WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy analysis institutes

  1. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  2. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Institute for Policy Analysis and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and Research's (IPAR-Rwanda) role as a credible public policy institution in ... TTI is a multi-funder program dedicated to strengthening independent policy ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  3. Institutional Support : Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will help IPAR address its sustainability issues by offering competitive remuneration packages to reduce staff turnover, recruiting additional staff, training existing staff, improving organizational systems and infrastructure, expanding its policy advocacy work, enhancing the ...

  4. Institutional Diversity in Ontario's University Sector: A Policy Debate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Pierre G.; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the demands in a cost-effective manner of an emerging knowledge society that is global in scope, structural higher education policy changes have been introduced in many countries with a focus on systemic and programmatic diversity. There has been an ongoing debate about institutional diversity in Ontario higher education,…

  5. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  6. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  7. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  8. The Policy Choices of Bureaucrats: an institutional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Naseer (Shaheen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation analyzes the over-arching question of how the institutional and social context of public bureaucracy impact the choices of bureaucrats. These choices are introduced in the form of inertial-preferences and identity-driven preferences in the decision-making of

  9. Regionalism in Educational R/D&I: A Policy Analysis for the National Institute of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Durward; And Others

    This analysis examines regionalism in the educational research, development, and innovation (R/D&I) context with particular concern for its meaning and significance for the National Institute of Education. The purpose of the analysis is to provide an understanding of regionalism that would be of help to R/D&I policy makers. It is intended…

  10. A content analysis of posthumous sperm procurement protocols with considerations for developing an institutional policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Sarah M; Karkazis, Katrina; Magnus, David

    2013-09-01

    To identify and analyze existing posthumous sperm procurement (PSP) protocols in order to outline central themes for institutions to consider when developing future policies. Qualitative content analysis. Large academic institutions across the United States. We performed a literature search and contacted 40 institutions to obtain nine full PSP protocols. We then performed a content analysis on these policies to identify major themes and factors to consider when developing a PSP protocol. Presence of a PSP policy. We identified six components of a thorough PSP protocol: Standard of Evidence, Terms of Eligibility, Sperm Designee, Restrictions on Use in Reproduction, Logistics, and Contraindications. We also identified two different approaches to policy structure. In the Limited Role approach, institutions have stricter consent requirements and limit their involvement to the time of procurement. In the Family-Centered approach, substituted judgment is permitted but a mandatory wait period is enforced before sperm use in reproduction. Institutions seeking to implement a PSP protocol will benefit from considering the six major building blocks of a thorough protocol and where they would like to fall on the spectrum from a Limited Role to a Family-Centered approach. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Education Policy and Practice: The Case of Institutions in Mumbai and Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Radhika; Surianarain, Sharmi

    2010-01-01

    There exist many actors within the realm of education policy planning and implementation, namely: the policy makers; the national, local and regional institutions engaged in the dissemination and interpretation of these policies; and the educational institutions that implement these policies at the ground level (schools). While schools are largely…

  12. Organ donation in the ICU: A document analysis of institutional policies, protocols, and order sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon J W; Centofanti, John E; Durepos, Pamela; Arseneau, Erika; Kelecevic, Julija; Cook, Deborah J; Meade, Maureen O

    2018-04-01

    To better understand how local policies influence organ donation rates. We conducted a document analysis of our ICU organ donation policies, protocols and order sets. We used a systematic search of our institution's policy library to identify documents related to organ donation. We used Mindnode software to create a publication timeline, basic statistics to describe document characteristics, and qualitative content analysis to extract document themes. Documents were retrieved from Hamilton Health Sciences, an academic hospital system with a high volume of organ donation, from database inception to October 2015. We retrieved 12 active organ donation documents, including six protocols, two policies, two order sets, and two unclassified documents, a majority (75%) after the introduction of donation after circulatory death in 2006. Four major themes emerged: organ donation process, quality of care, patient and family-centred care, and the role of the institution. These themes indicate areas where documented institutional standards may be beneficial. Further research is necessary to determine the relationship of local policies, protocols, and order sets to actual organ donation practices, and to identify barriers and facilitators to improving donation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Policy Analysis: The New Reality for Institutional Research. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D.; Fenske, Robert H.

    The problems and opportunities for institutional research in academe as it becomes increasingly policy analytic in activity and orientation are explored. It is suggested that for the 1980s the most viable and dynamic role for institutional research will be in providing leaders in higher education institutions with policy-relevant knowledge in…

  14. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Policy Definitions of Plagiarism: A Pan-Canadian University Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article shares the findings of a study investigating institutional policy definitions of plagiarism at twenty English-speaking Canadian universities. The types of primary sources consulted for this study included: (1) university academic calendars for 2016-2017, (2) institutional policies on academic misconduct, and (3) student academic codes…

  16. Road safety knowledge and policy : a historical institutional analysis of the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C. Leroy, P. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the institutional development of Dutch road safety policy over the last century and the role of knowledge therein. After a theoretical exploration of the concept of institutionalization, the article sketches an overview of the institutionalization of road safety policy in the

  17. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  18. Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yong; Li Jing; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Government policy continues to play a crucial role in the development of wind power industry in China. The 2005 “Renewable Energy Law” and related policies have driven the rapid increase in wind power installed capacity in China over the past half-decade, with capacity doubling annually since 2005. However, a large number of wind farms generate electricity well below their installed capacity, resulting in considerable wastage of resources. Non-grid-connected wind power theory proposes that large-scale wind power output does not necessarily have to be fed into the grid, but can be used directly in industrial production. Thus, the use of the theory can promote the sustainable development of the wind power industry by obviating the need for power grid. In this paper we analyze the influence of government policy on wind power industry from the perspective of institutional change, by employing the basic theories of new institutional economics. A development model for non-grid-connected wind power is proposed in order to implement institutional change in accordance with the specific characteristics of wind power industry in China. This model requires the government to play an active role in institutional development by increasing economic efficiency in order to promote the sustainable development of wind power. - Highlights: ► New institutional economics-based analysis paradigm for wind power policy proposed. ► Policies for China's wind power industry analyzed according to the paradigm. ► Hybrid development mode of institutional change is the best pathway for wind power. ► Potential development policy for China's wind power industry recommended.

  19. A comparative institutional analysis of the Fukushima nuclear disaster: Lessons and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes, responses, and consequences of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) by comparing these with Three Mile Island (March 1979) and Chernobyl (April 1986). We identify three generic modes of organizational coordination: modular, vertical, and horizontal. By relying on comparative institutional analysis, we compare the modes' performance characteristics in terms of short-term and long-term coordination, preparedness for shocks, and responsiveness to shocks. We derive general lessons, including the identification of three shortcomings of integrated Japanese electric utilities: (1) decision instability that can lead to system failure after a large shock, (2) poor incentives to innovate, and (3) the lack of defense-in-depth strategies for accidents. Our suggested policy response is to introduce an independent Nuclear Safety Commission, and an Independent System Operator to coordinate buyers and sellers on publicly owned transmission grids. Without an independent safety regulator, or a very well established “safety culture,” profit-maximizing behavior by an entrenched electricity monopoly will not necessarily lead to a social optimum with regard to nuclear power plant safety. All countries considering continued operation or expansion of their nuclear power industries must strive to establish independent, competent, and respected safety regulators, or prepare for nuclear power plant accidents. - Highlights: ► We review damage to Fukushima Dai-Ichi on March 11, 2011, from the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. ► We find that delays in coordinated action led to a cascading series of accidents at Fukushima. ► We suggest unbundling of the publicly purchased Tokyo Electric Power to pay for accident damages. ► We suggest the creation of a Japanese Independent System Operator to manage unbundled transmission assets. ► We propose establishing an open-interface, rule-based independent nuclear regulator in Japan.

  20. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  1. A Model for Institutional Policy Analysis: The Case of Student Financial Aid. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Parker, John D.

    The development of an operational model that would enable a college institutional research unit to improve administrative decision-making by expanding its data base to include new activities not widely recognized throughout the institution is considered. Attention is directed to institutional research as a function within an institution,…

  2. Recycling bins, garbage cans or think tanks? Three myths regarding policy analysis institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The phrase 'think tank' has become ubiquitous – overworked and underspecified – in the political lexicon. It is entrenched in scholarly discussions of public policy as well as in the 'policy wonk' of journalists, lobbyists and spin-doctors. This does not mean that there is an agreed definition of think tank or consensual understanding of their roles and functions. Nevertheless, the majority of organizations with this label undertake policy research of some kind. The idea of think tanks as a r...

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  4. Energy policy in the Caribbean green economy context and the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) framework as a proposed tool for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kalim U.; Niles, Keron

    2016-01-01

    Market integration efforts of Caribbean small island developing states have become transposed on the growing paradigm shift towards green economy pathways. Central to this is the challenge of implementing Caribbean energy policy in a manner that is aligned with green economy ideals and face the realities of regional indebtedness and environmental impacts. Here we analyze the current state of the Caribbean energy policy development arena and propose that the currently weak policy and institutional design regime might potentially benefit from the application of the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) model especially within the operational context of the green economy. It allows us to identify current policy dilemmas, bottlenecks and discrepancies and to disentangle some of them while offering up a way forward with others. We do not so much offer distinct recommendations but focus more on delineating how to clear the pathway for sound policy intervention and outcomes. By doing so we set forth a challenging agenda for future policy analysis research that will advance Caribbean energy policy in more robust ways. - Highlights: • Un-coordinated Caricom energy policy can benefit from an institutional analysis and design approach. • Policy reform hinges on the patterns of interaction among key actors in the regional context. • Regional policy remains weak across efficiency, equity, accountability and adaptability parameters.

  5. Agents of Institutional Change in EU Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Natali, David

    2018-01-01

    Social Investment package (SIP) through issue-framing, institutional alignment and consensus-building. Despite this, the SIP of 2013 ended as a ‘social investment moment’ that rapidly lost momentum because no additional measures such as indicators or funds were integrated with SIP. Furthermore......The contribution addresses – through actor-centred historical institutionalism – why and how social investment (SI) emerged at the European Union (EU) level. SI policies built on the institutional basis of the policy co-ordination processes in employment and social inclusion, which originated...

  6. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  7. INSTITUTIONS, POLICIES AND EFFICIENCY IN ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Stoynov

    2007-01-01

    There are cases where the governments may not always serve the public interest. The implication seems to be that governments can help out but only if properly constrained. The impact of these ideas on monetary policy led to creation of Central banks. As far as fiscal policymaking is concerned, the evolution has been slower. It would seem that we are now ready to move to the next step, replacing rules with adequate incentives backed by institutions - fiscal policy committees.

  8. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  10. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ... the Economic Policy Research Centre's (EPRC) role as a credible public policy institution in ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  11. Chinese climate policy - Institutions and intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy-makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. This study identifies the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector, and explores the Chinese approach to climate change. Contents: 1. The Institutions of Energy Governance in china. 2. China's Foreign Energy Policy. 3. China's position and policy on climate change

  12. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles Moonga

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas

  13. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas. (author)

  14. ROLE OF DEPOSIT POLICY FOR UKRAINIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides

  15. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of

  16. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  17. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales - Ifri, 27 rue de la Procession, 75740 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Andrews-Speed, Philip [Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen [China Institute of International Studies (China)

    2011-06-15

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China

  18. Chinese Climate Policy - Institutions and Intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, William C.; Lesourne, Jacques; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Yishan, Xia; Dezhao, Chen

    2011-06-01

    Until the late 1990's, the balance of Chinese energy production and consumption was treated by the rest of the world as a net figure. No-one knew what was going on inside the Chinese economy - it was a black box. As far as anyone was concerned, the Chinese would not soon be a major factor in world energy markets. Energy policy makers realized how totally blind they were in 2004 when Chinese electricity production could not keep up with internal demand and the world experienced a surge in liquids demand as Chinese entrepreneurs fired up generator sets across the economy. The incremental Chinese demand was a factor in the price surge that year that had been building since the OPEC accord in 1999. It was probably the catalyst for the spike but we didn't have the data to know. Times are certainly changing, but it is still only twilight in that black box. No country has confronted the need to collect data and formulate coherent policy for nearly a billion and a half consumers. State enterprises were set up to manage key energy sector activities, but coordinating among them proved difficult. A number of institutional arrangements have succeeded each other until now, when stronger energy policy and administrative functions of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) are gaining traction. NDRC vice-chairman Zhang Guobao has maintained a steady hand on Chinese energy-policy evolution for several years - overseeing the increasing coherence of Chinese domestic and international energy policy - but the tension with powerful state enterprises and other vested interests still effectively defies efforts to truly centralize and co-ordinate Chinese national-level energy policy and program authority. The first of the three studies looks back into the nature of Chinese institutions and governance for insights into how they function and to identify some of their limits, so as to pinpoint the nature of the forces that drive or constrain change within China's energy sector

  19. POLICY AND INSTITUTIONS: POSSIBLE JOINT THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Miyuki Hashizume

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss theoretically the concept of politics and the importance of its redefinition, discussing the different political interests from Brazilian population, throughout our history. It proposes to rescue the original and ethical meaning of Politics and to review and redefine it inside a new Ethical-aesthetic-political paradigm. We have come from Greek Antiquity to our current Democracy, so as to raise reflections about possibilities for political actions despite of the lack of political past without participation. The concept of instituting process and micropolitical (for Institutional Analysis allow us to understand the possibilities for different and creative acting beyond the control in place.

  20. Evaluating mobile-centric readiness of higher education institutions: the case of institutional policies and information systems students

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chipangura, B

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available . To investigate this question from a policy perspective, nine policies from the open and distance learning (ODL) university in South Africa were analysed for providing institutional mobile-centric support. Policy document analysis was used to evaluate five...

  1. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  2. Working Programme 2010. Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Dutch Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy (KiM) provides analyses of mobility that influence the policy. As a separate institute within the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water management, the KiM conducts strategic outlooks and policy analyses. KiM establishes working programs annually. [nl

  3. Policy, Institutional and Programme Readiness for Solar Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has been facing challenges in terms of electricity supply. The increase in population and a growing economy have exacerbated electricity supply constraints. In response, policies and institutions have emerged to promote solar energy. This study investigates policy, institutional and programme readiness to ...

  4. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  5. Understanding the historical institutional context by using content analysis of local policy and planning documents : Assessing the interactions between tourism and landscape on the Island of Terschelling in the Wadden Sea Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter; Vanclay, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable tool to identify changes in policy. By analysing historical documents, policymakers and planners can improve their understanding of the institutional context in which decisions were made. Using the Island of Terschelling in the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden region of

  6. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy: Structures and Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined issues pertaining to structures and institutional arrangement for agricultural extension policy. It highlighted the broad objectives of the new policy thrust in agriculture in Nigeria, and identified sub-policies that were expected to facilitate growth of the agricultural sector of the economy. Agricultural ...

  7. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India

  8. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  9. Shaping Policy Change in Population Health: Policy Entrepreneurs, Ideas, and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Daniel; Katapally, Tarun R

    2018-01-14

    Political realities and institutional structures are often ignored when gathering evidence to influence population health policies. If these policies are to be successful, social science literature on policy change should be integrated into the population health approach. In this contribution, drawing on the work of John W. Kingdon and related scholarship, we set out to examine how key components of the policy change literature could contribute towards the effective development of population health policies. Shaping policy change would require a realignment of the existing school of thought, where the contribution of population health seems to end at knowledge translation. Through our critical analysis of selected literature, we extend recommendations to advance a burgeoning discussion in adopting new approaches to successfully implement evidence-informed population health policies. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  11. Institutional policy learning and public consultation: the Canadian xenotransplantation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mavis; Einsiedel, Edna

    2011-09-01

    Attempts to evaluate public consultations, participatory technology assessment, and deliberative democracy have typically considered impacts on either policy or participants. The determination of impacts on policy institutions has been limited due to the challenges of tracing effects through the policy process, or penetrating bureaucratic walls. This paper presents findings from a retrospective study exploring the institutional lessons learned from a 2001 Canadian national public consultation on xenotransplantation. The consultation was conducted through an arm's-length process and involved the use of citizen juries in six regional sites. We conducted in-depth interviews of regulatory and policy actors who were engaged in early policy discussions and the consultation process. We reviewed evaluations of this process, both internal and external, which gave us richer insights into what institutional actors saw as the impacts of this consultative experience on their policy environment. Participants in our research identified a broader shift toward openness in policy culture which they linked specifically to the innovative consultation process employed for xenotransplantation. We argue that beyond input into policy decisions, a consultation may have an impact in terms of its contribution to overall shifts in institutional culture (related to institutional learning), such as an "opening" of technological decision processes to a broader range of actors, knowledge, and values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data platforms for ... This exercise will provide the opportunity to raise awareness of the SGDs and the ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower ...

  13. Policy and institutional framework of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    BARRAL, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals' Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration In Indonesia, migrations are mainly oriented towards middle-term low-skilled labour flows to the Middle East and the neighbouring countries such as Singapore or Malaysia. Historically, the Indonesian government was late in adressing policies in regards to the specific issues that migrants face. Nowadays, specific nati...

  14. Smoke-free policies in New Zealand public tertiary education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A; Marsh, L

    2015-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process. Stage one comprised an audit and content analysis of smoke-free policies. In stage two, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the process of developing and implementing policies. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken on interview notes. Policies were identified for most institutions (n = 26/29), though varied widely in nature. Only nine mandated 100% smoke-free campuses without exceptions and few prohibited the sale of tobacco on campus, or connections with the tobacco industry. During interviews (n = 22/29), cited barriers to developing a 100% smoke-free policy included enforcement challenges and anticipated opposition from staff and students. However, participants from institutions with 100% smoke-free policies reported having encountered few challenges. Varying levels of compliance with 100% smoke-free policies were reported yet, overall, these policies were viewed as being effective. Smoke-free campus policies could be strengthened to better reflect a completely tobacco-free organization. Other institutions and workplaces could use these findings to develop 100% smoke-free policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Trade policies, institutions and the natural resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, R.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    We offer new cross-country evidence on the natural resource curse. We investigate the impact of the interaction of natural resource abundance and policies on growth. We find that the resource curse is less severe in countries with less restrictive trade policies and good institutions. However, we

  16. On the influence of institutional design on monetary policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of a collection of essays on monetary policy making. These essays focus on institutional aspects which impact monetary policy making. Two chapters focus on analyzing voting records of central banks. A method is proposed to use the observed votes to infer the preferences of

  17. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. Those that exist are fragile due to little demand for policy research, limited if no funding from local sources, and an often insecure political climate. This grant will strengthen the ability of the seven selected research institutions in Bangladesh, Nepal ...

  18. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  19. Environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Environmental Policy Analysis Program was established to improve the formation of energy development and environmental policies with due mutual regard for national environmental and energy development needs. As a separate office under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, the program is implemented by the Director and by Offices of Environmental Policy Analysis in the eight DOE multiprogram laboratories. The program provides the Assistant Secretary with information on alternatives for decision making and early warning of environmental problems and considerations that may affect energy policy decisions. The program is intended to be a continuing activity, with its scope determined progressively as issues are defined. During FY-1977 the program focused on information compilation on levels of Pu and other transuranic elements in soils that would render the area unsafe for unlimited use; the impact of water pollution control laws on energy technologies; an analysis of the comparative health risks associated with various energy technologies; and the cost and related impacts on the nuclear industry arising from changes in radiation standards during the past 15 years

  20. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  1. Institutional Educational Technology Policy and Strategy Documents: An Inequality Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Rother, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Issues of inequality in higher education have received considerable attention in recent decades, but the intersection of inequality and educational technology at an institutional level has received little attention. This study aims to provide a perspective on institutional educational technology policy informed by current understandings of…

  2. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Institute of Policy Studies of Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For IPS, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Enhancing research ... -consolidate the institutional transformations made to achieve improved performance ... -influence policies based on its work to place Sri Lanka on a smarter growth path -have an impact on ...

  3. Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A. Radin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of policy analysis that exists in the 21st century is quite different from that found earlier phases. The world of the 1960s that gave rise to this field in the US often seems unrelated to the world we experience today. These shifts have occurred as a result of a range of developments – technological changes, changes in the structure and processes of government both internally and globally, new expectations about accountability and transparency, economic and fiscal problems, and increased political and ideological conflict.It is clear globalization has had a significant impact on the field. Shifts in the type of decisionmaking also have created challenges for policy analysts since analysts are now clearly in every nook and cranny in the decisionmaking world. Thus it is relevant to look at the work that they do, the skills that they require, and the background experience that is relevant to them.

  4. Institutional models and artistic policies in Romania and Chile (1970s-1990s)

    OpenAIRE

    Preda, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This article retraces the contours of the artistic policies applied by the Romanian and Chilean dictatorial regimes in the period 1970-1990. It does so by looking specifically at institutions and policies in a historical perspective (the before and the after). Moreover, the two regimes are placed in a comparative perspective with democratic regimes and totalitarian and authoritarian regimes. The purpose of this double comparison is to advance a framework of analysis of artistic policies in di...

  5. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Poverty Analysis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will strengthen the Centre for Poverty Analysis' (CEPA) role as a credible public ... policy research institutions, or think tanks, in developing countries. ... For CEPA, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational ...

  6. The role of EU institutions in implementing its monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia GEORGIEVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current article is to illustrate in detail the powers of the EU institutions to implement its monetary policy. The methods used to explore the topic and to draw the conclusions and interpret the findings are based on deduction and induction. On the grounds of the information presented in the article the following conclusions have been drawn: the relations between the EU institutions responsible for implementing its monetary policy (the European Central Bank, the European Parliament, the Council, the European Commission and others are entirely based on fundamental principles laid down for all its institutions; the commitments of the institutions implementing the EU monetary policy are strictly stipulated in its primary legislation and are mostly related to the establishment of the EU Economic and Monetary Union, the framing, planning and implementing of the common monetary policy, the management of the Monetary Union. In the conditions of world financial and economic crisis the EU has attempted to respond adequately to its monetary policy problems, commensurate with the scope and matching the specific nature of this crisis.

  7. Institutional Role in Gunung Walat Educational Forest Policy: Discourse and Historical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Hero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Institutional science with various approaches have been used in analysing forest policy at international level and in Indonesia. This research used institutional science with discourse and historical approach for the policy of Forest Territory with Special Purpose (Kawasan Hutan dengan Tujuan Khusus, KHDTK. This research study the KHDTK case of Gunung Walat Educational Forest (Hutan Pendidikan Gunung Walat, HPGW. The goal of this research is to understand discourse/narration of policy and describe the policy space for HPGW and KHDTK. Institutional analysis in this research used discourse and historical approach. Discourse analysis used IDS model supported with Wittmer-Birner model and Eden-Ackermann diagram. On the other hand,  historical approach used the historical relationship. The research outcome showed that the process of creating HPGW policy is not linear, but being affected by policy discourse/narration in the process of creating HPGW policy. Faculty of Forestry IPB has been successfully managing HPGW because of the success to build policy discourse/narration which is supported by the knowledge of HPGW managers, cooperation network, and interest and power.  Meanwhile, external party perceived and believed the importance of HPGW management for forestry education. The success key of HPGW policy is in structuring the institution that control the behavior of HPGW managers, so the managers obtained trust from third parties to create interest alliances which can boost HPGW management performance. HPGW policy can be used to fulfill KHDTK policy space according to Article 8, Forestry Law Number 41 Year 1999.Keywords: discourse, history, institution, Gunung Walat Educational Forest (HPGW, forest territory with special purpose (KHDTK

  8. Institutional Statements of Commitment and Widening Participation Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Amy; Mangion, Antoine; Buchanan, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which the equity agenda, as outlined in the Bradley Review of Higher Education (Bradley et al., 2008), is translated into action in one Australian university. Drawing on the conceptual work of Ahmed (2012) to elaborate institutional life, we investigate the effects of the widening participation policy. Ahmed (2012)…

  9. Analyzing the influence of institutions on health policy development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on health policy development in Uganda: A case study of the decision to abolish user fees. ... Methods: An explanatory case study informed by analytical frameworks from the ... Multiple data sources were used including: academic literature, key ... However, prevalent informal institutions such as “Big Man” presidentialism ...

  10. Institutional and Policy Support for Tourism Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    the characteristics of supportive institutional and policy environments for tourism social entrepreneurship. It argues that governments can contribute in two broad ways to creating the conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship to flourish: they can develop policies that support and encourage the development......There is no question that poverty, social and economic marginalization are contributing to a growing gap between rich and poor, and that international agencies, governments and the private sector have failed to substantially address these issues. The aim of this chapter is to examine...... and operation of social enterprises as part of an inclusive and sustainable tourism system, and they can assist in the creation of institutional conditions that encourage, legitimize and synergize social entrepreneurship. The chapter offers concrete considerations for policy makers in terms of making...

  11. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, ... Based on the national studies, a regional analysis will be generated and published ... to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women. ... policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  12. Barriers to Career Flexibility in Academic Medicine: A Qualitative Analysis of Reasons for the Underutilization of Family-Friendly Policies, and Implications for Institutional Change and Department Chair Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauman, Kimberlee; Howell, Lydia P; Paterniti, Debora A; Beckett, Laurel A; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2018-02-01

    Academic medical and biomedical professionals need workplace flexibility to manage the demands of work and family roles and meet their commitments to both, but often fail to use the very programs and benefits that provide flexibility. This study investigated the reasons for faculty underutilization of work-life programs. As part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study, in 2010 the authors investigated attitudes of clinical and/or research biomedical faculty at the University of California, Davis, toward work-life policies, and the rationale behind their individual decisions regarding use of flexibility policies. The analysis used verbatim responses from 213 of 472 faculty (448 unstructured comments) to a series of open-ended survey questions. Questions elicited faculty members' self-reports of policy use, attitudes, and evaluations of the policies, and their perceptions of barriers that limited full benefit utilization. Data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Faculty described how their utilization of workplace flexibility benefits was inhibited by organizational influences: the absence of reliable information about program eligibility and benefits, workplace norms and cultures that stigmatized program participation, influence of uninformed/unsupportive department heads, and concerns about how participation might burden coworkers, damage collegial relationships, or adversely affect workflow and grant funding. Understanding underuse of work-life programs is essential to maximize employee productivity and satisfaction, minimize turnover, and provide equal opportunities for career advancement to all faculty. The findings are discussed in relation to specific policy recommendations, implications for institutional change, and department chair leadership.

