Dijkstra, Michiel B.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Dirchsen, Maria
Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity,...... reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...
Bonckaert, W.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia
Inclusive fitness theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera headed by a multiple-mated queen, workers should benefit from policing eggs laid by other workers. Foster & Ratnieks provided evidence that in the vespine wasp Dolichovespula saxonica, workers police other workers’ eggs only...
Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers
In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...
Hartmann, Anne; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Jones, Graeme R.
In eusocial insects, the ability to regulate reproduction relies on cues that signal the presence of fertile individuals. We investigated the variation of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with reproductive status in Platythyrea punctata, an ant, in which all workers are capable of producing daughters...... to old reproductives, but not when it was similar to that of nonreproductives. CHCs appear to signal the fertility of individuals and induce policing behavior towards surplus reproductive workers....
Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.
Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.
Foster, K.R.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.
Mutual policing is thought to be important in conflict suppression at all levels of biological organization. In hymenopteran societies (bees, ants, and wasps), multiple mating by queens favors mutual policing of male production among workers (worker policing). However, worker policing of male production is proving to be more widespread than predicted by relatedness patterns, occurring in societies headed by single-mated queens in which, paradoxically, workers are more related to the workers' ...
Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Fürst, Matthias Alois; Heinze, Jürgen
of the policing workers had active ovaries, so that policing did not incur a direct selfish benefit to the policer. This suggests that policing is subject to polyethism, just like other tasks in the colony. We discuss several hypotheses on the possible causes of this skew in policing tasks. This is the first non...
Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.
Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.
Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R
Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.
Jarosch, Antje; Stolle, Eckart; Crewe, Robin M; Moritz, Robin F A
In eusocial insects the production of daughters is generally restricted to mated queens, and unmated workers are functionally sterile. The evolution of this worker sterility has been plausibly explained by kin selection theory [Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 7:1-52], and many traits have evolved to prevent conflict over reproduction among the females in an insect colony. In honeybees (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is regulated by the queen, brood pheromones, and worker policing. However, workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, can evade this control and establish themselves as social parasites by activating their ovaries, parthenogenetically producing diploid female offspring (thelytoky) and producing queen-like amounts of queen pheromones. All these traits have been shown to be strongly influenced by a single locus on chromosome 13 [Lattorff HMG, et al. (2007) Biol Lett 3:292-295]. We screened this region for candidate genes and found that alternative splicing of a gene homologous to the gemini transcription factor of Drosophila controls worker sterility. Knocking out the critical exon in a series of RNAi experiments resulted in rapid worker ovary activation-one of the traits characteristic of the social parasites. This genetic switch may be controlled by a short intronic splice enhancer motif of nine nucleotides attached to the alternative splice site. The lack of this motif in parasitic Cape honeybee clones suggests that the removal of nine nucleotides from the altruistic worker genome may be sufficient to turn a honeybee from an altruistic worker into a parasite.
Footer, Katherine Ha; Silberzahn, Bradley E; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Sherman, Susan G
Sex workers are disproportionately infected with HIV worldwide. Significant focus has been placed on understanding the structural determinants of HIV and designing related interventions. Although there is growing international evidence that policing is an important structural HIV determinant among sex workers, the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative studies to examine the effects of policing on HIV and STI infection and HIV-related outcomes (condom use; syringe use; number of clients; HIV/STI testing and access) among cis and trans women sex workers. Databases included PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Popline, Global Health (OVID), Web of Science, IBSS, IndMed and WHOLIS. We searched for studies that included police practices as an exposure for HIV or STI infection or HIV-related outcomes. Of the 137 peer-reviewed articles identified for full text review, 14 were included, representing sex workers' experiences with police across five settings. Arrest was the most commonly explored measure with between 6 and 45% of sex workers reporting having ever been arrested. Sexual coercion was observed between 3 and 37% of the time and police extortion between 12 and 28% across studies. Half the studies used a single measure to capture police behaviours. Studies predominantly focused on "extra-legal policing practices," with insufficient attention to the role of "legal enforcement activities". All studies found an association between police behaviours and HIV or STI infection, or a related risk behaviour. The review points to a small body of evidence that confirms policing practices as an important structural HIV determinant for sex workers, but studies lack generalizability with respect to identifying those police behaviours most relevant to women's HIV risk environment.
Reeve, H K; Keller, L
We show that a new, simple, and robust general mechanism for the social suppression of within-group selfishness follows from Hamilton's rule applied in a multilevel selection approach to asymmetrical, two-person groups: If it pays a group member to behave selfishly (i.e., increase its share of the group's reproduction, at the expense of group productivity), then its partner will virtually always be favored to provide a reproductive "bribe" sufficient to remove the incentive for the selfish behavior. The magnitude of the bribe will vary directly with the number of offspring (or other close kin) potentially gained by the selfish individual and inversely with both the relatedness r between the interactants and the loss in group productivity because of selfishness. This bribe principle greatly extends the scope for cooperation within groups. Reproductive bribing is more likely to be favored over social policing for dominants rather than subordinates and as intragroup relatedness increases. Finally, analysis of the difference between the group optimum for an individual's behavior and the individual's inclusive fitness optimum reveals a paradoxical feedback loop by which bribing and policing, while nullifying particular selfish acts, automatically widen the separation of individual and group optima for other behaviors (i.e., resolution of one conflict intensifies others).
Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation
Tenni, Brigitte; Carpenter, Jenae; Thomson, Nicholas
In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV prevention, individual and
Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.
The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026
Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred
Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.
Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Famiani, Manuela; Samperi, Ilaria; Scala, Barbara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela
The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of disorders of the lumbar region and the temporo-mandibular district co-morbidity in drivers and workers of the State Police employed for different office activities. The study population included 103 drivers as cases and 100 police officers as controls. The study was carried out through questionnaire and clinical evaluation of the spine and temporo-mandibular region. At clinical examination, the drivers were found to have a higher prevalence (p temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ), when compared with the controls. The results also showed a higher prevalence (p < 0.05) of co-morbidity in the two districts among the drivers, when compared with the controls. These results confirm that morbidity related to back and TMJ and increase in co-morbidity between the two districts are higher in professional drivers.
Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred
Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In th...
Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M
Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Muldoon, Katherine A; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Simo, Annick; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate
Sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa experience a high burden of HIV with a paucity of data on violence and links to HIV risk among sex workers, and even less within conflict-affected environments. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda (n = 400). Logistic regression was used to determine the specific association between policing and recent physical/sexual violence from clients. A total of 196 (49.0%) sex workers experienced physical/sexual violence by a client. From those who experienced client violence the most common forms included physical assault (58.7%), rape (38.3%), and gang rape (15.8%) Police harassment was very common, a total of 149 (37.3%) reported rushing negotiations with clients because of police presence, a practice that was significantly associated with increased odds of client violence (adjusted odds ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence intervals: 1.03-2.52). Inconsistent condom use with clients, servicing clients in a bar, and working for a manager/pimp were also independently associated with recent client violence. Structural and community-led responses, including decriminalisation, and engagement with police and policy stakeholders, remain critical to addressing violence, both a human rights and public health imperative.
Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B
Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists.
Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.
Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735
Prangnell, Amy; Shannon, Kate; Nosova, Ekaterina; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna
Workplace violence, by clients or predators, poses serious negative health consequences for sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver (British Columbia), Canada Police Department changed their guidelines with the goal of increasing safety for sex workers by focusing law enforcement on clients and third parties, but not sex workers. We sought to examine the trends and correlates of workplace violence among female sex workers (FSW) before and after the guideline change, using data collected from prospective cohorts of persons who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Among 259 FSW, 21.0% reported workplace violence at least once during the study period between 2008 and 2014. There was no statistically significant change in rates of workplace violence after the guideline change. In our multivariable analysis, daily heroin use was independently associated with workplace violence. The 2013 policing guideline change did not appear to have resulted in decreased reports of workplace violence. Increased access to opioid agonist therapies may reduce workplace violence among drug-using FSW.
Full Text Available Introduction: Reduced sleep to increase work hours is common among police officers, when this situation is combined with Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, health consequences are greater, therefore we believe there is a need of research for these alterations. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in sleep architecture (SA in police officers who currently have Night shift work (NSW and OSAHS. Methods: We compared SA in 107 subjects divided in three groups: the first group included police officers with NSW and severe OSAHS (n = 48; the second group were non-police officers with diurnal work time and severe OSAHS (n = 48 and the third group was formed by healthy controls (n = 11. Polysomnography (PSG variables and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS scores were compared. Results: SA was more disrupted in the group of police officers with NSW and OSAHS than in patients with OSAHS only and in the control group. Police officers with NSW and OSAHS presented an increased number of electroencephalographic activations, apnea/hypopnea index, and sleep latency, and showed lower scores of oxygen saturation, and in the ESS. Multivariate analysis revealed significant influence of age and Body mass index (BMI. Conclusions: Data suggested with caution an additive detrimental effect of NSW and OSAHS in SA and ESS of police officers. However age and BMI must be also taken into account in future studies.
Verde-Tinoco, Selene; Santana-Miranda, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Escobar, Romel; Haro, Reyes; Miranda-Ortiz, Joana; Berruga-Fernandez, Talia; Jimenez-Correa, Ulises; Poblano, Adrián
Reduced sleep to increase work hours is common among police officers, when this situation is combined with Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), health consequences are greater, therefore we believe there is a need of research for these alterations. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in sleep architecture (SA) in police officers who currently have Night shift work (NSW) and OSAHS. We compared SA in 107 subjects divided in three groups: the first group included police officers with NSW and severe OSAHS (n = 48); the second group were non-police officers with diurnal work time and severe OSAHS (n = 48) and the third group was formed by healthy controls (n = 11). Polysomnography (PSG) variables and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) scores were compared. SA was more disrupted in the group of police officers with NSW and OSAHS than in patients with OSAHS only and in the control group. Police officers with NSW and OSAHS presented an increased number of electroencephalographic activations, apnea/hypopnea index, and sleep latency, and showed lower scores of oxygen saturation, and in the ESS. Multivariate analysis revealed significant influence of age and Body mass index (BMI). Data suggested with caution an additive detrimental effect of NSW and OSAHS in SA and ESS of police officers. However age and BMI must be also taken into account in future studies.
Gonçalves, Mariana; Matos, Marlene
Cultural diversity places increased demands on services to multicultural populations, so the development of cultural competence by help professionals is currently a concern in institutional practices. This study evaluated the perception of cultural competence of help professional of three distinct areas: health services, social services and criminal police. Through an online questionnaire, we questioned the perception of cultural competence, at four dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, technical skills, and organizational support. There were 610 participants, mostly female (58%), with a mean age of 39.74 years, developing activity in the social area (37%), health (33%) or the police (30%). The professionals showed, in general, a positive perception of their cultural competence. Those who had formative experiences on the subject and had more time service, perceived themselves, significantly, as more culturally competent. Significant differences were found between professionals from different areas: health professionals were more effective in terms of technical skills, the social workers at the level of cultural knowledge and polices at the level of cultural awareness. Health professionals were the ones that showed a lower perception at the level of organizational support. Despite the positive perception that technicians have about their awareness and knowledge of the values, norms and customs of immigrant communities, they realize technical aptitude as less positive, showing difficulty in practical application of their knowledge. Cultural competence has implications for good professional practice in serving multicultural populations, being urgent to invest in the development of culturally competent interventions to ensure more effective services, namely in hospitals and health centres.
Overs, Cheryl; Hawkins, Kate
There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers' vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors' framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers' rights. International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers' ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers' rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety
Blacher, Pierre; Yagound, Boris; Lecoutey, Emmanuel; Devienne, Paul; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas
Restricted reproduction is traditionally posited as the defining feature of eusocial insect workers. The discovery of worker reproduction in foreign colonies challenges this view and suggests that workers’ potential to pursue selfish interests may be higher than previously believed. However, whether such reproductive behaviour truly relies on a reproductive decision is still unknown. Workers’ reproductive decisions thus need to be investigated to assess the extent of workers’ reproductive options. Here, we show in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris that drifting is a distinct strategy by which fertile workers circumvent competition in their nest and reproduce in foreign colonies. By monitoring workers’ movements between colonies, we show that drifting is a remarkably dynamic behaviour, widely expressed by both fertile and infertile workers. We demonstrate that a high fertility is, however, central in determining the propensity of workers to enter foreign colonies as well as their subsequent reproduction in host colonies. Moreover, our study shows that the drifting of fertile workers reflects complex decision-making processes associated with in-nest reproductive competition. This novel finding therefore adds to our modern conception of cooperation by showing the previously overlooked importance of alternative strategies which enable workers to assert their reproductive interests. PMID:24068358
Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.
by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...
Song, M. H.; Chang, B. U.; Kim, Y.; Cho, K. W.
The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq -3 in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv.y -1 . These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv.y -1 by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea. (authors)
Kou, Z X; Wang, S L; Chen, Z L; He, Y H; Yu, W L; Mei, L Y; Zhang, H D
Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in petrochemical industry, and to provide a reference for improving reproductive health status and developing preventive and control measures for female workers in petrochemical industry. Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was performed from January to October, 2016. The Questionnaire on Women's Reproductive Health was used to investigate the reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. Results: Among the 7485 female workers, 1 268 (40.9%) had abnormal menstrual period, 1 437 (46.4%) had abnormal menstrual volume, 177 (28.5%) had hyperplasia of mammary glands, and 1 807 (24.6%) had gynecological inflammation. The reproductive system diseases in female workers in petrochemical industry were associated with the factors including age, marital status, education level, unhealthy living habits, abortion, overtime work, work shift, workload, video operation, occupational exposure, positive events, and negative events, and among these factors, negative events (odds ratio[ OR ]= 1.856) , unhealthy living habits ( OR =1.542) , and positive events ( OR =1.516) had greater impact on reproductive system diseases. Conclusion: Many chemical substances in the occupational environment of petrochemical industry can cause damage to the reproductive system, which not only affects the health of the female workers, but also poses potential threats to the health of their offspring. Occupational exposure, unhealthy living habits, overtime work, and work shift have great influence on reproductive system diseases in female workers.
Ombeni, Alphonse Mihigo; Crago, Anna Louise
Sex workers in the Sud-Kivu district of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are regularly subjected to sexual and other forms of violence. In this article, based on a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Alphonse Mihigo Ombeni and Anna Louise Crago describe the negative impacts of this violence on the sex workers' health and working conditions. Many have become HIV-positive.
Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita
Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police. FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45-3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03-2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53-13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43-2.92). Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings
Sun, Qian; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Hampton, Jordan D.; Zhou, Xuguo
In social insects, the postembryonic development of individuals exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity in response to the environment, thus generating the caste system. Different from eusocial Hymenoptera, in which queens dominate reproduction and inhibit worker fertility, the primary reproductive caste in termites (kings and queens) can be replaced by neotenic reproductives derived from functionally sterile individuals. Feedback regulation of nestmate differentiation into reproductives has been suggested, but the sex specificity remains inconclusive. In the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, we tested the hypothesis that neotenic reproductives regulate worker-reproductive transition in a sex-specific manner. With this R. flavipes system, we demonstrate a sex-specific regulatory mechanism with both inhibitory and stimulatory functions. Neotenics inhibit workers of the same sex from differentiating into additional reproductives but stimulate workers of the opposite sex to undergo this transition. Furthermore, this process is not affected by the presence of soldiers. Our results highlight the reproductive plasticity of termites in response to social cues and provide insights into the regulation of reproductive division of labor in a hemimetabolous social insect.
Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo
The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea.
Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario
Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.
Yu, C Y; Yu, W L; Xu, M; Xing, Z L
Objective: To investigate the distribution of shift work of female workers in different industries and the relationship between shift work and reproductive health, then provide reference for the female workers' labor protection. Methods: From June to September 2016, cluster sampling questionnaire survey was performed among female workers from 11 industries including electronics, medicine and health, pharmacy. To investigate the general information, shift - work information, reproductive health and childbearing history of these female workers. Results: A total of 63 711 usable questionnaires were collected, resulting in a response rate of 96.94%.A total of 13 546 workers worked in shifts, accounting for 21.26%, the highest proportion was in the medical industry 30.61%, metallurgy 30.81%, petrochemical engineerin 26.78% respectively. Compared with the workers who did not work in shifts, those who worked in shifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection in married workers, the rate of infertility (χ(2)=19.108、10.673、21.510, P <0.05) ; Compared with the workers who did not work in nightshifts, those who worked in nightshifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection among married workers and rate of infertility (χ(2)=140.043、71.901、29.024, P <0.01) . Conclusion: The highest rate of shift work was in the medical industry, metallurgy, petrochemical engineering industry. Workers who worked in shifts have serious reproductive health issues, the occurrence of abnormal menstruation, reproductive system infection and infertility may associated with shift work.
Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; d'Ettorre, Patrizia
their reproductive success. We show that worker chemical recognition profiles remain similar after queen loss, but rapidly change into a mixed colony Gestalt odour after fusion, consistent with indiscriminate acceptance of alien workers that are no longer aggressive. We hypothesize that colony fusion after queen...
Dijkstra, Michiel Bendert; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
ovaries. Workers of Atta leafcutter ants only lay trophic eggs in queenright colonies. Although Atta colonies are commonly kept at universities, museums, and zoos, no reports of worker sons in orphaned colonies exist, suggesting that Atta workers are infertile. To explicitly test this, we created eleven...
Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D
Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.
Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.
Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.
Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana
Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found
Plat, M J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for selected jobs. The search strategy systematically searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and OSH-update databases. The search strategy consisted of several synonyms of the job titles of interest, combined with synonyms for workers' health surveillance. The methodological quality was checked. At least one study was found for each of the following occupations fire fighters, ambulance personnel, police personnel and military personnel. For the first objective, 24 studies described several job-specific WHS activities aimed at aspects of psychological, 'physical' (energetic, biomechanical and balance), sense-related, environmental exposure or cardiovascular requirements. The seven studies found for the second objective measured different outcomes related to work functioning. The methodological quality of the interventions varied, but with the exception of one study, all scored over 55% of the maximum score. Six studies showed effectiveness on at least some of the defined outcomes. The studies described several job-specific interventions: a trauma resilience training, healthy lifestyle promotion, physical readiness training, respiratory muscle training, endurance and resistance training, a physical exercise programme and comparing vaccines. Several examples of job-specific WHS activities were found for the four occupations. Compared to studies focusing on physical tasks, a few studies were found that focus on psychological tasks. Effectiveness studies for job-specific WHS interventions were scarce, although their results were promising. We recommend studying
Tilahun, Mesfin; Mengistie, Bezatu; Egata, Gudina; Reda, Ayalu A
Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent
Harindra E. Amarasinghe
Full Text Available Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.
Eskenazi, B; Guendelman, S; Elkin, E P; Jasis, M
Maquiladoras are plants on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border which are used largely by U.S. manufacturers to assemble premanufactured parts. We examined reproductive outcomes of women employed in electronics (N = 120) and garment (N = 121) maquiladora work compared to women employed in the service sector (N = 119) in Tijuana, Mexico. Women recruited by community health workers were interviewed about their reproductive history, sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and characteristics of their current job. Length of regular menstrual cycle in the past year as well as time of conception and rates of fetal loss in the most recent pregnancy were similar across occupational groups. However, infants of garment maquiladora workers were 653 g lighter (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1,041 g, -265 g) and infants of electronic maquiladora workers were 337 g lighter (95% CI: -682 g, 9 g) than infants of service workers after adjusting for potential confounders. The cause of these differences remains unclear.
Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.
In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.
Llewellin, Peter; Arendts, Glenn; Weeden, Jacqueline; Pethebridge, Andrew
To identify any significant differences in the population of patients brought in to a hospital ED under involuntary mental health orders, based on whether the orders are initiated by police or health professionals. A retrospective analysis of consecutive presentations to a tertiary hospital ED with a co-located psychiatric emergency care centre over a 12 month period, with univariate and multivariate statistical comparisons. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (making 378 ED presentations) met the case definition and were analysed. Compared with patients on medical orders, patients on police orders had significantly more presentations related to violence, longer stays in ED and lower rates of admission to an inpatient bed, but were no more likely to require restraint or security intervention within the ED. Patients on police and medical orders differ considerably, but the impact of these differences on ED workload is small. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.
Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun
The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.
Full Text Available A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms and keywords: “reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations.” In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet, this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.
A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords: "reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations." In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet), this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.
Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A.; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka
The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for. PMID:24132088
L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)
textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little
Gronenberg, Wulfila; Liebig, Jürgen
Most animals show long-term modifications of their behavior which often reflect an adaptation to seasonal variations (e.g., hibernation) or result from changes in the animal's internal state (e.g., estrous cycle or sexual maturity). Such modifications may substantially affect the nervous system [1, 2]. A particularly striking behavioral change can occur in workers of the ant Harpegnathos. A few young workers in the colony may become reproductives and are thus confined to their dark nest chambers, whereas most workers spend their lives as foragers, employing acute vision when hunting prey. This behavioral difference coincides with a marked decrease in brain volume and with an even stronger reduction in the large visual brain centers. Instead of maintaining superfluous brain functions, these ants reduce brain matter which is expensive to support.
Full Text Available Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera, with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like. We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP" components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William
We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of
Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, H L; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, B M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori
Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, pViolence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), pviolence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.
Plat, M. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health
Blacher, Pierre; Boreggio, Laurie; Leroy, Chloé; Devienne, Paul; Châline, Nicolas; Chameron, Stéphane
The impact of social parasites on their hosts' fitness is a strong selective pressure that can lead to the evolution of adapted defence strategies. Guarding the nest to prevent the intrusion of parasites is a widespread response of host species. If absolute rejection of strangers provides the best protection against parasites, more fine-tuned strategies can prove more adaptive. Guarding is indeed costly and not all strangers constitute a real threat. That is particularly true for worker reproductive parasitism in social insects since only a fraction of non-nestmate visitors, the fertile ones, can readily engage in parasitic reproduction. Guards should thus be more restrictive towards fertile than sterile non-nestmate workers. We here tested this hypothesis by examining the reaction of nest-entrance guards towards nestmate and non-nestmate workers with varying fertility levels in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. Because social recognition in social insects mainly relies on cuticular lipids (CLs), chemical analysis was also conducted to examine whether workers' CLs could convey the relevant information upon which guards could base their decision. We thus aimed to determine whether an adapted defensive strategy to worker reproductive parasitism has evolved in B. terrestris colonies. Chemical analysis revealed that the cuticular chemical profiles of workers encode information about both their colony membership and their current fertility, therefore providing potential recognition cues for a suitable adjustment of the guards' defensive decisions. We found that guards were similarly tolerant towards sterile non-nestmate workers than towards nestmate workers. However, as predicted, guards responded more aggressively towards fertile non-nestmates. Our results show that B. terrestris guards discriminate non-nestmates that differ in their reproductive potential and respond more strongly to the individuals that are a greatest threat for the colony. Cuticular hydrocarbons are
Full Text Available A modern type of police organization was introduced in Sweden after the revolutionary movement of 1848. As always this was done with a keen eye on the development in the rest of Europe, and the new type of police organization was based on the most modern of all: the London Metropolitan Police. In this text the focus is on the social background of the policemen and its crucial significance for the development of the police and its social, cultural and political outlook. In the early years most policemen came from a working class background, while in later years, due to a direct strategy instigated by the authorities, they mainly came from a rural background and almost all had training as noncommissioned officers in the military service. This in turn led to increasing conflicts within the police ranks, with the most outspoken years of internal hostilities being in the first two decades of the twentieth century.
Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W
Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica.
L O Omokanye
Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to
Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.
Lechuga, Julia; Garcia, Dina; Owczarzak, Jill; Barker, Maria; Benson, Meghan
Community health worker (CHW) programs have existed for over 50 years across the world. However, only recently has research evidence documented their effectiveness. Research is still needed to identify issues related to implementation and sustainability of CHW programs. This article explores the role and challenges of U.S. Latino CHWs trained to deliver a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health educational intervention to Latino families. We conducted a semistructured interview with a purposive convenience sample of 19 CHWs. Findings suggest that CHWs occupy roles that go beyond those they were trained for. CHWs serve not only as educators but also as providers of social support, facilitators of access to resources, patient navigators, and civil rights advocates. Lack of clarity of the role of a CHW influenced perceptions of adequacy of compensation, training, and integration into the agency that trained them. Policy facilitating the standardization of the CHW occupational category and role expectations is imperative to ensure successful implementation and sustainability of U.S. CHW programs. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Many sexual and reproductive health inequities are rooted in gender inequality that place women in South Africa, especially adolescent girls and sex workers, at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Gender inequality causes multiple layers of stigma, discrimination, and marginalisation, including
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R
This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH practices among female sex workers (FSWs including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs with the aim of developing recommendations for action.A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations.About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%, ongoing pregnancy (9.0%, childbirth (8.3% or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%. Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113, the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%, followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31% and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%. About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61, 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants.There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services.
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...
Scialli, Anthony R; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene
working in boron (B) mining or processing in Liaoning province in northeast China has been published in several Chinese and a few English language papers. This study included individual assessment of boron exposure, interview data on reproductive experience and semen analysis. Employed men living....../day. Earlier studies in human workers and populations have not identified adverse effects of boron exposure on fertility, but outcome measures in these studies were relatively insensitive, based mainly on family size and did not include an evaluation of semen end points. A recent study of nearly 1000 men...... in the same community and in a remote community were used as controls. Boron workers (n=75) had a mean daily boron intake of 31.3mg B/day, and a subset of 16 of these men, employed at a plant where there was heavy boron contamination of the water supply, had an estimated mean daily boron intake of 125 mg B...
Cooper, Hannah L F
War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.
Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M
To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...... focused on local needs even after the creation of a royal police office in 1682. Policing mainly concerned the welfare and privileges of burghers in market towns until the introduction of a country police in 1791, when agrarian reforms began to erode the patriarchal order in the countryside. As a new way...
Many sexual and reproductive health inequities are rooted in gender inequality that place women in South Africa, especially adolescent girls and sex workers, at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Gender inequality causes multiple layers of stigma, discrimination, and marginalisation, including misuse of criminal law, gender-based and sexual violence, and denial of sexual and reproductive health rights, which continue to create barriers to realising these rights. This thesis adopts a social a...
Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate
While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions. Analyses are based on a community-based cross-sectional research project in Gulu District, northern Uganda (2011-2012) with The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Gulu, FSWs, and other community organisations. We conducted questionnaires, sex worker/community-led outreach to sex work venues, and voluntary HIV testing by TASO. Of 400 FSWs, 62 had ever accessed an abortion. In a multivariable model, gendered violence, both childhood mistreatment/or abuse at home [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.99-3.90] and workplace violence by clients (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.31-9.72) were linked to increased experiences of abortion. Lifetime exposure to incarceration retained an independent effect on increased odds of coerced abortion (AOR 5.16; 95% CI 1.39-19.11), and living in IDP camps was positively associated with unsafe abortion (AOR 4.71; 95% CI 1.42-15.61). These results suggest a critical need for removal of legal and social barriers to realising the SRH rights of all women, and ensuring safe, voluntary access to reproductive choice for marginalised and criminalised populations of FSWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
This article explores interview data taken from a study of Norwegian police training, and discusses whether police education is perceived as providing a relevant and sufficient platform for performing police work. Since the police have monopoly status when it comes to the general use of physical force, the police practice appears boundless. How should police education be directed towards covering such a diverse and complex role? The article will demonstrate how differently police officers ass...
Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg
Results from a study of zero-tolerance drug policy in Denmark are presented. Database research shows that an increasing number of Danes are criminalized for possession of illicit drugs and that particular characteristics of offenders increase the chance of being criminalized. Qualitative case...... as a reflection of the differences in the data where some of the grounds for police intervention may be seen by police officers as not appropriate for official recording. To resolve these issues and provide better knowledge regarding drug policing in Denmark, further research is needed....
Matsuyama, Syuhei; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken
Dopamine (DA) and tyramine (TA) have neurohormonal roles in the production of reproductive workers in queenless colonies of honey bees, but the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain are still largely unclear. Nutrition is an important factor in promoting reproduction and might be involved in the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oral treatments of tyrosine (Tyr; a common precursor of DA, TA and octopamine, and a component of royal jelly) in queenless workers and quantified the resulting production of biogenic amines. Tyrosine treatments enhanced the levels of DA, TA and their metabolites in the brain. Workers fed royal jelly had significantly larger brain levels of Tyr, DA, TA and the metabolites in the brains compared with those bees fed honey or sucrose (control). Treatment with Tyr also inhibited the behavior of workers outside of the hive and promoted ovarian development. These results suggest that there is a link between nutrition and the regulation of DA and TA in the brain to promote the production of reproductive workers in queenless honey bee colonies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Calderón, Rafael A; Zamora, Luis G; Van Veen, Johan W; Quesada, Mariela V
Colony infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor is one of the most serious problems for beekeeping worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females, enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. To test the hypothesis that, due to the preference of mites to invade drone brood to reproduce, a high proportion of the mite reproduction should occur in drone cells, a comparative study of mite reproductive rate in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) was done for 370 mites. After determining the number, developmental stage and sex of the offspring in worker cells, the foundress female mite was immediately transferred into an uninfested drone cell. Mite fertility in single infested worker and drone brood cells was 76.5 and 79.3%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2)= 0.78, P = 0.37). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring (cells that contain one live adult male and at least one adult female mite) in drone cells (38.1%) compared to worker cells (13.8%) (X(2)= 55.4, P drone cells (X(2)= 69, P drone brood.
Jungari, Suresh Banayya
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.
Rosenberg, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Ratcliffe, J.; Gordon, L.A.; Watchmaker, G.; Fox, S.H.; Moore, D.H.; Hornung, R.W.
A questionnaire study of men in a wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery showed twice the rate of fetal loss in the period during employment in the plant compared with the periods before and after. Questions regarding the interpretation of that study and continuing concern about reproductive risk prompted us to perform a cross sectional evaluation of sperm concentration and morphology. After adjustment for an abstinence period, the mean sperm concentration of the 74 unexposed men did not differ significantly from that of the 34 exposed men (79.9 million/cm/sup 3/ v 68.2 million/cm/sup 3/, p(1) . 0.16). The two groups also had a similar proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology (49.1% v 44.5%, p(1) . 0.94). This lack of association remained when degree of exposure, age, use of alcohol and marijuana, past illness or fever, use of baths or sauna, and history of urological problems were considered. These results are most consistent with the absence of sperm mediated reproductive problems.
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea
Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye
Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye
Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3
Brown, J; Cooper, C; Kirkcaldy, B
From a survey of over 500 senior UK police officers completing the occupational stress inventory, it was observed that those serving in England and Wales exhibited the highest job stress related to structure and climate, co-worker relationships and their managerial role. There were no inter-regional differences on the individual difference variables, Type A behaviour, locus of control, or on physical health measures. Superintendents in Scotland used coping methods least frequently including domestic/home support, time management and social support, the latter strategy being most used by Northern Ireland officers. Findings relating job stress to job satisfaction were inconsistent with other police populations. Results are discussed in the context of organizational reform in the police service.
Fejes, Andreas; Haake, Ulrika
This paper aims to problematise how gender is being done--1. through occupational choices in two occupations that are traditionally gender divided, elderly care and police work, and 2. through the division of work assignments in police work. Interviews with care workers and police officers are analysed using a "doing gender" perspective, a…
Essack, Zaynab; Toohey, Jacintha; Strode, Ann
In South Africa children under the age of 18 are legal minors and considered not fully capable of acting independently. However, in certain defined circumstances the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently, including regarding their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study explored the perspectives and practices of 17 social workers from KwaZulu-Natal on legislation relevant to adolescents' evolving sexual and reproductive health and rights and the decriminalisation of consensual underage sex. A key finding was that many social workers have conservative views about adolescent access to SRH advice and services and many were critical of the recent decriminalisation of underage consensual sex. In the main, social workers were concerned that adolescents lack the capacity to make SRH care decisions and that liberal laws promote underage sex rather than protect adolescents. Despite antagonistic views of SRH laws related to adolescents, many social workers felt that they are able to uphold their professional rather than personal views in their work. These findings are important given that a key barrier to adolescent access and uptake of SRH advice and services relates to concerns that they will be judged. Therefore service providers need to be regularly updated on adolescent SRH issues (including rights, laws, and policies) and be engaged in critical thinking about conflicting cultural, moral and personal judgements around adolescent sexuality. Such training should include counselling and communication skills that address issues on confidentiality, adolescents' dignity, privacy and best interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz
In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...
Oteh Chukwuemeka Okpo; Flora Ntunde O; Alexander Anichie
This paper is a study on the Nigerian police, considering the historical origin of the police and the communal responsibility of promoting its entire citizenry, the paper takes an analytical accessment of the Nigerian police, safety and policing of the Nigeria people. The study used the questionnaires instrument of research methods to carry out the study and made several findings amongst which include the fact that the Nigerian people have lost confidence in the police force as a result of se...
Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate
To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.
GOLDENBERG, Shira M.; CHETTIAR, Jill; SIMO, Annick; SILVERMAN, Jay G.; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A.; MONTANER, Julio; SHANNON, Kate
Objectives To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation, and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Design Baseline data (2010–2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time-location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. Methods SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/STI testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Results Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian-born (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.42–19.02), inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0–2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.3–3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.14–4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3–3.2). Conclusions Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs. PMID:23982660
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008 of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody, and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4 were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5. The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR: 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3, apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4 and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2 among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45], and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59] were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver.
Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Warner, Pamela; Copas, Andrew; Mabey, David; Shahmanesh, Maryam
In India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV-positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors. Cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling recruited 326 FSWs. They completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and were screened for STI/HIV. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with sterilisation relative to no contraception. HIV prevalence was high (26%). Of the 59 FSWs planning pregnancy, 33% were HIV-positive and 5-7% had Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas. 25% and 65% of FSWs screened-positive for Syphilis and Herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies respectively. Among the 260 FSWs analysed for contraceptive use, 39% did not use contraceptives, and 26% had experienced abortion. Half the FSWs had undergone sterilisation, and only 5% used condoms for contraception. Among HIV-positive FSWs, 45% did not use contraceptives. Sterilisation was independently associated with older age, illiteracy, having an intimate non-paying male partner, having children and financial autonomy. Exposure to National AIDS Control Organisation's HIV-prevention interventions was reported by 34% FSWs and was not significantly associated with contraceptive use (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.9). HIV-prevention interventions should promote contraception, especially among young and HIV-positive FSWs. Integrating HIV treatment and care services with HIV-prevention interventions is vital to avert HIV-positive births.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.
Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus
The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.
Russell, Emma Kate
In recent times, the interrelationship between policing and sexuality has been reworked in significant ways. No longer solely a site for the reproduction of queer deviancy, pathology and criminality, policing now serves as a method for the production of respectable and innocent sexual and gender identities that are seen as deserving of visibility, recognition and protection. Through an investigation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-police relations in the Australian state of ...
Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.
The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use,
Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu
Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization estimates, stress is one of the risk factors most frequently affecting human health, along with obesity, alcoholism, drugs and smoking, and the suicide due to work-related stress will be the main cause of death in 2025 (Turc, 2006. Given this, and the that the profession of police officer has been ranked in the top ten most stressful jobs the U.S. (by The American Institute of Stress and categorized as one of the most stressful occupations in the world (by Michael Pittaro, executive director of The Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse in 2008, in a study on occupational stress in police1, both because of the nature of police work, and because of the multiple influences associated with the work environment, this article aims to briefly review the issue of stress in the field of police work, covering many aspects of it, such as sources of stress, forms of stress and its implications, the prevention factors, strategies to reduce stress and combat its negative effects, so that workers in this field be able to recognize it when stress is present and what it was caused by, and be able to manage it effectively.
Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla
Healthcare workers may affect the utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) services, and quality of care thereof, for example by their behaviours or attitudes they hold. This can become a hindrance to accessing and utilizing SRH services, particularly by young people, and thus a better understanding of these behaviours and associated factors is needed to improve access to and utilization of SRH services. A systematic review of literature was conducted to identify studies focusing on healthcare workers' behaviors and personal determinants associated with providing adequate SRH services in sub-Saharan Africa (January 1990 - October 2015). Five databases were searched until 30th October 2015, using a search strategy that was adapted based on the technical requirements of each specific database. Articles were independently screened for eligibility by two researchers. Of the 125-screened full-text articles, 35 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Negative behaviours and attitudes of healthcare workers, as well as other personal determinants, such as poor knowledge and skills of SRH services, and related factors, like availability of essential drugs and equipment are associated with provision of inadequate SRH services. Some healthcare workers still have negative attitudes towards young people using contraceptives and are more likely to limit access to and utilization of SRH by adolescents especially. Knowledge of and implementation of specific SRH components are below optimum levels according to the WHO recommended guidelines. Healthcare workers' negative behaviours and attitudes are unlikely to encourage women in general to access and utilize SRH services, but more specifically young women. Knowledge of SRH services, including basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is insufficient among healthcare workers in SSA. A protocol for this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and the registration number is: CRD42015017509 .
This chapter attempts to refute the assertion made by antinuclear groups that the use of nuclear energy will lead to a suppression of civil liberties in the US. The ''police state'' argument is based on the belief that the management of nuclear materials would necessitate the investigation of the stability and loyalties of their managers, and that in an instance of the theft of nuclear weapons material, police countermeasures might have to include violations of due process with regard to entry and search. It is pointed out that the screening of a person for a responsible position does not violate due process, and the fact that nuclear materials are radioactive and can be easility detected at some distance indicates that close police searches would not be necessary in the case of theft
Archana, Siddaiah; Nongkrynh, B; Anand, K; Pandav, C S
High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3% (88.2-97.4), 78.9% (63.6-88.9), 92.5% (86.0-96.2), and 83.3% (68.1-92.1) respectively. A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not
This paper describes mental health related stigma expressed by police to police using a newly developed 11-item Police Officer Stigma Scale and reports on the preliminary psychometric properties (factor structure and internal reliability) of this scale. The scale used an indirect measurement approach adapted from the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale. Five themes appropriate to police culture were adapted and six additional items were added. Responses were rated on a 5-point agreement scale with an additional don't know option. Data were collected from officers attending a mandatory workshop (90.5% response). Exploratory factor analysis showed the scale to be unidimensional and internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha was 0.82). The most endorsed items pertained to avoiding disclosure to a supervisor/manager or to a colleague (85% agreement), that most officers would expect discrimination at work (62%), and that most officers would not want a supervisor or manager who had a mental illness (62%). Findings highlight that (a) Police-to-police mental illness stigma may be a particularly strong feature of police cultures; (b) police should be a focus for targeted anti-stigma interventions; and (c) though further psychometric testing is needed, the Police Office Stigma Scale may provide important insights into the nature and functioning of police-to-police stigma in police cultures in future research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cooperation and conflict in social insects are closely linked to the genetic structure of the colony. Kin selection theory predicts conflict over the production of males between the workers and the queen and between the workers themselves, depending on intra-colonial relatedness but also on other factors like colony efficiency, sex ratios, cost of worker reproduction and worker dominance behaviour. In most bumblebee (Bombus species the queen wins this conflict and often dominates male production. However, most studies in bumblebees have been conducted with only a few selected, mostly single mated species from temperate climate regions. Here we study the genetic colony composition of the facultative polyandrous neotropical bumblebee Bombus wilmattae, to assess the outcome of the queen-worker conflict over male production and to detect potential worker policing. Results A total of 120 males from five colonies were genotyped with up to nine microsatellite markers to infer their parentage. Four of the five colonies were queen right at point of time of male sampling, while one had an uncertain queen status. The workers clearly dominated production of males with an average of 84.9% +/- 14.3% of males being worker sons. In the two doubly mated colonies 62.5% and 96.7% of the male offspring originated from workers and both patrilines participated in male production. Inferring the mother genotypes from the male offspring, between four to eight workers participated in the production of males. Conclusions In this study we show that the workers clearly win the queen-worker conflict over male production in B. wilmattae, which sets them apart from the temperate bumblebee species studied so far. Workers clearly dominated male production in the singly as well the doubly mated colonies, with up to eight workers producing male offspring in a single colony. Moreover no monopolization of reproduction by single workers occurred.
