Paragraph 6 Decision: is it sustainable public policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosio Andre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health, Canada was among the first countries globally to amend its patent law, which resulted in Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR. CAMR allows the production and export of generic drugs to developing countries without the requisite manufacturing capacity to undertake a domestic compulsory license. CAMR has been the subject of much criticism lodged at its inability to ensure fast access to urgent medicines for least developing and developing countries in need. Only recently did the Canadian government grant Apotex the compulsory licenses required under CAMR to produce and export antiretroviral therapy to Rwanda's population. Methods The objective of this research is to investigate whether the CAMR can feasibly achieve its humanitarian objectives given the political interests embedded in the crafting of the legislation. We used a political economy framework to analyze the effect of varied institutions, political processes, and economic interests on public policy outcomes. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nineteen key stakeholders from government, civil society and industry. Qualitative data analysis was performed using open-coding for themes, analyzing by stakeholder group. Results CAMR is removed from the realities of developing countries and the pharmaceutical market. The legislation needs to include commercial incentives to galvanize the generic drug industry to make use of this legislation. CAMR assumes that developing country governments have the requisite knowledge and human resource capacity to make use of the regime, which is not the case. The legislation does not offer sufficient incentives for countries to turn to Canada when needed drugs may be procured cheaply from countries such as India. In the long term, developing and least developing countries seek sustainable solutions to meet the health

  1. Non-Implementation of road pricing policy in the Netherlands : An application of the "advocacy coalition framework"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardic, O.; Annema, J.A.; van Wee, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing policies is dependent on political support for the policy. It is frequently argued that many pricing proposals fail to be implemented due to the opposition of one or a group of policy actors (e.g. political parties, interest groups). This study considers this issue

  2. Possibilities And Limitations In The Implementation Of The Policy For Men's Health In Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio William Brito de Azevedo Ramalho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the possibilities and limitations to implement the National Policy for Integrated Healthcare in Human Primary João Pessoa - Paraíba. Method: An exploratory study with a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from September 2010 to February 2011. The study subjects were 12 nurses who engage in Integrated Health Units in João Pessoa-Paraíba. Results: In the treatment of the results we used the Content Analysis of Bardin. All respondents were female, aged 28-43 years, operating time of 7-12 years and most have expertise. The research affirms the occurrence of major deficits in the perception of health professionals regarding the implementation of the policy. Conclusion: The limits revealed require actions by users, professionals and management, so that policy becomes a reality in everyday primary care. Descriptors: Primary Health Care; Health Policy; Men's Health. Nursing.

  3. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...... of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  4. The nuclear power development policy of Taipower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Taipower began its nuclear power epoch in 1978 when the first unit of its First Nuclear Power Station was synchronized to the system on November 1977. At present, Taipower has six units installed in three nuclear power plants, totalling 5144 MW in operation. These units are the mainstay of the 16,600 MW system and have played a significant role in the energy supply of Taiwan. This paper will firstly give a brief overview of Taipower's system, then introduce Taipower's nuclear power policies within the frame of issues on nuclear power economy, nuclear fuel cycle management, nuclear safety and environmental concerns, radioactive waste management, public communications and personnel training. At last, this paper will present the prospect for future nuclear power development in Taiwan with reference to the above discussion. (author)

  5. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of

  6. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  7. ICT, Policy, Politics, and Democracy: An Integrated Framework for G2G Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Mizinova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research approaches the issue of G2G digitization using an integrated policy dynamics model. The essence of the contradictions in the G2G integration discourse is followed by a description of two policy paradigms that are then incorporated into an integrated or synthetic framework to evaluate the specifics of the G2G implementation in DHS and HUD. Speculations are made about the implications of this study for the democratic principles of government rule.

  8. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Johnson; Rodrigo Vergara

    2005-01-01

    Central bank authorities base implementation of monetary policy on an analysis of multiple variables known as monetary policy indicators. In a small open economy such as Chile, these indicators may include in-flation misalignments, unemployment, GDP growth, money growth, the current account balance, exchange rate volatility and international re-serves. A neural network approach is used to establish the correspond-ing weights considered by the Board of the Central Bank of Chile dur-ing the per...