  13. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  14. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  15. Policy and institutional dimensions of the water-energy nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Christopher A., E-mail: cascott@email.arizona.edu [Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, and School of Geography and Development, University of Arizona, 803 E. First St., Tucson AZ 85719 (United States); Pierce, Suzanne A. [Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas-Austin (United States); Pasqualetti, Martin J. [School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University (United States); Jones, Alice L. [Eastern Kentucky Research Institute and Department of Geography and Geology, Eastern Kentucky University (United States); Montz, Burrell E. [Department of Geography, East Carolina University (United States); Hoover, Joseph H. [Department of Geography, University of Denver (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Energy and water are interlinked. The development, use, and waste generated by demand for both resources drive global change. Managing them in tandem offers potential for global-change adaptation but presents institutional challenges. This paper advances understanding of the water-energy nexus by demonstrating how these resources are coupled at multiple scales, and by uncovering institutional opportunities and impediments to joint decision-making. Three water-energy nexus cases in the United States are examined: (1) water and energy development in the water-scarce Southwest; (2) conflicts between coal development, environmental quality, and social impacts in the East; and (3) tensions between environmental quality and economic development of shale natural gas in the Northeast and Central U.S. These cases are related to Eastern, Central, and Western regional stakeholder priorities collected in a national effort to assess energy-water scenarios. We find that localized challenges are diminished when considered from broader perspectives, while regionally important challenges are not prioritized locally. The transportability of electricity, and to some extent raw coal and gas, makes energy more suitable than water to regionalized global-change adaptation, because many of the impacts to water availability and quality remain localized. We conclude by highlighting the need for improved coordination between water and energy policy. - Highlights: >Water-energy nexus construct considers institutions not just resource inputs. > Energy policy offers more scope for global-change adaptation than does water policy. > U.S. scenarios highlight water impacts and policy choices of energy development. > Water-energy policy tradeoffs may be mitigated across scales of resource use.

  16. Policy and institutional dimensions of the water-energy nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Pierce, Suzanne A.; Pasqualetti, Martin J.; Jones, Alice L.; Montz, Burrell E.; Hoover, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Energy and water are interlinked. The development, use, and waste generated by demand for both resources drive global change. Managing them in tandem offers potential for global-change adaptation but presents institutional challenges. This paper advances understanding of the water-energy nexus by demonstrating how these resources are coupled at multiple scales, and by uncovering institutional opportunities and impediments to joint decision-making. Three water-energy nexus cases in the United States are examined: (1) water and energy development in the water-scarce Southwest; (2) conflicts between coal development, environmental quality, and social impacts in the East; and (3) tensions between environmental quality and economic development of shale natural gas in the Northeast and Central U.S. These cases are related to Eastern, Central, and Western regional stakeholder priorities collected in a national effort to assess energy-water scenarios. We find that localized challenges are diminished when considered from broader perspectives, while regionally important challenges are not prioritized locally. The transportability of electricity, and to some extent raw coal and gas, makes energy more suitable than water to regionalized global-change adaptation, because many of the impacts to water availability and quality remain localized. We conclude by highlighting the need for improved coordination between water and energy policy. - Highlights: →Water-energy nexus construct considers institutions not just resource inputs. → Energy policy offers more scope for global-change adaptation than does water policy. → U.S. scenarios highlight water impacts and policy choices of energy development. → Water-energy policy tradeoffs may be mitigated across scales of resource use.

  17. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustainable energy, clear policies and targets and dedicated institutions are crucial. Fortunately, Afghan government with the support of international community is setting ambitious targets for the renewable energy sector and is encouraging national and international investors to take part in the generation, transmission, and distribution of renewable energy especially electricity through Power Purchase Agreements or very cheap land leases. Thus, the objectives of this report are (I to review the existing institutions in the field of renewable energy, (II to review renewable energy policies and targets in Afghanistan, and (III to identify institutional and policy gaps and recommend solutions.

  18. Institutional issues of environmental policy; Institutionelle Probleme der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Institutions and institutional theory are important topics in contemporary economic theory. However, their application to issues of environmental economics still is in its infancy. The book summarizes the state of the art in research on institutional aspects of environmental economics, as seen from the angle of the economic and social sciences, and outlines a variety of perceivable approaches oriented towards integrating the institutional aspects in environmental economic theory. This process eventually leading to broader consideration of implementation problems, enforcement and organisational aspects, legal aspects or market factors and functions influencing environmental policy, theory and practice of environmental policy are expected to draw near to each other and thus create the long-hoped-for chance to commence a true interdisciplinary dialogue about the entire spectrum of environmental issues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Institutionen und Institutionentheorie nehmen in der aktuellen oekonomischen Diskussion einen breiten Raum ein. Ihre Einbeziehung auch in der umweltoekonomischen Diskussion steht freilich erst noch in den Anfaengen. Der Band beleuchtet aus wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht den gegenwaertigen Forschungsstand und vermittelt einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Ansaetze einer fuer institutionelle Probleme offenen Umweltoekonomik. Die Beruecksichtigung von Implementationsproblemen, die Einbeziehung von Vollzugs- und Organisationsfragen, von Rechtsproblemen sowie der konkreten Funktionsbedingungen von Maerkten im Umweltschutz tragen nicht nur dazu bei, dass sich die Theorie und Praxis der Umweltpolitik deutlich naeherruecken, sie bieten auch die lange vermisste Chance eines echten interdisziplinaeren Dialogs ueber Umweltprobleme. (orig.)

  19. Input-output theory and institutional aspects of environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    National accounting over the years has developed in close interaction with input–output analysis. However, present developments involving core and satellite accounts seem to suggest that this relation will become less close, with possible negative consequences for analysis and policy. In this paper

  20. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...... affairs, and (3) with regards to the transformation of European Union governance in troubled times. These three research avenues highlight how not only European governance itself has evolved in a changing world, but also how the analysis of interests, institutions, and policy-making has morphed...

  1. Enacting Effective Climate Policy Advice: Institutional Strategies to Foster Saliency, Credibility and Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anja; Pregernig, Michael; Reinecke, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This article asks how scientific advisory institutions (SAIs) in climate policy strive towards effectiveness. Our analysis is grounded on the assumption that effectiveness is not passively experienced but is deliberately enacted by SAIs. We draw on a widely used set of criteria, namely saliency, credibility and legitimacy (SCL). Based on an…

  2. Implementing an institution-wide quality improvement policy to ensure appropriate use of continuous cardiac monitoring: a mixed-methods retrospective data analysis and direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayo, Michael F; Mansfield, Jerry; Eiferman, Daniel; Mignery, Traci; White, Susan; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals have been slow to adopt guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) limiting the use of continuous cardiac monitoring for fear of missing important patient cardiac events. A new continuous cardiac monitoring policy was implemented at a tertiary-care hospital seeking to monitor only those patients who were clinically indicated and decrease the number of false alarms in order to improve overall alarm response. Leadership support was secured, a cross-functional alarm management task force was created, and a system-wide policy was developed based on current AHA guidelines. Process measures, including cardiac monitoring rate, monitored transport rate, emergency department (ED) boarding rate and the percentage of false, unnecessary and true alarms, were measured to determine the policy's impact on patient care. Outcome measures, including length of stay and mortality rate, were measured to determine the impact on patient outcomes. Cardiac monitoring rate decreased 53.2% (0.535 to 0.251 per patient day, pimprovements in process measures coupled with no adverse effects to patient outcomes suggest that the overall system became more resilient to current and emerging demands. This study indicates that when collaboration across a diverse team is coupled with strong leadership support, policies and procedures such as this one can improve clinical practice and patient care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Policy drivers of land use/landscape change and the role of institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    This Volante deliverable D2.2 provides an overview and comparative analysis of the transposition and implementation of the two European policies: the Habitats Directive (HD) and the agri-environmental schemes (AES) under the second pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP), and the role...... that institutions play in these processes. The report is based on the country reports from the case study countries (Netherlands (NL), Greece (GR), Romania (RO), Austria (AT) and Denmark (DK)). Each policy is analysed in separate parts of the deliverable and the results are compared in the common discussion...

  4. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed

  5. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  6. Locating regional health policy: Institutions, politics, and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggirozzi, Pia; Yeates, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Poverty reduction and health became central in the agendas of Southern regional organisations in the last two decades. Yet, little is known about how these organisations address poverty, inclusion and social inequality, and how Southern regional formations are engaging in power constellations, institutions, processes, interests and ideological positions within different spheres of governance. This article reviews academic literatures spanning global social policy, regional studies and diplomacy studies, and the state of knowledge and understanding of the ‘place’ of regional actors in health governance as a global political practice therein. It identifies theoretical and thematic points of connection between disparate literatures and how these can be bridged through research focusing on the social policies of regional organisations and regional integration processes. This framework hence locates the contributions of each of the research articles of this Special Issue of Global Social Policy on the regional dimension of health policy and diplomacy in relation to Southern Africa and South America. It also highlights the ways in which the articles bring new evidence about how social relations of welfare are being (re)made over larger scales and how regional actors may initiate new norms to improve health rights in international arenas engaging in new forms of ‘regional’ diplomacy. PMID:26635495

  7. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  8. An Institutional Theory Analysis of Charter Schools: Addressing Institutional Challenges to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.; Zuckerman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework derived from institutional theory in sociology that offers two competing policy contexts in which charter schools operate--a bureaucratic frame versus a decentralized frame. An analysis of evolving charter school types based on three underlying theories of action is considered. As charter school leaders…

  9. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  10. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Dialogue | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CPD's research agenda covers a wide variety of areas, including macroeconomic analysis, agricultural and rural development, trade, investment promotion, and climate change. It receives its funding ... For CPD, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Centre of ...

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Institutional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    GPOUP SUBGROUP Institutional Theory , Isomorphism, Administrative Difterpntiation, Diffusion of Change, Rational, Unit Of Analysis 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on... institutional theory may lead to better decision making and evaluation criteria on the part of managers in the non-profit sector. C. SCOPE This paper... institutional theory : I) Organizations evolving in environments with elabora- ted institutional rules create structure that conform to those rules. 2

  12. Networks and Bargaining in Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today.......A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today....

  13. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized

  14. Clinical practice guidelines in complementary and alternative medicine. An analysis of opportunities and obstacles. Practice and Policy Guidelines Panel, National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An estimated 1 of 3 Americans uses some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture, homeopathy, or herbal medicine. In 1995, the National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine convened an expert panel to examine the role of clinical practice guidelines in CAM. The panel concluded that CAM practices currently are unsuitable for the development of evidence-based practice guidelines, in part because of the lack of relevant outcomes data from well-designed clinical trials. Moreover, the notions of standardization and appropriateness, inherent in guideline development, face challenging methodologic problems when applied to CAM, which considers many different treatment practices appropriate and encourages highly individualized care. Due to different belief systems and divergent theories about the nature of health and illness, CAM disciplines have fundamental differences in how they define target conditions, causes of disease, interventions, and outcome measures of effectiveness. These differences are even more striking when compared with those used by Western medicine. The panel made a series of recommendations on strategies to strengthen the evidence base for future guideline development in CAM and to meet better the current information needs of clinicians, patients, and guideline developers who seek information about CAM treatments.

  15. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  16. Climate change: Moving from scientific to institutional and policy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, B.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of how societies, through their policies and institutional arrangements, can most effectively respond to climate change, is discussed. Four characteristics contributing to the continued failure to resolve the issue are an enormous uncertainty in every part of the problem; the long time scale of effects, ensuring that a modest amount of discounting reduces the present day cost of any future environmental impact that is less than catastrophic to minor proportions; a belief that trying to avert climate change will be very expensive no matter how it is done; and the global nature of the issues calls for an unprecedented amount of international cooperation. Strategies to deal with climate change may be grouped into three categories: preventative, curative and adaptive. The preventative or adjustment strategy involves the restriction or reduction of activities that contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. Under this approach there would be no new fossil fuel plants constructed, and some existing plants might be closed. The curative strategy focuses on addressing the carbon dioxide concentrations being produced and concentrates on neutralizing them. The adaptive or adaptation strategy assumes that carbon dioxide concentrations will continue to build and that society will eventually develop means to cope with the climatic alteration. To assist policy makers, those conducting research need to devote more effort to examining the interrelationships among climate change and other societal concerns, the aspects of uncertainty and surprise, and the range of strategies. 21 refs

  17. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  18. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  19. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  20. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Lehmann; Maximilian Benner

    2015-01-01

    The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurrin...

  1. State Traditions and Language Regimes: A Historical Institutionalism Approach to Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonntag Selma K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an elaboration of a theoretical framework we developed in the introductory chapter of our co-edited volume, State Traditions and Language Regimes (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015. Using a historical institutionalism approach derived from political science, we argue that language policies need to be understood in terms of their historical and institutional context. The concept of ‘state tradition’ focuses our attention on the relative autonomy of the state in terms of its normative and institutional traditions that lead to particular path dependencies of language policy choices, subject to change at critical junctures. ‘Language regime’ is the conceptual link between state traditions and language policy choices: it allows us to analytically conceptualize how and why these choices are made and how and why they change. We suggest that our framework offers a more robust analysis of language politics than other approaches found in sociolinguistics and normative theory. It also challenges political science to become more engaged with scholarly debate on language policy and linguistic diversity.

  2. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  3. The institutional configuration of sport policy in Brazil: organization, evolution and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mendes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has become the center of the spotlight of the whole world recently, amongst many other reasons, one of them was because it was chosen to host a series of mega sporting events - Pan American Games in 2007, Confederations Football Cup in 2013, Fifa Football World Cup 2014 Games and 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. However, little is known about the country's administrative governmental structure focused on sport policy. The available studies focus their analysis on the sport policies content, but not on the arrangement of its structural decision-making. The main aim of this article is indeed to describe, based on official documentation, the evolution and the current arrangements of the government responsible for the administrative structure for the planning and implementation of sports policies in Brazil. Thus, we tried to list the main problems arising from the organization of the Brazilian sports' management. These problems are: (1 inappropriate institutional structure in terms of human resources and obstacles to participation by other social actors beyond the officials (parliament and members of the Ministry of Sports in the sports policy; (2 disarticulation between public institutions generating redundancies and conflicts of jurisdiction due to the poor division of labor between bureaucracy agencies; and (3 inadequate planning proved by the lack of organization of some institutions, and by the lack of assessment and continuity of public policies over time. Therefore, we must emphasize those problems from above, and due to these administrative arrangements, Brazilian sports' policy has big challenges in the sport development in this country, which includes the creation of a national "system" for sports and a priority investment in sport education.

  4. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, S; Eikeland, P O; Eleri, E O; Fermann, G; Fredriksen, O; Halseth, A; Hansen, S; Haugland, T; Malnes, R; Skjaerseth, J B; Ottosen, R

    1993-07-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of the EC - too hot to handle. 7) US climate

  5. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, S.; Eikeland, P.O.; Eleri, E.O.; Fermann, G.; Fredriksen, O.; Halseth, A.; Hansen, S.; Haugland, T.; Malnes, R.; Skjaerseth, J.B.; Ottosen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of the EC - too hot to handle. 7) US climate

  6. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, S.; Eikeland, P.O.; Eleri, E.O.; Fermann, G.; Fredriksen, O.; Halseth, A.; Hansen, S.; Haugland, T.; Malnes, R.; Skjaerseth, J.B.; Ottosen, R

    1993-07-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of

  7. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.

  8. Institutional Support : Institute for Policy Analysis and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will allow IPAR-Rwanda to strengthen its managerial and research capacity by means of a mentoring program for managers, researchers and support staff. This will include formulating a set of organizational goals and establishing a monitoring system to assess progress ...

  9. China's policies on greening financial institutions: assessment and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental protection and sustainability have a complex relationship with finances and financial institutions. Financial institutions such as banks, pension funds and insurance companies, are increasingly seen as of vital importance for reaching environmental and sustainability goals. Initially,

  10. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions.

  11. Effect of delivery care user fee exemption policy on institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To improve access to skilled attendance at delivery and thereby reduce maternal mortality, the Government of Ghana introduced a policy exempting all women attending health facilities from paying delivery care fees. Objective: To examine the effect of the exemption policy on delivery-related maternal mortality.

  12. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  13. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  14. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  15. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty members…

  17. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupido, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  18. Educational Policy and Practice from the Perspective of Institutional Theory: Crafting a Wider Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Institutional analyses of public education have increased in number in recent years. However, studies in education drawing on institutional analyses have not fully incorporated recent contributions from institutional theory, particularly relative to other domains such as law and health policy. The author sketches a framework that integrates recent…

  19. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role ... SPDC's main areas of research are poverty, inequality, governance, provincial ... and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  20. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  1. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India ... women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  2. State autonomy, policy paralysis: paradoxes of institutions and culture in the French health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaix, Lise; Wilsford, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we assess the recent performance of the French state at containing costs in health care using political science concepts such as path dependency and incentives, which are central to an economic approach. The article focuses on institutional capacities and cultural immobilism and attempts to lay bare the tensions at play in seizing (or not) opportunities for structural change. In particular, we attempt to delineate what constitutes real change in this policy arena (big reforms versus the accumulation of many small policy movements) and to understand the variables at play in the coming together of conjunctures that provide for the big, as well as the underlying structures that allow the accumulation of the small. Except in cases of favorable conjuncture, the analysis bodes very ill for nonincremental reform and, indeed, for significant change over the long term.

  3. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel; Greg Shott; Denise Wieland

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  4. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  5. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys­ tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl­ edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten­ sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces­ sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....

  6. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  7. A comparison of bioenergy policies and institutional frameworks in the rural areas of Emilia Romagna and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavicchi, Bianca; Bryden, John M.; Vittuari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between bioenergy, rural development and related innovation processes in two case studies (Emilia Romagna in Italy—and Norway), for a better understanding of the impacts of different policy regimes on bioenergy innovation. Regional innovation systems theory is used to explain the results emerging from the case studies and to identify the presence of potential elements for innovation. We used policy and relevant literature analysis and a grounded approach based on semi- structured interviews of relevant actors involved in the local bioenergy system. The main findings show that the case studies present consistent differences in terms of policy instruments and socio-political dynamics. Emilia Romagna has major weaknesses and threats that hinder innovation, but some positive potential elements for the future. Norway presents stronger local elements for innovation within local bioenergy systems, such as the employment of local resources and knowledge, but critical market and policy features that threaten further innovation developments. The conclusion draws on the comparative analysis to discuss policy implications of the study. - Highlights: • We compare policies and institutional frameworks which regulate bioenergy systems. • We use the SWOT analysis to evaluate the results of the case studies. • Emilia Romagna has major systemic weaknesses. • Norway has local elements for innovation but policy weaknesses. • Policies and policy instruments should be decentralised

  8. No Policy for Public Private Partnership? PPP, Collaboration and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten

    The paper examines how the PPP‐policy has developed in a country with low PPP activity. The paper focuses on the following research questions: How does collaboration occur between the public and private sector in relation to the provision of transport infrastructure and public service? How does...... infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...

  9. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  10. Why Public Comments Matter: The Case of the National Institutes of Health Policy on Single Institutional Review Board Review of Multicenter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Holly A; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meinert, Curtis L

    2018-03-06

    In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested public comments on a draft policy requiring NIH-funded, U.S.-based investigators to use a single institutional review board (sIRB) for ethical review of multicenter studies. The authors conducted a directed content analysis and qualitative summary of the comments and discuss how they shaped the final policy. Two reviewers independently assessed support for the policy from a review of comments responding to the draft policy in 2016. A reviewer conducted an open text review to identify prespecified and additional comment themes. A second researcher reviewed 20% of the comments; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The NIH received 167 comments: 65% (108/167) supportive of the policy, 23% (38/167) not supportive, and 12% (21/167) not indicating support. Clarifications or changes to the policy were suggested in 102/167 comments (61%). Criteria for selecting sIRBs were addressed in 32/102 comments (31%). Also addressed were IRB responsibilities (39/102; 38%), cost (27/102; 26%), the role of local IRBs (14/102; 14%), and allowable policy exceptions (19/102; 19%). The NIH further clarified or provided additional guidance for selection criteria, IRB responsibilities, and cost in the final policy (June 2016). Local IRB reviews and exemptions guidance were unchanged. In this case study, public comments were effective in shaping policy as the NIH modified provisions or planned supplemental guidance in response to comments. Yet critical knowledge gaps remain and empirical data are necessary. The NIH is considering mechanisms to support the establishment of best practices for sIRB implementation.

  11. Methodology for Participatory Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, J.L.A.; Joldersma, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of time it has become clear that policy analysts who use traditional formal modeling techniques have limited impact on policy making regarding complex policy problems. These kinds of problems require the analyst to combine scientific insights with subjective knowledge resources and to

  12. Evolving institutional and policy frameworks to support adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Cleaves

    2014-01-01

    Given the consequences and opportunities of the Anthropocene, what is our underlying theory or vision of successful adaptation? This essay discusses the building blocks of this theory, and how will we translate this theory into guiding principles for management and policy.

  13. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The project will undertake seven national SDG scoping studies, one each for Ethiopia, Kenya, ...

  14. An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe level of entrepreneurship differs considerably across countries and periods. Both the causes and consequences of entrepreneurship are a matter of extensive scientific debate as well as of great policy importance. A high level of entrepreneurial activity is assumed and shown to

  15. Analysis of technological, institutional and socioeconomic factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of technological, institutional and socioeconomic factors that influences poor reading culture among secondary school students in Nigeria. ... Proliferation and availability of smart phones, chatting culture and social media were identified as technological factors influencing poor reading culture among secondary ...

  16. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  17. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik N G

    2018-01-01

    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effectiveness of Private Forest Institutional and Policy in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fauziyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of institusional and policy on private forest. The research was conducted in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency in August 2012 - May 2013. The methods used in this study are structured interview, open interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Assessment of institutional effectiveness was done to government institutional, marketing institututional, and farmer institutional using recommended indicator namely: 1 user and resource boundaries, 2 appropriation and provision, 3 collective-choice arrangements, 4 monitoring, 5 graduated sanctions, 6 conflict-resolution mechanisms, and 7 recognition of appropriators’ rights to organize. The collected data were processed using likert scale and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that effectiveness of institutional in Kabupaten Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency was moderate condition (quite effective. The effectiveness of private forest policy is seen from four policy viewpoints: policy accuracy, policy implementation, target accuracy, and environmental accuracy. Private forest policy in Kabupaten Banjarnegara is effective based on policy accuracy and environmental accuracy, while private forest policy in Banyumas Regency is effective based on target accuracy and environmental accuracy. This difference in assessment is due to the different of policy or program at the location according to the condition and the desire of community.

  19. People don't talk in institutional statements: A methodological case study of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristy Watkins; Lynne M. Westphal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our application of Ostrom et al.'s ADICO syntax, a grammatical tool based in the Institutional Analysis and Development framework, to a study of ecological restoration decision making in the Chicago Wilderness region. As this method has only been used to look at written policy and/or extractive natural resource management systems, our...

  20. Institutional Support to Latin American Policy Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will strengthen the ability of the 12 selected research institutions to provide, disseminate and communicate high-quality research. This will be achieved through measures aimed at enhancing the ability of staff to conduct sound research, improving organizational governance, and communicating with policymakers.

  1. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  2. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  3. A sustainable climate policy : Liu Institute Report 03-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Bazylewich, M.; Boyd, D. and others.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes ideas to help implement the Kyoto Protocol which was recently ratified by the Canadian government. It covers opportunities for change various sectors, including road transportation, mining, manufacturing, electricity generation, forestry and agriculture. The merits of taxes versus permits were also examined. The policy measures described in this report do not meet the Kyoto target, but they offer the potential to reduce carbon dioxide by more than 70 million tons at no cost to consumers or the government, and without tradable permits. The main concerns of industry were examined, along with regulations and policy options that could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The challenge associated with each sector was described, followed by the mechanism needed to meet the challenge for the long-term. Five strategies were identified for delivering GHG reductions.

  4. Evaluation and Policy Analysis: A Communicative Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wallat

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the next generation of students of human development is to help shape the paradigms by which we analyze and evaluate public policies for children and families. Advocates of building research and policy connections point to health care and stress experiences across home, school, and community as critical policy issues that expand the scope of contexts and outcomes studied. At a minimum, development researchers and practitioners will need to be well versed in available methods of inquiry; they will need to be "methodologically multilingual" when conducting evaluation and policy analysis, producing reports, and reporting their interpretations to consumer and policy audiences. This article suggests how traditional approaches to policy inquiry can be reconsidered in light of these research inquiry and communicative skills needed by all policy researchers. A fifteen year review of both policy and discourse processes research is presented to suggest ways to conduct policy studies within a communicative framework.

  5. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  6. From Clusters to Smart Specialization: Tourism in Institution-Sensitive Regional Development Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Benner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union and its neighborhood, regional development has increasingly come to focus on agglomerations during the last three decades. Notably, during the 1990s and early 2000s, clustering was the major policy focus in regional development. Currently, the concept of smart specialization is applied all over the European Union and is attracting interest in the EU’s neighborhood. The tourism sector particularly tends to agglomerate regionally and even locally. While there is a large body of literature describing tourism clusters and while tourism features as a priority sector in many regional development strategies such as smart specialization strategies, there is a research gap on policy approaches applying agglomeration-oriented policy concepts to tourism destinations in an institution-sensitive way. This article argues that both cluster policy and smart specialization can be of considerable value for institution-sensitive tourism development, either when adapted to the specificities of the tourism sector or when integrating tourism development into wider, cross-sectoral strategies of regional development. Such a policy can be a valuable tool for local and regional development, provided that policies are designed in an institution-sensitive manner and respond to the particular institutional context prevailing in a tourist destination. The article illustrates some preliminary thoughts for institution-sensitive tourism development through cluster policy and smart specialization in Cyprus, Israel, and Tunisia.

  7. Precarious opportunity: Canada's changing nuclear energy policies and institutional choices. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.; Dorman, A.; Morrison, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter One) discusses the two main scenarios typically advanced for Canada's nuclear energy future. The first view is that the nuclear energy industry can prosper and make an important contribution to energy and the environment in this age of climate change policy. This view is supported by some recent international studies which also express cautious optimism. A somewhat different view is the perception by some that the nuclear industry is economically in decline and environmentally questionable. These views have emerged as a result of recent serious safety concerns that have been raised about British nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) regarding MOX fuel, where it has been alleged that data on safety were faked by BNFL workers. This article also provides an overview of how nuclear policy ideas, policy institutions, and policy interests have changed. Second, it draws out in more detail key policy and institutional choices confronting Canada's nuclear policy makers

  8. [Inclusive education policy: perceptions of managers about the process of changes in Higher Education Institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francilene Jane Rodrigues; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Silva, Cesar Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative descriptive exploratory study, conducted in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) which offers Nursing course, in Joao Pessoa-PB. The study aimed to understand the concept of managers about the need for organizational changes to attend customers with special needs. Four managers participated in the study. A semi-structured interview with guiding questions was used to collect information and to interpret the data we used the method of discourse analysis based on Fiorin. It was noticed that the managers have a concern to meet the demands of inclusive policies, including the adequacy of physical spaces and the pedagogy adopted to meet the students' needs. However, some of them admitted to have little knowledge on how to deal with students with special needs and also mentioned that the institutions do not have an efficient and logistic work which can meet the current legislation of inclusion. We concluded that the process of structural and pedagogical changes is built in a slow and gradual way and it requires an involvement of qualified managers who are committed to execute the policies of inclusion of customers with special needs in a civil and legal way.

  9. Advancing the climate agenda: Exploiting material and institutional linkages to develop a menu of policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Gupta, J.; Biermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of interlinkages of existing material and the strengthening and promotion of new institutional interlinkages can widen the climate change agenda through new and innovative policy and legal measures. Material linkages are inherent structural connections between policy domains that are

  10. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  11. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    studies with varying policy outcomes: 1) the social cash transfer system, which is well established; and 2) the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, a recent policy, which has suffered several delays. Building on the power resource and historical institutionalism approaches, we explore how different...