The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....
Terpstra, J.; Trommel, W.A.
Purpose - The managerialization of the police may be seen as an effort to restore the legitimacy of the police. This paper aims to show that the managerialist strategy presently occurring within police forces creates new pitfalls and unintended consequences. Design/methodology/approach - The paper
Loftus, Joseph; Price, Keith
This quantitative study utilized Richard H. Hall's attitudinal attributes of a professional using a Likert scale. The survey was administered to officers in two similar mid-sized police departments. The first agency had 650 officers, while the second had 350 officers. Agency One requires all applicants to possess a bachelor's degree, while Agency…
Full Text Available Context: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. Aims: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. Settings and Design: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC, Chetla. Subjects and Methods: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. Analysis Used: A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. Results: We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Conclusions: Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.
Sara J Elazan
Full Text Available Background: Male community health workers (CHWs have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care.
Boschman, J. S.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account.
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith
Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.
Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.
L. T. Matthews
Full Text Available Background. Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year and 20 HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and accessing care in Durban, South Africa. We investigated patient-reported experiences with safer conception counseling from health care workers (HCWs. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded using content analysis for conceptual categories and emergent themes. Results. The study findings indicate that HIV-infected patients recognize HCWs as a resource for periconception-related information and are receptive to speaking to a HCW prior to becoming pregnant, but seldom seek or receive conception advice in the clinic setting. HIV nondisclosure and unplanned pregnancy are important intervening factors. When advice is shared, patients reported receiving a range of information. Male participants showed particular interest in accessing safer conception information. Conclusions. HIV-infected men and women with serodiscordant partners are receptive to the idea of safer conception counseling. HCWs need to be supported to routinely initiate accurate safer conception counseling with HIV-infected patients of reproductive age.
Sian, Moore; Hayes, Lydia
The editors of this journal have outlined the capacity of digital technology to restructure the temporal dimensions of work and called for further focused empirical study (Howcroft and Taylor, 2014). This article explores the impact of the Electronic Monitoring (EM) of homecare work on working time in the context of severe financial pressures on public sector provision of social care in the UK. Homecare workers are overwhelmingly women and provide personal care to older and disabled people in...
Kim, Soyoun Rachel; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Gibson, Kate; Shannon, Kate
To longitudinally examine female sex workers' (FSWs') uptake of a women-only, sex-work-specific drop-in service and its impact on their access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. For the present longitudinal analysis, data were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access) study, a community-based, open, prospective cohort of FSWs from Vancouver, BC, Canada. Data obtained between January 2010 and February 2013 were analyzed. Participants are followed up on a semi-annual basis. Multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to identify correlates of service uptake. Of 547 FSWs included in the present analysis, 330 (60.3%) utilized the services during the 3-year study period. Service use was independently associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06), Aboriginal ancestry (AOR 2.18; 95% CI 1.61-2.95), injection drug use (AOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.29-2.17), exchange of sex for drugs (AOR 1.40; 95%CI 1.15-1.71), and accessing SRH services (AOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.35-2.02). A sex-work-specific drop-in space for marginalized FSWs had high uptake. Women-centered and low-threshold drop-in services can effectively link marginalized women with SRH services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...
the second aspect of the plan, to have only a single police force, was thwarted ... was finally absorbed into the SAP after World War II. By then, however, unrest ..... order policing capacity, Monograph 138, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies ...
Full Text Available The authors demonstrate the behaviour of police towards mentally ill individuals de lege lata and de lege ferenda. For this, they use an analysis of the existing Protection and Advocacy for the Mentally Ill Act, the draft of the new law which regulates that area, examples from practice, statistical data and the viewpoints of the legal and medical professions. This article points out the most frequent application of police powers when dealing with mentally ill persons and certain quandaries about the practice of admitting mentally ill persons into psychiatric institutions when they are a danger to themselves and others, that is, in the case of providing help to health workers dealing with mentally ill persons. Statistical data for the area of the Republic of Croatia point to a slight trend in the increase of police interventions over the last five years and also in the professional police approach towards such individuals. In conclusion, the coordinated activity of all services dealing with mentally ill persons is proposed as are additional education and the specialisation of police officials dealing with such persons. Furthermore, the need for balance between the necessity to protect the rights of mentally ill persons and the protection of rights and the security of the surroundings in which such persons live and the security of the entire community are pointed out.
Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino
Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
Alli, Farzana; Maharaj, Pranitha; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob
Interpersonal relations between health care providers and young clients have long being cited as an important element for improving client up take of services, satisfaction and overall health outcomes. In an era of HIV and AIDS this forms a critical determinant to young people accessing sexual and reproductive health care. This study explores to what extent interpersonal relations form a barrier to young peoples access to and satisfaction of health services. The study draws on data from 200 client exit interviews and four in-depth interviews conducted with university students and university health care staff in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. While young people are aware of the importance of utilising STI, HIV and family planning services they experienced barriers in their relationship with providers. This served as a deterrent to their use of the health facility. Adequate training in interpersonal relations for youth-friendly service provision is essential in helping overcome communication problems and enabling providers to interact with young clients at a more personal level.
Vy Han; John R. Marshall
History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...
Krüsi, Andrea; Kerr, Thomas; Taylor, Christina; Rhodes, Tim; Shannon, Kate
In Vancouver, Canada, there has been a continuous shift in the policing of sex work away from arresting sex workers, which led to the implementation of a policing strategy that explicitly prioritised the safety of sex workers and continued to target sex workers' clients. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 cisgender and five transgender women street-based sex workers about their working conditions. Data were analysed thematically and by drawing on concepts of structural stigma and vulnerability. Our results indicated that despite police rhetoric of prioritising the safety of sex workers, participants were denied their citizenship rights for police protection by virtue of their 'risky' occupation and were thus responsiblised for sex work related violence. Our findings further suggest that sex workers' interactions with neighbourhood residents were predominantly shaped by a discourse of sex workers as a 'risky' presence in the urban landscape and police took swift action in removing sex workers in the case of complaints. This study highlights that intersecting regimes of stigmatisation and criminalisation continued to undermine sex workers citizenship rights to police protection and legal recourse and perpetuated labour conditions that render sex workers at increased risk for violence and poor health. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an effort...
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
Journal of Modern African Studies 41, no. 2 (2003), 310. 51 forty years of Senegalese independence was met with peaceful and democratic leadership ...preventing their development into a public safety institution. 14. SUBJECT TERMS policing, democratic policing, African police, post...conflict policing, police, democratic development 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 107 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18
Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S
As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA. Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an
Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun
Sabah, located in Southeast Asia, hosts the highest number of non-Malaysian citizens (27.7%), predominantly the Indonesian and Filipino migrants in comparison to other states in Malaysia. Sabah has inadequate data on migrants' sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs). Various migrant-related policies and laws are present, but they do not offer full protection and rights to legal migrants in terms of their SRHRs. The aim of the laws and policies appears to be controlling the migrants from having any negative impact on the locals, rather than protecting migrants' health and rights. This affected their rights to marriage, having children, increase their vulnerabilities to labour trafficking and sexual abuse and access to health-care services. Female migrant workers and undocumented migrants form the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. This narrative review highlights the status of SRHRs of migrants in Sabah and the migrant-related Malaysian laws and policies affecting their SRHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...
Phillip Neely; Craig S. Cleveland
Policestress has been examined in many studies, many of which have focused upon thedevelopment of prevention and treatment programs for the police officers(Maslach, 1982; Maslach & Jackson, 1979; Mitchell, 1983; Mitchell &Everly, 1993). The trend of combating stress began with the police agenciesusing employee assistance programs, funding conferences, conducting research,and establishing prevention programs, but the fact remains that the health ofpolice officers and their families bec...
Lyons, Tara; Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate
The objective of this study was to investigate how environmental and structural changes to a trans outdoor work environment impacted sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. The issue of changes to the work area arose during qualitative interviews with 33 trans sex workers. In response, ethnographic walks that incorporated photography were undertaken with trans sex workers. Changes to the work environment were found to increase vulnerabilities to client violence, displace trans sex workers, and affect policing practices. Within a criminalized context, construction and gentrification enhanced vulnerabilities to violence and harassment from police and residents.
Reavley, Nicola J; Milner, Allison J; Martin, Angela; Too, Lay San; Papas, Alicia; Witt, Katrina; Keegel, Tessa; LaMontagne, Anthony D
To assess depression literacy, help-seeking and help-offering to others in members of the police force in the state of Victoria, Australia. All staff in police stations involved in a cluster randomised controlled trial of an integrated workplace mental health intervention were invited to participate. Survey questions covered sociodemographic and employment information, recognition of depression in a vignette, stigma, treatment beliefs, willingness to assist co-workers with mental health problems, help-giving and help-seeking behaviours, and intentions to seek help. Using the baseline dataset associated with the trial, the paper presents a descriptive analysis of mental health literacy and helping behaviours, comparing police station leaders and lower ranks. Respondents were 806 staff, comprising 618 lower-ranked staff and 188 leaders. Almost 84% of respondents were able to correctly label the problem described in the vignette. Among those who had helped someone with a mental health problem, both lower ranks and leaders most commonly reported 'talking to the person' although leaders were more likely to facilitate professional help. Leaders' willingness to assist the person and confidence in doing so was very high, and over 80% of leaders appropriately rated police psychologists, general practitioners, psychologists, talking to a peer and contacting welfare as helpful. However, among both leaders and lower ranks with mental health problems, the proportion of those unlikely to seek professional help was greater than those who were likely to seek it. Knowledge about evidence-based interventions for depression was lower in this police sample than surveys in the general population, pointing to the need for education and training to improve mental health literacy. Such education should also aim to overcome barriers to professional help-seeking. Interventions that aim to improve mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviour appear to be suitable targets for better
Sherwood, Jennifer A; Grosso, Ashley; Decker, Michele R; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Papworth, Erin; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ceesay, Nuha; Baral, Stefan
Female sex workers (FSW) are a vulnerable population for sexual violence and poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Sexual violence against FSW has not been widely studied in The Gambia. This study will report the prevalence of and evaluate the health issues correlated with forced sex perpetrated by clients against FSW in The Gambia, and will secondly aim to inform future research and efforts to improve health outcomes for survivors of violence. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 251 FSW accrued through a combination of chain referral and venue-based sampling in The Gambia. Eligibility criteria included being over 16 years old and having exchanged sex for money, goods, or favors in the past 12 months. There is a high prevalence of sexual violence against FSW in The Gambia, with 29% (n = 70) of participants reporting a client forced them to have sex in their lifetime. Women who reported forced sex by a client were more likely to report symptoms of depression (aOR 2.15, CI: 1.10-4.16 p unwanted pregnancy (aOR: 2.69, CI: 1.12-6.49 p < 0.05) and report "no", "difficult" or "somewhat difficult" access to condoms (aOR: 3.31, CI: 1.76-6.26 p < .01) compared to women who did not report forced sex. Client-perpetrated forced sex was also negatively associated with receiving any sexually transmitted infection (STI) test in the past 12 months (aOR: 0.49, CI: .26-.91 p < .05). FSW who experience sexual violence by a client are more likely to experience poor sexual, reproductive and mental health outcomes. Responding to sexual violence among FSW, including providing survivors with access to post-exposure prophylaxis, emergency contraception, and mental health services, must be a priority given the prevalence of forced sex and links with poor health outcomes. Efforts to reduce sexual violence against FSW is a vital strategy to improve the health and safety of FSW as well as impact the spread of HIV/STIs in The Gambia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings
Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.
Tran, Nguyen Toan; Portela, Anayda; de Bernis, Luc; Beek, Kristen
Given country demands for support in the training of community health workers (CHWs) to accelerate progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals in sexual and reproductive health and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (SR/MNCAH), the United Nations Health Agencies conducted a synthesis of existing training resource packages for CHWs in different components of SR/MNCAH to identify gaps and opportunities and inform efforts to harmonize approaches to developing the capacity of CHWs. A mapping of training resource packages for CHWs was undertaken with documents retrieved online and from key informants. Materials were classified by health themes and analysed using agreed parameters. Ways forward were informed by a subsequent expert consultation. We identified 31 relevant packages. They covered different components of the SR/MNCAH continuum in varying breadth (integrated packages) and depth (focused packages), including family planning, antenatal and childbirth care (mainly postpartum haemorrhage), newborn care, and childhood care, and HIV. There is no or limited coverage of interventions related to safe abortion, adolescent health, and gender-based violence. There is no training package addressing the range of evidence-based interventions that can be delivered by CHWs as per World Health Organization guidance. Gaps include weakness in the assessment of competencies of trainees, in supportive supervision, and in impact assessment of packages. Many packages represent individual programme efforts rather than national programme materials, which could reflect weak integration into national health systems. There is a wealth of training packages on SR/MNCAH for CHWs which reflects interest in strengthening the capacity of CHWs. This offers an opportunity for governments and partners to mount a synergistic response to address the gaps and ensure an evidence-based comprehensive package of interventions to be delivered by CHWs. Packages with defined
Full Text Available A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs' access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice.Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS, FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400, Tete, Mozambique (n = 308, Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400 and Mysore, India (n = 458 and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests.Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care. Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89% and HIV testing (79%. Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care, but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete 'where they always go', and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel.The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city.
Krüsi, Andrea; Kerr, Tthomas; Taylor, Christina; Rhodes, Tim; Shannon, Kate
In Vancouver, Canada, there has been a continuous shift in the policing of sex work away from arresting sex workers, which led to the implementation of a policing strategy that explicitly prioritized the safety of sex workers and continued to target sex workers’ clients. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 cisgender and 5 transgender women street-based sex workers about their working conditions. Data were analysed thematically and by drawing on concepts of structural stigma and vulnerability. Our results indicated that despite police rhetoric of prioritizing the safety of sex workers, participants were denied their citizenship rights for police protection by virtue of their ‘risky’ occupation and where thus responsiblised for sex work related violence. Our findings further suggest that sex workers’ interactions with neighbourhood residents were predominantly shaped by a discourse of sex workers as a ‘risky’ presence in the urban landscape and police took swift action in removing sex workers in case of complaints. This study highlights that intersecting regimes of stigmatization and criminalization continued to undermine sex workers citizenship rights to police protection and legal recourse and perpetuated labour conditions that render sex workers at increased risk for violence and poor health. PMID:27113456
Acquadro Maran, D; Varetto, A; Zedda, M; Ieraci, V
Studies on occupational stress have shown that police officers are exposed to stressful events more often than other workers and this can result in impaired psychosocial well-being and physical health. To measure the level of stress experienced, the consequences in terms of anxiety and the coping strategies adopted in a sample of police officers working in a large city in northern Italy. We used the Police Stress Questionnaire and the Distress Thermometer to measure occupational stress, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to measure anxiety and the Brief COPE questionnaire to measure coping strategies. Six hundred seventeen police officers completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 34%. Differences between genders, sectors and roles emerged, but overall the study population generally demonstrated good use of positive coping strategies. Women in all operational service roles were more vulnerable to both organizational and operational stressors than men (P occupational stress should take into account gender, role and type of work. Tailored training courses and support programmes could be useful and effective tools for preventing stress before it becomes chronic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wayne W. L. Chan
Full Text Available The Hong Kong Police Force has undergone one of its biggest challenges in the Occupy Movement that emerged in the last year. Despite the sheer complexity of the police roles, we know little about its representations in the media coverage, and even less about the extent to which the imagery impacts of police acting as peacekeepers would have been made upon the images of police acting as crime fighters. Against this background, this empirical research aims to investigate the police image and its relation to the police’s specifically categorized duties in Hong Kong. The content analysis of local newspaper accounts is used as the research method. It is found that there would be generally negative media representations of police in the order-maintenance work whereas the police images in the crime-fighting duties could still remain positive. The reasons for these findings and their implications for the conceptions of the police role are discussed.
and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police ... colleagues in the North. ... The introduction sets out the ... descriptive overview of key reforms in American policing. ... departments to illustrate the scope for involving officers ...
Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.
The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...
B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)
textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I
Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...
Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Franey, Paul
This toolkit provides police forces with practical educational tools, which can be used as part of a comprehensive LGBT strategy centred on diversity, equality, and non-discrimination. These materials are based on lessons learned through real life policing experiences with LGBT persons. The Toolkit is divided into seven scenarios where police awareness of LGBT issues has been identified as important. The toolkit employs a practical, scenario-based, problem-solving approach to help police offi...
Mustapar, Wasilatul Effah; Nasir, Diana Sirmayunie Mohd; Nor, Nor Azriani Mohamad; Abas, Sharifah Fhahriyah Syed
Constructing a good and fair schedule for shift workers poses a great challenge as it requires a lot of time and effort. In this study, goal programming has been applied on scheduling to achieve the hard and soft constraints for a cyclical schedule that would ease the head of auxiliary police at building new schedules. To accomplish this goal, shift types were assigned in order to provide a fair schedule that takes into account the auxiliary police's policies and preferences. The model was run using Lingo software. Three out of four goals set for the study were achieved. In addition, the results considered an equal allocation for every auxiliary police, namely 70% for total duty and 30% for the day. Furthermore, the schedule was able to cyclically generate another 10 sets schedule. More importantly, the model has provided unbiased scheduling of auxiliary policies which led to high satisfaction in auxiliary police management.
(1)In 2017 alone, 46 states have enacted over 270 laws affecting policing. (2) At least six states have enacted laws to train the public on their rights and expectations during police interactions. (3) Police are increasingly partnering with health care professionals to more safely respond to mental health and substance use disorders.
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.