  9. Implementing an Open Access Policy – Modeling KAUST in the Region

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Vijayakumar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation will discuss different open access approaches, and what can well-fit academic and governmental institutions. As a case study of KAUST, presenters will discuss how it can be initiated in a university set-up, how to get academic stakeholder engaged with support, and how the final stage is reached. Details about the KAUST Open Access Policy for research articles, theses and dissertations and the required tools and workflow to implement the policies will be highlighted.

  10. Climate paradox of the G-8: legal obligations, policy declarations and implementation gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Guenter Brauch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the climate policy performance of the G-8 from 1992 to 2012 based on their legal commitments (Annex-1 and Annex-B countries under the UNFCCC (1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997 and their policy declarations on their GHG reduction goals until 2050. A climate paradox has emerged due to a growing implementation gap in Canada, USA and Japan, while Russia, Germany, UK, France and Italy fulfilled their GHG reduction obligation.

  11. Implementing an Open Access Policy – Modeling KAUST in the Region

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2014-11-12

    The presentation will discuss different open access approaches, and what can well-fit academic and governmental institutions. As a case study of KAUST, presenters will discuss how it can be initiated in a university set-up, how to get academic stakeholder engaged with support, and how the final stage is reached. Details about the KAUST Open Access Policy for research articles, theses and dissertations and the required tools and workflow to implement the policies will be highlighted.

  12. The Use of Gender Index in the Implementation of the Equal Opportunities Policy in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Genzels, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The equal opportunities policy is attracting more and more supporters within Polish entrepreneur circles. Certain phenomena such as; the migration of professionals to EU countries, aging of the Polish society, new regulations prohibiting discrimination in the workplace on grounds of gender and higher levels of education among women in relation to men, have awoken much interest in gender equality issues at the present time. The implementation of these policies in enterprises ...

  13. Implementing Health in All Policies - Time and Ideas Matter Too! Comment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Carole

    2016-06-20

    Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP). In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy. Understanding who are the actors involved from the various policy sectors concerned, what context they evolve in, but also how they own and frame the policy problem (ideas), and how this has changed over time, is crucial for those involved in HiAP implementation so that they can relate to and work together with actors from other policy sectors. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Implementing Health in All Policies – Time and Ideas Matter Too!; Comment on “Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Clavier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP. In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy. Understanding who are the actors involved from the various policy sectors concerned, what context they evolve in, but also how they own and frame the policy problem (ideas, and how this has changed over time, is crucial for those involved in HiAP implementation so that they can relate to and work together with actors from other policy sectors.

  15. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadfi, G.; John, M.; Liguori, C.; Moeslinger, M.; Murray, J.; Rocchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to

  16. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called {open_quotes}greenfields,{close_quotes} fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of `sustainable development.` This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city.

  17. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-01-01

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called open-quotes greenfields,close quotes fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of 'sustainable development.' This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city

  18. Rural Development Policy: Promises Made and Promises Denied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Drew

    1991-01-01

    Presents historical trends toward rural development policy. Describes the agrarian perspective and the industrial and urbanization perspective as current visions which guide policy. Recommends a new vision focusing on "livability for people" and "viability of community systems." (KS)

  19. Implementation of a health care policy: An analysis of barriers and facilitators to practice change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments often create policies that rely on implementation by arms length organizations and require practice changes on the part of different segments of the health care system without understanding the differences in and complexities of these agencies. In 2000, in response to publicity about the shortening length of postpartum hospital stay, the Ontario government created a universal program offering up to a 60-hour postpartum stay and a public health follow-up to mothers and newborn infants. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a health policy initiative was implemented in two different parts of a health care system and to analyze the barriers and facilitators to achieving practice change. Methods The data reported came from two studies of postpartum health and service use in Ontario Canada. Data were collected from newly delivered mothers who had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. The study samples were drawn from the same five purposefully selected hospitals for both studies. Questionnaires prior to discharge and structured telephone interviews at 4-weeks post discharge were used to collect data before and after policy implementation. Qualitative data were collected using focus groups with hospital and community-based health care practitioners and administrators at each site. Results In both studies, the respondents reflected a population of women who experienced an "average" or non-eventful hospital-based, singleton vaginal delivery. The findings of the second study demonstrated wide variance in implementation of the offer of a 60-hour stay among the sites and focus groups revealed that none of the hospitals acknowledged the 60-hour stay as an official policy. The uptake of the offer of a 60-hour stay was unrelated to the rate of offer. The percentage of women with a hospital stay of less than 25 hours and the number with the guideline that the call be within 48 hours of hospital discharge. Public health