  12. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  13. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  14. Pricing Policy, Social Equity and Institutional Survival in Tertiary Education in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred M.

    New Jersey aids private institutions but is deficit in low-priced open access to public colleges. Discussed is higher education in New Jersey in light of this historical condition; pricing policy; social equity; decisions, especially regarding institutional support, student aid, and public tuition; and the "free market." While the…

  15. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  16. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  17. 34 CFR 668.134 - Institutional policies and procedures for requesting documentation and receiving secondary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Immigration-Status Confirmation § 668.134 Institutional policies and... immigration status of applicants for title IV, HEA student financial assistance who claim to meet the... eligible noncitizen until the institution has provided the student the opportunity to submit the...

  18. Circulation Policies for External Users: A Comparative Study of Public Urban Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, William H., Jr.; Stevenson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This article is a study of the policies that govern the use of the university library by external users at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and 12 peer institutions used by IUPUI for comparative purposes. A search of each institution's Web site was conducted as well as interviews with circulation librarians and managers.…

  19. Science-policy interaction in the global greenhouse. Institutional design and institutional performance in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, Tora

    1999-08-01

    This paper explores the science-policy interaction and the extent to which and how institutional arrangements may be used as instruments for enhancing the effectiveness of the dialog. The first part develops the theory. The point of departure of the analysis is the internal dynamics of science and politics in their pure forms and the nature of the dynamics that are generated when these two distinct systems of behaviour meet. On this basis, then, the question of which functions the institutional apparatus should be able to serve in order to enhance the effectiveness of science-policy dialogue is addressed. This approach is then applied to an empirical case study of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from its establishment in 1988 to the provision of the Second IPCC Assessment Report in 1995. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Performance Analysis of Microfinance Institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azhar Ikram Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of Microfinance Institutions-MFIs of India. It includes analysis of MFIs of India. This study includes analysis of performance of microfinance institutions with reference to both financial and non-financial ways. Performance of microfinance institutions is measured using four parameters, which are sustainability/profitability, outreach, operational and financial efficiency. Data is taken of 99 Microfinance Institutions of India from the Microfinance Information Exchange for a period of 11 years. Variables of this study are both in absolute and relative terms. The endogenous variables are Return on Assets and Return on Equity for sustainability, Number of Borrowers per Staff Member for operational efficiency, Cost per Borrower for financial efficiency, and Number of Active Borrowers for outreach. Panel data analysis is done after checking the assumptions of the model. Hausman Test is applied to find out the suitability of Fixed or Random Effect Model. Both random and fixed effect were found suitable for application. In addition to this descriptive analysis of the variables is also done. The results show that most of the variables used in the study are significant in outreach model; other than rank, financial revenue to assets ratio, portfolio at risk, deposits, and capital to assets ratio all other variables are significant in case of sustainability using ROA model and same variables are found insignificant in ROE model except financial expense to assets ratio; in financial efficiency model both significant and insignificant variables are found; and in case of operational efficiency all variables are found significant.

  1. Consumer energy-conservation policy in Canada: behavioural and institutional obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G. (Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, Ontario); Mank, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper posits that if consumer energy-conservation policy is to succeed in Canada, both behavioral and institutional obstacles must be identified and overcome. The behavioral barriers, identified through a national household survey, include consumer resistance to policies that affect their lifestyles. The institutional barriers obtained from a series of interviews with government officials, include weak federal-provincial relations. Viewed from a federal perspective, these obstacles are discussed and then linked to policy types. A prior understanding of the obstacles that a particular program type is likely to face should allow more-effective execution of the program and enhance the probability of success. 11 references, 7 tables.

  2. Islamic vs Conventional Microfinance Institutions: Performance analysis in MENA countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Ben Abdelkader

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance has been identified as an important policy instrument that allows greater financial and social independence for women and poor by facilitating access to financial services for the poorest and destitute. Microfinance institutions (MFIs have mostly a high concentration of women beneficiaries and aim at alleviation of poverty in all its forms. Accordingly, the principal purpose of microfinance institutions is to be social performing by reducing poverty. However, they have to reconcile this objective with financial performance by trying to be profitable and sustainable. On other side, Islamic Microfinance has progressively growing in the world, particularly in poor countries, as credible alternative which allows poor populations to have access to basic financial services at low cost. The integration of Islamic finance concepts to microfinance was one of the valuable reasons in attracting poor to get advantage of these services. Whereas the complexity of these methods in microfinance and lack of transparency in profit distribution, there are some challenges about their efficiency. It is therefore of utmost interest to consider if the financial performance of Islamic microfinance institutions will be negatively correlated with the depth of outreach. The aim of this paper is to examine the performance of Islamic microfinance institutions in comparison with conventional institutions. This study focuses analysis on the MENA region, where a large proportion of the poor are practicing Muslims and are thus unable to take advantage of traditional microfinance contracts which are incompatible with Sharia’. Using a non parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA to estimate the efficiency of the microfinance institutions, our study provides the empirical evidence from Islamic and conventional microfinance institutions in MENA region.

  3. Grid-connected renewable energy in China: Policies and institutions under gradualism, developmentalism, and socialism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Clara

    2011-01-01

    This communication displays some of our on-going research on the incompleteness of China's advances toward “best practice” in policy-making and institution-building for renewables. In particular, this paper: (1) summarizes how Chinese policies and institutions for the deployment of renewable electricity are only partially compliant with what is internationally recognized as “best practice”; and (2) contextualizes Chinese policies and institutions for renewables in the broader picture of China's political economy. Much as a political economy perspective has aided the understanding of why Chinese economic reforms were partial and unique, the said contextualization might help explain why China's policies and institutions for renewables diverge from “best practice”. Further, given that China proved successful in promoting its economic growth with partial and unique reforms, the partiality and uniqueness of its renewables policies and institutions need not impede the rapid development of renewable electricity. This on-going research has so far combined a review of specialized literature and the business press with semi-structured interviews held with relevant actors in policy, business, and research related to renewable energies.

  4. The Institutional Component of the Efficient Economic Policy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of institutional accompanying the economic policy of the State, establishing an efficient system of institutions. Challenges of the contemporary globalization require changes in the State influence on economy, redefining quality parameters and principles of an efficient economic policy. Complexity of the State policy in a global environment is determined not only by importance of the tasks of establishing an efficient market against the background of increasing influences of exogenous uncertainty, but also by seeking ways of entering the global space, thus implementing the best interests of national economic development. The article deduces parameters of the concept of «efficient institution». The author believes that institutions precisely should act as the link through which social and economic development would become unseparated in order to form a stable efficient socio-economic development

  5. Conceptual and Institutional Aspects of EU Energy Policy (1990-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Borovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideological and institutional framework of the European energy policy, which is still work in progress, is crucial to the EU as it faces new political and economic challenges related to the recent Ukrainian crisis. Even if key energy policy issues are still decided by member states as the EU only seeks to speak with one voice in energy matters externally, much progress has been made over the last two decades in terms of the EU's energy policy formulation and institutional development. The Lisbon Treaty made the energy policy a sphere of "shared competence" of EU institutions and member states. The European Commission's numerous policy documents ("White" and "Green books" 1995, 2000 and 2006 provided a basis for the development of an integrated energy market. Substantial progress has been achieved in the area of energy policy harmonization between the EU and neighboring countries (Energy Charter Treaty, European Energy Community. The Union's key energy policy areas also included supply diversification (trans-European energy networks, development of unconventional energy production, climate change and energy efficiency. Over the last decade climate changes has become a cornerstone of EU energy policy and is regarded by the EU as key to moderating energy demand and reducing import dependency.

  6. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  7. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  8. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  9. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  10. Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Erica; Thow, Anne Marie; Bell, Colin; Engelhardt, Katrin; Gamolo-Naliponguit, Ella Cecilia; Go, John Juliard; Sacks, Gary

    2018-01-23

    The school environment can enhance children's skills, knowledge and behaviours in relation to healthy eating. However, in many countries, unhealthy foods are commonly available in schools, and children can be exposed to aggressive marketing by the food industry. Taking the perspective of policymakers, this study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to effective school food policy development and implementation in the Philippines. In May 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 policymakers and stakeholders involved in school food policymaking and implementation in the Philippines. The Health Policy Analysis Triangle was used to identify interview questions and to guide the thematic analysis. These included the political and socio-environmental context, strengths and limitations of existing policy content, roles and behaviours of actors, implementation processes, policy outcomes, and opportunities to improve policy coherence. The Department of Education's policy 'Orders' represented a relatively strong policy framework for the education sector of the Philippines. However, a lack of human and financial resources for implementation, planning, and policy enforcement limited the impact of the policy on the healthiness of school food provision. Ambiguity in policy wording allowed a wide interpretation of the foods eligible to be provided in schools, and led to difficulties in effective monitoring and enforcement. Food companies used existing relationships with schools to promote their brands and compromise the establishment of a stronger food policy agenda. We found a motivated group of actors engaging in policy-oriented learning and advocating for a stronger policy alternative so as to improve the school food environment. The adoption of policy mechanisms being used to promote healthy dietary practices in the school setting will be strengthened by more robust implementation planning processes, and resources to support implementation and enforcement

  11. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors’ involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Baum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. Methods The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. Results The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. Conclusions The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the

  12. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  13. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan : policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  14. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  15. Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. - Highlights: • Russia–EU institutional inconsistency has accelerated Russia's gas export diversification. • Institutions for regional development are an important component of Russia's gas policy in Asia. • Transformations in globalising gas markets induced Russia's limited gas export liberalisation. • Genuine gas policy liberalisation can facilitate the attainment of Russia's goals in Asia

  16. Summary, analysis, and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Four policy recommendations are presented that would provide the foundations for a long-term transportation policy for the US while gradually reducing the threats from petroleum-powered vehicles to the climate and air quality. They include: improvements in new-vehicle fuel efficiency; increased transportation system efficiency; development of non-fossil energy sources for transportation; and reduction of other greenhouse gas emissions. In the future, manufacturers will be under pressure to develop petroleum-powered vehicles that are cleaner, safer, and more fuel efficient; at the same time, they will need to develop new kinds of vehicles that will emit no pollutants. This pressure will come not from market forces but from public policy and will require large amounts of capital

  17. Institutional factors of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehfeld, D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy policy serves to demonstrate the interrelation of political field analysis and conceptional political discussion. A theoretical political field analysis results in the fact that energy policy must not be considered a clearly defined political field but rather a domain affected by economic policy. Based on this principle the publication is entering into an empirically founded discussion of topical aspects of political science (policy science, corporatism, governability, marxian theories). The respective problems at issue are applied to energy policy in order to work out the potential and topical problems of all aspects involved. (orig.) [de

  18. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Joubert

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for effective policies to reduce the incidence of sexual harassment complaints. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was conducted amongst 161 academic staff members, representing 10 higher education institutions in South Africa. The measuring instrument that was used is the Sexual Harassment Questionnaire (SHQ that was developed specifically for this study. Main findings: The results showed that despite indications that sexual harassment policies do exist and that they are regarded as effective tools in addressing sexual harassment, the implementation of such policies is not effective and few academic staff members received training and/or guidance on the utilisation of the policy. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the elements of an effective policy and between population group and some of the elements. Practical/managerial implications: Employers across the board should regularly conduct an audit to determine the level of awareness of sexual harassment policies and procedures and plan interventions. Contribution: No other study in South Africa attempted to measure the awareness levels of academics and its impact on the management of sexual harassment.

  19. Vocational training in contemporary Spain: Policies, Agents and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulí DÁVILA BALSERA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The vocational training in Spain has reached a late formalization in the educational system. This situation is explained by the economical contexts thatevolve from the agricultural sector to the industrial development of certain zones, which are those who have a better network of vocational schools. In this article three levels of analysis are addressed: the first one, related to the politics and educational legislation, in order to notice the process of formalization; the second one, focused on the relevance of the Church on this sector and, the third one is the role played by the Union Organization during the Franco's regime. In this way, the intervention of the different agents who have contributed to the development of the vocational training in Spain remains clear up to the General Law of Education of 1970.

  20. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  1. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  2. The Henderson Question? The Melbourne Institute and fifty years of welfare policy

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    We discuss selected research contributions of the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economics and Social Research, to fifty years of welfare policy for those of work force age and focus particularly on the policy focus of R. F. Henderson, the inaugural director. Following the spirit of his 1960s poverty research, government, in the mid-1970s, doubled unemployment allowances in real terms and increased pensions by approximately forty per cent. Both income support payments were to be indexed by av...

  3. Strategic Action in Institutional Change: Layering, Conversion and Architectural Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pechmann, Philipp

    This paper theorizes different types of strategic action in order to better understand and explain how institutional and policy change comes about and how single events in gradual change processes are causally connected. It conceptualizes situational change strategies which are favored in contexts...... configured along two dimensions identified in the literature: the level of veto barriers in the political environment, and the level of institutional discretion in rule interpretation and enforcement. More specifically, it suggests a conceptual merging of modes of institutional change like layering...... and conversion with elements of architectural policy design such as the compartmentalization of resource flows, the creation of reporting mechanisms, or the judicialization and professionalization of institutions. The benefits of this approach are threefold: First, it advances the gradual change literature...

  4. The Influence Of Policy Implementation From The Change Of Institutional Status Toward Quality Of Patient Service In Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Kusnadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fenomenon and comunity problem in goverment hospital management not aware to wont and need public. Silent safety and consumen satisfaction is fenomenon lack quallity care. Goal this research goal for analysis about influence of policy implementation of hospital change institution status to the quality of patien service in Hospital. Kind of reserch is the quantity desain on approach the eksplanatory survey research analysis regresi linier multipel with analysis method validitas product moment pearson exam and reliability exam is alpha cronbach technique to hypotesis exam is path analysis and statistic exam t. Datum transformation is Skala Likert with measurement the method succesive interval. The population one thausand seventh two person with sample technique stratified random sampling the instrument research is quesioner and interview patien on caunter imforman. The result of assuming research that it is anticipated that implementation of change policy of institution status of hospital X there is significant influence to quality of service of patient Y is 66.31 and the other factor e is 33.69. In the implementation factor is significant to positif influence to quality service is communication X1 is 049 human resources X2 is 025 disposition X3 is 032 and structure birocratic X4 is 033. The conculsion from four factor independen variable X is the implementation of policy to quality service patient Y to influence and can receive in knowledge. To concept the development in implementation of policy need culture job factor because every product policy to contac direct with the community as to basic public policy.

  5. Maternity waiting homes and institutional birth in Nicaragua: policy options and strategic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Prado, Ariadna; Cortez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of promoting institutional births and reducing the high maternal and child mortality rates in rural and poor zones, the government of Nicaragua is supporting the creation of maternity waiting homes. This study analyzes that strategy and examines the factors associated with the use of maternity waiting homes and institutional birth. To that end, we apply a quantitative approach, by means of an econometric analysis of the data extracted from surveys conducted in 2006 on a sample of women and parteras or traditional birth attendants, as well as a qualitative approach based on interviews with key informants. Results indicate that although the operation of the maternity waiting homes is usually satisfactory, there is still room for improvement along the following lines: (i) disseminating information about the homes to both women and men, as the latter frequently decide the course of women's healthcare, and to parteras, who can play an important role in referring women; (ii) strengthening the postpartum care; (iii) ensuring financial sustainability by obtaining regular financial support from the government to complement contributions from the community; and (iv) strengthening the local management and involvement of the regional government. These measures might be useful for health policy makers in Nicaragua and in other developing countries that are considering this strategy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenqiang Liu; Xiliang Zhang; Lin Gan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of wind farm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power development should be subject to rational policy change and institutional adjustment. It discusses the incentive mechanisms and institutional frameworks for future development. Particular importance is attributed to market incentives for wind power to reach the objectives of industrialization and commercialization. A number of cost-competitive incentive measures and policies are recommended: (i) introducing market based mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) establishing effective investment policies and regulations to attract private investment; (iii) promoting localization of wind turbine production; (iv) adjusting tax and subsidy policies; and (v) reforming governmental institutions to make clear rules and responsibilities for policymaking, and enhancing communication/coordination between relevant government agencies in order to formulate uniform and effective policies. (Author)

  7. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  8. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what...

  9. Trends in ageing and ageing-in-place and the future market for institutional care: scenarios and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Peter; Schut, Frederik T

    2018-05-21

    In several OECD countries the percentage of elderly in long-term care institutions has been declining as a result of ageing-in-place. However, due to the rapid ageing of population in the next decades future demand for institutional care is likely to increase. In this paper we perform a scenario analysis to examine the potential impact of these two opposite trends on the demand for institutional elderly care in the Netherlands. We find that the demand for institutional care first declines as a result of the expected increase in the number of low-need elderly that age-in-place. This effect is strong at first but then peters out. After this first period the effect of the demographic trend takes over, resulting in an increase in demand for institutional care. We argue that the observed trends are likely to result in a growing mismatch between demand and supply of institutional care. Whereas the current stock of institutional care is primarily focussed on low-need (residential) care, future demand will increasingly consist of high-need (nursing home) care for people with cognitive as well as somatic disabilities. We discuss several policy options to reduce the expected mismatch between supply and demand for institutional care.

  10. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  11. Introduction: Discourse Analysis and Policy Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); R.J. Apthorpe (Raymond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: As introduction to a collection on policy discourses and patterns of argumentation in international development, this paper clarifies different meanings of `discourse' and 'discourse analysis', including as applied in development studies, and explains why effective

  12. Policies and Institutional Supports for Women Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    research researchers relied solely on the secondary sources. The study revealed that Government agencies provide policy, legal and financial support with active support from non-State actors. On the contrary, they do not get proper support from all relevant institutions because of corruption and lack of information. It is suggested that combined initiatives of Government and nongovernment institutions will be successful in meeting the needs of business women in Bangladesh.

  13. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  14. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  15. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  16. Educational Policy in the Carter Years. Institute for Educational Leadership Policy Paper 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Christopher T.; And Others

    Two articles and a transcript of a colloquium discussion by seven practitioners/experts on the topic of educational policy in the Carter years are presented. The discussion group considered Carter's first year, zero-based budgeting, dimensions of leadership, the fiscal year 1979 budget, reorganization and a Department of Education, and the…

  17. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  18. Institutional transformation: An analysis of change initiatives at NSF ADVANCE institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Ellen W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how institutional culture promoted or impeded the implementation of round one and two NSF ADVANCE initiatives designed to improve academic climates for women in science and engineering. This study was conducted in two phases. In phase one, 35 participants from 18 institutions were interviewed to answer three research questions. Participants identified a policy, process, or program designed to improve academic cultures for women in science and engineering fields. Participants also identified strategies that promoted the implementation of these efforts, and discussed factors that impeded these efforts. In phase two, site visits were conducted at two institutions to answer a fourth research question. How did institutional culture shape the design and implementation of faculty search processes? Policies, processes, and programs were implemented by participants at the institutional, departmental, and individual levels and included family friendly and dual career policies at the institutional level, improved departmental faculty search and climate improvement processes, and mentoring programs and training for department heads at the individual level. Communication and leadership strategies were key to the successful implementation of policies, processes, and programs designed to achieve institutional transformation. Communication strategies involved shaping change messages to reach varied audiences often with the argument that change efforts would improve the climate for everyone not just women faculty members. Administrative and faculty leaders from multiple levels proved important to change efforts. Institutional Transformation Institutional culture shaped initiatives to improve faculty search processes. Faculty leaders in both settings used data to persuade faculty members of the need for change. At one site, data that included national availability information was critical to advancing the change agenda. At the other site

  19. Fifteen year's research activities of the INSS Institute of Nuclear Technology and future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since the Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated (INSS) was founded. This paper reviews the research activities of the Institute of Nuclear Technology in INSS over that time and proposes a policy for future research. First, a chronological table shows the major milestones over the past fifteen years. Notable events include the following. The head office was moved to Mihama-cho where laboratories and experimental facilities were installed; the Institute signed an agreement with the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) on assistance for the preparedness of nuclear emergency; it assisted KEPCO to investigate the causes of the accident at its Mihama Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 and subsequently established the Nuclear Power Plant Aging Research Center, it began providing information on adverse events occurred at nuclear power plants in the world to Japanese electric utilities that own PWRs; it supported the Energy Research and Development Centralization Plan of Fukui Prefecture, and it embarked on a project to develop the Fukui regional cluster in the Fukui and Kinki area under the government's program for aging management of nuclear power plants. The fifteen years of research activities are shown for each research group and for each research project, and then important achievements of the major research projects are described. Finally, the status of research papers published in external Journals and in INSS over the past fifteen years is illustrated and the number of patents acquired during this period is presented. We evaluated our research activities over the fifteen years and reviewed them according to seven items under a future research policy. The plans include the enhancement of system engineering-based research efforts as the name of this Institute implies, and committing ourselves to forward-looking and creative research program focusing on not only from analysis', but also on 'synthesis'. A suitable approach to safety

  20. Institutional analysis of health system governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra L; Jan, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    It is important that researchers who study health system governance have a set of collective understandings of the meanings of governance, which can then inform the methods used in research. We present an institutional framing and definition of health system governance; that is, governance refers to making, changing, monitoring and enforcing the rules that govern the demand and supply of health services. This pervasive, relational view of governance is to be preferred to approaches that focus primarily on structures of governments and health care organizations, because health system governance involves communities and service users, and because governments in many low- and middle-income countries tend to under-govern. Therefore, the study of health system governance requires institutional analysis; an approach that focuses not only on structures, but also on the rules (both formal and informal) governing demand and supply relations. Using this 'structure-relations' lens, and based on our field experience, we discuss how this focus could be applied to the three approaches to framing and studying health system governance that we identified in the literature. In order of decreasing focus on structures ('hardware') and increasing focus on relations ('software'), they are: (1) the government-centred approach, which focuses on the role of governments, above or to the exclusion of non-government health system actors; (2) the building-block approach, which focuses on the internal workings of health care organizations, and treats governance as one of the several building blocks of organizations; and (3) the institutional approach, which focuses on how the rules governing social and economic interactions are made, changed, monitored and enforced. Notably, either or both qualitative and quantitative methods may be used by researchers in efforts to incorporate the analysis of how rules determine relations among health system actors into these three approaches to health system

  1. Growing Significance of EU Institutions in Promotion of Inter-regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Ermakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the variety of tools and vehicles applied within the EU to expand the prerogative of the regions of the EU member states. The author uses as an example the inter-regional policies in Belgium in respect of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. The author analyzes the mechanisms of promotion of external regional relations in Belgium as a means of addressing different problems both on national and all-European level, supporting the arguments and conclusions by examples of relevant EU initiatives. The article details the activities of the EU Regional Committee (RC, the EU advisory body with the powers of political initiative, upholding the principle ofsubsidarity in the implementation of the EU member states' regional policies. The involvement of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region in the activities of EU RC is described and summarized. As a case study, the article deals with Belgium's rotating six months presidency in the EUin 2010 when the country, which was going through a severe political crisis with no federal government in place, was represented by the two regions. The special focus of the article is on the strategic EU program "Europe2020" and its implementation by the regions of Belgium. There is an account of the initiatives undertaken by the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region within the framework of this program outlining the interaction of the two regions. The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the involvement of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region with various EU institutions describing how each party achieves the promotion of its regional interests. Within this context, it is a noteworthy development that the Flemish Region is participating in the international program "Pact 2020" on energy all by its own. The article features quotations by Flemish and Walloon political figures which serve as an illustration of the prevailing attitudes in the Belgian society to the process of

  2. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  3. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  4. Diversity in the Academy? Staff Perceptions of Equality Policies in Six Contemporary Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary; Morley, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The article is based on recent research involving qualitative case studies of staff experiences of equality policies in six English, Scottish and Welsh higher education institutions (HEIs). Recent changes to UK legislation (e.g. on "race" and disability) and a series of European Union employment directives (including on religion and…

  5. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... fire statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Cause of fire: The factor or...; however, it does not include indirect loss, such as business interruption. (b) Annual fire safety report...

  6. Determining the Influence of Heterogeneity in Graduate Institutions on University-Industry Collaboration Policy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hung-Jen; Chang, Dian-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assumed that organizational heterogeneity is a key factor influencing the effects of university-industry cooperation policy in higher education institutes. Gender difference, faculty position, faculty member nationality, and diversity in academic expertise were considered as the indicators of heterogeneity. One-hundred graduate…

  7. A Review of Cash Management Policies, Procedures and Practices of Mississippi's Institutions of Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Legislature, Jackson. Performance Evaluation and Expenditure Review Committee.

    This report to the Mississippi Legislature presents the findings of a review of the cash management policies, procedures, and practices of the State Board of Trustees of Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL). The methodology involved review of: applicable Mississippi statutes; standards promulgated by the National Association of College and…

  8. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  9. Learning to listen. Institutional change and legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.

  10. The path of Brazilian social assistance policy post-1988: the significance of institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Guimarães Duarte Sátyro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the construction of the social assistance policy at the federal level in Brazil over the last two decades. It focuses on the Federal Constitution of 1988 and subsequent infra-constitutional legislation, especially that enacted during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula administrations, which showed very different conceptions of social policy. For both administrations, we analyze the consequences of the institutional changes and legal framework introduced as well as the social policy ideas that informed them. It is argued that the construction of social assistance in Brazil demanded much more than the constitutional provisions enacted in 1988. It included the entire set of subsequent constitutional legislation, a process in which the ruling party played a critical role. Categories of neo-institutionalism and the method of process tracing, plus in-depth interviews with relevant actors, were employed. Our findings point to the impact of the interaction between institutional structures, like constitutions and policy legacies, and the political projects of governing parties. Constitutional provisions, even if not bound to a policy, can prevent setbacks and anchor the action of pressure groups. They can also allow progressive administration to change the status quo.

  11. Policies and institutions for moderating deep recessions, debt crises and financial instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Phillip Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a long-term policy and institutional framework for reducing the intensity of recessions, debt crises and financial instabilities, especially for the Core nations and areas that bore the brunt of the anomalies during 2008-2013. We argue that institutional changes need to be systemic, amounting to the construction of a new social structure of accumulation (SSA or mode of regulation (MOR, which we call an SSA of embedded communitarian liberalism. Five institutional spheres are introduced which are in need of systemic change, due to the entrenched contradictions and problems which the current set of institutions generate. These involve firstly institutions within the world-system of finance and production; secondly relating to finance versus industry; thirdly capital versus labor; fourthly state systems of production; and fifthly the interlinking of state, community and ecology.