A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal
Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Swendenman, Dallas; Kaplan, Kathryn C; Yi, Siyan
In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is concentrated in key populations including among female entertainment workers (FEWs) who may engage in direct or indirect sex work. Reaching FEWs with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services has been difficult because of their hidden and stigmatized nature. Mobile-phone-based interventions may be an effective way to reach this population and connect them with the existing services. This article describes study design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a mobile health intervention (the Mobile Link) aiming to improve SRH and related outcomes among FEWs in Cambodia. A two-arm RCT will be used to determine the effectiveness of a mobile-phone-based text/voice messaging intervention. The intervention will be developed through a participatory process. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews have been conducted to inform and tailor behavior change theory-based text and voice messages. During the implementation phase, 600 FEWs will be recruited and randomly assigned into one of the two arms: (1) a control group and (2) a mobile phone message group (either text messages [SMS] or voice messages [VM], a delivery method chosen by participants). Participants in the control group will also receive a weekly monitoring survey, which will provide real-time information to implementing partners to streamline outreach efforts and be able to quickly identify geographic trends. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing and treatment, condom use, contraceptive use, and gender-based violence (GBV). If the Mobile Link trial is successful, participants will report an increase in condom use, linkages to screening and treatment for HIV and STI, and contraception use as well as a reduction in GBV. This trial is unique in a number of ways. First, the option of participation mode (SMS or VM) allows participants to choose the message medium that best links them
Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim
Female sex workers (FSWs) are extremely vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. To mitigate these risks, they require access to services covering not only HIV prevention but also contraception, cervical cancer screening and sexual violence. To develop context-specific intervention packages to improve uptake, we identified gaps in service utilization in four different cities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of the baseline assessment of an implementation research project. FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400), Mysore, India (n = 458) and Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and starting with 8-16 'seeds' identified by the peer educators. FSWs responded to a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire about the use of contraceptive methods and services for cervical cancer screening, sexual violence and unwanted pregnancies. RDS-adjusted proportions and surrounding 95% confidence intervals were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests with Dunn-Šidák correction. Current use of any modern contraception ranged from 86.2% in Tete to 98.4% in Mombasa (p = 0.001), while non-barrier contraception (hormonal, IUD or sterilisation) varied from 33.4% in Durban to 85.1% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Ever having used emergency contraception ranged from 2.4% in Mysore to 38.1% in Mombasa (p < 0.001), ever having been screened for cervical cancer from 0.0% in Tete to 29.0% in Durban (p < 0.001), and having gone to a health facility for a termination of an unwanted pregnancy from 15.0% in Durban to 93.7% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Having sought medical care after forced sex varied from 34.4% in Mombasa to 51.9% in Mysore (p = 0.860). Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant after adjusting for variations in FSWs
Full Text Available BackgroundFemale sex workers (FSWs have high risks for adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes, yet low access to services. Within an implementation research project enhancing uptake of SRH services by FSWs, we piloted a “diagonal” intervention, which combined strengthening of FSW-targeted services (vertical with making public health facilities more FSW-friendly (horizontal, and tested its effect.MethodsThe study applied a convergent parallel mixed-methods design to assess changes in access to SRH services. Results of structured interviews with FSWs pre-intervention (N = 311 and thereafter (N = 404 were compared with the findings of eight post-intervention focus group discussions (FGDs with FSWs and two with FSW-peer educators (PEs.ResultsMarked and statistically significant rises occurred in consistent condom use with all partners (55.3–67.7%, ever use of female condoms (37.9–54.5%, being tested for HIV in the past 6 months (56.0–76.6%, using contraception (84.5–95.4%, ever screened for cervical cancer (0.0–16.9% and having ≥10 contacts with a PE in the past year (0.5–24.45%. Increases mostly resulted from FSW-targeted outreach, with no rise detected in utilization of public health facilities. FGD participants reported that some facilities had become more FSW-friendly, but barriers such as stock-outs, being asked for bribes and disrespectful treatment persisted.ConclusionThe combination of expanding FSW-targeted SRH services with improving access to the public health services resulted in an overall increased uptake of services, but almost exclusively because of the strengthened targeted (vertical outreach services. Utilization of public SRH services had not yet increased and many barriers to access remained. Our diagonal approach was thus only successful in its vertical component. Improving access to the general health services remains nevertheless important and further research is needed how to reduce
Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.
Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.
Allison Louise Skinner
Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura
Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…
Conn, Stephanie M.; Butterfield, Lee D.
This study used the Critical Incident Technique to examine the factors that helped, hindered, or might have helped 10 general duty police officers to cope with secondary traumatic stress. The data were best represented by 14 categories: self-care, family/significant other support, talking with co-workers, emotional engagement, work environment,…
Lawson, Katrina J; Rodwell, John J; Noblet, Andrew J
The risk of work-related depression in Australia was estimated based on a survey of 631 police officers. Psychological wellbeing and psychological distress items were mapped onto a measure of depression to identify optimal cutoff points. Based on a sample of police officers, Australian workers, in general, are at risk of depression when general psychological wellbeing is considerably compromised. Large-scale estimation of work-related depression in the broader population of employed persons in Australia is reasonable. The relatively high prevalence of depression among police officers emphasizes the need to examine prevalence rates of depression among Australian employees.
Rakesh Kumar Soni
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.
Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand
Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation
The responsibilities of the police in the event of a nuclear emergency are summarized. Preparation and planning is needed with site operators and other organisations who would also be involved in the event of an accident. Several points in particular are discussed; shelter and evacuation, the issue of potassium iodate tablets, protection of police officers, the police involvement in the operation support centres, public education and further discussion on the integration and development of the organisation of emergency procedures. (U.K.)
Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn
The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following questions: what sets of values, beliefs and practices has the police organization developed to deal with high expectations stemming from their publics? How do cultural tensions play out in real-life ...
This book reports three decades of environmental polices in Korea, which deals with development process of environmental polices such as appearance of environment problems, social agenda as national policy on environment problems, overcoming of pollution, ensuring and advancing of environment policies and practice of idea with continuous development, change of propel system on environment administration. It also introduces three decades of environmental polices by fields, related public institution and major similar institution.
The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Poli...
A comprehensive review of HIV/STI prevention and sexual and reproductive health services among sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Settings: call for an evidence- and rights-based approach in the humanitarian response.
Ferguson, Alyssa; Shannon, Kate; Butler, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Shira M
While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally. We conducted a comprehensive review of all peer review (both epidemiological and qualitative) and grey literature published in the last 15 years (2000-2015), focusing on 1) HIV/STI vulnerability or prevention, and/or 2) access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings. Five databases were searched, using combinations of sex work, conflict/mobility, HIV/STI, and SRH service terms. Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Five hundred fifty one records were screened and 416 records reviewed. Of 33 records describing HIV/STI prevention and/or access to SRH services among sex workers in conflict-affected settings, 24 were from sub-Saharan Africa; 18 studies described the results of primary research (13 quantitative, 3 qualitative, 2 mixed-methods) and 15 were non-primary research (e.g., commentaries, policy reports, programmatic manuals). Available evidence indicated that within conflict-affected settings, SWs' capacity to engage in HIV/STI prevention and access SRH services is severely undermined by social and structural determinants including widespread violence and human rights violations, the collapse of livelihoods and traditional social structures, high levels of displacement, and difficulties accessing already scant health services due to stigma, discrimination and criminalization. This review identified significant gaps in HIV/STI and SRH research, policy
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods...
Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…
Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Renault, Valérie; Peeters, Christian
In insect societies, the presence and condition of egg-layers can be assessed with pheromones. Exocrine secretions are expected to vary in time in order to give up-to-date information on an individual’s reproductive physiology. In the queenless monogynous ant Streblognathus peetersi, we allowed a previously infertile high-ranking worker to accede to the alpha rank, thus triggering the onset of her oogenesis (15 replicates). We then studied her interactions with an established egg-layer from the same colony after different durations, ranging from 20 h to several days. Even though her eggs are only ready to be laid after 30 days, the new alpha was recognised within 1 2 days. Detection occurred at a distance of a few millimetres, suggesting the involvement of a pheromone with low volatility, such as cuticular hydrocarbons. When the new alpha had differentiated for >48 h, she was attacked by the established egg-layer. In all cases, low-ranking workers eventually immobilised one of the two alphas: the new alpha was the target if she had differentiated only recently, suggesting that police workers select the dominant worker with the “less fertile” odour. Using the behaviour of ants as our measure, we demonstrate that a dominant’s olfactory signal changes rapidly with a modification in her social status, and it occurs well before the onset of egg-laying.
Hoogenboom, A.B. (Bob); Punch, M.E.
Policing today involves many different state and non-state actors. This book traces the process of unbounding policing, exploring the way that boundaries between public policing, regulators, inspectorates, intelligence services and private security are blurring.
.... Local police agencies have previously not had a formal role in radiological security. This thesis explores policy initiatives, based on community policing principles conducted at the local police level, which will enhance security at locations where radiological materials are kept.
Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective
Aug 7, 2017 ... government to finance and embark on policies that will develop this .... sometimes acted upon instruction of the superior police officer or officers. .... to Chief Magistrate Court by the Police then require the advice of the Director ...
of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...
Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.
Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...
Lee, Daniel E.
Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…
Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn
The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following
Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.
Policing against selfishness is now regarded as the main force maintaining cooperation, by reducing costly conflict in complex social systems. Although policing has been studied extensively in social insect colonies, its coevolution against selfishness has not been fully captured by previous theories. In this study, I developed a two-trait quantitative genetic model of the conflict between selfish immature females (usually larvae) and policing workers in eusocial Hymenoptera over the immatures' propensity to develop into new queens. This model allows for the analysis of coevolution between genomes expressed in immatures and workers that collectively determine the immatures' queen caste fate. The main prediction of the model is that a higher level of polyandry leads to a smaller fraction of queens produced among new females through caste fate policing. The other main prediction of the present model is that, as a result of arms race, caste fate policing by workers coevolves with exaggerated selfishness of the immatures achieving maximum potential to develop into queens. Moreover, the model can incorporate genetic correlation between traits, which has been largely unexplored in social evolution theory. This study highlights the importance of understanding social traits as influenced by the coevolution of conflicting genomes. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Abaasa, Catherine; Natukunda, Peace Byamukama; Ashabahebwa, Bob Harold; Allain, Dominic
Globally, about 11% of all annual births involve adolescents aged 15-19 years. Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stakeholders' views concerning factors affecting availability, accessibility and utilization of teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara Municipality, southwestern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in three divisions of Mbarara Municipality. The KIIs were held six Village Health Team (VHT) members, three gynecologists, six midwives, three Community leaders (LC 3 Secretaries for women affairs), one police officer from the Family and Child protection unit at Mbarara Police and three Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data analysis was done manually by identifying emergent themes which were later coded and organized into concepts which were later developed into explanations. Reproductive health stakeholders generally considered teenage pregnancy to be among the high risk pregnancies that need to be handled with care. In addition, the reproductive health workers described their experience with teenagers as challenging due to their limited skills when it comes to addressing adolescent-specific needs. Adolescent-friendly services were defined as those that could provide privacy, enough time and patience when dealing with teenagers. With this description, there were no teenager-friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality at the time of the study. There is need for proactive steps to establish these services if the needs of this subgroup are to be met. There are no teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality and few teenagers access and utilise the available general antenatal services. There is need for specialized training for health workers who deal with pregnant teens in Mbarara Municipality in order for them to provide teenager friendly services.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the commandant's managerial capacity as if relates to workers productivity with a view to determining whether their calling to the education terrain has been justified and to correct certain areas in need of improvement in the Nigeria Police Education set up. In doing this, the study took ...
Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van
lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to
Veer, van de E.; Lange, de M.A.; Haar, van der E.; Karremans, J.C.
Increasing police patrolling is often assumed to be an effective means of enhancing general feelings of safety. This relationship between perceiving police and feelings of safety was tested by having police officers patrol during a field experiment (Study 1) and by manipulating the police presence
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...
Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera
Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of
Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien
partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Police-power is part of the monopolized state-force, the action of suspects against the police is seen as violence or obstruction. The tensions following this difference are both subject and background of stories and actions of police officers, especially for those "on the beat" (also called "street cops". The ethnography of police-work refers to the narrations of street cops and the observation of their attitudes for "managing the job". I argue, that in contrast to the official "police culture", it can also be referred to it as "cop culture". Cop culture is significantly connected with "doing masculinity". URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201134
Marcadores séricos de estresse oxidativo e resultados dos procedimentos de reprodução assistida em pacientes inférteis com síndrome dos ovários policísticos e controles Serum markers of oxidative stress and assisted reproduction procedures results in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls
Jhenifer Kliemchen Rodrigues
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os níveis séricos de cinco marcadores de estresse oxidativo e os resultados de reprodução assistida (RA, entre pacientes com infertilidade por fator tubário e/ou masculino e portadoras de síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP. MÉTODOS: foram inclusos 70 pacientes, sendo 58 com infertilidade por fator tubário e/ou masculino e 12 com SOP, que foram submetidas à estimulação ovariana controlada para realização de injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoide (ICSI. A coleta de sangue foi realizada entre o terceiro e o quinto dia do ciclo menstrual, no mês anterior à realização da estimulação ovariana. Foram analisados os níveis de malondialdeído, hidroperóxidos, produtos de oxidação proteica, glutationa e vitamina E, pela leitura da absorbância em espectrofotômetro e por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t de Student e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: entre as pacientes com SOP, foi constatado maior índice de massa corporal, volume ovariano e número de folículos antrais e uma menor dose total utilizada de hormônio folículo estimulante. Não observamos diferença em relação à resposta à estimulação ovariana, aos resultados de RA e aos níveis séricos de malondialdeído, hidroperóxidos, produtos de oxidação proteica, glutationa e vitamina E entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: no estudo não evidenciamos diferença entre os níveis séricos de marcadores de estresse oxidativo, nem nos resultados de RA, comparando pacientes inférteis não-obesas com SOP e controles. Estes dados sugerem que, neste subgrupo específico de portadoras de SOP, os resultados de RA não estejam comprometidos. Todavia, as interpretações acerca da ação do estresse oxidativo sobre os resultados de RA ainda não estão claras e as implicações reprodutivas do estresse oxidativo precisam ser mais bem avaliadas.PURPOSE: to compare the serum levels
This study examined the role of age, marital status and job-type on quality of Life amonge female workers in Edo State (N =188). Results from t-test revealed that female teachers reported better quality of life than female police officer, married female workers reported better quality of life than single female workers, while ...
Center for Homeland Defense and Security
Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Aurora (Colo.) Police Lt. Sam McGhee has served numerous traditional roles in law enforcement such as emergency services coordinator, media relations manager, narcotics and intelligence commander and sector commander. Currently,...
da Silva Ferreira, Daniela Karina; Bonfim, Cristine; Augusto, Lia Giraldo
The scope of this investigation was to analyze the association between lifestyle and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics among military police officers (MPs). This involved a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 288 MPs within the Police Force of Recife, Pernambuco. The data were collected by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, IT tools were used (STATA-10.0 and SPSS- 15.0 for Windows) and descriptive statistics procedures, chi-square analysis and regression associations (p < 0.05). Among the lifestyle results, 12% said that they smoked, 10% were classified as cases of suspected excess consumption of alcoholic beverages, 73% were considered to be insufficiently active and 40% admitted they were involved in frequent or occasional conflicts. Age of 39 years or over (RP = 1.39), lower education level (RP = 1.68), the lowest economic level (RP = 1.49) and being in the profession for 18 years or more (RP = 1.49) were associated with lifestyles with greater risk to health (with two or more unhealthy factors). Therefore, promotion and prevention measures should be adopted in order to attempt to reduce the health vulnerabilities of these workers.
Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the
Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.
Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom
Diarmaid Harkin recently called for a theory of police punishment and its public acceptance. He stated that police violence is ‘provided with a warranty of approval and encouragement from larger, aggregate, deeply held emotions and sensibilities’. We lend our support to his demand for a penal theory
A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…
Olusegun, Omowunmi J.
The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…
Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible "value-shift" for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking.
Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M
This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In the most developed countries, the opinion prevailed that the police profession is only a profession for men. This opinion is an already outdated practice. Interest in women’s emancipation has been a phenomenon to which many countries and organizations with influence in the world were committed. Attention to engage women in public life in society exists even nowadays, growing even more. Employment of women in different professions and the results shown by them have increased the interest of involvement of members of this gender in every sphere of social life. The study of this issue that has to do with engagement, namely employment of women in the police, will be shown in this paper as follows: Background of women employed in the police; Emancipated and non-emancipated women in the police; Attitude towards female police officers.
Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan
During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185
Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.
Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482
Bertin, J E
Legal conflict has marked the effort to protect workers against reproductive injury, and legal activity in the management of occupational risks reflects a much broader range of important social issues, such as sexual discrimination in the workplace. This article describes the evolving law related to reproductive hazards that concern men, women and children.
Søgaard, Thomas Friis
This article explores the reproduction of ethnified urban spaces and inequalities in an ostensibly cosmopolitan city. It does so by means of a case study of bouncers’ policing practices in the nightlife of the Danish city, Aarhus. In recent years, a substantial body of research has explored...... the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic gov-ernance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration...... of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good gov-ernance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue...
Thomas Friis Søgaard
Full Text Available This article explores the reproduction of ethnified urban spaces and inequalities in an ostensibly cosmopolitan city. It does so by means of a case study of bouncers’ policing practices in the nightlife of the Danish city, Aarhus. In recent years, a substantial body of research has explored the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic governance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good governance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue to inform bouncers’ production of nightlife safety.
Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul
This paper contributes to the debates of continuity and change of gender segregation in the labour market by analyzing perceptions of gender and competences in relation to different police tasks among police students in six European countries. The police is a male-dominated occupation associated...... with power, authority and physical strength. However, over the last decade there has been an increase of women in the police in several countries and at the same time there has been a shift from ‘policing by force’ to ‘policing by consent’ as a general ideal in most European countries (Reiner 2010...... characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys...
Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ... Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, this project will examine youth crime, relations with the police ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 email@example.com www.cern.ch/relations
the review of government reports. The concept of using the community policing philosophy as a basis for a local police strategy for radiological...of José Padilla, a former Chicago gang member who became an al Qaeda associate. While many civil libertarians have questioned the subsequent...review the evolution of local policing and the development of current community policing philosophy that guiding the majority of today’s local law
Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)
The foundation of policing in Nigeria today can be traced to colonial legacy. Colonial policies subjugated the existing traditional informal law enforcement order and forcefully imposed western idea of policing. Thus, policing within the context of oppression and gross misuse of power has been linked to western orientation.
Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.
This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...
Ulum, Ömer Gökhan
With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open…
Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.
The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with
Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari
The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…
Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen
This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how
Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola
Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers.
Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee
Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)
Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig
This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between
Germany GF Guardie di Finanza INPOL Electronic Police Information System (Germany) JTTF Joint Terrorism Task Force Kripo Kriminalpolizei LMI...In the case of the Carabinieri and Guardie di Finanza , there may be missions and operations in which their direction comes from the Interior...Minister and Defense Minister respectively. This makes sense in tactical terms as the Guardie di Finanza includes border and customs police and the
Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina
Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...
oversight. Included in that malpractice are instances of perceived physical and verbal abuse , perceived harassment, failure to take appropriate action...a kid from south Stockton. 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. PROBLEM STATEMENT—BACKGROUND Independent oversight boards are asked to make the complaint...communities with inclusion and investigative transparency when filing complaints of police misconduct and abuse of police powers. In his article “Race
Bozeman, William P; Stopyra, Jason P; Klinger, David A; Martin, Brian P; Graham, Derrel D; Johnson, James C; Mahoney-Tesoriero, Katherine; Vail, Sydney J
Use of force [UOF] by police can result in serious injuries and fatalities. The risk of significant injuries associated with different force modalities is poorly defined. We sought to determine the incidence of police UOF and compare the likelihood of significant injury with different force modalities. A prospective multicenter observational study of all UOF incidents was conducted via mandatory UOF investigations at three mid-sized police agencies over a two year period. Expert physicians reviewed police and medical records to determine injury severity using a priori injury severity stratification criteria. There were 893 UOF incidents, representing a UOF rate of 0.086% of 1,041,737 calls for service (1 in 1167) and 0.78% of 114,064 criminal arrests(1 in 128). Suspects were primarily young (mean age, 31 years; range, 12-86 years) males (89%). The 1,399 force utilizations included unarmed physical force (n = 710, 51%), CEWs (504, 30%), chemical (88, 6.3%), canines (47, 3.4%), impact weapons (9, 0.6%), kinetic impact munitions (8, 0.6%), firearms (6, 0.4%), and other (27, 1.9%). Among 914 suspects, 898 (98%) sustained no or mild injury after police UOF. Significant (moderate or severe) injuries occurred in 16 (1.8%) subjects. Logistic regression analysis shows these are most associated with firearm and canine use. There was one fatality (0.1%) due to gunshots. No significant injuries occurred among 504 CEW uses (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.9%). Of the 355 suspects transported to a medical facility, 78 (22%) were hospitalized. The majority of hospitalizations were unrelated to UOF (n = 59, 76%), whereas a minority (n = 19, 24%) were due to injuries related to police UOF. Police UOF is rare. When force is used officers most commonly rely on unarmed physical force and CEWs. Significant injuries are rare. Transport for medical evaluation is a poor surrogate for significant injury due to UOF. Epidemiological, level II.
López Alvarado, Mauricio
Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and
Velayos Martínez, Isabel
Ponencia comparativa de las funciones más habituales de la práctica forense en que la Policía Local actúa en funciones de Policía Judicial. Ponencia presentada en el curso "La reforma del Código Penal", Ayuntamiento de Alicante, Policía Local, 17-18 diciembre 2012. Ayuntamiento de Alicante
influence their sexual behaviors and to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. Methods: The case study ... with sexual reproduction health education, information and services. ..... munity health workers as their main sources of sexual and reproductive health ...
Ganeshan, Ishan; Memon, Nasrullah
time by the police vehicles. In the proposed system, the administrator can view the performance of all the police vehicles at any time through a web portal. The system used traditional data mining algorithms in order to analyze crimes in different areas of a city and at different times of the day....... Based on this crime mapping, the administrator assigns patrol schedules for different police vehicles throughout the day. The proposed system would make it very easy for people to call for the help, and the police authorities to know the locations of the callers and identify crime hot spots...... and the administrator to keep track of the performance of each police vehicle....
Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.
Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G
... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...
Full Text Available The review of theories on police legitimacy aims at introducing the subject with a multidisciplinary approach. It quotes criminological, sociological as well as psychological and institutional theories of legitimacy, in order to provide the reader a rich framework, in which the findings of the presented current empirical studies can be evaluated. Police legitimacy is conceived as a social phenomenon, closely related to social norms such as socially constructed police roles and models of policing. The prevailing normative model of police legitimacy in criminology is discussed in greater detail, including critical outlook on procedural fairness as the assumed main source of police empirical legitimacy. Recent findings concerning legal socialization and theories of legitimization myths are high- lighted in order to supplement the micro-level oriented criminological literature on police legitimacy. Possible future pathways of legitimacy research in criminology are discussed.
Full Text Available In the UK, private policing institutions have been rapidly increasing since the 1980s, so the lines between public- and private police have been blurred. This paper explores whether there is a policing function that is inherent in public police and if so, why it occupies this position. It integrates Rousseau’s social contract theory, Bittner’s definition of police functions, Brodeur’s reasoning on force and Loader and Walker’s concept of ‘policing as public good’ to argue that the potential use of legitimate force for the preservation of order is the function intrinsic to public police. It shows why it cannot and should not be carried out by private police and outlines how it depends on police legitimacy. It concludes with an abstract rethinking of public-state-police relations to determine that this function remains in the realm of public policing.
The Austrian Police has specially trained and equipped radiation protection personnel which are intervention personnel for radiological emergencies, following the law of the Intervention Regulation, BGBl. II Nr. 145/2007. The training which consists of three consecutive courses follows the Intervention Regulation and the Austrian Standard S5207. It is held at the certified Security Academy of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Traiskirchen near Vienna. As a follow-up training, there are special courses held for the conduction of aeroradiometric measures (radiation measurements by helicopters). All over Austria, the Police have ten aeroradiometric sets at their disposal which can be brought into action within almost no time. The contribution informs about the technics involved, the installation of the system in the helicopter and about the training for the aeroradiometric specialists. Furthermore, practical knowledge from flights conducted at trainings and exercises will be included. (orig.)
Wilkins, Chris; Prasad, Jitesh; Parker, Karl; Rychert, Marta; Barnes, Helen Moewaka
New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i.e. Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch) from 2010 to 2015. The proportion of police detainees who had used methamphetamine in the previous year increased from 28% in 2012 to 36% in 2015. Drinking prior to arrest declined from 41% in 2013 to 28% in 2015. The use of cannabis in the past year declined slightly from 76% in 2011 to 69% in 2015. The proportion using ecstasy in the previous year steadily declined from 28% in 2011 to 19% in 2015. Only small minorities had recently used cocaine or an opioid. Use of methamphetamine and ecstasy increased in Christchurch. Growing methamphetamine use is consistent with record seizures of methamphetamine over the past 2-3 years. Increasing drug use in Christchurch may reflect factors related to the devastating earthquakes in 2011 and the subsequent city rebuild, including an influx of construction workers, more organised trafficking groups and earthquake-related stress. The decline in cannabis use may be related to the emergence of 'legal' synthetic cannabinoids. The decline in ecstasy use may be the result of recent domestic enforcement operations and the overall global shortage of MDMA. The decline in alcohol drinking may be due to the introduction of pre-charge formal warnings for minor alcohol and disorder offences, and new restrictions on alcohol premise opening hours. Acknowledgements: The New Zealand Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) research study is funded by the New Zealand Police and is conducted by SHORE and Whariki Research
Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy
Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations' attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Key populations' median age was 25 years (IQR: 22-30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; ppolice believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88%) and carrying needles and syringes (55%) as valid reasons for arrest. Key populations' fear of accessing harm reduction and health services and police's negative attitudes and practices towards key populations present major barriers to HIV prevention efforts in Cambodia. To create an enabling environment and ensure police are
Stephen Anthony Rozée
Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.
Ford, J Kevin
This case describes a change effort to move a police agency to become a community policing organization. The community policing effort was seen as a means to make a transformational change to become a learning organization with the goal of improving the delivery of police services. The case describes the steps taken to meet the new vision of community policing as well as the steps taken to deal with the challenges or realities of trying to make change happen. The lens for this case is the leadership role across the stages of change (exploration, planning, implementation, monitoring and institutionalization) in building capacity within the organization to sustain the change effort. The capacity building focused on incorporating systems thinking into the mindset of the members of the organization, breaking down the command and control mindset by building a new norm around high involvement of committed teams, and developing skill sets to support continuous learning and improvement in order to align organizational systems. A key lesson learned is that effective leaders do not just prepare an organization prior to a change effort. They must have the patience to constantly build the capacity for change among organizational members throughout the various stages of the change effort.
Partnerships, Response, and Assessment (CARPA) model, developed first by the Canadian Mounted Police, focuses on those five Table 2.1 Differences...of blood ties and kinship stretching across industries and geography that also constitutes several important places in the supply chain of Colombian...divided between agents and “support”—or, as some have put it, “agents and furniture .” And the “ furniture ” included intelligence analysts, along with
Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human
Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M
In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).
Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses results deriving from the research on the attitudes of criminal investigation officers in five police departments in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Novi Pazar, Subotica and Vranje. The case studies examined the attitudes of members of criminal investigation police and their perception(s of discrimination towards vulnerable groups. The study aimed to determine the level of animosity exhibited in speech, to analyse socio-ethnic distance, to observe reactions towards measures designed to improve the situation of vulnerable groups, to consider the relationship among institutions regarding their responsibility for the occurrence of discrimination and its impact on the reduction of it, to discuss personal experiences of discrimination and to analyse attitudes regarding certain claims of a stereotypical character. Moreover, the paper also presents a comparative analysis of similar surveys on the perception of citizens towards discrimination that have thus far been conducted in Serbia. The results demonstrated that the police in Serbia did not exhibit a particularly discriminatory attitude towards citizens. It is important to note that the most prominent socio-ethnic distances were exhibited in relation to Roma and members of the LGBT community.
Pen, I.R.; Taylor, P.D.
We investigate the conflict between queen and worker over sex allocation, specifically the allocation of the queen's eggs between workers and reproductives and the allocation of the reproductive eggs between male and female. In contrast to previous models, we allow workers to observe and use
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...
Liu, Siyu; Liu, Jianhong
The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample ( N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe's operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.
Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.
Full Text Available Lie detection based on nonverbal behavior is not a standard method, it is an intuitive process, applied by lay persons, but also professionals. Some of the major sources (e.g. widespread Interrogation Manual by F. Inbau et al., 2004 offer clear recommendations about the nonverbal behavior of liars to investigators of serious crime. These findings are not supported by the research, moreover they can lead to lowering the ability to detect lie (Blair, Kooi 2004. Another topic is mapping the skills of professionals (police officers, members of the secret services and non-specialists to detect lies by nonverbal signs. Across the studies (with few exceptions a low performance in the task of detecting lies by nonverbal expressions (Ekman P., 1996; Vrij, 2004 and others is found. The levels of success are usually around the level of chance. The potential reasons for such results are analyzed (e.g. Blair, Kooi, 2004. However a group of psychologists led by P. Ekman and M. O'Sullivan (O'Sullivan, 2007 managed to find in their years lasting research a group of people whose ability to detect lies is well above the population average. This group is diverse in terms of age, interests and professions, all of them come from the USA. There were certain common features found in this group and also a focus on similar phenomena in the detection of lying. The main goal and research question is to find out: what is the success rate of differentiation between lies and truths in this specific professional group of Czech population, is it the same or different from the results reported in the context of available resources. The research will focus on the ability of respondents to determine the truth or deceit on the basis of non-verbal and paraverbal expressions of observed subjects, with focus on specific professional groups - mainly police workers. We assume, that the police officers are frequently in the contact with people, who are not willing to reveal critical
CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.
Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, ...
Wood, Jennifer D; Beierschmitt, Laura
Law enforcement officers continue to serve on the front lines as mental health interventionists, and as such have been subject to a wave of "first generation" reform designed to enhance their crisis response capabilities. Yet, this focus on crisis intervention has not answered recent calls to move "upstream" and bolster early intervention in the name of long-term recovery. This paper reports on findings from an action research project in Philadelphia aimed at exploring opportunities for enhanced upstream engagement. Study methods include spatial analyses of police mental health transportations from an eight year period (2004-2011) and qualitative data from twenty-three "framing conversations" with partners and other stakeholders, seven focus groups with police and outreach workers, five key informant interviews as well as document reviews of the service delivery system in Philadelphia. Recommendations include the need to move beyond a focus on what police can do to a wider conception of city agencies and business stakeholders who can influence vulnerable people and vulnerable spaces of the city. We argue for the need to develop shared principles and rules of engagement that clarify roles and stipulate how best to enlist city resources in a range of circumstances. Since issues of mental health, substance use and disorder are so tightly coupled, we stress the importance of establishing a data-driven approach to crime and disorder reduction in areas of the city we term "hotspots of vulnerability". In line with a recovery philosophy, such an approach should reduce opportunities for anti-social behavior among the "dually labeled" in ways consistent with "procedural justice". Furthermore, crime and disorder data flowing from police and security to behavioral health analysts could contribute to a more focused case management of "repeat utilizers" across the two systems. Our central argument is that a twin emphasis on "case management" and "place management" may provide
Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.
Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function
been using the police culture, philosophy , and organization structure in the Police Service based on the British colonial security system. Such...reflects on the police corruption that wreaks the moral authority of law enforcement; thus, undermining the public trust and confidence in the law...economic growth emphasized in the Kenya’s vision 2030. Since independence, Kenya’s security structure, philosophy , and systems have been inherited and
Krüsi, A; Pacey, K; Bird, L; Taylor, C; Chettiar, J; Allan, S; Bennett, D; Montaner, J S; Kerr, T; Shannon, K
Objectives To explore how criminalisation and policing of sex buyers (clients) rather than sex workers shapes sex workers’ working conditions and sexual transactions including risk of violence and HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Design Qualitative and ethnographic study triangulated with sex work-related violence prevalence data and publicly available police statistics. Setting Vancouver, Canada, provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of policies that criminalise clients as the local police department adopted a sex work enforcement policy in January 2013 that prioritises sex workers’ safety over arrest, while continuing to target clients. Participants 26 cisgender and 5 transgender women who were street-based sex workers (n=31) participated in semistructured interviews about their working conditions. All had exchanged sex for money in the previous 30 days in Vancouver. Outcome measures Thematic analysis of interview transcripts and ethnographic field notes focused on how police enforcement of clients shaped sex workers’ working conditions and sexual transactions, including risk of violence and HIV/STIs, over an 11-month period postpolicy implementation (January–November 2013). Results Sex workers’ narratives and ethnographic observations indicated that while police sustained a high level of visibility, they eased charging or arresting sex workers and showed increased concern for their safety. However, participants’ accounts and police statistics indicated continued police enforcement of clients. This profoundly impacted the safety strategies sex workers employed. Sex workers continued to mistrust police, had to rush screening clients and were displaced to outlying areas with increased risks of violence, including being forced to engage in unprotected sex. Conclusions These findings suggest that criminalisation and policing strategies that target clients reproduce the harms created by the criminalisation of sex work, in
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.
Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.
Huppert, David; Griffiths, Matthew
To review internationally recognized models of police interactions with people experiencing mental health crises that are sometimes complex and associated with adverse experience for the person in crisis, their family and emergency service personnel. To develop, implement and review a partnership model trial between mental health and emergency services that offers alternative response pathways with improved outcomes in care. Three unique models of police and mental health partnership in the USA were reviewed and used to develop the PACER (Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response) model. A three month trial of the model was implemented and evaluated. Significant improvements in response times, the interactions with and the outcomes for people in crisis were some of the benefits shown when compared with usual services. The pilot showed that a partnership involving mental health and police services in Melbourne, Australia could be replicated based on international models. Initial data supported improvements compared with usual care. Further data collection regarding usual care and this new model is required to confirm observed benefits. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…
Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.
The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp
(English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp
Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard
Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...
Our questioning focuses on the role played by the gendered division of labour and by the collective organisation of work in strategies deployed by workers in order to reconcile professional and private lives. How does work organisation facilitate schedule management so as to fit in with workers' domestic lives by offering the possibility of work activity accommodations? A comparison of two stress management studies allowed us to examine the strategies used to manage professional and private schedules. One study focused on nurses in a female environment and one study looked at police officers or a male environment recently incorporating women into the work group. In the hospital sector, management resorts to curtailing leave in order to overcome staff shortages and ensure the quality of health care; however, the female environment facilitates collective regulation to adapt work schedules. These management imposed organisational constraints are especially difficult for female staff due to their roles in the domestic sphere. It is more difficult for women to adapt work schedules in the predominantly male police officer environment. Police ask supervisors for timetable changes more frequently following the introduction of women to the group. The strategies to reconcile professional and private lives depend on division of labour and collective regulation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.
Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura
We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories
Vollaard, B.A.; Koning, P.W.C.
Using individual data from a large-scale Dutch crime victimization survey, we are able to expand the analysis of the effect of police on crime to crimes types that do not easily find their way into police statistics, and to public disorder and victim precaution. To address heterogeneity and
Reynolds, Joshua J; Estrada-Reynolds, Victoria; Nunez, Narina
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d). Results provided evidence for a reliable and valid 34-item scale with a single-factor solution that predicted multiple outcomes, including justification of a police shooting (Study 3b) and resource allocation to a police charity (Study 3c), as well as correlations with self-reported criminal activity, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation (Study 3d). We hope this scale will be useful in the study of police legitimacy, expanding the current literature, and improving police-community relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.
Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public
came from my wife, Lynn. She continues to believe in my dreams . I love her very much. vii Table of Contents Page DEDICATION...Police Organizational Stress Dr. Martin Symonds published the first study of police officer stress in 1970 in the American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Garth den Heyer
Full Text Available The increasing importance of proactive policing has highlighted the need to ensure that the police utilise their resources both efficiently and effectively. Traditionally, police agencies have allocated resources in response to their operational demands or requirements, with the majority of resources being distributed in response to political demands and public calls for service. In recent years there has been a greater emphasis by police to deliver services proactively, and to direct resources to specific geographic areas of high crime or to specific crimes, and to apply intelligence led targeted policing initiatives. The changing operating environment to a public service ethos of accountability and ‘do more with less’ means that historical methods of allocating police officers may not meet an agency's strategic goals. This paper examines if an economic approach to allocating police strategic resources is an appropriate and equitable method in a time of austerity. This greater emphasis on proactive, rather than reactive policing, which also represents a shift from centralised control, underlines the need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.
Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila
Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8118] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including that set forth in the ``International... for assistance for Bolivian military and police are in the national security interest of the United...
CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.
Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) and to divide them into “non-obese” and “obese” groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation. PMID:24694574
Mahoney, James R.; Rasmussen, Howard M.
These two symposium presentations are endorsed by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges in response to the book, "The Quality of Police Education," which was prepared by the Police Foundation with support from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Specifically, the papers refute allegations made in the book…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provos...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a) General Use. DA form 3975 is a...
Hill, J.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.
Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people's beliefs about a neighbourhood's social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared
Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)
Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.
Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian
Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....
Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick
Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.
Full Text Available The rich decision-making basis are provided for police work by police spatial big data. But some challenges are also brought by it, such as:large data integration complex, multi scale information related difficulties, the location identification is not unique. Thus, how to make the data better service to the police work reform and development is a problem need to be study. In this paper, we propose location identification method to solve the existing problems. Based on subdivision grid, we design the location encoding method of police spatial big data, and choose domicile location identification as a case. Finally, the prospect of its application is presented. So, a new idea is proposed to solve the problem existing in the police spatial data organization and application.
Charlotte Beatriz Spode
Full Text Available This article conveys a research report in which the relations between the work of Military Police Captains and their mental health were approached, arising from the aspects of this profession that generate pleasure and suffering. Three procedures were adopted as methodological strategies: Documental research, observation of daily work and interviews. The results show that in spite of the excessive administrative working load and perils inherent to the profession, the pleasure in work is related to management activities, which provide spaces for creating in the workplace. However, the pressures imposed by the disciplinary mechanism of vigilance and control, characteristics of the organization of military police work, constitute in itself a source of suffering. Since they engender the division of workers and impose barriers where bonds of cooperation and confidence are needed, aspects that are of great importance considering the nature of this type of work, permeated by risks.
Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin
Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…
McDonald, James Russell
This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…
This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…
Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina
An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42 % of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints were cited as barriers. Whilst 37 % of officers had received training on ASD, a need for training tailored to policing roles (e.g., frontline officers, detectives) was identified. Police responses are discussed with respect to the experiences of the ASD community (31 adults with ASD, 49 parents), who were largely dissatisfied with their experience of the police and echoed the need for police training on ASD.
Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale
Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.
Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M
Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Lei; Lin, Renhao; Zhu, Xianwei
Virtualization Technology has attracted more and more attention. As a popular open-source virtualization tools, XEN is used more and more frequently. Xsm, XEN security model, has also been widespread concern. The safety status classification has not been established in the XSM, and it uses the virtual machine as a managed object to make Dom0 a unique administrative domain that does not meet the minimum privilege. According to these questions, we design a Hybrid multiple police model named SV_HMPMD that organically integrates multiple single security policy models include DTE,RBAC,BLP. It can fullfill the requirement of confidentiality and integrity for security model and use different particle size to different domain. In order to improve BLP’s practicability, the model introduce multi-level security labels. In order to divide the privilege in detail, we combine DTE with RBAC. In order to oversize privilege, we limit the privilege of domain0.
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.
Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L
To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.
Beekman, M; Komdeur, J; Ratnieks, FLW; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.
Theoretical models are often used to analyze reproductive conflicts in animal societies; for example, by determining the different sex-allocation optima of queen and workers. But who is in control (queen or workers, dominant or subordinate) is normally an implicit or explicit assumption of the
Svendsen, Mette N.
This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....
Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were e...
Muhr, Sara Louise; Lorenzen, Julie
. The empirical data for this case emanates from the collaboration between the Greenlandic and Danish police in 2015. Every summer, a group of Danish officers are sent to Greenland to assist the police force while local officers are on summer holidays. The case centers on a one-week course in January of 2015...... that is provided to the selected group of Danish officers going to Greenland the following summer. The main focus is kept on how a group of leaders from the Greenlandic police, with Danish and Greenlandic backgrounds, present the upcoming experience and work to the Danish officers, as well as the officers...
The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…
Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…
Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming
The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices.
Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming
The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the ‘structure-agency’ framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs’ responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069
Health care workers' (HCWs') opinions about sexual and reproductive health ... women ignore information they receive about HIV and pregnancy prevention. ... for young women; all recognized the importance of condoms for dual protection.
Gary L. Jones
When the threat level of foreign stability operations increases, military police units can make an effective contribution, especially when conducted with the Australian Federal Police. It is argued that, if Australian military police can apply police harmonisation techniques and improve their ability to conduct civilian-like policing duties, then their role in future rule-of-law operations are likely to be more effective.
Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Silvester, S.
Operational police work can be characterized by the continuous switching between surveillance, responding to incidents, and office activities. Transitions between these activities are initiated by radio contact, messages on a mobile data terminal, or personal observations. The “information
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.
... detail that Luz Marina Lezama Suazo was chief of the local women's police station ... regular stations and are staffed by specially trained officers, most of them women. ... Furthermore, the stations often lack adequate financial, human, and ...
Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon
Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E
The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger and community visibility.
The National Police Force has a group specialising in nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical incidents, known as TEDAXNRBQ. The Nuclear Safety Council cooperates closely with this group on nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. (Author)
This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...
.... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de
Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Have you interacted with the Town’s Police Department in any of the following ways within the past 2...
Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn
at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....... participated in the survey that yielded 86 complete responses. Findings The novel approach was successfully applied and its implementation demonstrated the usefulness of the tool even in countries with a high police service. Results showed that the participating stakeholders perceived human factors as more...
information to the court and to be an educator. S Afr Fam ... Keywords: forensic medicine, medico-legal, legal documentation, assault, sexual assault, under the influence. Abstract .... Documentation in the absence of a South African Police.
Radivojević Nenad P.
Full Text Available By establishing the Inspector General's Service within the Department of Public Safety in 2001, Serbia became one of the countries that have institutionalized internal control of the police. By the adoption of the Law on Police in 2005, the name of the Service was renamed in the Internal Affairs Sector. Ten years of work of the Internal Affairs Sector revealed the existence of certain problems because of a inadequate and not complete legal framework. That was, among other, the reason for initiating the adoption of the new Law on Police. This paper presents solutions of the Draft Law on Police, in part related to the work of the Sector. The Draft contains some new solutions that could improve the efficiency of the Sector, but some doubts and uncertainties still remain, that will also be explained in this paper.
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
i. Financial flows are critical paths. ii. Drug markets, counterfeiting, smuggling, gambling, prostitution , identity theft: these are 6 POLICING...notably in Colombia . Border patrols, paramilitary and special branch police are also useful in COIN, according to Celeski, and were critical to...insurgents at the local level and “by, with and through” supporting the local population. First is the original defeat of the FARC in Colombia . Plan
I. A. Zikratov
Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.
Frommer, P; Papouchado, K
In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...
Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond
Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...
Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge
Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...
Villaran, Manuel V; Bayer, Angela; Konda, Kelika A; Mendoza, Carlos; Quijandria, Hilda; Ampuero, Julia S; Apolaya, Moises; Palacios, Oswaldo; Lescano, Andres G; Vega, Antonio M; Blazes, David L; Kochel, Tadeusz; Montano, Silvia M
The aim of this study was to analyze the rates of condom use among military and police populations in Peru, focusing on differences in use by type of partner. A Knowledge Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted among 6,808 military and police personnel in 18 Peruvian cities between August-September 2006 and September-October 2007. A total of 90.2% of the survey respondents were male; mean age was 37.8 years and 77.9% were married/cohabiting. In all, 99.5% reported having had sex; 89% of the participants had their last sexual contact with their stable partner, 9.7% with a nonstable partner, and 0.8% with a sex worker. Overall, 20.4% used a condom during their most recent sexual contact. Reasons for nonuse of condoms included the following: perception that a condom was not necessary (31.3%) and using another birth control method (26.7%). Prevention efforts against sexually transmitted diseases should focus on strengthening condom use, especially among individuals with nonstable partners.
V. M. Kiikov
Full Text Available In the article analysis of general theoretic approaches towards competent and motivated behavior definitions, the model of police officer social competence was proposed along with the ways of its study. Based on development theory conception the initial validation of social competence logical system as a mean of cadets’ social competence evaluation was considered in the article. Additionally, the determination of personality development level as possibility for definition and evaluation of cadets’ social competence based on social behavior theory perspectives was considered. As well the social features of social competence of lawenforcement officers were discussed and the theoretical construction for schematized representation of police cadets’ social competence structure is presented. The model includes: social norms related to police activity; motivation to sociallyoriented activity; social intelligence, as integrative characteristic of cognitive and operational processes; emotional steadiness and communication skills. It was stated that the main characteristic of police cadets’ social competence is efficiency of interaction between police and community. The other important factor influencing social competence is professional activity and in our case it is lawenforcement. The social environment of departmental educational institution was explored as a main factor contributing to development of police cadets’ social competence components.
Oxburgh, Laura; Gabbert, Fiona; Milne, Rebecca; Cherryman, Julie
Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swerin, Danielle D; Bostaph, Lisa Growette; King, Laura L; Gillespie, Lane Kirkland
Police response to domestic violence (DV) has continued to change and expand over the past several decades. Although DV was originally considered a private matter, it now represents one of the most common calls for service received by police agencies. While police response to DV incidents has improved substantially, intervention when children are present remains an undeveloped area of research and practice. The present study examined 345 police reports from an agency in the Northwestern United States to explore police response to DV incidents when children are present. Regression analyses indicated that child presence was a statistically significant predictor of victim-directed intervention, victim-directed follow-up, and arrest although in differing directions. While child presence increased the odds of victim-directed intervention and victim-directed follow-up, it decreased the odds of arrest. Findings further indicated that the frequency of police interaction with children present at DV incidents was minimal. Based on these findings, recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.
... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...
This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...
Laslett, B; Brenner, J
It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that
Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the
Full Text Available Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS/Global Positioning System (GPS positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to
Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the
Little is known about the reproductive health of women migrant farmworkers in the US. The health and rights of these workers are advanced by fundamental human rights principles that are sometimes conceptually and operationally siloed into three approaches: reproductive health, reproductive rights, and reproductive justice. I focus on the latter framework, as it lends critical attention to the structural oppression central to poor reproductive health, as well as to the agency of communities organizing and leading efforts to improve their health. I review what is known about these women's reproductive health; identify three realms of reproduction oppression affecting their reproductive health: labor/occupational conditions, health care, and social relations involving race, immigration and fertility; and then highlight some current efforts at women farmworker-directed change. Finally, I make several analytical observations that suggest the importance of the reproductive justice framework to broader discussions of migrant worker justice and its role in realizing their right to health. Copyright © 2013 Galarneau. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Full Text Available In the most recent wave of struggles a changed logic of activism is evident (Dyer-Witheford, 2015. Research on this wave has often emphasised the interactions of the digital (through online forms of activism, communication, and coordination with the embodied (in assemblies, spatial occupations, and face-to-face encounters (Gerbaudo, 2012. Although gender has been considered in regard to these struggles (Herrera, 2014 feminist concerns over social reproduction – concerns which have also been central to the contemporary epoch of struggle (Brown, et al, 2013 – have been largely neglected. Social reproduction refers to the capacities of populations to reproduce themselves and through this to reproduce the material basis of the economy (Bezanson and Luxton, 2006; Federici, 2012. It is a site wherein human beings and capital compete for the reproduction of living bodies, and contemporary social movements have become ground zero for such socially reproductive contestations (Thorburn, 2015. Within contemporary movements, struggles over social reproduction are increasingly channelled through digital networks as well as embodied practices. This digital-embodied convergence opens up strengths and weaknesses in the contemporary epoch of social/political contestation. In this paper I seek to explicate how alternative feminist modes of social reproduction emerge through digital networks in contemporary social movements and compare this digital social reproduction to more embodied forms also witnessed. Using a case study of Concordia University Television’s live streaming of Quebec’s 2012 student strike, as well as the live streaming initiatives in the anti-police brutality protests in Ferguson and Baltimore 2015, this paper will suggest future horizons of digital and embodied activism around social reproduction focused on media forms within social movements. Based on ethnographic research, including participant observation and interviews, I
Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu
Full Text Available In today's dynamic economic environment it is very important for organizations to viewtheir employees as a priority, since they may represent one of their most valuable assets. Althoughmany companies acknowledge the importance of the human factor for the success of the organization,there is sometimes a discrepancy between the company’s belief and the way it is implemented. Evenin periods of economic recession, organizations must not perceive the costs of training and retrainingof staff as arbitrary, a cost which may be reduced or eliminated, according to the budget available, butas an investment in a strategic resource, the results of which become more and more evident in timeand that determine the ability of survival, adaptation and development of the company in a rapidlychanging environment. Since over the last two decades the image of the Ministry of Administrationand Interior, and thus the image of the Romanian Police has depreciated considerably in the publicopinion, it is indispensable for the institution to focus intensely on staff training activities. For thisreason, it must attract the loyalty of skilled and motivated workforces that have the knowledge andability to perform the tasks required. The investment in people may not be sufficient for ensuring thequality and efficiency of services provided, but it certainly is a must.
Kitson, Anthony J.
The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.
Violanti, John M; Owens, Sherry L; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E
The present study examined the association between shift work and fatigue among male ( n = 230) and female ( n = 78) police officers. A 15-year work history database was used to define dominant shifts as day, afternoon, or night. A 10-item questionnaire created from the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) assessed fatigue. Gender-stratified analyses of variance and covariance and Poisson regression were used to compare means and prevalence of individual items across shifts. No significant differences in total fatigue scores were observed across shifts. However, the prevalence of the fatigue item "feelings of tiredness" was 89% higher among male officers working the afternoon shift compared with officers working the day shift (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.12, 3.23], p = .020), after adjustment for covariates. Women reported a lower prevalence of tiredness than men on the afternoon shift. Organizations with afternoon shift workers should consider reducing fatigue at work through education and other methods.
Lynda M. Baker
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the information behavior of female police officers involved in undercover prostitution work. Seven Vice Officers were interviewed during the summer of 2003 and two were observed during one decoy operation. The model, Information Seeking of Professionals, provided the framework for understanding their needs within the context of their role as decoys. The results revealed that the officers need a variety of information and start seeking it before they transfer to the Vice Unit. Their work demands the use several methods of informal communication, including signals and dress code. Information sources include the men who solicit their services, the female sex workers with whom they share space, members of the community, and their fellow officers who are responsible for protecting their lives.
Lambert, Eric G; Qureshi, Hanif; Klahm, Charles; Smith, Brad; Frank, James
Successful police organizations rely on involved, satisfied, and committed workers. The concepts of job involvement (i.e., connection with the job), job satisfaction (i.e., affective feeling toward the job), and organizational commitment (i.e., bond with the employing organization) have been shown to significantly affect intentions and behaviors of employees. The current study used multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis on survey results from a sample of 827 Indian police officers to explore how perceptions of work environment factors affect officers' job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Organizational support, formalization (i.e., level of codified written rules and guidelines), promotional opportunities, institutional communication (i.e., salient work information is transmitted), and input into decision-making (i.e., having a voice in the process) significantly influenced the job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of Indian police officers. Specifically, in the multivariate analysis, perceptions of formalization and instrumental communication had a positive relationship with job involvement; perceptions of organizational support, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive associations with job satisfaction; and perceptions of organizational support, formalization, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive relationships with organizational commitment.
Hjelmeland, Heidi; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe L
Attempted suicide is still considered a crime in Ghana. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward this law held by health workers and police officers in Ghana so as to provide culture-sensitive arguments to aid in abolishing the law. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight clinical psychologists, eight emergency ward nurses, and eight police officers. The majority of informants did not agree with the law criminalizing attempted suicide in Ghana, although five of the emergency ward nurses and two police officers did. Arguments for agreeing with the law were that people have no right to take life and that the law has a deterrent effect and thus it will help reduce the suicide rate. The main argument for not agreeing with the law was that suicidal behavior is a mental health issue. Those who argued in favor of the law did not seem to reflect much on the reasons for suicidal behavior. Education on how to understand suicidal behavior and suicidal people may aid the work toward decriminalizing attempted suicide in Ghana.
construction of facilities such as training academies, police stations, arms rooms, and motor pools, which would be required by the host-nation police to...Zoellick, A Republican Foreign Policy. Sozer, M. Alper. 2009. Crime and community policing. Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship. El Paso : LFB
Lee, Stuart J; Thomas, Phillipa; Doulis, Chantelle; Bowles, Doug; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Perez, Eva; Stafrace, Simon
Despite their limited mental health expertise, police are often first to respond to people experiencing a mental health crisis. Often the person in crisis is then transported to hospital for care, instead of receiving more immediate assessment and treatment in the community. The current study conducted an evaluation of an Australian joint police-mental health mobile response unit that aimed to improve the delivery of a community-based crisis response. Activity data were audited to demonstrate utilization and outcomes for referred people. Police officers and mental health clinicians in the catchment area were also surveyed to measure the unit's perceived impact. During the 6-month pilot, 296 contacts involving the unit occurred. Threatened suicide (33%), welfare concerns (22%) and psychotic episodes (18%) were the most common reasons for referral. The responses comprised direct admission to a psychiatric unit for 11% of contacts, transportation to a hospital emergency department for 32% of contacts, and community management for the remainder (57%). Police officers were highly supportive of the model and reported having observed benefits of the unit for consumers and police and improved collaboration between services. The joint police-mental health clinician unit enabled rapid delivery of a multi-skilled crisis response in the community. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context. Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.
Jorge Sinval; Alexandra Marques-Pinto; Cristina Queirós; João Marôco
Rescue workers have a stressful and risky occupation where being engaged is crucial to face physical and emotional risks in order to help other persons. This study aims to estimate work engagement levels of rescue workers (namely comparing nurses, firefighters, and police officers) and to assess the validity evidence related to the internal structure of the Portuguese versions of the UWES-17 and UWES-9, namely, dimensionality, measurement invariance between occupational groups, and reliabilit...
Rebergen, D. S.; Bruinvels, D. J.; van Tulder, M. W.; van der Beek, A. J.; van Mechelen, W.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an activating guideline-based care (GBC) by occupational physicians (OPs). An economic evaluation was conducted in a randomized controlled trial with police workers on sick leave due to mental health problems (n = 240). In the intervention group trained OPs
Jacob J. Bustad
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.
Band, Roger A.; Salhi, Rama A.; Holena, Daniel N.; Powell, Elizabeth; Branas, Charles C.; Carr, Brendan G.
Study objective Two decades ago, Philadelphia began allowing police transport of patients with penetrating trauma. We conduct a large, multiyear, citywide analysis of this policy. We examine the association between mode of out-of-hospital transport (police department versus emergency medical services [EMS]) and mortality among patients with penetrating trauma in Philadelphia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of trauma registry data. Patients who sustained any proximal penetrating trauma and presented to any Level I or II trauma center in Philadelphia between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were included. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and were adjusted for injury severity with the Trauma and Injury Severity Score and for case mix with a modified Charlson index. Results Four thousand one hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. Overall mortality was 27.4%. In unadjusted analyses, patients transported by police were more likely to die than patients transported by ambulance (29.8% versus 26.5%; OR 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.39). In adjusted models, no significant difference was observed in overall mortality between the police department and EMS groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe injury (Injury Severity Score >15) (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90), patients with gunshot wounds (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94), and patients with stab wounds (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45) were more likely to survive if transported by police. Conclusion We found no significant overall difference in adjusted mortality between patients transported by the police department compared with EMS but found increased adjusted survival among 3 key subgroups of patients transported by police. This practice may augment traditional care. PMID:24387925
Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.
Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.
Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the
This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...
Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate
Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Fisher, Rian; O'Donnell, Daniel; Ray, Bradley; Rusyniak, Daniel
Opioid overdose rates continue to rise at an alarming rate. One method used to combat this epidemic is the administration of naloxone by law enforcement. Many cities have implemented police naloxone administration programs, but there is a minimal amount of research examining this policy. The following study examines data over 18 months, after implementation of a police naloxone program in an urban setting. We describe the most common indications and outcomes of naloxone administration as well as examine the incidence of arrest, immediate detention, or voluntary transport to the hospital. In doing so, this study seeks to describe the clinical factors surrounding police use of naloxone, and the effects of police administration. All police officer administrations were queried from April 2014 through September 2015 (n = 126). For each incident we collected the indication, response, and disposition of the patient that was recorded on a "sick-injured civilian" report that officers were required to complete after administration of naloxone. All of the relevant information was abstracted from this report into an electronic data collection form that was then input into SPSS for analysis. The most common indication for administration was unconscious/unresponsive (n = 117; 92.9%) followed by slowed breathing (n = 72; 57.1%), appeared blue (n = 63; 50.0%) and not breathing (n = 41; 32.5%). After administration of naloxone the majority of patients regained consciousness (n = 82; 65.1%) followed by began to breath (n = 71; 56.3%). However, in 17.5% (n = 22) of the cases "Nothing" happened when naloxone was administered. The majority of patients were transported voluntarily to the hospital (n = 122; 96.8%). Lastly, there was only one report where the patient became combative. Our study shows that police officers trained in naloxone administration can correctly recognize symptoms of opioid overdose, and can appropriately administer naloxone without significant adverse effects or
Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M
To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....
Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.
Nelson, K V; Smith, A P
Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.