  20. Implementation of Solid Waste Policies in Pernambuco: a study from the institutional theory and interorganizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luciana de Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is a problem in the Brazilian context, not only because it is growing in larger proportions than the population and leading to soil and water contamination, but also because it is a vector for diseases and causes economic losses, since much of what is discarded can be reused. After several years of intense debate, the Brazilian law applying to national solid waste policy was sanctioned; this law contains goals to be achieved and challenges to be overcome. Since this is a major issue, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of public policies on solid waste, emphasizing the initiatives carried out in the state of Pernambuco, from the perspectives of institutional theory and inter-organizational networks. By analysing the provisions of the law, we can observe a coercive tendency to bring the states and municipalities to establish networks in order to meet demands related to solid waste, since the pertinent legislation induces the involved entities to develop this kind of partnership in order to obtain resources

  1. Policy development and challenges of global mental health: a systematic review of published studies of national-level mental health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yu, Yu; Yang, Mei; Chen, Lizhang; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2018-05-18

    Mental health policy can be an essential and powerful tool to improve a population's mental health. However, around one third of countries do not possess a mental health policy, and there are large disparities in population coverage rates between high- and low-income countries. The goal of this study is to identify the transition and implementation challenges of mental health policies in both high-income countries (HICs) as well as middle- and low-income countries (MLICs). PubMed, Cochrane Library and Campbell Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2017, for studies on implemented mental health policies at the national level. Abstracts and the main texts of papers were double screened, and extracted data were analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of 93 papers were included in this study, covering 24 HICs, 28 MLICs and 5 regions. Studies on mental health policies, especially those of MLICs, kept increasing, but MLICs were still underrepresented in terms of publication quantity and study frequency. Based on the included studies, nine policy domains were summarized: service organizing, service provision, service quality, human resources, legislation and human rights, advocacy, administration, surveillance and research, and financing and budgeting. HICs incrementally enriched their policy content in all domains over centuries of development; following HICs' experience, mental health policies in MLICs have boomed since the 1990s and quickly extended to all domains. Implementation problems in HICs were mainly related to service organizing and service provision; for MLICs, more severe implementation problems converged on financing and budgeting, administration and human resources. Mental health policy developments in both HICs and MLICs present a process of diversification and enrichment. In terms of implementation, MLICs are faced with more and greater challenges than HICs, especially in funding, human resources and administration. Therefore, future

  2. The Role of Policy Champions and Learning in Implementing Horizontal Environmental Policy Integration: Comparative Insights from European Structural Fund Programmes in the U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines attempts to integrate environmental sustainability goals into the design and implementation of projects funded by the EU Structural Funds programmes in the U.K. between 2000 and 2006. It does so by comparing how the two “horizontal priorities” (environmental sustainability and gender equality fared in terms of understanding and acceptance by project applicants. It places this material within the wider context of literature on environmental policy integration and inter-agency cooperation. A “policy coordination” framework is used as a heuristic device to construct an account of the ways in which the two themes were handled through the interplay of the myriad of actors and organisations involved in the process. A key part in this involved the deployment of “policy champions” to work with external organisations bidding for funding to support projects that formed the core of programme implementation. The paper also examines the variable reactions on the part of project designers to the requirement to incorporate environmental and gender goals and the greater inter-professional networking that these implied. The comparison between the two priorities clearly demonstrates the difficulties inherent in the breadth and complexity of environmental issues and the need in the first instance to link them to relatively simple actions directly associated with economic development activity. The study concludes that this is essentially the first step in a more protracted “policy learning” process.