  12. Radioactive waste: institutional determinants of management and disposal policy in three European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, Frans.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to write a detailed historical account of the policy and practice of radioactive waste management in Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and to draw out implications for theory and public policy. By comparing the evolution of the policy process in three countries it has been possible to develop a better understanding of the particular operational, regulatory and political factors determining policy in each case. The main conclusions are three-fold. First, the presence or absence of commitments to the reprocessing of spent fuel for a wide range of strategic, industrial and legal reasons have been critical to the success in finding an acceptable radwaste management and disposal policy (or strategy). Politically it is not possible to make a clear distinction between radwaste management and policy for the rest of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Second, because of this complex but intimate relationship to reprocessing policy, the dynamism and consistency of radwaste policies are highly dependent on the industrial and political contexts of the drive to reprocessing. Traditionally a view on reprocessing has been virtually synonymous with a faith or scepticism in the future of nuclear power. Third, the policy process, and indeed its goals was rather unique to national circumstances (the legal and institutional framework, industrial and political structures). This demonstrates one of the principle arguments of the thesis which is that the innovation process for radwaste management and disposal technologies cannot be seen merely as a technical process, but has to be seen as a process of political and institutional negotiations. (author)

  13. Analyzing the influence of institutions on health policy development in Uganda: a case study of the decision to abolish user fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, K A; Abelson, J

    2011-12-01

    During the 2001 election campaign, President Yoweri Museveni announced he was abolishing user fees for health services in Uganda. No analysis has been carried out to explain how he was able to initiate such an important policy decision without encountering any immediate barriers. To explain this outcome through in-depth policy analysis driven by the application of key analytical frameworks. An explanatory case study informed by analytical frameworks from the institutionalism literature was undertaken. Multiple data sources were used including: academic literature, key government documents, grey literature, and a variety of print media. According to the analytical frameworks employed, several formal institutional constraints existed that would have reduced the prospects for the abolition of user fees. However, prevalent informal institutions such as "Big Man" presidentialism and clientelism that were both 'competing' and 'complementary' can be used to explain the policy outcome. The analysis suggests that these factors trumped the impact of more formal institutional structures in the Ugandan context. Consideration should be given to the interactions between formal and informal institutions in the analysis of health policy processes in Uganda, as they provide a more nuanced understanding of how each set of factors influence policy outcomes.

  14. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches

  15. Revisiting climate change adaptation through proactive policy designing and institutional mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K. Chaturvedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a foremost challenge for agricultural productivity. The vulnerability is predominantly located in tropical regions with marginal farmers of developing countries. Enhancement of the adaptive capacity to climate change could be possible through revisiting the policy options with institutional reforms for adapting to the climate risks and sustaining the resilience in India. Innovative win-win approaches with key policy framework include innovative institutions, technologies, management systems and necessary financing mechanisms. Areas for utmost importance comprise agricultural research, irrigation, information technologies, market support, rural roads and extension services. Support from stakeholders to ensure effective adaptation/ mitigation strategy implementation and to provide financial support for addressing climate change issue is very essential. Along with these principles, a strong public-private partnership with successful institutional mechanisms may lead to the formulation of climate change adaptation strategies.

  16. The effects of tax policy and labour market institutions on income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate how labor market institutions and regulations and tax policies effect income inequality across the European member countries. The sample contains the fifteen core European Union (EU members as well as thirteen Central and Eastern European (CEE economies which have recently joined. Using fixed and random effect panel models over the sample period 2000–2011 we test the influence of three major tax forms (labor, capital and consumption, social security contributions, and labor market institutions. We demonstrate that the overall social contributions and labor taxes lead to statistically significant improvements in income inequality among EU member states. We conclude that tax policy, specifically the choice of taxes implemented, and labor market institutions, union membership in particular, reduce income inequality in the EU-28 in the observed period.

  17. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  18. Cluster Analysis as an Analytical Tool of Population Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mikhaylovna Shubat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The predicted negative trends in Russian demography (falling birth rates, population decline actualize the need to strengthen measures of family and population policy. Our research purpose is to identify groups of Russian regions with similar characteristics in the family sphere using cluster analysis. The findings should make an important contribution to the field of family policy. We used hierarchical cluster analysis based on the Ward method and the Euclidean distance for segmentation of Russian regions. Clustering is based on four variables, which allowed assessing the family institution in the region. The authors used the data of Federal State Statistics Service from 2010 to 2015. Clustering and profiling of each segment has allowed forming a model of Russian regions depending on the features of the family institution in these regions. The authors revealed four clusters grouping regions with similar problems in the family sphere. This segmentation makes it possible to develop the most relevant family policy measures in each group of regions. Thus, the analysis has shown a high degree of differentiation of the family institution in the regions. This suggests that a unified approach to population problems’ solving is far from being effective. To achieve greater results in the implementation of family policy, a differentiated approach is needed. Methods of multidimensional data classification can be successfully applied as a relevant analytical toolkit. Further research could develop the adaptation of multidimensional classification methods to the analysis of the population problems in Russian regions. In particular, the algorithms of nonparametric cluster analysis may be of relevance in future studies.

  19. Prevalence and content of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Chris; Lemiengre, Joke; van der Wal, Gerrit; Schotsmans, Paul; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2006-04-01

    Euthanasia is performed worldwide, regardless of the existence of laws governing it. Belgium became the second country in the world to enact a law on euthanasia in 2002. Healthcare institutions bear responsibility for guaranteeing the quality of care for patients at the end of life, and for ensuring support for caregivers involved. Therefore, institutional ethics policies on end-of-life decision-making, especially on euthanasia, may be useful. A cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium was used to describe the prevalence and content of written ethics policies for competent terminally ill, incompetent terminally ill, and non-terminally ill patients. Of the 298 targeted institutions, 81% of hospitals and 62% of nursing homes returned complete questionnaires. Of these, 79% of hospitals and 30% of nursing homes had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Of hospitals 83% and of nursing homes 85% permitted euthanasia for competent terminally ill patients only in exceptional cases in accordance with legal due care criteria and provisions outlined by the palliative filter procedure. Euthanasia for incompetent terminally ill patients was prohibited by 27% of the hospitals and by 60% of the nursing homes. For non-terminally ill patients, these figures were 43 and 64%, respectively. Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders) made great efforts to develop written ethics policies on euthanasia. Only a small group of institutions completely prohibited euthanasia. Most of the institutions considered euthanasia to be an option if all possible alternatives (e.g., palliative filter procedure, which contains more rigorous criteria than those in the Belgian Euthanasia Act), have been thoroughly investigated.

  20. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-ORIENTED POLICY IN BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunkina Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In today’s globalized conditions, the question of socially responsible business and the formation of an appropriate concept and policies for managing it are more relevant. Scientists are investigating this issue in two aspects, namely, from a theoretical and practical point of view. The first aspect is the study of the essence of CSR, the conduct of entrepreneurial activity, the functioning mechanism of the market principles in this concept, the definition of the place of social orientation in modern conditions. The second aspect is the study of practical positions, the separation of this concept from the standpoint of warning and risk management, assessment of the level of social responsibility and summing up the rating, summarizing all the results, as well as the establishment of a standard that will regulate such relationships. But, in our opinion, the implementation of such socially-oriented moments is not possible without identifying a certain number of indicators, reflecting the real situation and the impact of social factors on the banking institutions. This explains the relevance of studying the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to determine the approaches to the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions, as well as to determine the place of rating assessment in the current conditions of the functioning of institutions and organizations. Results. The article describes approaches of socially-oriented banking policy in Ukraine. A quantitative approach is drawn, which directly includes the assessment of the level of social investment through the conduct of socially responsible activities by banking institutions. The qualitative approach according to which social reports and social ratings are compiled is investigated. The social indicators that influence the formation of a socially oriented political management system by business

  2. Two Decades of E-Learning Policy Evolution at EU Level: Motivations, Institutions and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.; Roumell, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article records and documents the historical development of e-learning policies at EU level by conducting a discourse and content analysis of four key e-learning policy documents drafted and implemented by the European Commission over the past 20 years: "Learning in the Information Society: Action Plan for a European Education…

  3. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  4. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  5. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Pervin, Sonia; Tanim, Md Imtiaz Alam; Niessen, Louis; Islam, Anwar

    2017-06-19

    This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents. Information was extracted from the documents using a specific matrix, mapping each document against the six objectives of the WHO 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. A total of 51 documents were identified. Seven (14%) were research and/or surveys, nine were on established policies (17%), while seventeen (33%) were on action programmes. Five (10%) were related to guidelines and thirteen (25%) were strategic planning documents from government and non-government agencies/institutes. The study covered documents produced by the Government of Bangladesh as well as those by quasi-government and non-government organizations irrespective of the extent to which the intended policies were implemented. The policy analysis findings suggest that although the government has initiated many NCD-related policies or programs, they lacked proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Consequently, Bangladesh over the years had little success in effectively addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. It is imperative that future research critically assess the effectiveness of national NCD policies by monitoring their implementation and level of population coverage.

  6. Valuing energy policy attributes for environmental management: Choice experiment evidence from a research institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Timothy M., E-mail: komarekt@msu.edu [Department of Agricultural Food and Resource Economics, Michigan State University, 20 Cook Hall East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lupi, Frank [Department of Agricultural Food and Resource Economics, Michigan State University, 301 B Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 301 B Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kaplowitz, Michael D. [Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University, 331 C Natural Resources, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Many governments, firms, institutions and individuals have become increasingly cognizant of their impact on the environment, most notably with respect to global climate change. Coupled with the possibility of future regulations aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions, firms and institutions have begun to critically evaluate their own carbon footprint. This paper examines the preferences of stakeholders within a large academic institution for attributes of alternative greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies. The attributes considered by constituents include: the fuel portfolio mix, effort for conserving energy use, carbon emissions reduction, timeframe for emissions reduction to be achieved and cost. We use a choice experiment technique that enables the examination of greenhouse gas reduction program attribute preferences across three constituent groups. The results show that each of the constituent groups have a positive WTP for carbon emissions reductions and prefer investments in reductions in the shorter- rather than longer-term. The results also suggest differences between the constituent groups in their WTP for types of fuels in the fuel portfolio. Finally, we use the results to examine the welfare implications of different combinations of the policy attributes that coincide with alternative GHG program strategies. - Highlights: > We explore preferences for carbon footprint reduction at an academic institution. > Include several pertinent energy policy attributes in a choice experiment. > Find preference heterogeneity between constituent groups for policy attributes. > Find highest willingness to pay for 'green' energy and emissions reduction amount.

  7. Valuing energy policy attributes for environmental management: Choice experiment evidence from a research institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Timothy M.; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Many governments, firms, institutions and individuals have become increasingly cognizant of their impact on the environment, most notably with respect to global climate change. Coupled with the possibility of future regulations aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions, firms and institutions have begun to critically evaluate their own carbon footprint. This paper examines the preferences of stakeholders within a large academic institution for attributes of alternative greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies. The attributes considered by constituents include: the fuel portfolio mix, effort for conserving energy use, carbon emissions reduction, timeframe for emissions reduction to be achieved and cost. We use a choice experiment technique that enables the examination of greenhouse gas reduction program attribute preferences across three constituent groups. The results show that each of the constituent groups have a positive WTP for carbon emissions reductions and prefer investments in reductions in the shorter- rather than longer-term. The results also suggest differences between the constituent groups in their WTP for types of fuels in the fuel portfolio. Finally, we use the results to examine the welfare implications of different combinations of the policy attributes that coincide with alternative GHG program strategies. - Highlights: → We explore preferences for carbon footprint reduction at an academic institution. → Include several pertinent energy policy attributes in a choice experiment. → Find preference heterogeneity between constituent groups for policy attributes. → Find highest willingness to pay for 'green' energy and emissions reduction amount.

  8. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  9. Institutional analysis of condominium management system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amhara region: the case of Bahir Dar city. Zelalem ... a case to illustrate the issue under study. ... coordination policies regarding housing and urban development. ...... Ababa', Proceedings of European Network for Housing Research 2007:.

  10. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique...

  11. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy... comments on the proposed United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual... requirements for certain categories of life sciences research at institutions that accept Federal funding for...

  12. Policy Design for Competitive Retail Electric Institutions: Artificial Intelligence Representations for a Common Property Resource Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Nitin S.

    The U.S. electricity industry is being restructured to increase competition. Although existing policies may lead to efficient wholesale institutions, designing policies for the retail level is more complex because of intricate interactions between individuals and quasi-monopolistic institutions. It is argued that Hirshman's ideas of "exit" and "voice" (Hirshman, 1970) provide powerful abstractions for design of retail institutions. While competition is a known mechanism of "exit," a novel design of the "voice" mechanism is demonstrated through an artificial intelligence (AI) based software process model. The process model of "voice" in retail institutions is designed within the economic context of electricity distribution -- a common property resource (CPR), characterized by technological uncertainty and path-dependency. First, it is argued that participant feedback (voice) has to be used effectively to manage the CPR. Further, it is noted that the decision process, of using participant feedback (voice) to incrementally manage uncertainty and path-dependencies, is non-monotonic because it requires the decision makers to often retract previously made assumptions and decisions. An AI based process model of "voice" is developed using an assumption-based truth maintenance system. The model can emulate the non-monotonic decision making process and therefore assist in decision support. Such a systematic framework is flexible, consistent, and easily reorganized as assumptions change. It can provide an effective, formal "voice" mechanism to the retail customers and improve institutional performance.

  13. From Good Governance to Developmental Governance - How Policies, Institutions and Politics Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2012-01-01

    The present global financial and economic crisis offers an opportunity to rethink the relative roles of state and market as well as of globalisation and national development strategies in the political economy of development. It has become more difficult to argue that globalisation has rendered...... national development strategies and in particular industrial policies superfluous. The crisis also calls for a rethinking of the prevailing standard recipes for development and of the ‘institutional therapy’ that has been driven by the international development establishment. The article seeks to identify...... and outline a heterodox view on how policies, institutions and politics matter for latecomer development, and does that by juxtaposing it with the orthodox view. The central argument of the article is that the orthodox view has serious weaknesses, and that a heterodox approach – developmental governance...

  14. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIONS IN POLICIES FOR TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THREE BRAZILIAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Favareto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify innovations introduced in public policies that adopt a territorial approach and to analyse to what extent they have contributed to overcome coordination challenges pointed out by the literature in the national experiences of policies with the same content. The general hypothesis is that there are advances in certain specific domains, separately, in each policy analysed. The main consequence of this statement is that, although partial, such innovations are generating a learning that is still not very visible for researchers and managers, but that can be better used in shaping a new generation of territorial development policies. To fulfil this objective, the article analyses three experiences that have in common the attempt to spatialize state instruments, policies and programs. These experiences were formulated and implemented in the states of Bahia, Santa Catarina and Piauí. The analyses are based on the application of a model for understanding the institutional arrangements for policy implementation, paying particular attention to four critical domains: the forms of intersectoral coordination within governments (horizontal integration; the forms of intergovernmental coordination between levels of government (vertical integration; the forms of social participation (integration between state, society and market; and the forms of treatment of the substantive elements of territorial life (integration between politics and local social and economic life.

  15. Capacity development for food policy analysis: What works best? Adding evidence from IFPRI's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents major results of a meta-assessment of experience of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) with different kinds of capacity strengthening (CS) activities for food policy analysis. Collaborative research, on-the-job-training, and ID support for building data

  16. Sexual harassment, special relationships and consensual engagement policies within higher learning institutions : a labour law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (Labour Law) A university is a community of adults in which close personal relationships between adults can develop. These institutions of higher learning recognise the need for policies prohibiting sexual harassment but few have addressed the subtle issues surrounding consensual and special amorous relationships between academic staff members and students and whether they have the right to regulate private behaviour between adults. The aim of this minor dissertation is to explore th...

  17. Challenge from Without: Analysis of the Recommendations Advanced by Five National Education Task Forces and Their Policy Implications for Precollege and Higher Education. The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government Special Report Series Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; And Others

    This report includes expanded versions of two papers by Frances Kemmerer and Alan P. Wagner which were first presented at a 1983 working seminar on the recommendations of five national educational task forces and their implications for New York State educational policy. Included also is a major additional paper contributed by W. Paul Vogt. The…

  18. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  20. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  1. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  2. Institutional policy changes aimed at addressing obesity among mental health clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-05-01

    People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern United States. Clients live in small group homes, where they are served breakfast, dinner, and a snack, and attend outpatient day treatment programs, where they are served lunch and can purchase snacks from vending machines. This intervention included institutional policy changes that altered menus and vending machine options and implemented group walking programs. Primary outcome measures were changes in clients' weight at 3 and 6 months after policy implementation. At the 3-month follow-up, the median weight loss for overweight/obese clients (n = 45) was 1.4 kg. The 33 overweight/obese clients who were still in the group homes at the 6-month follow-up either maintained or continued to lose weight. Institutional policy changes aimed at improving dietary intake and physical activity levels among clients receiving mental health services can promote weight loss in overweight clients.

  3. Institutional stakeholder perceptions of barriers to addiction treatment under Mexico's drug policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Meza, Emilo; Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-05-01

    Mexico has experienced disproportionate drug-related harms given its role as a production and transit zone for illegal drugs destined primarily for the USA. In response, in 2009, the Mexican federal government passed legislation mandating pre-arrest diversion of drug-dependent individuals towards addiction treatment. However, this federal law was not specific about how the scale-up of the addiction treatment sector was to be operationalised. We therefore conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with key 'interactors' in fields affected by the federal legislation, including participants from the law enforcement, public health, addiction treatment, and governmental administration sectors. Among 19 participants from the municipal, state and federal levels were interviewed and multiple barriers to policy reform were identified. First, there is a lack of institutional expertise to implement the reform. Second, the operationalisation of the reform was not accompanied by a coordinated action plan. Third, the law is an unfunded mandate. Institutional barriers are likely hampering the implementation of Mexico's policy reform. Addressing the concerns expressed by interactors through the scale-up of services, the provision of increased training and education programmes for stakeholders and a coordinated action plan to operationalise the policy reform are likely needed to improve the policy reform process.

  4. Nepal - Country Environmental Analysis : Strengthening Institutions and Management Systems for Enhanced Environmental Governance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) in Nepal is to identify opportunities for enhancing the overall performance of select environmental management systems through improvements in the effectiveness of institutions, policies, and processes. CEA has been built upon the following three primary study components: (a) an examination of the environmental issues associate...

  5. HIV/AIDS situational analysis among tertiary institutions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The situational analysis was organised into sections dealing with SWOT analysis, risk analysis, management strategies, prevention activities and partnerships. The SWOT and risk analyses showed some notable activities on how the institutions have responded to HIV/AIDS. The institutions had implemented HIV/AIDS ...

  6. Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy : a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adoption policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Kuindersma, W.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the integration of climate policy in Dutch public policy at the national, regional, local and area level. The national analysis focuses on the horizontal integration of climate policy in national government programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies and specific policy

  7. Family control, institutional environment and cash dividend policy: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004–2008, this study empirically tests the impact of family control, institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies. Our results indicate that (1 family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms; (2 a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies; and (3 the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem I (the owner–manager conflict rather than Agency Problem II (the controlling shareholder–minority shareholder conflict, and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy. In contrast, a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem I and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  8. Expansion planning of brazilian electric sector: institutional changes, new policies and new instruments for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.; Silva, W.A. da; Ricciulli, D.L.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian power supply industry has been in crisis for many years, particularly due to financial and institutional problems. There are many reasons for that, several of them from outside the industry. In this paper a diagnosis of the main elements of this crisis is worked out, in the context of the industry's expansion planning. Following, institutional changes, new policies and new instruments are proposed for this planning. The institutional setting, the demand studies, the demand side management, the supply optimisation, the rural electrification, the decentralized generation of electricity, the tariff structure, the ways of financing the industry, the technological advances, the social and environmental impacts and the integrated planning of the industry are discussed, together with the planning of the power supply industry interactions with the other energy supply industries and the rest of the economy. (author)

  9. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  10. Challenges in Education Research in Taiwan: Research Institutes and Organizations, Research Policies, and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.

  11. Recommendations for institutional policy and network regulatory frameworks towards distributed generation in EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations regarding the development of regulatory frameworks and institutional policies towards an optimal integration of distributed generation (DG) into electricity networks are presented. These recommendations are based on findings from a benchmarking study conducted in the framework of the ENIRDG-net project. The aim of the benchmarking exercise was to identify examples of well-defined pro-DG policies, with clear targets and adequate implementation mechanisms. In this study an adequate pro-DG policy is defined on the basis of a level playing field, a situation where distributed and centralised generation receive equal incentives and have equal access to the liberalised markets for electricity. The benchmark study includes the results of a similar study conducted in the framework of the SUSTELNET project. When comparing the results a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy in a number of countries, the medium to long-term targets and the ideal situation described by the level playing field objective. To overcome this discrepancy, a number of recommendations have been drafted for future policy and regulation towards distributed generation

  12. The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Gariazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI is a multidisciplinary organization at Texas A&M University and was the first U.S. academic institution focused on technical graduate education, research, and service related to the safeguarding of nuclear materials and the reduction of nuclear threats. NSSPI employs science, engineering, and policy expertise to: (1 conduct research and development to help detect, prevent, and reverse nuclear and radiological proliferation and guard against nuclear terrorism; (2 educate the next generation of nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation leaders; (3 analyze the interrelationships between policy and technology in the field of nuclear security; and (4 serve as a public resource for knowledge and skills to reduce nuclear threats. Since 2006, over 31 Doctoral and 73 Master degrees were awarded through NSSPI-sponsored research. Forty-one of those degrees are Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering with a specialization in Nuclear Nonproliferation and 16 were Doctorate of Philosophy degrees with a specific focus on nuclear nonproliferation. Over 200 students from both technical and policy backgrounds have taken classes provided by NSSPI at Texas A&M. The model for creating safeguards and security experts, which has in large part been replicated worldwide, was established at Texas A&M by NSSPI faculty and staff. In addition to conventional classroom lectures, NSSPI faculty have provided practical experiences; advised students on valuable research projects that have contributed substantially to the overall nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security arenas; and engaged several similar academic and research institutes around the world in activities and research for the benefit of Texas A&M students. NSSPI has had an enormous impact on the nuclear nonproliferation workforce (across the international community in the past 8 years, and this paper is an attempt to summarize the activities

  13. Greenhouse policy studies by ECON and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. 13 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Kjell; Sydnes, Anne Kristin

    1991-07-01

    The main focus of the programme is the relationship between energy, environment and development in the Third World and international co-operation in relation to global climate change. A series of working papers and reports will primarily review and analyse energy strategies in developing countries and the political, institutional and economic factors which have an impact on current and future energy supply and demand. Energy market structures and energy policies of selected countries will be studies in light of global environmental problems and the recommendations from the World Commission on Environment and Development. Attention will be given to North/South conflicts in relation to the challenge of global climate change. Institutional and financial mechanisms to promote transfer of resources to developing countries will be discussed. EED is a professionally independent research programme, financially supported by the Norwegian Research Council for Applied Social Science (NORAS), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and Statoil. The project titles are: 1) The North/South dimension in global greenhouse policies. Conflicts, dilemma, solutions. 2) Energy - a growth limiting factor. 3) Environment, security and politicians., Do they really mean (and know) what they are saying. 4) The Soviet Union and climatic changes: Heading for the eternal summer. 5) EC greenhouse policy. 6) Brazilian energy policy. Self-sufficiency and states intervention. 7) Mexico - a country in economic and ecological crisis. 8) Energy, environment and development in China. 9) Energy, environment and economic growth in a developing country perspective. 10) Stabilising CO{sub 2} emissions by carbon taxes- a viable option. 11) Developing countries in global climate negotiations. 12) US greenhouse policy: Reactionary or realistic. 13) Effective verification of international greenhouse agreements: Technically feasible, but politically complicated. Report abstracts are

  14. Greenhouse policy studies by ECON and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. 13 abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Kjell; Sydnes, Anne Kristin

    1991-01-01

    The main focus of the programme is the relationship between energy, environment and development in the Third World and international co-operation in relation to global climate change. A series of working papers and reports will primarily review and analyse energy strategies in developing countries and the political, institutional and economic factors which have an impact on current and future energy supply and demand. Energy market structures and energy policies of selected countries will be studies in light of global environmental problems and the recommendations from the World Commission on Environment and Development. Attention will be given to North/South conflicts in relation to the challenge of global climate change. Institutional and financial mechanisms to promote transfer of resources to developing countries will be discussed. EED is a professionally independent research programme, financially supported by the Norwegian Research Council for Applied Social Science (NORAS), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and Statoil. The project titles are: 1) The North/South dimension in global greenhouse policies. Conflicts, dilemma, solutions. 2) Energy - a growth limiting factor. 3) Environment, security and politicians., Do they really mean (and know) what they are saying. 4) The Soviet Union and climatic changes: Heading for the eternal summer. 5) EC greenhouse policy. 6) Brazilian energy policy. Self-sufficiency and states intervention. 7) Mexico - a country in economic and ecological crisis. 8) Energy, environment and development in China. 9) Energy, environment and economic growth in a developing country perspective. 10) Stabilising CO 2 emissions by carbon taxes- a viable option. 11) Developing countries in global climate negotiations. 12) US greenhouse policy: Reactionary or realistic. 13) Effective verification of international greenhouse agreements: Technically feasible, but politically complicated. Report abstracts are included in

  15. Establishment of a Policy Analysis Capability in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole M.P. NEVES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government, like other governments of former communist countries, emerged from the collapsed Soviet Union ill prepared to confront the complex challenges of governing under a democratic, free market system. At the core of governments that formulate sound public policies, successfully implement programs, and respond effectively to rapidly changing situations is the capacity to carry out independent, high quality research and analysis that results in improved decision making. During the 21st century, the need and acceptance of the incorporation of policy analysis courses in public administration curricula in Romania is expected to grow. In time, educational programs are expected to result in the following consequences: _ Formation of a body of strong independent policy researchers employed by the national and local governments as well as by universities and non-profit institutions _ Utilization of analytical outcomes as tools of political, social and economic improvement by the executive, legislative and judicial branches and by non-profit and private sectors _ Greater public understanding of and participation in public policy processes.

  16. 機構典藏相關政策之探討 A Study on Relevant Policies for Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chun Lo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討制定機構典藏政策的相關議題,藉由文獻探討瞭解國際之研究與發展現況,並透過內容分析法分析國外54所大學所制定之機構典藏政策內容,據以製作問卷,於訪談國內12所大學圖書館同時進行調查,期能瞭解國內大學對典藏政策制定之相關意見,並根據調查與研究結果,對國內未來發展機構典藏及制定政策提出結論與建議。This research aims to investigate the relevant policies for Institutional Repositories (IRs. According to literature review, the international research and development are also investigated. In addition, by utilizing content analysis method, 54 foreign universities are studied for their policies of IRs. Simultaneous questionnaire survey and interview are conducted with 12 university libraries in Taiwan, to better understand the recent development of IRs, and to get some feedback on the policy issues. Finally, according to these results, conclusion and suggestion are made for the future development and relevant policies for IRs.