Trinkner, Rick; Jackson, Jonathan; Tyler, Tom R
This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent, and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity, and concern; and (c) respecting the limits of one's rightful power. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, we show that concerns over bounded authority, respectful treatment, and neutral decision-making combine to form a strong predictor of police and legal legitimacy. We also find that legal legitimacy is associated with greater compliance behavior, controlling for personal morality and perceived likelihood of sanctions. We discuss the implications of a boundary perspective with respect to ongoing debates over the appropriate scope of police power and the utility of concentrated police activities. We also highlight the need for further research specifically focused on the psychological mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries and why they shape the legitimacy of the police and law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Pal, Pravati; John, Robert A; Dutta, T K; Pal, G K
Traffic policemen working in the busy traffic signal areas get exposed to the vehicular emissions for years together. The fumes, chemicals and particles present in the emission are reported to be damaging to the lung functions of these individuals. Since there were no data available on the PFT parameters of traffic police personnel of Pondicherry, this study was taken up to assess the effect of traffic air pollution on their pulmonary functions. PFT parameters were recorded in age- and BMI-matched 30 traffic police personnel (study group) and 30 general police personnel (control group) of male gender. As chronic smoking is known to be a critical factor in altering lung function, PFT parameters were compared between the smokers as well as nonsmokers of both the groups. In nonsmokers, there was significant decrease in VC (P traffic police personnel compared to the general police personnel. This may be due to exposure to vehicular pollution for several hours in a day for many years causing decreased functional capacity of the lungs and chronic smoking worsens the condition.
Strating, M; Bakker, R H; Dijkstra, G J; Lemmink, K A P M; Groothoff, J W
The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police work. The principal research questions were: are test scores related to gender, age and function and are test scores related to body mass index (BMI) and the number of hours of physical exercise? Data of 6999 police officers, geographically spread over all parts of The Netherlands, who completed a physical competence test over a 1 year period were analysed. Women performed the test significantly more slowly than men. The mean test score was also related to age; the older a person the longer it took to complete the test. A higher BMI was associated with less hours of body exercise a week and a slower test performance, both in women and men. The differences in individual test scores, based on gender and age, have implications for future strategy within the police force. From a viewpoint of 'same job, same standard' one has to accept that test-score differences may lead to the exclusion of certain staff. However, from a viewpoint of 'diversity as a business issue', one may have to accept that on average, both female and older police officers are physically less tailored to their jobs than their male and younger colleagues.
Diaz, Mireia; Lenoir, Alain; Ivon Paris, Carolina; Boulay, Raphaël; Gómez, Crisanto
In insect societies, chemical communication plays an important role in colony reproduction and individual social status. Many studies have indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are the main chemical compounds encoding reproductive status. However, these studies have largely focused on queenless or monogynous species whose workers are capable of egg laying and have mainly explored the mechanisms underlying queen-worker or worker-worker reproductive conflicts. Less is known about what occurs in highly polygynous ant species with permanently sterile workers. Here, we used the Argentine ant as a model to examine the role of CHCs in communicating reproductive information in such insect societies. The Argentine ant is unicolonial, highly polygynous, and polydomous. We identified several CHCs whose presence and levels were correlated with queen age, reproductive status, and fertility. Our results also provide new insights into queen executions in the Argentine ant, a distinctive feature displayed by this species in its introduced range. Each spring, just before new sexuals appear, workers eliminate up to 90% of the mated queens in their colonies. We discovered that queens that survived execution had different CHC profiles from queens present before and during execution. More specifically, levels of some CHCs were higher in the survivors, suggesting that workers could eliminate queens based on their chemical profiles. In addition, queen CHC profiles differed based on season and species range (native vs. introduced). Overall, the results of this study provide new evidence that CHCs serve as queen signals and do more than just regulate worker reproduction. PMID:29470506
... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as...
Anderson, S.; Shannon, K.; Li, J.; Lee, Y.; Chettiar, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Kr?si, A.
Background Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Methods Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vanco...
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo
Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crossouard, Barbara; Dunne, Máiréad
This paper reports on empirical research on youth as active citizens in Senegal with specific reference to their education and their sexual and reproductive health rights. In a context of postcoloniality which claims to have privileged secular, republican understandings of the constitution, the authors seek to illuminate how youth activists sustain patriarchal, metropolitan views of citizenship and reinforce ethnic and locational (urban/rural) hierarchies. Their analysis is based on a case study of active youth citizenship, as reflected in youth engagement in the recent presidential elections in Senegal. This included involvement in youth protests against pre-election constitutional abuse and in a project monitoring the subsequent elections using digital technologies. The authors compare how youth activists enacted different notions of citizenship, in some instances involving a vigorous defence of Senegal's democratic constitution, while in others dismissing this as being irrelevant to youth concerns. Here the authors make an analytic distinction between youth engagement in politics, seen as the public sphere of constitutional democracy, and the political, which they relate to the inherently conflictual and agonistic processes through which (youth) identities are policed, in ways which may legitimate or marginalise. Despite the frequent construction of youth as being agents of change, this analysis shows how potentially productive and open spaces for active citizenship were drawn towards conformity and the reproduction of existing hegemonies, in particular through patriarchal gender relations and sexual norms within which female youth remained particularly vulnerable.
Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia
Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.
Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.
Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891
Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.
Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn
Purpose The phenomenon of traffic crash under-reporting has been extensively documented in terms of its extent, but not equally analysed in terms of its reasons. As police distrust has been recently identified as a major reason for crash under-reporting, the purpose of this paper is to look...... at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web......-based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark...
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D
Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.
Rubén Guzmán Sánchez
Full Text Available After nearly 20 years of ‘reformist’ measures, the police in Mexico continues to be an ineffective, unreliable, and ‘far from citizen’ institution. The efforts made so far have faded amongst political interests and agendas; multidimensional frameworks out-dated at both conceptual and interagency levels; short-sighted competition for resources; evaluation and performance monitors that are handicapped by bureaucratic inaction; and weak transparency and accountability that perpetuate the opacity in which the police operate. In this context, the agenda of external police oversight is still at a rudimentary stage. However, there are several initiatives that have managed to push the issue to the frontier of new knowledge and promising practices. This paper outlines the experiences and challenges of—as well as the lessons learned by—the Institute for Security and Democracy (Insyde A.C., one of the most recognised think tanks in Mexico.
Ervyn Norza Céspedes
Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.
Geoffrey M. Steeves
Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.
Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies. This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.
Requena Hidalgo, Jesús
No es cierto que la policía haya existido siempre. Al menos, pienso que la afirmación anterior debe matizarse pues, en la forma en que hoy la conocemos, la policía, como institución y como actividad, es un invento reciente, un desarrollo propio del siglo XIX que hunde sus raíces, todo lo más, en la Ilustración. Tanto en su organización como en su funcionamiento, la explicación de la policía contemporánea no puede llevarse a cabo sin tomar en consideración los movimientos migratorios que motiv...
Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in
Pillai, Vijayan; Wang, Ya-Chien; Maleku, Arati
Globally, millions of people are affected by war and conflicts every year. However, women have increasingly suffered the greatest harm by war in more different ways than men. We conceptualize a reproductive rights approach toward examining the effects of war on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Given the rising concerns of exclusion to adequately address women's rights, sexual and gender-based violence, and post-conflict accountability, we specifically focus on the limitations of the Minimum Initial Service Package, a UN-sponsored reproductive health service program in conflict zones while offering a broad reproductive rights-based conceptual lens for examining reproductive health care services in war-torn areas. In addition, we discuss the roles social workers may play at both micro and macro levels in war-torn areas to bring about both short term and long term gains in women's reproductive health.
This article reflects on the personal, epistemological and methodological dilemmas of conducting (auto)ethnographic fieldwork within the police organisation. The argument is that positionality and ascribed identities complicate existing dilemmas of using participant observation within the police
Police crash reports include useful additional information that is not available in crash summary records. : This information may include police sketches and narratives and is often needed for detailed site-specific : safety analysis. In addition, so...
being of police employees. The study adopted the descriptive survey, using 250 police employees from five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The three instruments used were authored-constructed questionnaires by adapting ...
Full Text Available Globalisation has increased the importance of international police cooperation. While cross-border law enforcement can be traced back as far as the Nineteenth Century, police cooperation today—such as Joint Investigation Teams, International Liaison Officers, and Interpol—only came about in the Twentieth Century. It was developed to counter transnational organised crime, such as drug crime and immigration crime, as well as terrorism. But, another aspect of international policing is that of peacekeeping; that is, the deployment of national police to countries during or after conflict to maintain law and order where the local police do not have sufficient capacities. This paper examines how women have been elevated in this police cooperation role, particularly Interpol and international peacekeeping. The discussion focuses on whether there are indications that internationally related tasks and agencies provide a more accepting environment for female police officers as opposed to a national police force setting.
Ann I. Ogbo
Full Text Available The success of a security outfit depends on the strategies and structure of the organisation. The study aims to unravel the possible ways of positioning the Nigerian Police force for effective service delivery through strategic restructuring. Nigerian police was instituted by the colonial authors on the threshold of oppression to achieve subjection and control. Upon this pattern of operation, the Nigerian police force lost the confidence of the public. To position this agency for desired performance, several changes should be made in the strategies and structure of the force, de-emphasizing on the issues that are no longer recent problems and emphasizing on the current bane of the nation, such as corruption and insecurity. This paper adopted the mono-method qualitative approach which made use of secondary sources of data collection. Findings, revealed that the department of the Force that was responsible for information and intelligent gathering, the CID has lied dormant for long a time due to lack of adequate structure as a background that will add value to the department. Furthermore, the force was bedevilled with poor information gathering due to lack of trust and confidence in the police force, the level of motivation was found to be low, as there were no insurance policies for the Force. It is thus obvious to note that the Nigerian police force has suitable strategies that are capable of a sustainable performance, but it is challenged by lack of corresponding structure to work out the strategies. The study proposed that one DIG in addition to the twelve DIGs should be integrated to man a department with the duty of developing and maintaining good relationship with the public, and providing EFCC, ICPC and other crime related agencies with the needed force in discharging their duties. Finally, there is a need for an upward review of the reward and compensation package of the Nigerian Police Force as a way of stepping up on motivation
In Austria, radiological emergencies are handled following the Intervention Regulation, in force since 2007. This regulation also defines duration and content for the training of radiation protection personnel, taking advantage of the standard OeNORM S 5207 published in 2005. Radiation protection personnel of the Austrian police are trained at the Federal Security Academy in Traiskirchen near Vienna. The Federal Security Academy is a training centre certified by the Austrian Standards Institute. The poster describes the modular organisation of the training and its duration and content as well as the further trainings available to the radiation protection personnel of the Police. (orig.)
Full Text Available The social construction of frontline employees’ client service plays a major role in organisational success. This study illuminated why frontline personnel are reluctant to accept organisational change which is in line with new policing philosophies. Applying modernist qualitative methodology, and particularly grounded theory within a case study design a ‘process satisfaction model’ was developed with the aim to improve employee satisfaction with internal processes and ultimately service delivery. This model may be used for change in the South African Police Service SAPS and other government departments.
Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...
Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...
Police in England and Wales have been given an increasingly important role in community offender management. In many ways removed from what might be regarded as ‘real’ police work, it has nonetheless become a standard way of working for large numbers of police officers. An aspect of this work has brought the police into much closer and lasting professional contact with sex offenders as a result of new responsibilities given them under the Sexual Offenders Act, 1997. This article will discuss ...
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J
Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address. The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.
Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford
In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...
procure intelligence and support from local nationals. This participatory community approach to policing promotes a lasting sense of security and safety...conflict by posturing the Germans to establish law and order and internal and border security.92 The participatory police partnership also resulted in...host nation police forces supported the expansion of democracy and promoted safe overseas economic transactions. Consequently, government officials
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors of...
Xu, Yili; Fiedler, Mora L.; Flaming, Karl H.
The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the structure, mechanisms, and efficacy of community policing and its impact on perceived disorder, crime, quality of life in the community, citizens' fear, and satisfaction with the police. It compares traditional and community policing paradigms on three dimensions: goal, measurement of…
... reported to VA Police. 1.203 Section 1.203 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... be reported to VA Police. Information about actual or possible violations of criminal laws related to... occurs on VA premises, will be reported by VA management officials to the VA police component with...
... Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... time, this new system will give our Nation's police officers and first responders a dedicated... obligation to give their loved ones the support they deserve. During Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police...
... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the United...
... Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs: National Prevalence and Scope ACTION: 60-Day...; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led Diversion Programs: National Prevalence and... prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait of their goals, target populations, and...
...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...
School systems and police departments are community partners, and ensuring student, faculty, and officer safety is a high priority for both. In Pennsylvania, police departments are being both innovative and proactive by using wireless technology to handle school safety. If there's an emergency, local police departments can increase situational…
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2016), s. 171-187 ISSN 0928-1371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : willingness to cooperate with the police * police legitimacy * trust in the police Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016
Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter
The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…
Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen
Purpose - The police culture literature-suggests that police officers' attitude towards the public is characterised by Suspicion and an "us-vs-them" mentality. It also refers to the moral mission of protecting the public by being tough on crime. The traditional police culture model seems to imply
Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.
Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a
Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a
Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of ...
Havelund, Jonas; Lauritzen, Mikkel; Joern, Lise
The Danish police have changed their tactics in relation to their policing of football supporters. The changes have involved the development of a dialogue-based approach to the policing of football supporters. The changes seem to have contributed to a reduction in the number of arrests and footba...... strategic goals like conflict reduction and creating a more peaceful atmosphere at football matches....
Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil
Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…
Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...
... Disease in Police Forces Households in Khartoum, Sudan: Pilot Report. ... Methods: Serum creatinine measurements and urine dipstick testing were ... CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or proteinuria.
This ethnography analyses the everyday policing practices of armed response officers in Durban, South Africa. Armed response officers are private security officers who patrol communities in vehicles and respond to distress calls from clients. This study considers their interactions with other
Block, L.; Hufnagel, S.; Harfield, C.; Bronitt, S.
Since 1997 there exists strong political will in the European Union (EU) to use Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) to foster police cooperation in criminal investigations. For most Member States the legal basis to establish JITs became available in 2004. However, as yet, only around 40 JITs have been
Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service.
Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...
Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.
Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…
With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de; Kleij, R. van der; Vliet, P.J. van
Predictive Policing is niets anders dan politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen over criminaliteit. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen en dáár aanwezig zijn waar de kans op een volgend incident het grootst is. Deze publicatie gaat in op
Rafacz, Jennifer D.
It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…
Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.
Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six
SAGE Journals , doi: 10.1177/0887403409333038. 97 Ibid. 34 involved in the conversation and...3 (September 2009): 326–343, SAGE Journals , doi: 10.1177/0887403409333038. Grabosky, Peter. “Community Policing in an Age of Terrorism.” Crime, Law
Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom
preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...
Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike
Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.
Forni, Carlos; Caswell, Nick; Spicer, Jerina
Police officers regularly come into contact with people with mental health problems but receive relatively little training on the issue. This article outlines an initiative to deliver awareness training to officers, and explores the benefits of such programmes. It also gives details of the evaluation carried out.
Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne; Grafton, Iain; Falcone, M Aurora; Shaw, Steve
The attrition of rape cases from the criminal justice system (CJS) remains high and there is a paucity of research in relation to marginalized groups. Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to sexual violence due to the nature of their work. They are also unlikely to report such violence to police for a range of reasons. Two stages of research sought to describe the victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics of SW rape and to examine the attrition of these cases. All rapes and attempted rapes (N = 1,146) reported to police in a large city in the South West of England over a 21-year period were examined; 67 cases involved SWs. Data were extracted from police files in line with the variables of interest. Secondary analysis of the total number of SW rapes (n = 67) resulted in a profile of these cases. A matched pairs study revealed significant differences in victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics between SW (n = 62) and non-sex-worker (NSW) samples (n = 62). Although no significant difference was found in terms of attrition from the CJS, SW cases were observed to secure more convictions for rape than NSW cases. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.
Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...
Chirico, Francesco; Rulli, Giuseppina
Little can be found in the literature about thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in law enforcement workplaces. This study, based on environmental surveys carried out by the Centro Sanitario Polifunzionale of Milan (Italian State Police Health Service Department), aims to assess the thermal comfort and IAQ in some of the Italian State Police workplaces. Measurements were performed in some indoor workplaces such as offices, archives, laboratories and guard-houses in various regions (Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Liguria, Veneto, Trentino Alto-Adige) of Northern Italy. The PMV/PPD model developed by Fangar for the evaluation of the thermal comfort was used. We measured both CO2 concentration and relative humidity indoor levels for the evaluation of IAQ. We used Chi square and t Student tests to study both prevalence of thermal discomfort and low IAQ, and their differences between summer and winter. For the purposes of the present study we carried out 488 measurements in 36 buildings (260 in winter and 228 in summer). Our results showed that thermal comfort was reached in 95% and 68% of environmental measurements (in winter and summer, respectively). In summer, we measured different types of thermal discomfort. As regard to IAQ, CO2 exceeded the threshold limit value (1000 ppm) in 39% (winter) and 9% (summer) of our measurements. Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference between summer and winter for all outcomes considered. Indeed, thermal comfort was better in winter than summer (X2 = 61.0795), while IAQ was found to be better in the summer than winter considering both the CO2 1000 ppm and 1200 ppm threshold values (X2 = 56.9004 and X2 = 8.8845 respectively). Prevalence of low relative humidity in winter was higher than in summer (X2 = 124.7764). Even though this study did not report any situation of risk to Italian police officers health and safety, it has highlighted some potential issues in some of the examined workplaces, concerning
Arosquipa Aguilar, Graciela; Villegas Silva, Elvito
The average content of lead in blood from the female police who belong to the center and south units from Metropolitan Lima in 2005 and 2008 have been below the threshold level (20 μg Pb/dL) for both workers in the street and in offices. Nevertheless, there is the possibility of occupational risk for the toxicity of lead in any concentration in a human being. For p < 0,05 there are no significant differences between the average contents of lead in blood for the workers in the streets but in different units; and there was similar situation for the workers in offices, in both years 2005 and 2008. (author)
Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Francoy, T M; Santos-Filho, P S; Nogueira-Neto, P; Billen, J; Wenseleers, T
Insect societies are well known for their high degree of cooperation, but their colonies can potentially be exploited by reproductive workers who lay unfertilized, male eggs, rather than work for the good of the colony. Recently, it has also been discovered that workers in bumblebees and Asian honeybees can succeed in entering and parasitizing unrelated colonies to produce their own male offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such intraspecific worker parasitism might also occur in stingless bees, another group of highly social bees. Based on a large-scale genetic study of the species Melipona scutellaris, and the genotyping of nearly 600 males from 45 colonies, we show that approximately 20% of all males are workers' sons, but that around 80% of these had genotypes that were incompatible with them being the sons of workers of the resident queen. By tracking colonies over multiple generations, we show that these males were not produced by drifted workers, but rather by workers that were the offspring of a previous, superseded queen. This means that uniquely, workers reproductively parasitize the next-generation workforce. Our results are surprising given that most colonies were sampled many months after the previous queen had died and that workers normally only have a life expectancy of approximately 30 days. It also implies that reproductive workers greatly outlive all other workers. We explain our results in the context of kin selection theory, and the fact that it pays workers more from exploiting the colony if costs are carried by less related individuals.