  3. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  4. Enhancing Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Developing and Using Policy Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G

    2016-06-01

    Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  6. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  7. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  8. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  9. Waste management policy and its implementation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekipentti, I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main principles of Finnish nuclear legislation is that the waste producers - i.e. power companies - shall bear the total responsibility for all waste management operations including final disposal and for all the costs of these operations. The government shall assume the responsibility after the final repository has been approved as fulfilling the safety requirements and after sufficient financial assurances covering the costs of continued surveillance have been given to the authorities. The terms of the operation licences prefer the export of high-level waste to a foreign destination, but as an alternative require preparatory activities for final disposal in domestic territory. The spent fuel from two of the four existing units is returned to the fuel supplier country, the Soviet Union, but the management of spent fuel from the two other units is open. In Finland nuclear waste management has become one of the key problems in the public debate relating to the use of nuclear energy and especially to the licensing of additional nuclear power units. The small size of the national economy may cause some additional difficulties in the efforts to solve waste management problems. Public opinion is in favour of plans for waste management arrangements and facilities being prepared in advance of the licensing of new nuclear units, although it might accept the fact that it is not reasonable to carry out the actual management operations until after rather long storage. The small size of the national economy together with the fact that there are only four nuclear power units in Finland essentially limits the ability to allocate major resources to waste management R and D work and to develop Finnish solutions independently. The political situation which prevails as regards back-end operations internationally may even hinder the extended construction of nuclear plants and use of nuclear energy

  10. State of the States 2009: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; McLaren, J.; Healey, V.; Hockett, S.

    2009-10-01

    As U.S. states increasingly focus on developing renewable energy resources, there is a need to track the progress of development, as well as the policies and support mechanisms being implemented to encourage this development. Beyond tracking, the evaluation of policy measures is necessary to determine their effectiveness, guide future efforts, and efficiently allocate resources. This report addresses each of these needs. It provides a detailed picture of the status of renewable energy development in each of the U.S. states using a variety of metrics and discusses the policies being used to encourage this development. The report then explores the context in which renewable energy development occurs by discussing the factors that can affect the uptake of power generation technologies. The analysis offers suggestions on how policies can be used to address these variables, which leads to tailored policy support that considers the specific circumstances within each state. The analysis presents results of several quantitative evaluation methods that have been designed to explore the link between policy implementation and actual development. Finally, the report discusses contextual factors, aside from policy, that affect renewable energy development. The report concludes with a summary of the main points from each chapter, discussion of next steps, and a list of resources.

  11. Change Best: Task 2.3. Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, P.; Vethman, P.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the Change Best project is to promote the development of an energy efficiency service (EES) market and to give good practice examples of changes in energy service business, strategies, and supportive policies and measures in the course of the implementation of Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services. This report addresses task 2.3: Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services.

  12. No sustainable development without an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhras, G.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973, and again during the 1980s, prompted industrialized countries to adopt measures to reduce energy usage and to encourage conservation practices. Energy consumption in the transportation field was particularly high. However, after a while, some of the measures were either dropped or not enforced and our energy utilization continued to intensify. It soon became apparent that a different approach was required. At the Rio Conference in 1992, the idea of sustainable development was introduced with the objective to reduce global warming. The utilization of fossil fuels amplifies the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming which threatens the entire environment and also the health of citizens, particularly those living in cities. In 1997, 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. Canada committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6 per cent compared to 1990 levels, and this between 2008 and 2012. It is obvious that drastic steps are needed in order for Canada to meet this commitment. After an extensive analysis of the situation by various committees, it was concluded that activities related to the transportation of people in particular contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases. The results also indicate that solutions need to be found to reduce energy consumption. The author recommended the adoption of intelligent structures and materials which imitate biological systems in a predictable manner to optimize certain functions. He also recommended a better integration of energy policy with the basic principles of sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  14. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Mitchell N; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haas, Romi; Lane, Haylee; Haines, Terry P

    2017-11-14

    It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles) met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles) were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A unidirectional, hierarchal flow was described from (1