  17. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  18. South Africa's rapid electrification programme: Policy, institutional, planning, financing and technical innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekker, Bernard; Eberhard, Anton; Gaunt, Trevor; Marquard, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents South Africa's electrification programme from the late 1980s to the present. The primary aim of the paper is to present the reader with an overview of the policy, institutional, planning, financing and technological developments and innovations that resulted in more than 5 million households receiving access to electricity between 1990 and 2007. Key aspects include the way in which a period of political change and policy disruption were essential to the programme's initiation, and the critical role played by organisations and individuals outside of national government in helping shape new electrification policies and strategies. In addition, the paper identifies the contribution of technology development in cost reduction and achieving the social aims of the programme. Several lessons may be drawn from the institutional and planning arrangements that the South African programme has developed, the significance of the development of appropriate cost-driven technical innovations and standards, and the acknowledgement of the social function of electrification and its funding from the fiscus (rather than through cross-subsidies)

  19. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  20. Statement at Lowy Institute for International Policy, 4 October 2012, Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address this distinguished audience. The Lowy Institute for International Policy has established itself in less than a decade as a major contributor to serious thinking on foreign policy. Coming, as I do, from Japan, I welcome your focus on issues that particularly affect the Asia-Pacific region. This region sometimes has a different perspective on global affairs from Europe and North America. The research programmes and events organized by the Institute help to focus fresh thinking on issues critical to this region, and indeed to the whole world. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been around quite a bit longer than the Lowy Institute - 55 years, in fact. I suppose that makes us middle-aged. But I can assure you that the Agency has lost none of its youthful vigour when it comes to tackling the challenging mandate entrusted to us by our 155 Member States. Our mission is manifold, but can be summarised very simply. We help to make nuclear science and technology available to all countries for peaceful purposes - especially to countries in the developing world. And we work to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

  1. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    although non- governmental groups do run operations in the DPRK in activities such as goat dairy farming and transportation. North -South Korean...Finance Minister Says “At Least” 34m US Dollars Sent to North Korea. Financial Times Information, Global News Wire—Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. June 6...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis Dick K

  3. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  4. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  5. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Information security in academic libraries: the role of the librarian in planning and introducing institutional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Lima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a short discussion about the role of the librarian as a mediator at planning, developing and implementing an Information Security Policy in Academic Libraries, by working together with professionals in the field of Information Technology. It also discusses the main virtual threats and some risks that are prone to infect computers in libraries. Based on the current legislation and on some normative documents about information security, it is confirmed the importance of the librarian take part in the main decision-making related to information security, such as planning a consistent Information Security Policy which be able to see the specific needs of Academic Libraries as institutions prone to cyberattacks. The main topics and guidelines to carry out an Information Security Policy are presented based on the results that were obtained through an action research, by visiting libraries to fill in application forms and to compose reports whose content was analyzed. Finally, the study concludes that Information Security Policy must be validated by managers of sectors or departments which the Academic Library is hierarchically subordinate to.

  7. Institutional interactions in developing a transportation system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper

  8. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction of a New National Currency; Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Cortés Douglas; Richard K. Abrams

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have become independent or regained their independence. Many have chosen to issue their own currencies and more are likely to do so. This paper draws on these and earlier experiences in order to summarize the main policy and institutional arrangements necessary for the introduction of a new currency and to discuss the key features of, and procedures for, the conversion. The paper is designed as a workin...

  10. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  11. HR policies and practices in vocational education and training institutions. Understanding the implementation gap through the lens of discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) institutions face serious challenges, like educational innovations and upcoming teacher shortages, which require them to invest in their human capital. However, the implementation of human resources (HR) policies and practices often stagnates. Using the

  12. HR policies and practices in vocational education and training institutions: understanding the implementation gap through the lens of discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Runhaar, H.

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) institutions face serious challenges, like educational innovations and upcoming teacher shortages, which require them to invest in their human capital. However, the implementation of human resources (HR) policies and practices often stagnates. Using the Dutch

  13. An introduction to the HighARCS Integrated Action Plans, with an institutions, policies and conflicts perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam......This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam...

  14. Checklist "Open Access Policies": Analysis of the Open Access Policies of Public Universities in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This checklist provides an overview of the Open Access policies implemented at Austrian universities and extramural research institutions. Furthermore, the polices adopted at nine public universities are analyzed and the respective text modules are categorized thematically. The second part of the checklist presents measures for the promotion of Open Access following the implementation of an Open Access policy.

  15. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  16. Seeing It through: Advanced Strategies "for" Influencing Education Policy. Education Grantmakers Institute (Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 19-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Anne

    2009-01-01

    "No education grantmaker can afford to ignore public policy. Local, state and federal policies shape the context in which we work by establishing education standards, allocating resources and setting priorities for people working in education." So begins the report on Grantmakers for Educations' 2005 Grantmakers Institute, Foundation…

  17. 78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing... investigation No. 332-543, Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy... supporting Indian domestic industries, and the effect that those barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S...

  18. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  19. Targeting women or transforming institutions? Policy lessons from NGO anti-poverty efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, N

    1995-05-01

    Some research has found that the extent of gender-based discrimination in market-based institutions and unfair advantages within domestic and market institutions meant women were less successful in translating education and work into income and purchasing power. Anti-poverty programs functioned without specifically addressing the implications for women and children. Women-in-development efforts attempted to compensate for prior deficiencies by promotion of income generation schemes for women. In this article, the suggestion is made for policy makers to design projects with goals, objectives, and strategies that are clear, consistent, and well-informed about gender. Efforts should be made to avoid debates about women-only versus integrated projects. The experiences of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the South Asian context offer lessons in good policy efforts to address all forms of marginalization. The definition of women's needs must be provided by women themselves; openness and flexibility are recommended. Participatory approaches serve the aims of needs identification, involvement in democratic processes, and awareness of constraints on women's use of resources. In credit lending, constraints were overcome by compensating for the absence of material collateral, guaranteeing physical access, simplifying procedures, and subsidizing access rather than interest rates. Underlying structural conditions that reinforce inequalities by gender are in need of change. Empowerment of women would assure that marginalization would not occur.

  20. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  1. Institutions and Bank Performance; A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Meesters, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of institutions on bank efficiency and technology, using a stochastic frontier analysis of a data set of 7,959 banks across 136 countries over 10 years. The results confirm the importance of well-developed institutions for the efficient operation of commercial

  2. Institutions and bank performance : A stochastic frontier analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Meesters, Aljar

    This article investigates the impact of institutions on bank efficiency and technology, using a stochastic frontier analysis of a data set of 7,959 banks across 136 countries over 10 years. The results confirm the importance of well-developed institutions for the efficient operation of commercial

  3. Renewable energy for rural development in Ethiopia: the case for new energy policies and institutional reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock of traditional biomass energy resources is dwindling fast for two reasons: one, due to rapid population growth; and two, due to the absence of energy substitutes for traditional energy sources. Renewable energy technologies and other modern energy technologies are almost non-existent. In terms of budgetary allocation, rural energy development has not received a fair share of public investment in comparison to education, rural road construction and health. A key policy recommendation made in this article is the need for commitment from concerned authorities to the use of renewables for spurring rural development. This could be done through increasing the budget allocation to rural energy, which is currently negligible. Other policy recommendations include the modification of existing institutional frameworks for rural energy delivery, and the design and implementation of appropriate rural energy initiatives suitable for productive activities and sustainable development. (Author)

  4. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  5. Las potencialidades del institucionalismo histórico centrado en los actores para el análisis de la política pública. Contingentes de trabajadores extranjeros en España The Potential of Historical Institutionalism Centered on Actors for the Analysis of the Public Policies. Contingents of Foreign Workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rocío Bedoya Bedoya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es responder a la pregunta sobre las potencialidades que ofrece el institucionalismo histórico centrado en los actores para el análisis de las políticas públicas. Se argumenta que el enfoque centrado en los actores permite un mejor ajuste entre perspectiva teórica y realidad observada en la interacción política. Atendiendo al enfoque, se analizarán las premisas del institucionalismo centrado en los actores y su modelo de explicación y se describirán los principales rasgos de la política de contingentes en el marco del contexto de la globalización, el ingreso de España a la Unión Europea y el aumento visible de los flujos migratorios hacia España. Se destaca la potencialidad del enfoque para explicar los cambios en el sistema de interacción de la política pública de contingentes y para determinar la influencia de las instituciones y del entorno en el comportamiento de los actores.The purpose of this article is to respond to the question of the potential that historical institutionalism centered on actors offers for public policy analysis. It is argued that the focus centered on actors permits for a better adjustment between theoretical perspectives and observed reality in political interactions. Following this focus, the premises of institutionalism centered on actors and its model of explanation will be analyzed and the main characteristics of politics of contingents will be described in the framework of the context of globalization, the entrance of Spain into the European Union and the visible increase of the migratory flows to Spain. The potential of the focus is emphasized to explain the changes in the system of interaction of public policies of contingents and to determine the influence of the institutions and the environment on the behavior of actors.

  6. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  7. 41 CFR 105-53.141 - Office of Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 53-STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.141 Office of Policy Analysis. The Office of Policy Analysis, headed by..., independent, objective information concerning management policies and programs, and technical and analytical...

  8. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II. This project by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) will support quality ... The project is supported by the UK's Department for International Development, and additional funding is ...

  10. Analysis of the European union’s supranationalism crisis within the political-institutional paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bashtannyk

    2014-04-01

    So, the same logic of integration policy has caused deferred manifestation of the contradictions that have not been resolved by the development of such a grand united project. It is determined that the investigation of this problem is possible by applying methodological tools of historical institutionalism within political­institutional paradigm of political science. In such kind of analysis it becomes possible to conduct qualitative research and perspective political component of European integration phenomenon’s nature. Economic crisis was the challenge for those unifying international institutions that were considered “post­national polity” and whose institutional framework seemed never shaken. This proves once again that it is impossible to cancel on the willful way the influence of the historical patterns in principle and “path dependence” in particular.

  11. One Health stakeholder and institutional analysis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Tabitha; Ngigi, Margaret; Schelling, Esther; Randolph, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One Health (OH) can be considered a complex emerging policy to resolve health issues at the animal–human and environmental interface. It is expected to drive system changes in terms of new formal and informal institutional and organisational arrangements. This study, using Rift Valley fever (RVF) as a zoonotic problem requiring an OH approach, sought to understand the institutionalisation process at national and subnational levels in an early adopting country, Kenya. Materials and methods Social network analysis methodologies were used. Stakeholder roles and relational data were collected at national and subnational levels in 2012. Key informants from stakeholder organisations were interviewed, guided by a checklist. Public sector animal and public health organisations were interviewed first to identify other stakeholders with whom they had financial, information sharing and joint cooperation relationships. Visualisation of the OH social network and relationships were shown in sociograms and mathematical (degree and centrality) characteristics of the network summarised. Results and discussion Thirty-two and 20 stakeholders relevant to OH were identified at national and subnational levels, respectively. Their roles spanned wildlife, livestock, and public health sectors as well as weather prediction. About 50% of national-level stakeholders had made significant progress on OH institutionalisation to an extent that formal coordination structures (zoonoses disease unit and a technical working group) had been created. However, the process had not trickled down to subnational levels although cross-sectoral and sectoral collaborations were identified. The overall binary social network density for the stakeholders showed that 35 and 21% of the possible ties between the RVF and OH stakeholders existed at national and subnational levels, respectively, while public health actors’ collaborations were identified at community/grassroots level. We recommend

  12. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT POLICY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN PORT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry UBBELS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing role of private involvement in recent port developments, most maritime trade is still largely handled in ports where investments, pricing and other managerial decisions are, to a varying extent, dependent, or at least influenced by public bodies. This paper shows that the extent and type of public intervention differs considerably between ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. The wide variety in ownership, financing and management of ports throughout Europe indicates that there is no level playing field at present. Because ports operate in an increasingly competitive environment (intensified by globalisation trends and the completion of the internal market, this may lead to situations of unfair competition. The European Union emphasises the importance of a more harmonised approach of port regulation by national governments (in terms of financing and pricing of infrastructure. Given the differences in (national port management styles and the low levels of transparency, the creation of a level playing field in the European port industry seems far away. This suggests the presence of a major institutional difference in European transport policy that hampers efficient policy intervention.

  13. 14. Policies and Institutions - Nongovernmental organizations: A growing force in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.; Paden, M.

    1992-01-01

    An extraordinarily diverse and growing body of private organizations now dot the world's institutional landscape, working in a variety of areas such as small-scale local development, the conservation of tropical forests, and sustainable agriculture. Working at many levels, through example or advocacy these groups are influencing the direction of environment and development policy around the world. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are extraordinarily diverse. This chapter provides a few examples to capture some of that diversity, but focuses mainly on the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs, on the relationship between governments and NGOs, and on some emerging trends. The chapter primarily concerns the newly emerging grassroots and service NGOs in developing countries and those Northern NGOs that work extensively in developing countries. Topics discussed are: origins and regional differences (northern NGOs with a mission in the south, Asia, Latin America, Africa); strengths and weaknesses; key organizational factors (getting started, getting bigger, the impact of leadership, the role of women); government-NGO relations; emerging trends (evolving North-South relations, networks and associations - forging larger alliances, the information explosion global networking, new roles for policy research and legal defense)

  14. Implementation of Solid Waste Policies in Pernambuco: a study from the institutional theory and interorganizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luciana de Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is a problem in the Brazilian context, not only because it is growing in larger proportions than the population and leading to soil and water contamination, but also because it is a vector for diseases and causes economic losses, since much of what is discarded can be reused. After several years of intense debate, the Brazilian law applying to national solid waste policy was sanctioned; this law contains goals to be achieved and challenges to be overcome. Since this is a major issue, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of public policies on solid waste, emphasizing the initiatives carried out in the state of Pernambuco, from the perspectives of institutional theory and inter-organizational networks. By analysing the provisions of the law, we can observe a coercive tendency to bring the states and municipalities to establish networks in order to meet demands related to solid waste, since the pertinent legislation induces the involved entities to develop this kind of partnership in order to obtain resources

  15. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk.

  16. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  17. The evolution of REDD+: An analysis of discursive-institutional dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besten, Jan Willem den; Arts, Bas; Verkooijen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Discursive Institutional Analysis was conducted of the development of REDD+ from 2004 to 2011. • Rapid progress on REDD+ at the UNFCCC led to early agreement and preparatory arrangements. • This institutionalisation triggered responses from more actors generating new ideas. • Early implementation led to overlap of actors involved in piloting and in ongoing negotiations. • This helped introduce social, environment and governance safeguards in new agreements. -- Abstract: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is a policy that developed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and is based on the idea that climate funds and carbon markets can be used to incentivise developing countries to reduce tropical deforestation. This paper analyses the development of REDD+ from 2004 to 2011 through Discursive Institutional Analysis (DIA). DIA seeks to analyse how new discourses become institutionalised in plans, regulations and guidelines, while including and excluding issues, (re)defining topics, and (re)shaping human interactions. The analysis of policy documents and 32 in depth interviews with actors involved in the climate negotiations illustrates how discursive and institutional dynamics influenced each other. Competing discourse coalitions struggled over the definition and scope of REDD+, the use of markets and funds, and the issue of social and environmental safeguards. The rapid development of the REDD+ discourse has nonetheless culminated in new institutional arrangements. The working of a ‘discursive-institutional spiral’ is revealed where discourse coalitions respond to the inclusion and exclusion of ideas in institutions and practices. The institutional contexts at the same time shape the boundaries within which actors can bring in new ideas and concepts

  18. Institutional arrangements of Currency Boards - Comparative Macroeconomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Anastassova

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the comparative macroeconomic analysis of the differences stemming from the extent to which the institutional framework of the currency board arrangement is implemented in the legal and regulatory systems in the different countries. The main objective of taking into consideration and examining the currency board institutional arrangements is to distinguish between the impact that currency board countries and countries with pegged exchange rate have on different m...

  19. O apoio institucional como método de análise-intervenção no âmbito das políticas públicas de saúde: a experiência em um hospital geral Institutional support as a method of analysis-intervention in the context of public health policies: the experience in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabeth Barros de Barros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a construção de um método de análise/intervenção no âmbito das políticas públicas de saúde, que se delineia de forma articulada aos princípios da Política Nacional de Humanização do SUS em um hospital geral. Apresenta o apoio institucional como um método que se expressa num modo de fazer que persegue a criação de grupalidade, a análise dos processos de trabalho e envolve a problematização dos modos de gestão. A Política Nacional de Humanização aposta na produção da saúde que implica em produção dos sujeitos. A produção da saúde é um processo em rede que envolve sujeitos, processos de trabalho, saberes e poderes. O desafio do apoio é fomentar nessa rede o exercício do protagonismo dos sujeitos e convocar o potencial criativo próprio da vida para a construção de novos modos de gerir o trabalho que não sejam novas formas de assujeitamento. O estudo pretende mostrar que por meio do apoio institucional é possível colocar em cena as forças implicadas na produção de saúde e com isso convocar os grupos a uma análise de suas implicações. Os efeitos produzidos indicam que esta é uma estratégia potente para a intervenção dos processos de trabalho no âmbito das políticas públicas de saúde.The article addresses the elaboration of a method for analysis/intervention in the sphere of public health policies. It describes the introduction of the National Humanization Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS in a general hospital. It proposes institutional support expressed as a method for doing things that seeks the creation of group action, work process analysis and involves examining work management methods. It relies on promotion of health, which implies the production of subjects. The promotion of health is a networking process that involves individuals, work processes, knowledge and power. The challenge of supporting this network is to foster the exercise of the role of individuals and

  20. Institutional analysis of incentive schemes for ecosystem service provision - a comparative study across four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Górriz, Elena; Boon, Tove Enggrob

    2014-01-01

    Incentive schemes and payments for ecosystem services attract increasing attention as a means for aligning the interests of landowners and society by remunerating forest owners for the goods and services their forests produce. As incentive schemes expand around the world, questions related...... and Italy. The analysed schemes are predominantly aimed at enhancing biodiversity and improving recreation. One of the schemes is also related to preserving a variety of forest ecosystem services from forest fires. The incentive schemes are studied following a framework for the institutional analysis of PES...... developed by Prokofieva and Gorriz (Prokofieva, I. and Gorriz, E. 2013: Institutional analysis of incentives for the provision of forest goods and services: an assessment of incentive schemes in Catalonia (North-East Spain), Forest Policy and Economics, 37, 104-114.). We focus on actor and institutional...

  1. [Policy analysis: study of public policy of environmental health in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araújo Júnior, José Luiz do Amaral Correa de

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of health policies has improved in Brazil despite a plethora of different methodological approaches. Based on the model developed by Walt and Gilson in 1994, the Environmental Health Program (EHP) of Recife as a policy based on the Health Promotion principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and Agenda 21 was analyzed. An attempt was made to understand the context during the development and implementation of the EHP, the drafting process and which actors influenced the EHP agenda content and proposal. A qualitative case study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews with key actors. In terms of context, the findings include the influence of the municipal election, the socio-sanitary characteristics of Recife, the choice of the Secretary of Health and the management teams, acceptance by the technicians and the funding increase. In terms of the process, the acceptance of the managers must be stressed. Regarding the actors, the managers, sector technicians, non-sectorial actors with viability studies stood out. The content of the EHP coincided with the SUS and Health Promotion principles. Implementation was influenced by the dengue fever epidemic (2002), and cultural institutional factors that put pressure on the order of implementation of the planned actions.

  2. To bail out or not to bail out systemically relevant financial institutions: The incentives of policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marc Fuhrer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has shown that many financial institutions may be systemically relevant. Their bankruptcy would cause significant costs for the overall economy. However, a clear definition of systemic risks still does not exist. Thus, the decision, whether an institution is, or is not systemically relevant is in the end made by policy makers. This paper takes a closer look at the incentives available to policy makers and their influence on the bailout decision. In the model presented here it is possible to show, that too many financial institutions get bailed out, when assuming that policy makers tend to be more risk-averse than socially optimal. The costs due to this misallocation of resources can be significant.

  3. Interpretation and Analysis of Privacy Policies of Websites in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2016-01-01

    the conditions specified in the policy document. So, ideally the privacy policies should be readable and provide sufficient information to empower users to make knowledgeable decisions. Thus, we have examined more than 50 privacy policies and discussed the content analysis in this paper. We discovered...... on information collection methods, purpose, sharing entities names and data transit. In this study, the 11 % privacy policies are compliance with privacy standards which denotes other privacy policies are less committed to support transparency, choice, and accountability in the process of information collection...... that the policies are not only unstructured but also described in complicated language. Our analysis shows that the user data security measures are nonspecific and unsatisfactory in 57% privacy policies. In spite of huge amount of information collection, the privacy policies does not have clear description...

  4. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  5. The Impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy on Rational Drug Use in Primary Care Institutions in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jianqian; Gu, Jiangyi; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Huanghui; Wu, Zhenchun

    2018-01-01

    Essential medicine policy is a successful global health policy to promote rational drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) on the rational drug use in primary care institutions in Jiangsu Province of China. In this exploratory study, a multistage, stratified, random sampling was used to select 3400 prescriptions from 17 primary care institutions who implemented the NEMP before (Jan 2010) and after the implementation of the NEMP (Jan 2014). The analyses were performed in SPSS 18.0 and SPSS Clementine client. After the implementation of the NEMP, the percentage of prescribed EML (Essential Medicines List) drugs rose significantly, the average number of drugs per prescription and average cost per prescription were declined significantly, while the differences of the prescription proportion of antibiotics and injection were not statistically significant. BP (Back Propagation) neural network analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription, the number of using antibiotics and hormone, regional differences, size of institutions, sponsorship, financial income of institutions, doctor degree, outpatient and emergency visits person times were important factors affecting the prescription costs, among these the average number of drugs per prescription has the greatest effect. The NEMP can promote the rational use of drugs in some degree, but its role is limited. We should not focus only on the EML but also make comprehensive NEMP.

  6. Enhancement of anesthesiology in-training exam performance with institution of an academic improvement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Julie A; Terry, Chris M; Waller, Eva J; Bortsov, Andrey V; Zvara, David A; Mayer, David C; Martinelli, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesiology resident physicians across the United States complete an annual in-training examination (ITE). The ITE evaluates resident knowledge and provides personalized feedback to guide future study in low scoring sections(1). Performance on the ITE correlates with outcomes on the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) written board examination(2). Over the last several years, declining ITE scores were observed at the University of North Carolina (UNC). In response to this decline, our department reprioritized the ITE by instituting an academic improvement policy (AIP). The AIP employed both reward for satisfactory achievement and consequence for under-performance to elevate the ITE as a "high stakes" examination. Our hypothesis was that implementation of this AIP would improve ITE scores. ITE scores were compiled from 150 residents in the Department of Anesthesiology at UNC for graduating classes from 2004-2015. Data is presented as the number of residents scoring below the 20th percentile when compared to the national distribution before and after the AIP. In addition, average USMLE Step 1 three-digit scores for each graduating class were compared to average ITE percentile scores of the corresponding graduating class (USMLE does not provide percentile scores). Between 2009 and 2013, the number of residents who scored below the 20th percentile on the ITE increased steadily to a peak of 10 in 2011. After implementation of the AIP in July 2011, there was an 80% decrease in those scoring below the 20th percentile, from 10 to 2 residents (pITE scores improved after implementation of an academic improvement policy.

  7. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. Methods A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. Results A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Conclusion Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar). PMID:26448551

  8. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Sandra L; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar).

  9. How do Policy and Institutional Settings Shape Opportunities for Community-Based Primary Health Care? A Comparison of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Tenbensel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-based primary health care describes a model of service provision that is oriented to the population health needs and wants of service users and communities, and has particular relevance to supporting the growing proportion of the population with multiple chronic conditions. Internationally, aspirations for community-based primary health care have stimulated local initiatives and influenced the design of policy solutions. However, the ways in which these ideas and influences find their way into policy and practice is strongly mediated by policy settings and institutional legacies of particular jurisdictions. This paper seeks to compare the key institutional and policy features of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand that shape the ‘space available’ for models of community-based primary health care to take root and develop. Our analysis suggests that two key conditions are the integration of relevant health and social sector organisations, and the range of policy levers that are available and used by governments. New Zealand has the most favourable conditions, and Ontario the least favourable. All jurisdictions, however, share a crucial barrier, namely the ‘barbed-wire fence’ that separates funding of medical and ‘non-medical’ primary care services, and the clear interests primary care doctors have in maintaining this fence. Moves in the direction of system-wide community-based primary health care require a gradual dismantling of this fence.

  10. The impacts of implementation of National Essential Medicines Policies on primary healthcare institutions: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhigang; Guan, Xiaodong; Shi, Luwen

    2017-11-13

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010. A questionnaire survey developed by the study team was distributed to all of the primary healthcare institutions. Nine indicators from three dimensions as the outcome variables were used and calculated to evaluate the impacts of implementation of policies. All of the outcome variables were tested using independent-samples T test between the treatment group (with the NEMPs implemented) and the control group (without the NEMPs implemented). The ratio of drug sales and institution revenues at primary healthcare institutions was 42.99% in the treatment group, which was significantly lower than the control group (53.90%, p financial subsidies of the treatment group was shown to be higher (30.78% VS 20.82%, p institutions, the improvement of the mechanisms for government investment, and the healthcare pricing system. Meanwhile, the gaps between urban and rural areas need to be addressed. In conclusion, the NEMPs of China are instrumental to the aim of providing basic healthcare services to every citizen.

  11. Cornerstones of Student Success: Institutions Yielding High Return on Investment for Underserved Students. Policy Research 2017-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…

  12. Cornerstones of Student Success: Institutions Yielding High Return on Investment for Underserved Students. Executive Summary. Policy Research 2017-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…

  13. Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, Camille; Bahn, Olivier; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies. - Highlights: • We perform a SWOT analysis of the Canadian energy and climate policies. • We analyse policy coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. • We show that a lack of coordination leads to a weak coherence among policies. • The absence of cooperation results in additional costs for Canada

  14. A Ten Year Citation Analysis of Major Australian Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…

  15. Unemployment and Labor Market Institutions : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The development of the unemployment rate di¤ers substantially between OECD countries.In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions.In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which

  16. The Cochrane Collaboration: Institutional Analysis of a Knowledge Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Stephani, Anne Marie; Garner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cochrane is an international network that produces and updates new knowledge through systematic reviews for the health sector. Knowledge is a shared resource, and can be viewed as a commons. As Cochrane has been in existence for 25 years, we used Elinor Ostrom's theory of the commons and Institutional Analysis and Development Framework to appraise…

  17. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  18. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  19. 75 FR 62839 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Tribal Law and Policy Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...)(2)(iii) to allow Indian Tribes to receive one-time development grants to be used to offset the cost..., HHS. ACTION: Notice. CFDA Number: 93.658. Legislative Authority: Section 476(c)(2)(iii) of the Social... programs under title IV-E of the Social Security Act. Under the agreement, Tribal Law and Policy Institute...