Bodkin, Kate; Delahunty-Pike, Alannah; O'Shea, Tim
Providing services for street level sex workers requires a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both health and safety concerns typical of their age and gender and those that arise specific to their line of work. Despite being a diverse population, studies have identified some specific health needs for sex workers including addictions treatment, mental health. Additionally, studies have shown a higher risk of physical and sexual assault for this population. The Persons at Risk program (PAR) in London, Ontario, Canada was started in 2005 to address the specific needs of street level sex workers by using a harm-reduction model for policing and healthcare provision. This qualitative study evaluated this model of care in terms of improving access to healthcare and essential police services for street level sex workers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with current and former female street level sex workers enrolled in the PAR program. In addition, 3 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and law enforcement professionals. The research team then analyzed and coded the transcripts using qualitative description to identify key themes in the data. Results indicated that participants represent a vulnerable population with increased safety concerns and healthcare needs relating to addictions, mental health and infectious disease. Despite this, participants reported avoiding healthcare workers and police officers in the past because of fear of stigma or repercussions. All participants identified the harm reduction approach of the PAR program as being essential to their continued engagement with the program. Other important aspects included flexible hours, the location of the clinic, streamlined access to mental health and addictions treatment and the female gender of the police and healthcare worker. The PAR program provides sex workers access to much needed primary healthcare that is flexible and without judgment. In addition, they are
... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Callender, Matthew; Britton, Iain; Knight, Laura
A growth in citizen involvement in policing would herald a much more open and engaging era in policing. Citizen involvement in policing has huge potential to transform the ways that we are policed in the future, and to play a major part in achieving safer communities. Made up of 16,000 volunteers, the Special Constabulary is a vital resource within police forces in order to protect and serve local communities. The paper will draw on thematic analysis of senior and strategic perspectives of th...
2008d; Kelly, 2009a, 2009b, and 2009c). (2) Jakarta, Hotel Bombings, July 17, 2009. • Synchronized bombings of JW Marriott and Ritz - Carlton ...critical response vehicles—police cars and officers—to Marriott, Ritz - Carlton , and other hotels in NYC “within 30 minutes of the attacks.” • NYPD ILU
Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina
An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…
Salmi, S.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Keskinen, E.
The aim of the study was to find out what were citizens' assessments of actual and wished-for frequencies of 12 police activities in two typical Finnish neighbourhoods. Data were collected from 3271 adults and 986 young people with a mail questionnaire. Actual and wished-for frequencies were
Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G
In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.
Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.
The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing
Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael
The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...
... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as of...
... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application and...
Made Asri Budisuari
Full Text Available Background: Islamic boarding school system has long story in indonesia, they covered as much 14.798 student whoare teenager between 9–15 year old. Problems encountered with adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. Methods:An explorative research implemented in 3 provinces ie East Java, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB, East Kalimantan and sixIslamic boarding schools. Data were collected through questionnaires about reproductive health. Results: It showed 48,5%of respondents didn’t have enough knowledge, attitudes and behavior about reproductive health, 40% of respondents knewvery little about puberty, menstruation and wet dream, 71% of respondents had little knowledge about the risk of pregnancy;49% of respondents had not enough knowledge about sexually transmited diseases. 88% respondents said that they hadfall in love, 76% of respondents had positive courtship behavior. Conclusion: The information about reproductive healthin islamic boarding school for adolescents is still in adequate and only refer to yellow book. Health worker did not provideadequqte information. We still found student who have sex while when they were engaged still datting. Suggestion: Theneed of additional and up to date reproductive health information and the risks of sexual intercourse marriage it maybedelivery on interesting media, such as one social networking. A health reproductive modules consist of scientic materialand some knowledge has to be developed and should be delivery health worker. Reproductive health syllabus and trainingfor trainers for teachers of boarding school is needed.
Quirine A.M. Eijkman
Full Text Available At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this was done through professionalizing police legal training and police legal assistance within the preventive police. Yet the implementation of police human rights strategies is influenced by a wider socio-political and institutional context. 'Around here I am the law' reflects the process of transforming non-professionally trained police officers into professionally trained public officials whose core business is the enforcement of the law. On the basis of empirical research conducted in San José, this paper discusses the effect of implementing police human rights strategies that focus on improving police officers' compliance with the rule of law.
Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)
Akinnubi, Caroline Funmbi
This study examined the day caring methods among the civil servants of reproductive age with children between three months to four years in Lagos State Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was a descriptive research design. A total number of 212 teachers and 128 ministry workers making a total of 340 reproductive age mothers were…
Calderon Fallas, R.A.
We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like
Argentero, P; Setti, I
The psychological syndrome of burnout in the helping professions has received much attention. Numerous studies have investigated the risk factors involved and their negative consequences for those whose work brings them into contact with people in states of physical and psychological suffering. In particular, emergency workers like police officers, fire-fighters and ambulance personnel who witness critical events are at high risk of developing negative psychological effects. Despite the ample literature investigating burnout in single emergency worker categories, currently there are few studies that deal with this topic from a comparative point of view, i.e. comparing the conditions of wellbeing of emergency workers across different organizations. The main aim of this pilot study was to compare different categories of emergency workers (83 ambulance workers, 42 operators of 118--free local health emergency service, 112 fire-fighters and 61 police officers) in order to identify which present a condition of wellbeing and which, on the contrary, may foster the burnout syndrome. Subjects were administered the Organizational Checkup System (OCS) to evaluate subjects' risk of burnout and their perception of their own work role and of their organizational environment. The second aim of this paper was to compare subjects on the basis of the main socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age and work seniority) in order to verify the presence of meaningful differences due, not just to the specific work category, but also to different subjective variables. The findings showed a condition of wellbeing, e.g. a high level of Energy and Involvement, in police officers as compared to 118 operators, who instead displayed a psychological state of burnout. Concerning the perception of organizational characteristics, fire-fighters displayed significant Control on tasks performed and good Social Integration in their work team. Furthermore, we noted the alignment of personal and
Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.
Full Text Available Le 30 juin 1880, alors que la République semble encore fragile et mal assurée, le directeur de la Sûreté générale adresse au ministre de l’Intérieur un rapport qui tire les enseignements des actions récemment menées par ses services et expose ce que devraient être les missions, les pratiques et l’organisation d’une police politique républicaine qui reste encore à inventer. Ce texte, d’un grand intérêt pour qui veut connaître les méthodes, l’organisation d’une police à l’état embryonnaire, s’...
Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Dijkstra, Michiel Bendert; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
Queens of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta) are highly multiply mated, resulting in a potential queenworker and worker-worker conflict over who should produce the males in the colony. We studied whether this conflict is expressed, by determining the amount of reproductive egg-laying by worker...
Full Text Available This study examined the influence of resettlement of the capital of Probolinggo Regency toward service quality of Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police. Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres is one government agencies that experiencing resettlement of the location from Probolinggo City to Kraksaan district. It is expected that by this resettlement, public service processes would become ‘better and in high quality’. The study used quantitative research method with explanatory approach to test the hypothesis that has been set. Dependent variable in this study are resettlement of the capital of regency (X with the variables: affordability, recoverability and replicability. While the dependent variable in this study are the service quality of Police Record (SKCK (Y with the indicators: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The study used multiple linear regression method of analysis. The study revealed that the resettlement of the capital of regency variable (X which consist of three variables such as affordability (X1, recoverability (X2 and replicability variable (X3 influence significantly toward service quality of the Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres. Keywords: The Resettlement, The Capital of Regency, Service Quality, Police Record (SKCK, Probolinggo Resort Police.
Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.
A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…
Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.
Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation
Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W
To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio
de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves
The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.
In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...
Yeizon Andrés Duarte Velásquez
Full Text Available El artículo contiene los resultados estadísticos de los logros operativos y de los servicios de la Policía Nacional en el año 2012, que sin dudas han posibilitado prevenir, disuadir, controlar e investigar conductas desviadas, como hechos delictivos y contravenciones, que han permitido lograr el mantenimiento de la convivencia y seguridad ciudadana a través de procedimientos y operaciones policiales en Colombia.
Shusko, M; Benedetti, L; Korre, M; Eshleman, E J; Farioli, A; Christophi, C A; Kales, S N
Suboptimal recruit fitness may be a risk factor for poor performance, injury, illness, and lost time during police academy training. To assess the probability of successful completion and graduation from a police academy as a function of recruits' baseline fitness levels at the time of academy entry. Retrospective study where all available records from recruit training courses held (2006-2012) at all Massachusetts municipal police academies were reviewed and analysed. Entry fitness levels were quantified from the following measures, as recorded at the start of each training class: body composition, push-ups, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and 1.5-mile run-time. The primary outcome of interest was the odds of not successfully graduating from an academy. We used generalized linear mixed models in order to fit logistic regression models with random intercepts for assessing the probability of not graduating, based on entry-level fitness. The primary analyses were restricted to recruits with complete entry-level fitness data. The fitness measures most strongly associated with academy failure were lesser number of push-ups completed (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-11.7, for 20 versus 41-60 push-ups) and slower run times (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-7.8, [1.5 mile run time of ≥15'20″] versus [12'33″ to 10'37″]). Baseline pushups and 1.5-mile run-time showed the best ability to predict successful academy graduation, especially when considered together. Future research should include prospective validation of entry-level fitness as a predictor of subsequent police academy success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
particular book is more evidence-based, using statistics and academic studies than other references. 4. Policing Strategies The University of Arizona...Research in Crime and Delinquency 7, no. 2 (1970): 123, DOI: 10.1177/002242787000700202. 59 Ibid., 129. 60 Peter Holley, “New Video Shows Texas...games provide more energy to a crowd than unimportant games and contests with a large score differential. When examining the statistics associated
Afghans who had witnessed massive ethnic slaughter during the Taliban era and now had doubts about future U.S. commitments. A lesser amount of logistical...International Studies, March 2007, http://www.csis.org, 36-37; Andrew Wilder, “ Cops or Robbers? The Struggle to Reform the Afghan National Police...Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, July 2007, http:// areu.org.af/Uploads/EditionPdfs/717E- Cops %20or%20Robbers-IP-print.pdf. 9. Robert Hulslander
www.national review.com/article/422605/Birmingham- cop -beaten-unconscious-feared-racism-charge. 3 Stephen Gossett, “Top Cop Says Beaten Officer Was...issue due to public perceptions, media coverage, and perpetuating mass protests, many of which have resulted in violence and police fatalities. The...Chief Pins Crime Surge on ‘Ferguson Effect.’ Are Cops Afraid to Do Their Jobs?,” The Christian Science Monitor, October 26, 2015, http
Skappel, Hans Fredrik
This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...
incorporated into the new police forces. Personnel of the old Departamento Nacional de Investigaciones (DENI) formed the new Policia Tecnica Judicial (PTJ...Ministerio de Justicia, 1993). 25IUDOP, "La delincuencia urbana," Estudios Centroamericanos 534-545 (April/May 1993), 471-79. "Report of the Director...use of force, control of riots, negotiating techniques, or de -escalation of conflict. As noted above, CIVPOL is not capable of handling violent
Трофименко, Володимир Анатолійович
Problem setting. Modernity dictates the new conditions for the existence and effective functioning of state institutions, in particular, the law-enforcement system. The public demands not only the coordinated, effective work of the national police on its intended purpose, but also comprehensive reporting and informing of citizens about the law enforcement activities.Today, there have been created and exist a large number of mass-media (mass-media) of different types in Ukraine: from classical...
Jorge Nilson Harvey Barco Pérez
Full Text Available Se realiza una breve reseña introductoria a las tablas estadísticas que presentan los resultados operativos alcanzados por la Policía Nacional para el 2013, en el desarrollo de estrategias ajustadas a políticas gubernamentales e institucionales, que permitan un despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia de todos los colombianos.
Darren Palmer; Ian J Warren
In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global...
Background The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing contact. Methods Police records were searched for calls regarding individuals with acute mental health needs and police handling of these calls. Mental healthcare contact data were retrieved from a Psychiatric Case Register. Results The police were called upon for mental health crisis situations 492 times within the study year, involving 336 individuals (i.e. 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants per year). Half of these individuals (N=162) were disengaged from mental health services, lacking regular care contact in the year prior to the crisis (apart from contact for crisis intervention). In the month following the crisis, 21% of those who were previously disengaged from services had regular care contact, and this was more frequent (49%) if the police had contacted the mental health services during the crisis. The influence of police referral to the services was still present the following year. However, for the majority (58%) of disengaged individuals police did not contact the mental health services at the time of crisis. Conclusions The police deal with a substantial number of individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, half of whom are out of contact with mental health services, and police play an important role in linking these individuals to services. Training police officers to recognise and handle mental health crises, and implementing practical models of cooperation between the police and mental health services in dealing with such crises may further improve police referral of individuals disengaged from mental health services. PMID:23072687
Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S
Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391
Full Text Available Community partnerships that are formed through Community Oriented Policing help to assist law enforcement officers with academy education and post academy education. The training offered in the academy and the post academy Field Training Officer Program traditionally places little to no emphasis on critical thinking, professional self-regulation, communication skills or problem-based learning. In the last several years a new approach has been spawned. The Police Training Officer Program (PTO is an innovative form of education that focuses on problem based learning for post academy graduates. The PTO Program emphasizes adult education, problem solving, emotional intelligence, and conflict resolution. This education is necessary to assist officers in de-escalation strategies within their communities and can lend to the reduction of civil disturbances. However, currently, relatively few agencies are offering this education to their post academy graduates and none are offering it to their academy recruits due, in part, to a lack of qualified instructors. PTO instructors must be proficient and fully trained in problem based learning techniques. Through Community Oriented Policing, law enforcement agencies can address this instructor shortage by partnering with university educational institutions to secure instructors who are competent in andragogy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning.
Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of RTIs and ...
Schwander, Tanja; Keller, Laurent
An unusual reproductive system was discovered in desert ants, in which daughter queens are produced asexually via parthenogenesis, whereas workers develop from hybrid crosses between genetically divergent lineages. The system appears to be doomed to extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laura Ferreira Santana
Full Text Available A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP é a principal endocrinopatia ginecológica na idade reprodutiva, com incidência de 6 a 10% das mulheres no menacme. A resistência insulínica e a hiperinsulinemia compensatória permanecem como os elementos mais importantes na etiopatogenia da SOP. Esta revisão teve como objetivo discutir as controvérsias no tratamento de mulheres com SOP nos diferentes contextos da infertilidade feminina e gestação, à luz das evidências atuais, com ênfase no consenso de 2008 proposto pelas sociedades européia (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, ESHRE e americana (American Society for Reproductive Medicine, ASRM de reprodução.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS occurs in 6 to 10% of women during the reproductive age. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are currently two of the main factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. The objective of the present review was to discuss the controversies related to the treatment of infertile women with PCOS and during their pregnancy, focusing on the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM current consensus.
Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...
Gupta, Ramesh C
.... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...
Rantatalo, Oscar; Karp, Staffan
Storytelling has been shown to play a key role in transferring work experience from more experienced towards novices in a number of vocational educational practices, however previous studies have not to the same extent dealt with the role of students’ own storytelling practices for sensemaking of work experience. This study set out to examine police students’ storytelling of their first occupational experiences from a sensemaking perspective, with an analysis drawing on the concepts of enactm...
Beletsky, Leo; Lozada, Remedios; Gaines, Tommi; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) face elevated risk for HIV/STIs and constitute a key population for public health prevention. Through direct and indirect pathways including human rights violations, policing practices like syringe confiscation can compound FSW-IDU health risk and facilitate the spread of disease. We studied correlates of experiencing syringe confiscation among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where formal policy allows for syringes to be available over the counter without a prescription, but police practices are often at odds with the law. FSW-IDUs reporting recent syringe sharing and unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez were administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of syringe confiscation. Among 624 respondent FSW-IDUs, prevalence of syringe confiscation in the last 6 months was 48%. The following factors were positively associated with syringe confiscation: testing positive for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-5.80), reporting sexual abuse by police (aOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 6.58-24.72), engaging in groin injection (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.93), injecting in public (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.14-2.36), and obtaining syringes from pharmacies (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23). Higher education level was negatively associated with syringe confiscation (aOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) as was frequent injection with clients within the last month (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.94). This analysis adds to the body of evidence linking unauthorized law enforcement actions targeting high-risk groups with HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Using a public health lens to conceptualize abuse as a structural risk factor, we advocate for multi-prong prevention, systematic monitoring, and evidence-based intervention response to deleterious police practices.
Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation
Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah
The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety.
Beyrer, Chris; Crago, Anna-Louise; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Butler, Jenny; Shannon, Kate; Kerrigan, Deanna; Decker, Michele R; Baral, Stefan D; Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Weir, Brian W; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Kazatchkine, Michel; Sidibé, Michel; Dehne, Karl-Lorenz; Boily, Marie-Claude; Strathdee, Steffanie A
The women, men, and transgender people who sell sex globally have disproportionate risks and burdens of HIV in countries of low, middle, and high income, and in concentrated and generalised epidemic contexts. The greatest HIV burdens continue to be in African female sex workers. Worldwide, sex workers still face reduced access to needed HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Legal environments, policies, police practices, absence of funding for research and HIV programmes, human rights violations, and stigma and discrimination continue to challenge sex workers' abilities to protect themselves, their families, and their sexual partners from HIV. These realities must change to realise the benefits of advances in HIV prevention and treatment and to achieve global control of the HIV pandemic. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, can be tailored for cultural competence, can be cost-saving, and can help to address the unmet needs of sex workers and their communities in ways that uphold their human rights. To address HIV in sex workers will need sustained community engagement and empowerment, continued research, political will, structural and policy reform, and innovative programmes. But such actions can and must be achieved for sex worker communities everywhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael
making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis......Following the major riots within England in August 2011, the efficacy of public order police decision making was brought into a sharp focus. None the less, the reform of this mode of policing within the UK was already underway with a strong emphasis upon policing through consent and the need...... in the north of England. This paper draws out lessons to be learned from what proved to be a highly successful dialogue-based approach to policing protests. We contend that dialogue and liaison were effective because they allowed for an ongoing dynamic risk assessment that improved command-level decision...
Steadman, Henry J; Morrissette, David
Since 1988, a major development to reduce lethal encounters between police and persons displaying signs of mental illness has been the adoption by many police departments of crisis intervention teams (CITs). Created in Memphis, Tennessee, CIT programs incorporate deescalation training, police-friendly drop-off centers, and linkage to community treatment programs. The authors summarize issues discussed at a recent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration workshop at which participants highlighted the importance of going beyond CIT training to most effectively include police in a crisis care continuum model. Such an approach focuses on how police can be engaged as partners with behavioral health providers who are designing and implementing services in the crisis care continuum. Reframing the approach to police responses to persons in mental health crises offers the prospect of improving both public health and public safety goals.
Full Text Available This article examines the importance of perceptions of police legitimacy in the decision to report hate crime incidents in Australia. It addresses an identified gap in the literature by analysing the 2011-2012 National Security and Preparedness Survey (NSPS results to not only explore differences between hate crime and non-hate crime reporting but also how individual characteristics and perceptions of legitimacy influence decisions about reporting crime to police. Using the NSPS survey data, we created three Generalised Linear Latent and Mixed Models (Gllamm, which explore the influence of individual characteristics and potential barriers on the decision to report crime/hate crime incidents to police. Our results suggest that hate crimes are less likely to be reported to police in comparison to non-hate crime incidents, and that more positive perceptions of police legitimacy and police cooperation are associated with the victim’s decision to report hate crime victimisation.
Full Text Available Using interview data on LGBT young people’s policing experiences, I argue policing and security works as a program of government (Dean 1999; Foucault 1991; Rose 1999 that constrains the visibilities of diverse sexuality and gender in public spaces. While young people narrated police actions as discriminatory, the interactions were complex and multi-faceted with police and security working to subtly constrain the public visibilities of ‘queerness’. Same sex affection, for instance, was visibly yet unverifiably (Mason 2002 regulated by police as a method of governing the boundaries of proper gender and sexuality in public. The paper concludes by noting how the visibility of police interactions with LGBT young people demonstrates to the public that public spaces are, and should remain, heterosexual spaces.