  15. What Is "Policy" and What Is "Policy Response"? An Illustrative Study of the Implementation of the Leadership Standards for Social Justice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. C.; Bagley, C.; Lumby, J.; Hamilton, T.; Woods, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines "policy" and "policy response" through documentary analysis and an illustrative study of policy implementation. Our approach is informed by Foucault's (2009) theory that power relations in society are conditioned by a culturally generated set of ideas, and that these relations contain the space for both…

  16. Implementing successful e-health implementations within developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ouma, S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ), hospital staff members (n=31) and patients (n=24). Therefore a total of (n=60), participated in the study. The findings revealed that just like in the majority of the developing nations, there are very few computers and e-health solutions that are currently...

  17. Healthcare for migrants, participatory health research and implementation science--better health policy and practice through inclusion. The RESTORE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Clissmann, Ciaran

    2014-06-01

    This is a time of unprecedented mobility across the globe. Healthcare systems need to adapt to ensure that primary care is culturally and linguistically appropriate for migrants. Evidence-based guidelines and training interventions for cultural competence and the use of professional interpreters are available across European healthcare settings. However, in real-world practice migrants and their healthcare providers 'get by' with a range of informal and inadequate strategies. RESTORE is an EU FP7 funded project, which is designed to address this translational gap. The objective of RESTORE is to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural consultations in selected European primary care settings. RESTORE is a qualitative, participatory health project running from 2011-2015. It uses a novel combination of normalization process theory and participatory learning and action research to follow and shape the implementation journeys of relevant guidelines and training initiatives. Research teams in Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Austria and Greece are conducting similar parallel qualitative case study fieldwork, with a complementary health policy analysis led by Scotland. In each setting, key stakeholders, including migrants, are involved in participatory data generation and analysis. RESTORE will provide knowledge about the levers and barriers to the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives in European healthcare settings and about successful, transferrable strategies to overcome identified barriers. RESTORE will elucidate the role of policy in shaping these implementation journeys; generate recommendations for European policy driving the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare systems.

  18. The impacts of implementation of National Essential Medicines Policies on primary healthcare institutions: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhigang; Guan, Xiaodong; Shi, Luwen

    2017-11-13

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010. A questionnaire survey developed by the study team was distributed to all of the primary healthcare institutions. Nine indicators from three dimensions as the outcome variables were used and calculated to evaluate the impacts of implementation of policies. All of the outcome variables were tested using independent-samples T test between the treatment group (with the NEMPs implemented) and the control group (without the NEMPs implemented). The ratio of drug sales and institution revenues at primary healthcare institutions was 42.99% in the treatment group, which was significantly lower than the control group (53.90%, p financial subsidies of the treatment group was shown to be higher (30.78% VS 20.82%, p institutions, the improvement of the mechanisms for government investment, and the healthcare pricing system. Meanwhile, the gaps between urban and rural areas need to be addressed. In conclusion, the NEMPs of China are instrumental to the aim of providing basic healthcare services to every citizen.

  19. The Fiscal Stimuli for the Implementing Ukraine’s Energy Policy and Reforming Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synyutka Nataliya G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to revise the issue of the State regulation of the macroeconomic processes associated with the economic, energy, fiscal, and educational reforms that are being carried out in Ukraine. In order to implement the State energy policy, fiscal approaches have been emphasized. The use of the fiscal stimulus of «carbon tax» can be seen as an effective measure for implementation of the existing State energy strategy. A review of introduction of such a tax in the developed countries confirms the expediency of applying fiscal mechanism in order to encourage investment in energy-efficient technologies. Prospects for introduction of this tax in Ukraine were considered. To this end, actual CO2 emissions have been generalized and prediction calculations for the energy sector have been accomplished. The calculated estimates of possible tax revenues have been provided. For further studies on the outlined topic, there is an impelling need to detalize the financial statistics of the ecologic tax revenues in terms of sources.