  20. Police, Design, Plan and Manage: Developing a Framework for Integrating Staff Roles and Institutional Policies into a Plagiarism Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher; White, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    When student plagiarism occurs, academic interest and institutional policy generally assume the fault rests with the student. This paper questions this assumption. We claim that plagiarism is a shared responsibility and a complex phenomenon that requires an ongoing calibration of the relative skills and experiences of students and staff in…

  1. Politics of Leadership and Implementation of Educational Policies and Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpiken, W. E.; Ifere, Francis O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines issues of politics of leadership and implementation of Educational policies and programmes of tertiary institutions in Cross River State with a view to determine the problems are situated and suggest the way forward. It examines the concept of politics of education, concept of leadership, meaning of planning and generation of…

  2. Collection Development and Circulation Policies in Prison Libraries: An Exploratory Survey of Librarians in US Correctional Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    Prison libraries have traditionally fulfilled many purposes for their incarcerated patrons, and these libraries often carry a diverse collection to serve varied patron needs. However, during the trial of Steven Hayes for the Petit family murders, the prosecution questioned the collection development policies of the institutions where Hayes had…

  3. The crediting policies of Micro-Financial Institutions in Kosovo and their impact in the development of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc Drita Konxheli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a very important sector of Kosovo economy. Seeing the big agriculture sector’s need for crediting, this paper is focused on credit policies of micro financial institutions, by emphasizing their impact in the development of agriculture. Since the number of micro financial institutions in Kosovo is quite big and analyzing the crediting policies of all of them is impossible, for comparing analyzes this paper focuses in three of them.  Several clients of the micro financial institutions were surveyed to check the impact that the loans they took had on the development of their agricultural activity. The survey includes the entire territory of Kosovo, meaning, clients of different regions were surveyed including minority-inhabited zones. Micro loan has become a support for many farmers, artisans and traders of various Kosovo rural zones. The micro loan makes it possible to have access to financial services for funding small projects in the field of agriculture, cattle-raising or in service sectors, such as artisans, small grocery shops, etc. The main goals of this research is to analyze the credit policies of MFIs operating in Kosovo and their impact in development of agriculture; a comparative analyses of impact of these credit policies in development of agriculture and identification of new crediting policies that might impact further agricultural development.

  4. Policy research and analysis organizations: an account of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from interviews, archival documents and a range of other sources, this article takes stock of key public policy research and analysis organizations in Ethiopia. It sheds light on the significance of professionalization of policy analysis and its contributions to closing the gap between knowledge and policymaking, offers ...

  5. Meta-analysis of institutional-economic factors explaining the environmental performance of payments for watershed services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Tesfaye, A.; Pauw, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are a relatively new economic policy instrument, and the factors that drive and explain their environmental performance are poorly understood. Here a meta-analysis of causal relationships between the institutional design and environmental performance of 47

  6. New institutional analysis of European electric power reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick

    2002-01-01

    This research thesis reports a comparative analysis of reforms of the electric power sector implemented in European countries. In the first part, the authors proposes a presentation of the theoretical framework adopted for this analysis which is notably based on the New Institutional Economy approach. He also proposes an approach to the electric power industry based on the Transaction Cost Theory, and presents an overview of the various European reforms in the field of electricity, and of still unresolved problems which emerged after the creation of different power markets. The next part addresses an assessment of the attractive and desirable characters of reforms which have been implemented in the United Kingdom, in Germany and in Spain, with an attempt to identify winners and losers, and to classify these reforms. In the third part, the author defines a framework for the analysis of the feasibility of reforms which combine institutional and industrial dimensions, notably by reference to Noll and Williamson works. In the last part, the author sheds a new light on the concept of credibility. He introduces the conventional arbitrage of the Transaction Cost Theory between commitment stability and flexibility to generate uncertainty. He notably shows that the main problem in centralised institutional environments, is to guarantee the stability of commitments in front of opportunism, whereas in decentralised institutional environments, the main problem is to produce flexibility to manage uncertainty [fr

  7. An Historical Analysis of Monetary Policy Rules

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines several episodes in U.S. monetary history using the framework of an interest rate rule for monetary policy. The main finding is that a monetary policy rule in which the interest rate responds to inflation and real output more aggressively than it did in the 1960s and 1970s, or than during the time of the international gold standard, and more like the late 1980s and 1990s, is a good policy rule. Moreover, if one defines rule, then such mistakes have been associated with eit...

  8. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  9. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  10. Financial Analysis of the Financial Institutions Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlora Prenaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper work “Financial analysis of the financial institutions sector in Kosovo” treats financial sector in Kosovo. Paper work contains the current position of the economy, economic prospects and macroeconomic projections for the financial sector in Kosovo, future potential and possibilities of financial sector in Kosovo. The main goal of this research is financial analysis of Kosovo financial institutions sector - overview of key indicators. This research evaluates the performances of commercial bank’s profitability, which have operated in the market during the period 2006-2012. This research is conducted through financial analysis coefficients: Return on Equity, Return on assets and Cost to Income. Test t-Student is used to analyze the profitability for the period 2006/2007 before the financial crisis and the period 2011/2012 after financial crisis.

  11. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  12. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different view about the subject, conceives the rural thing as a multisectorial and multidimensional space, which is the starting point from which arise the elements of analysis that allow advance an institutional debate broad and participatory facing the structural transformation of the rural reality.

  13. COLLABORATIVE POLICY-MAKING, LAW STUDENTS, AND ACCESS TO JUSTICE: THE REWARDS OF DESTABILIZING INSTITUTIONAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Lowenberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heightened concerns and dialogue about access to justice have infused the law school setting in Saskatchewan and, to varying degrees, across the country. If there ever were a time to approach social justice reform differently – to upset traditional parameters around decision making and step around older hierarchies for input and design – it would be now. This article describes the Dean’s Forum on Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice (colloquially known as the Dean’s Forum as a platform for genuine student engagement in the development of public policy in this important area. We offer our combined reflections, gathered inside our “teaching team,” about the unique pedagogical features of our experiment and its challenges. As we continue to grow with the project, we offer this Saskatchewan story as one example of institutional collaboration in a quickly evolving educational and social policy landscape.   L’accès à la justice est une préoccupation croissante et un thème de plus en plus récurrent dans les facultés de droit de la Saskatchewan et, à différents degrés, de l’ensemble du pays. Le temps est venu, semble-t-il, d’aborder la réforme de la justice sociale différemment, de bouleverser les paramètres traditionnels gravitant autour de la prise de décisions et de contourner les hiérarchies plus anciennes en ce qui concerne les données et les concepts. Cet article porte sur le forum du doyen concernant le règlement des conflits et l’accès à la justice (familièrement appelé le Dean’s Forum (forum du doyen comme plateforme pour la participation des étudiants à l’élaboration des politiques publiques dans cet important domaine. Nous présentons l’ensemble des réflexions de notre équipe d’enseignants au sujet des éléments pédagogiques uniques de notre expérience et des difficultés connexes. Nous continuons à grandir avec notre projet, mais nous souhaitions décrire dès maintenant cette

  14. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  15. Influence of institutional culture and policies on do-not-resuscitate decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeng, Elizabeth; Colaianni, Alessandra; Roland, Martin; Chander, Geetanjali; Smith, Thomas J; Kelly, Michael P; Barclay, Stephen; Levine, David

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether the decision to pursue a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order should be grounded in an ethic of patient autonomy or in the obligation to act in the patient's best interest (beneficence). To explore how physicians' approaches to DNR decision making at the end of life are shaped by institutional cultures and policies surrounding patient autonomy. We performed semistructured in-depth qualitative interviews of 58 internal medicine physicians from 4 academic medical centers (3 in the United States and 1 in the United Kingdom) by years of experience and medical subspecialty from March 7, 2013, through January 8, 2014. Hospitals were selected based on expected differences in hospital culture and variations in hospital policies regarding prioritization of autonomy vs best interest. This study identified the key influences of institutional culture and policies on physicians' attitudes toward patient autonomy in DNR decision making at the end of life. A hospital's prioritization of autonomy vs best interest as reflected in institutional culture and policy appeared to influence the way that physician trainees conceptualized patient autonomy. This finding may have influenced the degree of choice and recommendations physician trainees were willing to offer regarding DNR decision making. Trainees at hospitals where policies and culture prioritized autonomy-focused approaches appeared to have an unreflective deference to autonomy and felt compelled to offer the choice of resuscitation neutrally in all situations regardless of whether they believed resuscitation to be clinically appropriate. In contrast, trainees at hospitals where policies and culture prioritized best-interest-focused approaches appeared to be more comfortable recommending against resuscitation in situations where survival was unlikely. Experienced physicians at all sites similarly did not exclusively allow their actions to be defined by policies and institutional culture and were

  16. Introduction to Dossier: Lessons from Latin America on the rational choice, cognitive and institutional approaches to policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the pertinent academic literature identifies three analytical focuses in studies of policy change. Rational choice- with its theories of incrementalism, multiple currents and punctuated equilibrium- privilege the decision-making process and the rational nature of the individual actor. The cognitivists- with their framework of promoter coalitions, the theory of social/ global references and critical theory- emphasize the presentation of policy problems and the legitimating discourse behind the decision-making process. The neo-institutionalist- with their theories of the logic of the adequate, path dependence and the three-order process of policy change- emphasize the importance of formal and informal institutions in the development of public policies.

  17. Survey of Policies and Guidelines on Antioxidant Use for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Survivorship in North American Cancer Centers: What Do Institutions Perceive as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyeongyeon; White, Jennifer; Zhong, Lihong; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-07-01

    Health care policies and guidelines that are clear and consistent with research evidence are important for maximizing clinical outcomes. To determine whether cancer centers in Canada and the United States had policies and/or guidelines about antioxidant use, and whether policies were aligned with the evidence base, we reviewed current research evidence in the field, and we undertook a survey of the policies and guidelines on antioxidant use at cancer institutions across North America. A survey of policies and guidelines on antioxidant use and the development and communication of the policies and guidelines was conducted by contacting cancer institutions in North America. We also conducted a Website search for each institution to explore any online resources. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant use were collected from 78 cancer institutions. Few cancer institutions had policies (5%) but most provided guidelines (69%). Antioxidants from diet were generally encouraged at cancer institutions, consistent with the current research evidence. In contrast, specific antioxidant supplements were generally not recommended at cancer institutions. Policies and guidelines were developed using evidence-based methods (53%), by consulting another source (35%), or through discussions/conference (26%), and communicated mainly through online resources (65%) or written handouts (42%). For cancer institutions that had no policy or guideline on antioxidants, lack of information and lack of time were the most frequently cited reasons. Policies and guidelines on antioxidants from diet were largely consistent with the research evidence. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant supplements during treatment were generally more restrictive than the research evidence might suggest, perhaps due to the specificity of results and the inability to generalize findings across antioxidants, adding to the complexity of their optimal and safe use. Improved communication of comprehensive research

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICES OF THE STATE YOUTH POLICY IN THE MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samohvalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines a number of foreign cases of practical realization of state youth policy for example the USA, Germany and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of these cases is due to the fact that these countries have an extensive practice of state youth policy. The second factor in the choice of case studies is the fundamental difference between the political systems of countries and as a consequence of the institutional arrangements and the technological features of established models of state youth policy. And fi nally, the third factor is that these States represent different political and cultural traditions. These differences between the traditions have an impact on the diversity of the state youth policy (as the US are a classic example of Western «pluralist» system of youth policy; Germany – West European model of youth policy; Kazakhstan is a bright representative of an effective model of youth policy in the former Soviet Union. Special attention is given to General and specifi c features identified on the basis of comparative analysis, the study of foreign models of youth policy, as well as possible their application in the process of realization of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation.

  19. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  20. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  1. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  2. De-risking concentrated solar power in emerging markets: The role of policies and international finance institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisari, Gianleo; Stadelmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is a promising technology for low-carbon energy systems, as combined with thermal storage it can store solar energy as heat, and deliver power more flexibly and when most needed by the grid. However, its high cost prevents its rapid deployment and affects its affordability in emerging economies. International financial institutions (IFIs) have emerged as key players to enable CSP in emerging economies, especially when cooperating with national policymakers. Through the analysis of two CSP plants in India and Morocco where IFIs provided the lion's share of finance, this paper aims to assess the effectiveness of their support and estimate the impact of IFIs financing on electricity production costs and mobilization of private investments. The two case studies show that public financial institutions can play a leading role in reducing the cost of CSP support on public budgets by providing concessional loans in countries where public and/or private finance would be too expensive, or extending maturities where commercial investors are present but poorly suited for project finance. Finally, we show that, combined with competitive tariff setting mechanism (tenders and auctions), public financial support can also be a cost-effective tool to engage private investors in CSP. -- Highlights: •We analyze the financial model of two large-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in two emerging markets (India and Morocco). •We focus on the role of policies and public finance in reducing investment risks and generation costs. •Development banks' concessional loans can reduce the weight of CSP support on public budgets. •Even when non-concessional, development banks' loans can reduce investment costs by extending debt maturities. •Competitive tariff setting mechanisms can ensure cost-effectiveness of public financial support

  3. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  4. Staff Governance and Institutional Policy Formation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John W., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The number of staff members serving American higher education institutions has more than doubled in the past twenty years, as occupations in technology, development, government relations, and even athletic administration have grown as never before in the history of the academy. As the number, variety, and importance of these positions have grown,…

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Microlocal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Castel vecchio-Pas coli NATO Advanced Study Institute is aimed to complete the trilogy with the two former institutes I organized : "Boundary Value Problem for Evolution Partial Differential Operators", Liege, 1976 and "Singularities in Boundary Value Problems", Maratea, 1980. It was indeed necessary to record the considerable progress realized in the field of the propagation of singularities of Schwartz Distri­ butions which led recently to the birth of a new branch of Mathema­ tical Analysis called Microlocal Analysis. Most of this theory was mainly built to be applied to distribution solutions of linear partial differential problems. A large part of this institute still went in this direction. But, on the other hand, it was also time to explore the new trend to use microlocal analysis In non linear differential problems. I hope that the Castelvecchio NATO ASI reached its purposes with the help of the more famous authorities in the field. The meeting was held in Tuscany (Italy) at Castelvecchio-P...

  6. Analysis of National Institutes of Health Funding in Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Ruan, Qing Z; Chang, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Federal research dollars help investigators develop biomedical therapies for human diseases. Currently, the state of funding in hand surgery is poorly understood. This study defines the portfolio of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants awarded in hand surgery. This was a cross-sectional study of hand surgeons in the US. Faculty members of accredited hand surgery fellowships and/or members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand were queried in the NIH RePORT database for awards obtained during 2005-2015. Of 2317 hand surgeons queried, only 18 obtained an NIH grant (0.8%). Thirty-eight unique grants were identified totaling $42 197 375. R01 awards comprised the majority of funding (78.0%) while K08 awards accounted for 1.1%. The K-to-R transition rate was zero. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease supported the most funding (65.2%), followed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (30.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in NIH funding totals with hand surgeon characteristics. Funding supported translational (46.0%), basic science (29.6%), clinical (21.0%), and education-based (3.4%) research. Peripheral nerve (33.3%) and bone and joint disease (30.1%) received the most research funding. Less than 1% of hand surgeons obtain NIH research grants. Of the 2 identified K08 awards, none led to a subsequent R award. Future research should identify barriers to grant procurement to design effective policies to increase NIH funding in hand surgery.

  7. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  8. Representations of women and drug use in policy: A critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa

    2018-06-01

    Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues). Whilst these are important areas for policy to address, we argue that such representations of women who use drugs tend to reinforce particular understandings of women and drug use, while at the same time contributing to areas of 'policy silence' or neglect. In particular, the policy documents analysed are largely silent about the harm reduction needs of all women, as well as the needs of women who are not mothers, young women, older women, transwomen or other women deemed to be outside of dominant normative reproductive discourse. This analysis is important because understanding how women's drug use is problematised and identifying areas of policy silence provides a foundation for redressing gaps in policy, and for assessing the likely effectiveness of current and future policy approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formal analysis of XACML policies using SMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkmen, F.; den Hartog, J.; Ranise, S.; Zannone, N.

    2017-01-01

    The eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) has attracted significant attention from both industry and academia, and has become the de facto standard for the specification of access control policies. However, its XML-based verbose syntax and rich set of constructs make the authoring of

  10. Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Cassel, Victoria; Bell, Ariana; Springer, J. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has become widely viewed as an urgent social, health, and education concern that has moved to the forefront of public debate on school legislation and policy. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 was the first of many high-profile incidents of violent behavior that appeared to implicate bullying as an underlying cause…

  11. Analysis of monetary and fiscal policy mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economies are constantly hit by various shocks-that effect aggregate demand and aggregate supply and have the potential to generate recession or expansion, respective a high level of unemployment and high inflation rate. Governments use fiscal and monetary policies to try to stabilioze the economy.

  12. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  13. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  14. Policy Research and Analysis Organizations: An Account of Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    policy research organizations operate, and touches on the negligible influence that the latter have ... organizations under considerations. The interviews were ... Drawing from the theoretical and empirical literatures, the next section sets ... institutionalizing policy research and analysis, however, politicians and bureaucrats ...

  15. Policy analysis of the English graduation benchmark in Taiwan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...

  16. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  17. Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services. An analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbera, Esteve; Brown, Katrina; Soberanis, Carmen Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a multi-dimensional framework for understanding the development and effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, framed around the notions of institutional design, performance and interplay. The framework is applied in the context of Mexico's Programme of Payments for Carbon, Biodiversity and Agro-forestry Services (PSA-CABSA), with an emphasis on its carbon component. The analysis shows that PSA-CABSA was promoted by civil society and its rules have been subject to continuous modifications over time. In the case of the carbon component, changes have been due to an original misunderstanding of how carbon projects should be designed, implemented, and carbon traded in actual markets. From a performance point of view, the paper shows that the programme has been well received by rural communities, and carbon payments have contributed to increase household income and to enhance forest management practices and organisational skills. The paper also highlights sources of institutional interplay with local institutions and international climate policy, and it reveals the importance of capacity and scale issues in securing an effective and fair implementation of PES. The conclusion provides some policy recommendations for the future development of PES initiatives in Mexico and elsewhere. (author)

  18. Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe : the impact of international institutions and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzinger, K.; Knill, C.; Arts, B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Has globalisation led to a convergence in policy-making across nations and, if so, what are the causal mechanisms? This book analyses the extent to which the environmental policies of nation states have converged over the last thirty years and whether this convergence led to a strengthening

  19. Service quality in healthcare institutions: establishing the gaps for policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuosi, Aaron A; Atinga, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    The authors seek to examine two key issues: to assess patients' hospital service quality perceptions and expectation using SERVQUAL; and to outline the distinct concepts used to assess patient perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to 250 patients on admission and follow-up visits. The 22 paired SERVQUAL expectation and perception items were adopted. Repeated t-measures and factor analysis with Varimax rotation were used to analyse data. Results showed that patient expectations were not being met during medical treatment. Perceived service quality was rated lower than expectations for all variables. The mean difference between perceptions and expectations was statistically significant. Contrary to the SERVQUAL five-factor model, four service-quality factors were identified in the study. Findings have practical implications for hospital managers who should consider stepping up staffing levels backed by client-centred training programmes to help clinicians deliver care to patients' expectations. Limited studies are tailored towards patients' service-quality perception and expectation in Ghanaian hospitals. The findings therefore provide valuable information for policy and practice.

  20. Whose University is it anyway? The complex world(s) of lifelong (higher) learning, government policy and institutional habitus

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Liz; Harvey, Morag

    2012-01-01

    At a time of worldwide economic recession, policy decisions at governmental and institutional level have to balance the basic human rights of access to education with the skills needs for economic competitiveness. This is playing out across Europe in a myriad of ways, as social problems exacerbated by lack of opportunity, add to the complexity of funding decisions.\\ud As part of the OPULL (Opening up Universities to Lifelong Learning) project, four European universities have been conducting r...

  1. Monetary Transmission and Asset - Liability management by financial institutions in transitional economies - implications for czech monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Derviz, Alexis

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the transmission of monetary policy within the financial sector. The objective is to link an optimizing stochastic model of portfolio decisions by a representative financial institution with a number of features that this optimizing behavior implies for monetary transmission and credit conditions in a transitional economy. The main example is the intermediation performance of Czech financial sector in the years 1993 to 1999.

  2. Effectiveness of the Chinese Communist Party’s Anti-corruption Institutions and Policies: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    WAHED, Mohammad Shakil

    2016-01-01

    The intensity of corruption in China has been progressively high since the 1980s. This seriously undermines the overall effectiveness of Chinese anti-corruption institutions and policies. This article argues that the existing anti-corruption measures in China have not been working properly to eliminate or even contain the problem at an acceptable level. It seems that something has been holding it back somewhere. This article argues that China badly needs, inter alia, a sincere demonstration o...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE PERSONNEL POTENTIAL EFFICIENCY OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Юрьевна Клищенко

    2017-03-01

    The study revealed common patterns of the personnel potential efficiency of the pharmaceutical institution. It was found that pharmaceutical institutions need qualified professionals with a high level of practical training, ready to immediately join the working process. It was noted that only 47 % of graduates are prepared to work in the specialty chosen. We studied the length of employment with one employer. The analysis of the main problems making pharmaceutical professionals to change their work is performed. During the questioning of pharmaceutical students it was noted that a large number of students (32,89 % feel uncertainty about their further employment and 47 % of respondents are going to work in the profession.

  4. Analysis of occupational doses of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Baburajan, Sujatha; Joshi, V.D.; Pawar, S.G.; Nalawade, S.K.; Raman, N.V.; Kher, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Routine monitoring of occupational radiation workers is done for controlling the doses to the individuals and to demonstrate the compliance with occupational dose limits. One of the objective of personnel monitoring program is the assessment of the radiation safety of working area and trends of exposure histories of individuals or group of workers. Computerised dose registry of all monitored radiation workers along with their personnel data helps in analyzing these trends. This in turn helps the institutions in management of their radiation safety programs. In India, annual and life time occupational dose records are maintained as National Dose Registry in the Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This paper presents analysis of occupational dose data of monitored radiation workers in medical institutions in India during last five years (i.e. 2002-2006)

  5. State Teacher Salary Schedules. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the United States most teacher compensation issues are decided at the school district level. However, a group of states have chosen to play a role in teacher pay decisions by instituting statewide teacher salary schedules. Education Commission of the States has found that 17 states currently make use of teacher salary schedules. This education…

  6. Analysis Links Zoning Policies and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Location, location, location. This mantra of real estate agents and their clients alike is now the target of a new report from the Brookings Institution linking housing prices and zoning practices to effectively depriving low-income students of high-quality schools. Using test scores from schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the…

  7. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    human rights is a prominent issue in negotiations between the United States and North Korea, and for other purposes. • H.Res. 309 (Peter King ...the opinion of a North Korean expert at Seoul’s Sejong Institute, “North Korea’s economy had received a death sentence long ago, but it keeps afloat

  8. China's approach to nuclear safety — From the perspective of policy and institutional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Ruimin; Zuo, Jian; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the energy sector in the world. It has achieved a rapid development during the past six decades and contributes to over 11% of the world's electricity supply. On the other side, nuclear accidents have triggered substantial debates with a growing public concern on nuclear facilities. Followed by the Fukushima nuclear accident, some developed countries decided to shut down the existing nuclear power plants or to abandon plans to build new ones. Given this background, accelerating the development of nuclear power on the basis of safety in China will make it a bellwether for other countries. China assigns the top priority to the nuclear safety in nuclear energy development and has maintained a good record in this field. The policy and institutional system provide the necessary guarantee for the nuclear energy development and safety management. Furthermore, China's approach to nuclear safety provides a benchmark for the safe development and utilization of nuclear power. This research draws an overall picture of the nuclear energy development and nuclear safety in China from the policy and institutional perspective. - Highlights: • China's Approach to Nuclear Safety. • Policy and Institutional System for Nuclear Energy Development. • A Benchmark for the Peaceful and Safe Utilization of Nuclear Power. • Further Efforts for Specific Laws and Administrative System

  9. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  10. Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact Of Monetary Policy On Financial Asset Returns: An Analysis Of Selected Stocks From The Nigerian Capital Market. ... Journal of Research in National Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  11. A Policy Analysis of Strategies to Manage Medical Holdovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tammie M

    2005-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of the Community Based Health Care Initiative (CBHCI) implemented to address the problems for Soldiers mobilized and deployed in support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom...

  12. A fully feminist foreign policy? : A postcolonial feminist analysis of Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Mia-Lie

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy. Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy is unique to the world, but it is not the only case of incorporating a gender perspective as a central part of national or international politics. Feminism and gender perspectives are increasingly receiving attention and space in global politics. The Swedish case could therefore inform us about where politics are heading. Previous research on the Feminist Foreign Pol...

  13. Public Procurement as One of the Institutions of New Industrial Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Elena F. Gutselyuk

    2018-01-01

    The article shows the role of public procurement in the formation of the new economic policy. It is proved that the public procurement market is a source of in-vestment in the economy. Analyzed the role of certain prohibitions and restrictions on a policy of import substitution. The application of national treatment to limit the turnover of foreign products was used in the 19th century and is widely used in modern industrial policy, especially in the procurement of goods through the state and...

  14. Do we have proportionate gender in policy making? A Study based on key Government Institutions of SAARC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment has remained a long standing issue for practitioners and policy makers at all levels even in the present modern known era of modernization. The basic objective of this study is to assess gender equality in the top sphere of the SAARC key governmental institutions from the recruitment and selection perspective. This study has used secondary data collected from the official websites of the governments and its affiliated key institutions. The unique feature of this study is that it analyzes gender inequality phenomena form the recruitment and selection perspective. An extensive gap has been identified between male and female top executives serving in key government institutions, which is not only a serious challenge for the global gender equality policy but also a serious question on government gender selection polices in the region. The notion of male dominance clearly prevails in the current scenario of the gender representation in government institutions, which remains a serious challenge for the gender equality. It has been concluded that a special focus is needed to prioritize the selection mechanism for females in top power structure of these governments especially in SAARC region.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Liability Cases for Bankruptcies of Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Kiršienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The bankruptcy of the fourth largest investment bank in the world Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. in 2008 remains the largest bankruptcy in the history of United States. This bankruptcy is viewed as a turning point in the Global Financial Crisis. Paradoxically, even though the financial system had many safeguards (auditors, audit committees, the board of directors, credit rating agencies, government supervisors whose purpose was to inform the investing public about the actual financial situation of the institution, Lehman Brothers bankruptcy came as a shock to financial markets across the globe revealing that many of the “gatekeepers” failed. Comparative analysis of liability cases after bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers and financial institutions in Lithuania shows that contrary to Lehman’s case, the demise of financial institutions in Lithuania cannot be attributed to sub-prime mortgages caused financial crisis, real estate market fluctuations or any other external variable. Problems are related to weak supervision, inefficient regulation, and common unethical behavior in the financial sector.

  16. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  17. Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy: A case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhood, Rebecca; Gross, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the political and institutional factors that have influenced the success of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan (Plan d'Action Sénégalais d'Électrification Rurale, PASER). PASER is of interest because its innovative design attracted extensive offers of finance from donors and independent power providers, however it has had limited effect on electrification levels. This paper examines PASER's progress and problems in detail, with the aim of informing rural electrification policy internationally. An extensive literature review was combined with 26 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, to produce a snapshot of the Plan's status after its first decade of operation. PASER's experiences are compared with other reform-based rural electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. PASER has faced significant institutional and political barriers, with delays arising from organisational opposition, inconsistent ministerial support, protracted consultations and the inherent challenges of implementing an innovative policy framework in a country with limited institutional capacity. The development of human and institutional capacity has been compromised by inconsistent political commitment. Such experiences mirror those of electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst PASER's successes in garnering external support and fundraising are noteworthy and won praise from early reviews, in terms of delivery the Plan has failed to resolve common institutional barriers. - Highlights: • Factors influencing the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan are investigated. • 26 Stakeholder interviews inform a review of the Plan after 10 years of operation. • The Plan has attracted extensive finance, but installations are severely delayed. • The delays are found to be largely the result of institutional and political barriers. • These barriers mirror the experiences of electrification

  18. Are Mergers a Win-Win Strategic Model? A Content Analysis of Inter-Institutional Collaboration between Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Soler, Carlos; de-Miguel-Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper, based on a content analysis of the literature about models of inter-institutional collaboration between higher education institutions, is to establish the characteristics that set them apart, contextualize each of these models in terms of the features of the setting in which they are implemented, and ascertain their…

  19. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  20. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    and decision costs would generate around half of the ideal gains and could be deemed sufficiently beneficial during an initial phase. After consumers gained experience with dynamic pricing, they should be transferred to the more complex and efficient schemes, though. Focussing on the installation of automation...... cost reduction, resulting in lower levels of investment in automation than what could be expected based on average prices. A policy intervention could be considered to initialise adoption, depending on the further technology cost development. Overall, the thesis improves the understanding...