  20. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  1. Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Söderholm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  2. Factors associated with early childhood education and care service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Weaver, Natasha; Wiggers, John; Yoong, Sze Lin; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Gillham, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Many early childhood education and care (ECEC) services fail to implement recommended policies and practices supportive of healthy eating and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether certain theoretically-based factors are associated with implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in a sample of ECEC services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Service Managers of ECEC services. The survey assessed the operational characteristics, policy, and practice implementation, and 13 factors were suggested by Damschroder's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to impede or promote implementation. Logistic regression analyses found a significant association between implementation factor score and full implementation (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.18-1.61; p = <0.01), indicating that for every one point increase in implementation score, ECEC services were 38 % more likely to be fully implementing the policies and practices. The findings highlight the opportunities for improving implementation of obesity prevention interventions in this setting by developing interventions that address such factors.

  3. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  4. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  5. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, S.; Meral, P.

    1999-01-01

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies' decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ''governance'' institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.)

  6. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENGLISH-ONLY POLICY IN THE TERTIARY EFL CONTEXT IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dirkwen Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.

  7. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Kent Anger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective policy implementation is essential for a healthy workplace. The Ryan-Kossek 2008 model for work-life policy adoption suggests that supervisors as gatekeepers between employer and employee need to know how to support and communicate benefit regulations. This article describes a workplace intervention on a national employee benefit, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention on supervisor knowledge, awareness, and experience with FMLA. Methods The intervention consisted of computer-based training (CBT) and a survey measuring awareness and experience with FMLA. The training was administered to 793 county government supervisors in the state of Oregon, USA. Results More than 35% of supervisors reported no previous training on FMLA and the training pre-test revealed a lack of knowledge regarding benefit coverage and employer responsibilities. The CBT achieved: (1) a significant learning effect and large effect size of d = 2.0, (2) a positive reaction to the training and its design, and (3) evidence of increased knowledge and awareness regarding FMLA. Conclusion CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA. PMID:24106648

  8. EXPLORING TAX HOLIDAY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION FOR INDONESIAN INVESTMENT CLIMATE: HAS IT BEEN EFFECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyono R.D.P.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the reasons for the ineffectiveness of tax holiday policy implementation in Indonesia as well as the government’s strategies to improve the investment climate. This research uses exploratory study type which does not test theory or hypothesis by using preliminary survey method, conducting direct or indirect interview via e-mail to certain informant by giving questionnaire and direct observation passively observing the field and related websites supporting statistical data in this study in depth. In testing the validity of research data used source triangulation and method triangulation. The progress that has been achieved to date in the implementation of tax holiday policy is to provide ease of bureaucracy administration and simplicity of licensing services in investing by improving coordination among government to improve foreign investors' confidence when investing in Indonesia. So technically, the implementation of tax holiday policy is quite effective in attracting foreign direct investment because it can perform the right obligations according to the regulations. In the investment point of view, tax holiday policy is not effective in attracting foreign direct investment or not becoming the main factor of investor's goal in investment. The cause of the ineffectiveness of the tax holiday policy in attracting foreign direct investment in Indonesia is another indicator that becomes an assessment among others the ease of investment licensing, infrastructure, electricity supply, investor protection, minority and tax administration. Indonesian government's strategy to improve the investment climate is through deregulation, debureaucracy, law enforcement and business certainty for investors.

  9. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  10. Implementing a province-wide mandatory vaccinate-or-mask policy at healthcare facilities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Alexandra; Campbell, Audrey C; Naus, Monika; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Puddicombe, David; Quach, Susan; Henry, Bonnie

    2018-01-08

    In 2012, British Columbia (BC) became the first Canadian province to implement an influenza prevention policy requiring healthcare workers (HCW) to either be vaccinated annually against influenza or wear a mask in patient care areas during the influenza season. This study describes an evaluation of influenza policy implementation processes and identifies supports and challenges related to successful policy implementation at the level of healthcare facilities, during the second policy year (2013/14). Implementation leaders from 262 long-term care (LTC) and acute care facilities, mostly in three of BC's five regional Health Authorities, were invited to participate in an online survey following the 2013/14 influenza season. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses identified common and effective strategies for improving vaccination coverage and policy compliance. A total of 127 respondents completed the survey on behalf of 33 acute care and 99 LTC facilities, representing 36% of acute care and 27% of LTC facilities in BC. Respondents agreed that the policy was successfully implemented at 89% of facilities, and implementation was reported to be easy at 52% of facilities. The findings elaborate on communication and leadership strategies, campaign logistics and enforcement approaches involved in policy implementation. Implementation of a vaccinate-or-mask influenza policy is complex. This study provides insight for other jurisdictions considering implementing such a policy and offers practical recommendations for facilities and health authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sermons, Carrots or Sticks? Explaining Successful Policy Implementation in a Low Performance Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Morales, Diego Alonso

    2018-01-01

    This article explains how after 43 years of unsatisfactory outcomes, the Ministry of Education of Peru (MoE) suddenly ranked at the top of governmental performance tables. To do so, this study relies on implementation and major discussions of policy instrument theories to provide a comprehensive explanation of the reasons underlying the MoE's…

  12. Barriers Associated with Implementing a Campus-Wide Smoke-Free Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Philip Adam; Whitman, Marilyn V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the barriers associated with implementing a campus-wide smoke-free policy as perceived by the American Cancer Society's Colleges against Cancer (CAC) Program chapter representatives. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group sessions were conducted at the annual CAC National Leadership Summit in…

  13. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: an approach to South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives...

  14. Evaluating the Implementation of the No-Fee Teacher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiran; Chang, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    This study used questionnaires and telephone interviews to survey the views of 245 former Southwest University no-fee preservice students on the implementation of the no-fee teacher education policy. Analysis of their feedback on questions pertaining to the in-school, graduation, and employment stages of the program found that: (1) Motivation to…

  15. A Cognitive Perspective on Policy Implementation : Reform Beliefs, Sensemaking, and Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siciliano, Michael D.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a cognitive perspective, this article examines the social processes through which teachers come to understand the Common Core State Standards. The authors begin by identifying three beliefs that have important implications for policy implementation: self-efficacy, resource adequacy, and

  16. [Recommendations for implementing the quality policy and organisation of a quality management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, A

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary issues to implement a quality management system are described. They include the definition of the structure, a hierarchical and functional organization chart and the engagement of the whole personnel to apply the requirements of the standard EN ISO 15189. The policy has to be translated into objectives.

  17. Implementation of a new policy results in a decrease of pressure ulcer frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, E.H. de; Schoonhoven, L.; Pickkers, P.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a new policy on the efficiency of pressure ulcer care. DESIGN: Series of 1-day pressure ulcer surveys before and after the implementation. SETTING: A 900-bed University Medical Centre in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: On the days of the surveys, 657 patients

  18. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 7. Report on the selection of SMKs for the project's target provinces and working agreements between SMKs and the project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2010-05-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report explains the stepwise approach taken in the selection of SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) for CASINDO's target provinces. For this, data of the Indonesian Ministry of Education were used, site visits were made and interviews were conducted. The exercise resulted in ranking the 11 best SMKs observed. Terms for working agreements between the SMKs and CASINDO have been formulated as well as a work planning.

  19. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  20. Implementing effective policy in a national mental health re-engagement program for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shawna N.; Lai, Zongshan; Almirall, Daniel; Goodrich, David E.; Abraham, Kristen M.; Nord, Kristina M.; Kilbourne, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Policy is a powerful motivator of clinical change, but implementation success can depend on organizational characteristics. This paper used validated measures of organizational resources, culture and climate to predict uptake of a nationwide VA policy aimed at implementing Re-Engage, a brief care management program that re-establishes contact with Veterans with serious mental illness lost to care. Patient care databases were used to identify 2,738 Veterans lost to care. Local Recovery Coordinators (LRCs) were to update disposition for 2,738 Veterans at 158 VA facilities and, as appropriate, facilitate a return to care. Multivariable regression assessed organizational culture and climate as predictors of early policy compliance (via LRC presence) and uptake at six months. Higher composite climate and culture scores were associated with higher odds of having a designated LRC, but were not predictive of higher uptake. Sites with LRCs had significantly higher rates of updated documentation than sites without LRCs. PMID:27668352