  1. Institutional statism: an overview of the formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. van Schalkwyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the government’s formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy which is aimed at regulating the minibus taxi industry. Coupled with a brief social and politico-historical context of the policy, the aim is to highlight the government’s statist conduct in the formulation of the recapitalisation policy. The minibus taxi industry started to fulfil a prominent role in the 1970s as a result of a loophole in the legislation of the former apartheid government. It is currently the most accessible mode of public transport and conveys 65 per cent of the country’s commuters daily. Consequently, the Industry is an imperative force to be considered by the government in its formulation of transport policies. However, the industry is characterised by numerous problems, including a high rate of minibus taxis involved in accidents, unroadworthy vehicles and violence. It is in this context that the government formulated both the original and revised versions of the recapitalisation policy. However, the formulation of the policy has been problematic. The government followed a statist approach during the formulation process when it directed the course of the process according to its interests and without adequate consultation with relevant role players.

  2. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  3. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  4. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  5. Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger; Ostman, Anders; Lazdinis, Marius; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Arnberg, Wolter; Olsson, Jan

    2003-12-01

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  6. A socio-historical approach to policy analysis: the case of the Brazilian Workers' Food Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Souza, Jamacy; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Policy analyses based on traditional or structuralist definitions of the state are important, but they have some limitations for explaining processes related to policymaking, implementation, and results. Bourdieusian sociology links the analysis to objective and subjective dimensions of social practices and can help elucidate these phenomena. This article provides such empirical evidence by analyzing the social genesis of a Brazilian policy that currently serves 18 million workers and was established by the state in 1976 through the Fiscal Incentives Program for Workers' Nutrition (PIFAT/PAT). The study linked the analysis of the trajectory of social agents involved in the policy's formulation to the historical conditions that allowed the policy to exist in the first place. Although the literature treats the policy as a workers' food program (PAT), the current study showed that it actually represented a new model for paying financial subsidies to companies that provided food to their employees, meanwhile upgrading the commercial market for collective meals. The study further showed that the program emerged as an administrative policy, but linked to economic agents. The program became a specific social space in which issues related to workers' nutrition became secondary, but useful for disguising what had been an explicit side of its genesis, namely its essentially fiscal nature.

  7. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs......To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social......), and stochastic actor-oriented models. We focus most attention on ERGMs by providing an illustrative example of a model for a strategic information network within a local government. We draw inferences about the structural role played by individuals recognized as key innovators and conclude that such an approach...

  9. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  10. Writing ourselves into a web of obedience: a nursing policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Kasia; Cook, Robert; Gardner, Anne; Grealish, Laurie

    2009-11-01

    Nursing work is governed by a web of overarching documents from professional bodies, registration bodies, and individual health care organisations. The focus for these documents is to maintain high standards and protect patients and organisations from unnecessary risk. The presentation of the nurse within these documents has important implications for the ability of nurses to function as autonomous professionals. How the role of the nurse is situated in hospital procedural policy, and more specifically how these presentations of the nurse define, limit, and enable nursing practice is the focus of this paper. A combination of random and purposive sampling of the nursing policies of one tertiary level hospital was utilised to collect policy documents for thematic content analysis. The study was completed in a tertiary level health institution, in one Australian jurisdiction with a population of approximately 500,000 people. This health institution employs over 4000 people and admitted 49,000 patients in the 2004-2005 financial year. An inductive approach, which utilised theoretical and contextual comprehension of the nursing policies, informed the collation of coded data which determined the themes of the study. Analysis consisted of coding of particular words, textual structure and theory content. Practice was presented in the nursing procedural policies in two themes, called 'lingering tradition' and 'bureaucratic template'. The discourse of hospital procedural policy situates the nurse as obedient to organisational requirements by limiting practice to a performance of actions without explicit recognition of professional autonomy. This sets up a puzzling contradiction between performance expectations from the employing organisation and the nursing profession. Writing hospital policy in the discourse of procedural directives reduces nurses' ability to act as autonomous, critically thinking professionals, with implications for patient safety, nurse autonomy and the

  11. The Brazil socio-educational care system: contribution for an analysis critical of the policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Socio-Educational system is the policy of care for juvenile delinquents in Brazil. This policy is challenged to differentiate the prison system, because it’s pedagogic and sanctionatory in the same time. In this paper we propose to make a critical analysis of the implementation of the policy of children and adolescents in Brazil, especially the socio-educational system, under a critical view, with foundation in dialectical historical materialism. So we present the historical evolution of the attention to the rights of children and adolescents in Brazil and aim the limitations and possibilities of this policy today, in addition to the current operation of this policy, followed by an analysis based on critical criminology. Finally, we indicate that the juvenile justice system, the socio-educational system and all social practices relating to offenses should be seen as part of an historical and social process that has as its central point the materiality of social relations, the relationship between society, market and State and the consequent contradictions that are placed there. As the socio-educational project is linked to a contemporary neoliberal state, he does not escape the pressure of capitalism. That is, you can not understand the socio-educational institutions and logic that supports policies so displaced from this broader socio-political system that perpetuates unevenly and exclusive.

  12. Conceptual apparatus of analysis of the national economy institutional environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ляховець, О. О.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper the sense of the notions «institutional environment», «institutional framework», «institutional structure» is revealed. The difference between these notions is determined. The structural elements of institutional environment classified by the theoretical approaches criterion are considered. The origins of approaches are: 1) the scientific direction of economic theory (institutional economics, neoinstitutionsl economic theory, evolutionary economic theory, political economy); 2) t...

  13. Institutional Transition from Welfare Enterprise to Social Enterprise: the Localization of Legislation and Policy in Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.

  14. Multivariate Analysis of Schools and Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Herbert J.

    This report describes a multivariate analysis technique that approaches the problems of educational production function analysis by (1) using comparable measures of output across large experiments, (2) accounting systematically for differences in socioeconomic background, and (3) treating the school as a complete system in which different…

  15. Multiattribute Utility Analysis: The Case of Filipino Rice Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon C. Rausser; Joseph Yassour

    1981-01-01

    Major uncertainties and conflicting objectives often arise in public policy analysis. This paper advances a framework that is appropriate for public policy problems frequently encountered in agriculture and food systems. Among other possible benefits, its principal value is to provide focus on the major conflicts, trade-offs, and subjective perceptions among affected groups. It can be used to isolate major disagreements, needed empirical evidence, appropriate degrees of risk aversion, equity ...

  16. Health Manpower Credentialing: Legal Implications of Institutional Licensure. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No.: C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Stephen

    The objective of this analysis is to outline in broad fashion the current trends and issues in the licensure of health manpower and to contrast two proposed alternative systems of credentialing that focus on licensure of health care institutions instead of individual health care providers. The argument of the analysis is that the current system of…

  17. Sermons, Carrots or Sticks? Explaining Successful Policy Implementation in a Low Performance Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Morales, Diego Alonso

    2018-01-01

    This article explains how after 43 years of unsatisfactory outcomes, the Ministry of Education of Peru (MoE) suddenly ranked at the top of governmental performance tables. To do so, this study relies on implementation and major discussions of policy instrument theories to provide a comprehensive explanation of the reasons underlying the MoE's…

  18. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent…

  19. Pension Fund Restoration Policy in General Equilibrium : Tinbergen Institute MPhil Thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper quantifies the business cycle effects and distributional implications of pension fund restoration policy after the economy has been hit by a financial shock. We extend a canonical New-Keynesian dynamic general equilibrium model with a tractable demographic structure and a pension fund.

  20. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  1. The National Energy Policy Institute (NEPI) at The University of Tulsa (F INAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, Roger [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2013-10-31

    NEPI, a non-profit organization located at The University of Tulsa (TU), was established to develop and disseminate national energy policy recommendations. Research under this grant covered a wide variety of projects, including research into the future of nuclear power, oil market pricing, and the feasibility of biofuels.

  2. There's a Policy: Nobody Bats an Eye at Babies Being Born, a Critical Feminist Policy Discourse Analysis of a Paid Parental Leave Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Research has continued to suggest high institutional costs of not accommodating work-life balance, and institutions of higher education are recognizing the importance of formally addressing these issues in the increasingly competitive labor market. However, there is concern whether faculty members 1) are actually aware of policies; 2) feel safe in…

  3. Institutional Framework for Economic Re-Industrialization in the Mechanism of Industrial Policy Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S. Shitova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to substantiate the institutional structure aimed at the effective progressive development of the production sphere as the basis of the national economy oriented towards the qualitative development of social capital, which is the key goal of transforming the modern Russian economy. The achievement of that goal is possible through the implementation of reindustrialization strategy based on the conceptual platform of regional institutionalism, the determinant of which is also the possibility of implementing the potential of the regions as a priority source of development and reproduction as a result of building sustainable local relationships in the regional economy. Institutional design of reindustrialization and forcing the industrial development of the Russian economy are becoming particularly relevant in the context of the need to connect Russia to the concept of "Industry 4.0" and the fourth industrial revolution.

  4. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  5. The recent institutional history of cultural heritage policy in the city of Rio de Janeiro: protectionist versions, entrepreneurial versions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Domingues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the relations between the new urban management and the cultural heritage. The recent history of the current heritage policies of the city of Rio de Janeiro will be objectively analyzed and such will be illustrated in two different phases. The first one shows the choices made by the institutions that protect the national memory, which emphasize concern with the urban and landscape ensemble sphere, including preliminary articulation with the environmental sphere. In a second, more recent phase, the heritage policies embody elements from urban marketing and creative economy, becoming notoriously close to urban entrepreneurship, and making the bureaucratic centralism scenario, which was already building up, its final effort. It is aimed to put that the current changes in the form of representation and action on the urban, which contribute to the radicalization of the city mercantilization process, find clear support in the cultural field, especially when it comes to its management.

  6. Global climate change policies. An analysis of CDM policies with an adapted GTAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the relationships between spatial-economic interaction and global warming just discussed, this study aims to analyze the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) policies from an economic point of view. The research question of this study is formulated as follows: What will be the impacts of clirnate change policies, in particular CDM policies, on the economic performance of (groups of) countries in our global economic system, taking spatial interaction and general equilibrium effects into account? The purpose of addressing the issue of economic performance for (groups of) countries in the economic system is not just to identify winners and losers from international treaties. Rather, winning or losing may even determine the implementation and willingness of individual countries to participate in international environmental treaties, as illustrated by the recent withdrawal of the US from the Kyoto Protocol. By analyzing the economic impacts of an international environmental treaty for individual (groups of) countries, the framework that will be used to analyze this research question may be useful to determine the attractiveness of some global environmental policies, both for the world as a whole and for individual (groups of) countries. The research question will be answered by dividing it into six subquestions: (1) What is the position of CDM policies in the broad context of climate policy regimes?; (2) How should the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment be ideally modeled from an economic perspective? (3) How should the spatial dimension be incorporated in this framework of interaction between the economic and ecological system?; (4) How can climate change issues be incorporated in general equilibrium models in general, and in GTAP-E (extension of the Global Trade Analysis Project) in particular?; (5) How can CDM policies be implemented in the GTAP-E model?; and (6) What are the impacts of these climate change policies on

  7. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  8. 76 FR 38401 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... (b) shall-- (1) incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual consequences to enable... Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and.... Glavin, Deputy Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communications, National Institute of...

  9. Policy Implications Analysis: A Methodological Advancement for Policy Research and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, Doren L.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    Policy Implications Analysis (PIA) is a tool designed to maximize the likelihood that an evaluation report will have an impact on decision-making. PIA was designed to help people planning and conducting evaluations tailor their information so that it has optimal potential for being used and acted upon. This paper describes the development and…

  10. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  11. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  12. A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LARYNGEAL MALIGNANCIES AT OUR INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Mohan Mathan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malignancies of larynx are an increasing global burden with a distribution of approximately 2-5% of all malignancies with an incidence of 3.6/1,00,000 for men and 1.3/1,00,000 for women with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1. Smoking and alcohol are major established risk factors. More than 90-95% of all malignancies are squamous cell type. Three main subsite of laryngeal malignancies are glottis, supraglottis and subglottis. Improved surgical techniques and advanced chemoradiotherapy has increased the overall 5 year survival rate. The above study is statistical analysis of laryngeal malignancies at our institution for a period of one year and analysis of pattern of distribution, aetiology, sites and subsites and causes for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Based on the statistical data available in the institution for the period of one year from January 2016-December 2016, all laryngeal malignancies were analysed with respect to demographic pattern, age, gender, site, subsite, aetiology, staging, treatment received and probable cause for failure of treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months period during the study. RESULTS Total number of cases studied are 27 (twenty seven. Male cases are 23 and female cases are 4, male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, most common age is above 60 years, most common site is supraglottis, most common type is moderately-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, most common cause for relapse or recurrence is advanced stage of disease and poor differentiation. CONCLUSION The commonest age occurrence at the end of the study is above 60 years and male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, which is slightly above the international standards. Most common site is supraglottis and not glottis. The relapse and recurrences are higher compared to the international standards.

  13. How corporatist institutions shape the access of citizen groups to policy makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Munk; Mach, André; Varone, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    similar socio-economic and political challenges during this period, but the political opportunity structure is more favorable towards citizen groups in Switzerland than in Denmark. The Swiss referendum institution makes parliamentarians more open to popular demands while in Denmark strong unions, a strong...

  14. 75 FR 24384 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions Policy on Payment System Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... institution'' also includes trust companies, Edge and agreement corporations, and U.S. agencies and branches... financial circumstances. The Board believes that, as stated in the proposal, early withdrawal of term... average daily balance in its master account over the prior three months, and (3) 10 percent of total term...

  15. Education for Public Policy and Management: Views from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); J.W. Björkman (James Warner); V. Moharir (Vasant); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction When the Institute of Social Studies, ISS, was founded in 1952 in The Hague as a postgraduate centre for teaching and research on social and economic development, it established the first Masters programme in public administration and the first professorial chair in

  16. Economic and policy factors driving adoption of institutional woody biomass heating systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Young; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Helen T. Naughton; Katrina Mullan

    2018-01-01

    Abundant stocks of woody biomass that are associated with active forest management can be used as fuel for bioenergy in many applications. Though factors driving large-scale biomass use in industrial settings have been studied extensively, small-scale biomass combustion systems commonly used by institutions for heating have received less attention. A zero inflated...

  17. The Development of Non-bank Financial Institutions in Ukraine : Policy Reform Strategy and Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michel; Kantur, Zeynep; Prigozhina, Angela; Rutledge, Sue; Fursova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of European integration presents huge opportunities and challenges for the development of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in Ukraine. By most measures, the development of the NBFI sector in Ukraine lags far behind that of recent accession countries in Central Europe. To address the main impediments facing the development of the sector, the Ukrainian authorities need to...

  18. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making

  19. A Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis of Avian Influenza Policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Fournié, Guillaume; Abul Kalam, Md; Biswas, Paritosh K; Hoque, Ahasanul; Debnath, Nitish C; Rahman, Mahmudur; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Harper, David; Heymann, David L

    2017-11-13

    Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study specifically aimed to identify the future policy options to prevent and control avian influenza and other poultry-related zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh. It was recommended that the policy should be based on the One Health concept, be evidence-based, sustainable, reviewed and updated as necessary. The future policy environment that is suitable for developing and implementing these policies should take into account the following points: the need to formally engage multiple sectors, the need for clear and acceptable leadership, roles and responsibilities and the need for a common pool of resources and provision for transferring resources. Most of these recommendations are directed towards the Government of Bangladesh. However, other sectors, including research and poultry production stakeholders, also have a major role to play to inform policy making and actively participate in the multi-sectoral approach.

  20. THE TAX POLICY WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTS, INSTITUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COJOCARU (BOROVINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of conceiving the tax policy of an European Union member state, one must consider, on the one hand, fulfilling the government's own requirements, and on the other hand, achieving the objectives set by the EC Treaty. At present, the European Union has a quite harmonized and coordinated tax policy in the indirect taxes field, and partially in the direct taxes field, based on the free movement principle of goods, services, capital and labour; thus, although the member states have the freedom to set operation rules of their own national tax systems, this freedom is conditioned by the compliance with the priority objectives of the founding treaties of the European Union. The member states should avoid adopting discriminating tax measures (which could lead to a disadvantageous treatment for the persons, goods and services or capitals coming from other member states. Sometimes, the restrictions regarding free movement on the internal market are generated by the differences between the national tax systems, so that a certain degree of tax harmonization at the European Union level is necessary. The tax harmonization can be achieved either spontaneously (by means of the forces of the market, by means of active actions at the level of the European Union (the implementation of common policies, the coordination of the policies, the harmonization of the legislation, etc. or by means of the passive actions of the European Court of Justice (the interdiction of certain types of conduct of the member states that do not comply with the norms of the European Union. In the absence of the tax harmonization, negative effects can occur, such as: the erosion of the national tax bases, provision of public services and goods at a sub-optimal level, unwanted changes in the structure of the taxes which are levied in the member states, and distortions in assigning resources at the level of the single market.

  1. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  2. Corporate social accountability: Examining the impacts of ethical purchasing policies on Canadian public institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Insufficient responsibility by corporations, where the social and environmental consequences of their practices permits abuse in the workplace, is widespread. To prevent this, Canadian universities and municipalities are developing Ethical Purchasing Policies (EPPs), but considerable uncertainty exists about how to initiate effective EPPs with corporate compliance. This project utilized an Action Research methodology to learn what questions could best be answered by experts engaged in E PP im...

  3. Institutional Policy Changes Aimed at Addressing Obesity Among Mental Health Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, Linda L.; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-01-01

    Background People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. Context This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern U...

  4. Investment Analysis Of Environment Pollution In Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbub Ullah Miyan; Abdus Salam; Md. Nuruzzaman; Sanjida Naznin

    2015-01-01

    Environment pollution has become one of the biggest concerns for the educational institutions in Bangladesh. Thinking not yet starts that environmental pollution has a connection with educational institutions which requires investment. Educational institutions are paying huge amount of money in order to clean the academic atmosphere. Due to unawareness and unconsciousness the environment of the institutions campus continuously polluting in many ways. This paper provides an outline of how diff...

  5. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  6. Public Procurement as One of the Institutions of New Industrial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Gutselyuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of public procurement in the formation of the new economic policy. It is proved that the public procurement market is a source of in-vestment in the economy. Analyzed the role of certain prohibitions and restrictions on a policy of import substitution. The application of national treatment to limit the turnover of foreign products was used in the 19th century and is widely used in modern industrial policy, especially in the procurement of goods through the state and municipal budgets. In this regard, the article highlights some issues and ques-tions that arise in state and municipal customers in the provider definition, if a ban or restriction on the purchase of foreign products. Namely, denotes the problem of determining the country of origin of goods, especially when a normative act does not contain reference to any document. For example, procurement of certain medi-cal devices expressed concerns that certain restrictions on the purchase of foreign products can lead to the creation of artificial monopoly in the market, which in turn can lead to lower quality of goods. This article uses the normative legal acts adopted within the framework of national treatment as of December 2017.

  7. Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

  8. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  9. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  10. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Stakeholders' Influence on Policy Development: the Role of Uncertainty Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M. Bijlsma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is advocated widely, but there is little structured, empirical research into its influence on policy development. We aim to further the insight into the characteristics of participatory policy development by comparing it to expert-based policy development for the same case. We describe the process of problem framing and analysis, as well as the knowledge base used. We apply an uncertainty perspective to reveal differences between the approaches and speculate about possible explanations. We view policy development as a continuous handling of substantive uncertainty and process uncertainty, and investigate how the methods of handling uncertainty of actors influence the policy development. Our findings suggest that the wider frame that was adopted in the participatory approach was the result of a more active handling of process uncertainty. The stakeholders handled institutional uncertainty by broadening the problem frame, and they handled strategic uncertainty by negotiating commitment and by including all important stakeholder criteria in the frame. In the expert-based approach, we observed a more passive handling of uncertainty, apparently to avoid complexity. The experts handled institutional uncertainty by reducing the scope and by anticipating windows of opportunity in other policy arenas. Strategic uncertainty was handled by assuming stakeholders' acceptance of noncontroversial measures that balanced benefits and sacrifices. Three other observations are of interest to the scientific debate on participatory policy processes. Firstly, the participatory policy was less adaptive than the expert-based policy. The observed low tolerance for process uncertainty of participants made them opt for a rigorous "once and for all" settling of the conflict. Secondly, in the participatory approach, actors preferred procedures of traceable knowledge acquisition over controversial topics to handle substantive uncertainty. This

  12. Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio MATEOS ROYO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe. Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product and labour markets as the region’s economy contracted. Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

  13. Features of state industrial policy under imperfect technological and institutional environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Igor Vladimirovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For all countries with imperfect technology and the institutional environment (low culture and organization of production, high levels of corruption, the small middle class, not necessarily the execution of laws, etc., even such strong measures to support the economy like a direct financing of firms and territories, protectionism, stimulation of demand, etc. does not give significant effect. For Russia, which objectively have to be attributed to such countries, extremely relevant management system development, capable of overcoming difficulties, starting with the knees and the resistance of the imperfect (bad technological and institutional environment. Several theoretical solutions recently obtained through the development of the theory of economic-technological development of civilization, can create the mechanism and conditions of such a system.

  14. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... of strategic and operational aspects of management; multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary evaluations; practical objectives for the four pillars of sustainability; appropriate participation; and a governance system that is able to integrate these diverse considerations in management. We challenge all involved...... governance....

  15. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in

  16. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  17. Can conditional health policies be justified? A policy analysis of the new NHS dental contract reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Louise; Harris, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    Conditional policies, which emphasise personal responsibility, are becoming increasingly common in healthcare. Although used widely internationally, they are relatively new within the UK health system where there have been concerns about whether they can be justified. New NHS dental contracts include the introduction of a conditional component that restricts certain patients from accessing a full range of treatment until they have complied with preventative action. A policy analysis of published documents on the NHS dental contract reforms from 2009 to 2016 was conducted to consider how conditionality is justified and whether its execution is likely to cause distributional effects. Contractualist, paternalistic and mutualist arguments that reflect notions of responsibility and obligation are used as justification within policy. Underlying these arguments is an emphasis on preserving the finite resources of a strained NHS. We argue that the proposed conditional component may differentially affect disadvantaged patients, who do not necessarily have access to the resources needed to meet the behavioural requirements. As such, the conditional component of the NHS dental contract reform has the potential to exacerbate oral health inequalities. Conditional health policies may challenge core NHS principles and, as is the case with any conditional policy, should be carefully considered to ensure they do not exacerbate health inequities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Etuk, Blessing; Palermo, James; Shirato, Hiroki; Kresl, John; Yapicier, Ozlem; Walker, Gail; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Shaw, Edward; Lee, Charles; Curran, Walter; Thomas, Terry; Markoe, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (POXRT) on outcome in spinal cord gliomas. Patients and Methods: Data from 242 patients were collected retrospectively from six institutions using a standardized data sheet. Pathology specimens, when available, were centrally reviewed. Results: A total of 183 patients were analyzed: 82 received surgery alone as initial treatment, whereas 101 had surgery and POXRT. Demographic, diagnostic, and treatment factors were analyzed for impact on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PFS in ependymoma patients was 74%, 60%, and 35% at 5, 10, 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by treatment type, race, age, tumor grade, and type of surgery on univariate analysis, with age being the only significant factor on multivariate analysis (MVA) (p = 0.01). OS of ependymoma patients was 91%, 84%, and 75% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by both complete resection (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.03) on MVA. In astrocytomas, PFS was 42%, 29%, and 15% at 5, 10, and 15 years, and was significantly influenced by POXRT in low- and intermediate-grade tumors on MVA (p = 0.02). OS at 5, 10, and 15 years was 59%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by grade on MVA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Postoperative radiation therapy reduced disease progression in low- and moderate-grade astrocytomas. In ependymomas, complete resection significantly influenced OS

  19. Policies, Programmes and Institutions of Water Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krhoda, G.O

    2001-01-01

    Meaningful investment in the water sector can easily increase food production and productivity of human resources and thus stimulate economic growth, human and environmental health. The author indicates that, the Mar del Plata Action Plan (1977), the New Delhi Statement (1990), Dublin Statement (1991)and the Agenda 21 Chapter 18 of UNCED (1992) emphasise the urgent need for integrated, sustainable water resources management. The publication looks at the policy development in the water sector, the disparities in the allocation of water supplies in the urban and the rural areas, the importance of water in the development of the industrial sector and how to manage the demand for water in sub-Saharan Africa

  20. Countering school bullying: An analysis of policy content in Ontario and Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginette Diane Roberge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extreme school violence as a direct consequence of bullying among peers, exacerbated by vast media attention, has caused educational institutions worldwide to put bullying intervention and prevention strategies into operation. This study focused on an overview of two provincewide antibullying incentives in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Saskatchewan, and an analysis of the quality of their respective antibullying policies. An itemized list of beneficial practices for bullying intervention and prevention originated from Smith, Smith, Osborn and Samara (2008’s scoring scheme. The scoring scheme was adapted to the current study by linking research-based program elements that have been found to be effective in reducing school bullying to a content analysis of both provincial frameworks. The final scoring scheme comprised a total of 39 criterions, divided into five categories: Defining Bullying Behaviors, Establishing a Positive School Climate, Disseminating, Monitoring and Reviewing Policy, Reporting and Responding to Bullying, and Involving the Broader Community. Results showed that policies contained a total average of 60% of the criterions in Ontario, and 59% in Saskatchewan. The conclusion of this study observes from policy lenses key essentials of bullying intervention and prevention initiatives in elementary and secondary educational settings. Recommendations are proposed to bridge the gap between areas that have received extensive attention and areas that have received less treatment in bullying intervention and prevention endeavors, using the content of Ontario and Saskatchewan policies as a basis for discussion.

  1. Towards an effective partnership policy for improving urban low-income housing provision in Nigeria: New institutional economics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Taiwo Gbadegesin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent critique against the past urban housing provision strategies in Nigeria was that the low-income groups are marginalised. It then led to the adoption of public private partnership (PPP initiative with a view to pursuing the broad goal of housing-for-all in Nigeria. Most recent studies have however criticised the effectiveness of the existing PPP practice in the housing provision structure without providing a pragmatic suggestion towards an effective framework for improvement. It thus raised the question; what are the main causes of ineffectiveness of existing PPP in housing provision and how can an effective PPP policy framework for urban low-income housing be achieved in Nigeria? This study utilised the concepts of new institutional economics (NIE - a theoretical and methodological underpinning for multi-actors’ policy matters. Using qualitative data from structured interview and credible literature sources, findings indicate that uncertainties in land accessibility, high transaction costs and the developers’ high profit agenda, are the major causes of PPP ineffectiveness for housing provision, which are also attributed to lack of a specific PPP policy that recognises all income groups and their roles on housing provision. End-users suggested that government could have a negotiation with land owners and building materials dealers to address the housing problem. In conclusion, it is established in this study that adoption of all-inclusive conceptual approach described within the context of NIE thought can facilitate an effective planning for urban low-income housing in Nigeria.

  2. Dividend Policy and Corporate Value (A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tifani Titah Dwi Tyastari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the effect of dividend policy on corporate value, as well as to examine and analyze the variation of result study on corporate value in Indonesia.Dividend Signaling Model was the grand theory used to explain the effect of dividend policy on corporate value. This study used meta-analysis approach with the sample were 70 researches in Indonesia, both the published and unpublished in 2007-2015. The result of this study, meta-analysis strengthens the findings of the previous study which stated that the dividend policy could increase the corporate value. The differences of the previous studies were due to the presence of moderation effect from the measurement model of corporate value and dividend corporate.

  3. The Revenge of History – The Institutional Roots of Post-Communist Family Policy in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašková, Hana; Saxonberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2016), s. 559-579 ISSN 0144-5596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Historical institutionalism * Family policy * Central Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  4. African liberation and unity in Nkrumah's Ghana : a study of the role of "Pan-African Institutions" in the making of Ghana's foreign policy, 1957 - 1966

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grilli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the study of Nkrumah’s Pan-African policy by examining the role played by three Ghanaian institutions specifically created to support African liberation and unity: the Bureau of African Affairs, the African Affairs Centre, and the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute

  5. Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernPhilippinesusing an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of

  6. Alcohol policy in a Russian region: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Artyom; Polikina, Olga; Koroleva, Natalia; Leon, David A; McKee, Martin

    2010-10-01

    Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them.

  7. Does economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental quality? A comparative analysis of EU and MEA countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) with a sample of 58 MEA (Middle East & African) and 41 EU (European Union) countries for the period 1990 to 2011. The empirical analysis is carried out using the GMM-system method to solve the problem of endogenous variables. We focused on direct and indirect effects of institutional quality (through the efficiency of public expenditure, financial development, trade openness and foreign direct investment) and the income-emission relationship. We found a monotonically increasing relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP in both MEA and EU regions. The policy implication is clear: in order to have sustainable positive economic performance and to reduce carbon dioxide emission in the country at the same time, policy makers should regulate and enhance the role and efficiency of domestic institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National Institutions and Global Public Goods: Are Democracies More Cooperative in Climate Change Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Bättig, Michèle B.; Bernauer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article examines whether democracies contribute more to the provision of global public goods. It thus contributes to the debate on the effects of domestic institutions on international cooperation. The focus is on human-induced climate change, in Stern's words "the biggest market failure the world has ever seen.” Using new data on climate change cooperation we study a cross-section of 185 countries in 1990-2004. The results show that the effect of democracy on levels of political commitm...

  9. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Shams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the significant role “values” play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of “values” and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of “value in health policy-making” were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results We identified eight major attributes of “value in health policy-making”: ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra

  10. Data Envelopment Analysis of different climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Buchner, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in the political, scientific and economic debate on climate change suggest that it is of critical importance to develop new approaches able to compare policy scenarios for their environmental effectiveness, their distributive effects, their enforceability, their costs and many other dimensions. This paper discusses a quantitative methodology to assess the relative performance of different climate policy scenarios when accounting for their long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The proposed procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis, here employed in evaluating the relative efficiency of eleven global climate policy scenarios. The methodology provides a promising comparison framework; it can be seen as a way of setting some basic guidelines to frame further debates and negotiations and can be flexibly adopted and modified by decision makers to obtain relevant information for policy design. Three major findings emerge from this analysis: (1) stringent climate policies can outperform less ambitious proposals if all sustainability dimensions are taken into account; (2) a carefully chosen burden-sharing rule is able to bring together climate stabilisation and equity considerations; and (3) the most inefficient strategy results from the failure to negotiate a post-2012 global climate agreement. (author)

  11. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  12. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  13. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By using benefit to costs index, internal rate of return, net present value and policy analysis matrix were calculated. The results show that intercropping was affordable than sole cropping. Sole cropping of these crops had no relative advantage, while mixed cropping had a relative advantage than sole cropping. Nominal ...

  14. Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Statistical Compilation of the ICT Sector and Policy Analysis. As the presence and influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to widen and deepen, so too does its impact on economic development. However, much work needs to be done before the linkages between economic development ...

  15. Palliative care policy analysis in Iran: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ansari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Increased and earlier access for facilities is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy, and research. Aim: This study was conducted to explain stakeholders' perceptions of the factors affecting the design of such a palliative care system and its policy analysis. Methodology: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted following purposive sampling of the participants. Twenty-two participants were included in the study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative-directed content analysis based on "policy analysis triangle" framework. Results: The findings showed the impact of four categories, namely context (political, social, and structural feasibility, content (target setting, process (attracting stakeholder participation, the standardization of care, and education management, and actors (the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, health-care providers, and volunteers in the analysis of the palliative care policies of Iran. Conclusion: In the past 6 years, attention to palliative care has increased significantly as a result of the National Cancer Research Network with the support of the Ministry of Health. The success of health system plan requires great attention to its aspects of social, political, and executive feasibility. Careful management by policymakers of different stakeholders is vital to ensure support for any national plan, but this is challenging to achieve.

  16. Point of Care Testing Services Delivery: Policy Analysis using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The service providers (hospital management) and the testing personnel are faced with the task of trying to explain these problems. Objective of the study: To critically do a policy analysis of the problems of point of care testing with the aim of identifying the causes of these problems and ...

  17. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Analysis of Ethiopia's National ICT Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is ... other technologies it enables to transform organizations and redefine social relations. In essence, ... public policies and disciplines. First, document analysis was carried out to study.

  19. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  20. Comment 3 on workshop in political institutions - problems of institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwicz, L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is mostly an elaboration of the comments the author made during the discussion stimulated by the McGinnis-Ostrom paper (McG-O hereinafter). It will be seen that I have added references to other papers by these two authors, kindly made available to me after the conference. He had been ignorant of this literature, and we are am grateful both to the authors and to the organizers of the conference for so broadening my horizons. MacNeil et al. (1991, p. 220, as cited on p. 1 of McG-O) states that the design of appropriate institutions is on the Rio open-quotes Earth Summitclose quotes agenda: open-quotes the heads of state ... will be asked to ... (4) initiate major reforms of open-quote international institutions to enable nations to manage global interdependence and to implement Agenda 21 as well as the conventions

  1. Workshop in political institutions - institutional analysis and global climate change: Design principles for robust international regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that human activities have a significant effect on the world's climate. Political pressures are growing to establish political institutions at the global level that would help manage the social and economic consequences of climate change. Disagreements remain about the magnitude of these effects, as well as the regional distribution of the detrimental consequences of climate change. In this paper we do not wish to enter into the complexities of these technical debates. Instead, we wish to challenge a seemingly widespread consensus about the nature of the political response appropriate to this global dilemma. Specifically, we question the extent to which the open-quotes answerclose quotes can be said to reside primarily in the establishment of the new global institutions likely to emerge from the first open-quotes Earth Summitclose quotes - the United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development - scheduled for June of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro

  2. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  3. Microfinance Performance and Informal Institutions : A Cross-country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Cornelis; Postelnicu, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the extent to which informal institutions are developed at the country-level and the financial and social performance of MFIs, using data from institutions active in 100 countries. Based on the theoretical literature discussing the economic role of

  4. PUTTING COMMUNICATION FRONT AND CENTER IN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY AND ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.P.; Durand, R.; Fiss, P.C.; Lammers, J.C.; Vaara, E.

    2015-01-01

    We conceptualize the roots of cognitive, linguistic, and communicative theories of institutions and outline the promise and potential of a stronger communication focus for institutional theory. In particular, we outline a theoretical approach that puts communication at the heart of theories of

  5. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... activities. France’s political tradition of centralisation, its non-academic civil service education, and separation of academia and administration create an environment in which think tanks are underfunded and walk a fine line between an over-controlling administration and a suspicious academia. Some French...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  6. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits

  7. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  8. La rivoluzione dei MOOCs: un'analisi di policy framework su scala europea / The MOOCs’ (Revolution. A policy framework analysis at a European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna De Rosa Valentina Reda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic institutions all over the world, as well as active stakeholders in the field of education and supporting services, are exploring Moocs to try and understand how learning and teaching environments are changing, the outcomes of such a novelty for different countries and audiences, to what extent the Moocs revolution can represent both a unique opportunity to open up education and a new business model. Born to help universities and academic institutions to innovate pedagogical models, Moocs are developing along different routes. Using a policy framework analysis approach, this article presents the results of a European survey that questioned both public and private stakeholders on Moocs policy design, objectives and expected outcomes.

  9. Internet Access Practices and Employee Attitudes toward Internet Usage Policy Implementation in Selected Philippines Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sagrario R. Simbulan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the employees’ concept of appropriate use of Internet facilities as well as their perception of the rights and liabilities, both of the individual and of the organization, associated with the grant of Internet access privileges in the workplace. It further examines how employees perceive their organization’s monitoring of employees online activities and the use of an Internet Usage Policy, whether these are seen as monitoring and control mechanisms or as ways to ensure that Internet access facilities are shared equitably and used responsibly. While the issue of the impact of Internet access on employee productivity will not directly be tackled, the study will provide insights into the frequency and type of usage of Internet facilities in the workplace. Considering the sizeable investment that an organization makes to provide Internet facilities, determining how employees use these facilities to achieve the goals of the organization is, in the very least, interesting and for most organizations concerned with their survival in difficult times, critically important.

  10. Can green building councils serve as third party governance institutions? An economic and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Sabine; Maier, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Green Building Councils (GBCs) have been established in many different countries in recent years. This paper discusses the role such organizations can play in the respective construction and real estate industry and under what circumstances a GBC can contribute positively to the development of a “greener” or “more sustainable” stock of buildings. The paper investigates the main informational problem of the industry by looking at the relation between a developer and an investor from an economic point of view. We argue that the investor's uncertainty about the true quality of a building and the corresponding incentive for the developer to cheat may lock them into a prisoners' dilemma trap. The corresponding barriers for a transition toward a “greener” buildings market are analyzed. GBCs are described as institutions of economic governance that can assist the economy in overcoming these problems. They can act as third party institutions in transactions between developers and investors. By certifying the quality of a building, they can reduce the risk for the investor to be cheated by the developer and also increase the incentive to develop good quality buildings for the developer. This task, however, raises some severe management challenges for the GBCs. - Highlights: ► We focus on Green Building Councils and their economic role. ► The paper investigates the informational problem of the sustainable building market. ► Developers and investors are locked in a prisoner's dilemma. ► Can the councils act as third party institutions to certify quality of buildings? ► Credibility and reliability are key features for third party certification.

  11. Who's counting? Institutional Autonomy and the Production of Activity Data for Disability Policy in France (2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Baudot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the use of figures for public action piloting in disability policy. This particular public action sector seems to lack piloting figures and comparable data for the monitoring of action in institutions in charge of granting social services for disabled persons, the Maisons départementales des personnes handicapées (MDPH. Based on fieldwork carried out since 2011 in this sector, this article reveals that the production of specific activity figures requires resource mobilisation and precise tasks on the part of organisations. The production of activity data therefore can reflect the autonomy of these administrative organisations. In limiting the capacity of these organisations specifically tasked with benefits attribution decisions, political authorities have also limited the autonomy they could in theory have claimed, and, in so doing, have limited their capacity to make these decisions independently of the political configurations and economic situations within which these benefits are recognised

  12. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  13. Movements and institutionally of international environmental policy: Genesis and conceptual bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, Luis Jair

    2001-01-01

    Environmental problems have gone, when it comes to their discussion, beyond the purely scientific arena, to being also discussed at a political stage, giving birth to what has been called political ecology. The dimensions of the problem, as well as its global nature, have created some sort of political institutionalism, which ranges from international organisms, UNO, World Bank; etc, to very local organizations. This approach has two conceptual positions al its base: environmentalism, which gives preeminence to man over nature, with its trends of Eco-development which leans on local ecology and culture; and sustainable development which leans on economic growth which should generate resources to alleviate environmental damage and social inequities. On the other hand all the unbreakable links with the other living beings and the physical surroundings. It also has two trends: Deep Ecology which advocates respect for nature as a systemic unit within which man is immerse; and Global Eco-ethics which stand for political action that departs from accepting current man's responsibility towards the forthcoming human societies, whose well-being will depend on our respect for natural dynamics

  14. Medulloblastoma in adults. A retrospective single institution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Indrawati; Roengvoraphoj, Olarn; Niyazi, Maximilian; Nachbichler, Silke Birgit [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Roeder, Falk [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Molecular Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schueller, Ulrich [University Medical Center, Institute of Neuropathology, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Research Institute Children' s Cancer Center, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Belka, Claus [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Munich (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    Adult medulloblastoma is a rare disease treated according to the current pediatric treatment guidelines. This retrospective analysis investigated the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of adult medulloblastoma patients, who received multimodal therapy at our institution. Treatment charts of all patients over the age of 15 years of age with de novo medulloblastoma, who had been treated at our institution between 2001 and 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' demographic parameters, initial symptoms, treatment modalities, toxicities, and survival outcomes were investigated. In all, 21 patients with a median age of 30.2 years were identified. The most frequent histologies were desmoplastic and classic, and the most common molecular subtype was sonic hedgehog (SHH). After tumor resection, all patients received craniospinal irradiation (median dose 35.2 Gy) and a boost to the posterior fossa (median dose 19.8 Gy). Simultaneous chemotherapy with vincristine was given to 20 patients and sequential chemotherapy to 15 patients. The most common side effects were hematological toxicities. Median overall survival (OS) has not been reached after a median follow-up of 92 months. Estimated 5- and 10-year OS was 89 and 80%, respectively. Estimated 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 89 and 81%, respectively. In univariate analysis, a shorter interval between tumor resection and end of irradiation was significantly associated with improved OS and PFS, anaplastic histology with worse OS and PFS. The combined modality treatment showed a good outcome in adults with medulloblastoma. Treatment time was revealed to be prognostic and should be kept as short as possible. (orig.) [German] Das Medulloblastom des Erwachsenen ist eine seltene Erkrankung, die analog paediatrischer Behandlungsprotokolle therapiert wird. Diese retrospektive Analyse untersuchte die klinischen Ergebnisse und prognostischen Faktoren von erwachsenen Medulloblastompatienten, die eine

  15. Analysis Of Critical Factors Of Microfinance Institutions Of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Azim Khan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the performance of Microfinance Institutions MFIs of Pakistan. In this article the types of MFIs operating is Pakistan is discussed with their details i.e. Microfinance Banks, Rural Support Programs and NGOs. Some other organizations are also involved in micro financing but their percentage is very low. It is found that Rural Support Programs RSPs are not totally involved in microfinance but have a large chunk of funds for microfinance. Micro loans are given for various purposes including starting a new business. The real theme of microcredit is to give money to a poor person to start a small or micro business and increase his family income but micro loans are often used for many other purposes such as paying another expensive loan, paying for medical expenses of bread earner of the family, marriages, construction etc. In this research work the researcher has tried to analyze the performance of MFIs of Pakistan and to find out those factors which contribute in their effectiveness. Two approaches of microfinance i.e. Institutionists Approach and Welfarists Approach are discussed. To analyze the performance of MFIs both approaches are considered i.e. Institutionists and Welfarists. Seventeen parameters are selected, many of these are financial ratios and these are divided into four groups i.e. sustainability, transparency, outreach and efficiency. Some ratios/figures of each area of these MFIs are taken in the data and analysis is performed to find out that which ones are contributing more or less. This research can be helpful for the MFIs which want to improve their performance and check their areas of significance for further improvement and development considering their approach of alleviating poverty from the society.

  16. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  17. Feminist Development Economics : An Institutional Approach to Household Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); O. Odebode (Olasunbo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this chapter, we argue that an institutional approach to feminist development economics provides deeper understandings to how gender inequalities function in economic processes in developing countries. We do this in three ways. First, we distinguish between

  18. Analysis of education conditions in higher educational institutions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Петрович Бурмістенков

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some issues related to higher technical education conditions in Ukraine, namely, training and certification of graduates of schools, training of students in higher educational institutions and motivation of students to study and teachers to improve teaching methods and deep research within the walls of institution. The causes of education level reduction are expressed. The propositions are made for improving the higher education quality

  19. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different vie...

  20. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  1. Assumptions and Policy Decisions for Vital Area Identification Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeon-Kyoung; Lee, Youngseung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and IAEA guidance indicate that certain assumptions and policy questions should be addressed to a Vital Area Identification (VAI) process. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power conducted a VAI based on current Design Basis Threat and engineering judgement to identify APR1400 vital areas. Some of the assumptions were inherited from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a sabotage logic model was based on PSA logic tree and equipment location data. This paper illustrates some important assumptions and policy decisions for APR1400 VAI analysis. Assumptions and policy decisions could be overlooked at the beginning stage of VAI, however they should be carefully reviewed and discussed among engineers, plant operators, and regulators. Through APR1400 VAI process, some of the policy concerns and assumptions for analysis were applied based on document research and expert panel discussions. It was also found that there are more assumptions to define for further studies for other types of nuclear power plants. One of the assumptions is mission time, which was inherited from PSA.

  2. The Kaleidoscope of Voices: An Action Research Approach to Informing Institutional e-Learning Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Gelareh; Holley, Debbie; Biggins, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a two-spiral action research approach (AR) in its analysis of the experience of a British University endeavouring to change and reposition itself in the context of fast pace external change in terms of innovation. Taking the European Union (EU) 2020 digital competence framework (Ferrari 2013), with its drive to address the…

  3. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  4. Using Habitat Equivalency Analysis to Assess the Cost Effectiveness of Restoration Outcomes in Four Institutional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold

    2016-01-01

    At the national level, with a fixed amount of resources available for public investment in the restoration of biodiversity, it is difficult to prioritize alternative restoration projects. One way to do this is to assess the level of ecosystem services delivered by these projects and to compare them with their costs. The challenge is to derive a common unit of measurement for ecosystem services in order to compare projects which are carried out in different institutional contexts having different goals (application of environmental laws, management of natural reserves, etc.). This paper assesses the use of habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) as a tool to evaluate ecosystem services provided by restoration projects developed in different institutional contexts. This tool was initially developed to quantify the level of ecosystem services required to compensate for non-market impacts coming from accidental pollution in the US. In this paper, HEA is used to assess the cost effectiveness of several restoration projects in relation to different environmental policies, using case studies based in France. Four case studies were used: the creation of a market for wetlands, public acceptance of a port development project, the rehabilitation of marshes to mitigate nitrate loading to the sea, and the restoration of streams in a protected area. Our main conclusion is that HEA can provide a simple tool to clarify the objectives of restoration projects, to compare the cost and effectiveness of these projects, and to carry out trade-offs, without requiring significant amounts of human or technical resources.

  5. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  6. Nursing education reform in South Africa--lessons from a policy analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which

  7. A policy analysis of the problem of the reproductive health of women in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotch, J B; Ossler, C C; Howze, D C

    1984-06-01

    Many occupations in which women comprise the majority of the workforce involve exposure to biological, physical, and chemical hazards. Potential reproductive effects of work-related substances include impaired reproductive capacity, mutagenesis, teratogenesis, and transplacental carcinogenesis. However, female-dominated occupations tend to be only minimally regulated by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the corporate response to the issue of reproductive and fetal health has been to institute "protective discrimination policies" such as the demotion or exclusion of women of childbearing age from certain jobs. This article rates the effectiveness of alternate policy responses to increase women's occupational health and safety through use of a series of analysis criteria: equity, efficiency, preference satisfaction, right to privacy, avoidance of stigma, and unintended consequences. Policy options include the following: 1) do nothing, 2) leave current policies intact while supporting a research program to document the health consequences of specific occupational risks to women's reproductive health, 3) restrict women for who pregnancy is not ruled out from occupations or work areas known or suspected to be hazardous, 4) improve working conditions for all women, and 5) improve working conditions for all workers. Policy analysis suggests the working conditions of all workers should be improved. This alternative reduces inequity, eliminates stigma, maintains privacy, and honors preferences. Implementation of this policy would be expensive, requiring an increase in knowledge of the effects of industrial substances on female and male reproductive health, expansion of the technical capacity to control occupational hazards, and an increase in the resources of programs that monitor and regulate occupational health. However, this approach is in accord with growing concern that workers should not have to compromise their health to keep their jobs.

  8. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions

  9. Sector-based political analysis of energy transition: Green shift in the forest policy regime in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This article examines energy transition political process from a sector-based approach, through the analysis of recent shift in the French forest policy regime. We demonstrate that, since 2007, energy transition policies have led to a harvesting turn within the French forest policy framework, meaning that priority is given to wood mobilisation, mainly for biomass uses. In addition, our findings suggest that the political authority wielded by the state over forest policy has shifted from forest administrative services to energy agencies and local authorities. Finally, we show that, although implementation of the harvesting turn is a cause of sectoral and inter-sectoral tensions, energy transition challenge also contributes to a process of (re)institutionalisation of mediation relationships among forestry stakeholders and wood-based industries representatives. The article concludes by arguing that sectors should retain relevant institutional frameworks for actors when choosing political arrangements required for implementing energy transition policy. - Highlights: • Implementing energy transition policy potentially challenges sector-based politics. • We propose a policy regime framework and socio-political investigations. • We analyse the political impact of energy transition policy on French forest sector. • Shifts occur in sectoral policy framework, authority, and mediation relationships

  10. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  11. Accountability in formal and informal institutions: a cross country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); A. Akinyoade (Ankinyinka)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe concept and practices of accountability enjoy considerable interest today, not least due to the World Development Report WDR 2004 on service delivery, which formulated the ëtriangle of accountabilityí - specifying relations between the poor, service providers, policy makers and

  12. Toward a more comprehensive analysis of the role of organizational culture in child sexual abuse in institutional contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Donald; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-12-01

    This article draws on a report prepared for the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse (Palmer et al., 2016) to develop a more comprehensive analysis of the role that organizational culture plays in child sexual abuse in institutional contexts, where institutional contexts are taken to be formal organizations that include children among their members (referred to here as "youth-serving organizations"). We begin by integrating five strains of theory and research on organizational culture from organizational sociology and management theory into a unified framework for analysis. We then elaborate the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We then use our unified analytic framework and our understanding of the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations to analyze the role that organizational culture plays in the perpetration, detection, and response to child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We selectively illustrate our analysis with case materials compiled by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and reports of child sexual abuse published in a variety of other sources. We conclude with a brief discussion of the policy implications of our analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Exploratory Modeling and the use of Simulation for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    and the Use of Simulation for Policy Analysis Steven C. Barikes Prepared for the United States Army R A N D Approved for public release; distribution...Research, Vol. 39, No. 3, May-June 1991, pp. 355-365. Lipton, Richard J ., Thomas G. Marr, and J . Douglas Welsh, "Computational Approaches to Discovering...the Visual Cortex, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985. / -30- Rothenberg, J ., N. Z. Shapiro, and C. Hefley, "A Propagative’ Approach to Sensitivity

  14. A Computable OLG Model for Gender and Growth Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a computable Overlapping Generations (OLG) model for gender and growth policy analysis. The model accounts for human and physical capital accumulation (both public and private), intra- and inter-generational health persistence, fertility choices, and women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, and home production. Bargaining between spouses and gender bias, in the form of discrimination in the work place and mothers' time allocation between daughters and so...

  15. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  16. Using Argumentation Logic for Firewall Policy Specification and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bandara, Arosha K.; Kakas, Antonis; Lupu, Emil C.; Russo, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Firewalls are important perimeter security mechanisms that imple-ment an organisation's network security requirements and can be notoriously difficult to configure correctly. Given their widespread use, it is crucial that network administrators have tools to translate their security requirements into firewall configuration rules and ensure that these rules are consistent with each other. In this paper we propose an approach to firewall policy specification and analysis that uses a formal fram...

  17. Development and Analysis of Security Policies in Security Enhanced Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    by Tresys Technology [32]. The suite contains tools for SE policy creation, management, and analysis. Apol provides a graphical interface for...runs under a predefined platform user: system, nfc , radio, etc. The third and fourth checks simply deal with different user strings, with fixed...system user id to the system domain and their application directories to system_data_file. Similarly, applications under the nfc and radio user id

  18. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Pourprasert

    2016-01-01

    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  19. "Should I Buy or Should I Grow?" How drug policy institutions and drug market transaction costs shape the decision to self-supply with cannabis in the Netherlands and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belackova, Vendula; Maalsté, Nicole; Zabransky, Tomas; Grund, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    This paper uses the framework of institutional economics to assess the impact of formal and informal institutions that influence the transaction costs on the cannabis market, and users' decisions to self-supply in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, two countries with seemingly identical policies towards cannabis cultivation. A comparative analysis was conducted using secondary qualitative and quantitative data in four areas that were identified as relevant to the decision to cultivate cannabis: (i) the rules of the game - cannabis cultivation policy; (ii) "playing the game" - implementation of cannabis cultivation policy, (iii) informal institutions - cannabis cultivation culture, and (iv) the transaction costs of the cannabis market - availability, quality, and relative cannabis prices adjusted by purchasing power parity. Although the two policies are similar, their implementation differs substantially. In the Czech Republic, law enforcement has focused almost exclusively on large-scale cultivation. This has resulted in a competitive small-scale cultivation market, built upon a history of cannabis self-supply, which is pushing cannabis prices down. In the Netherlands, the costs of establishing one's own self-supply have historically outweighed the costs associated with buying in coffee shops. Additionally, law enforcement has recently pushed small-scale growers away from the market, and a large-scale cannabis supply, partly controlled by organised criminal groups, has been established that is driving prices up. The Czech cannabis prices have become relatively lower than the Dutch prices only recently, and the decision to buy on the market or to self-supply will be further shaped by the transactions costs on both markets, by policy implementation and by the local culture. The ability to learn from the impacts of cannabis cultivation policies conducted within the framework of UN drug treaties is particularly important at a time when increasing numbers of

  20. INHERENT VICE & INSUFFICIENT PACKING CLAUSES FOR ALL RISKS INSURANCE POLICIES UNDER BRITISH INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES : legal issues arising from claims of loss during sea transportation of large technical equipments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Analysis and presentation of this thesis is supported by studies of many relevant cases where the major arguments are set around the exclusion clauses concerning the ‘all risks cover’ policy as found in Institute Cargo Clauses. Two cases are especially emphasized, namely Mayban General Assurance BHD v. Alstom Power Plants Ltd. and Global Process Systems Inc v. Syarikat Takaful Malaysia Berhad , mainly because of the special nature of the subject matter insured in these cases. The legal i...