WorldWideScience

Sample records for policies operation amazonia

  1. Energy operations policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that energy policy was designed following the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development review of the most pressing energy issues confronting Central and Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The main features of the policy described in the document set the general framework for the Bank's energy operations. Energy strategies for particular countries are designed as an integral part of the Bank's individual country strategies. Tabs

  2. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  3. The concept of the conservative operating policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idita, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the context of the nuclear operating environment, the conservative operating policy is one that promotes a culture of moderation and caution. This policy requires compliance with the intent of the Reactor Operation Licence (ROL) and adherence with the limitations stipulated in the facility Operating Policies and Principles (OPP). While ROL is the document prescribing the laws governing the operation and maintenance the OPP are the statements defining the boundaries within which the facility will be operated. A conservative operating policy, that is well understood by all plant facility personnel provides assurance that plant operation and maintenance will be carried out in compliance with approved operating and maintenance procedures. In an abnormal plant operating situation where OPP's may be challenged, the provision of 'Abnormal Plant Operating Procedures' (APOP's) will stipulate actions designed to return the plant to a condition where normal procedures can be followed i.e. acceptably within OPP limitations. When in a NPP an operating scenario will develop where the the situation is not covered by normal approved operating procedures a conservative operating policy will empower the duty Shift Supervisor (SS) to initiate actions that will move the plant in the 'safe direction'. The paper enumerates the decisions which the SS has to make in order to ensure that the reactor power is correctly controlled, the reactor fuel remains cooled and the radioactivity remains contained. It is stressed that a corporate operating policy will be of little use if its existence is known only by corporate management. To be effective, and to be instrumental in the promotion of a facility safety culture, the conservative operating philosophy must be known about and fully understood by all personnel working at a nuclear facility. It is up to management to 'get the word out' and lead by example. (author)

  4. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  5. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  6. Do Co-operative Development Policies Really Lead to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article assesses how Kenyan co-operative policies contribute to the development of co-operatives as viable business enterprises and autonomous democratic organisations. The article identifies three policy phases that have guided co-operative development over four decades. Policy engagement with cooperatives ...

  7. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  8. Dynamic and adaptive policy models for coalition operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Calo, Seraphin; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Bertino, Elisa; Williams, Chris; Tucker, Jeremy; Rivera, Brian; de Mel, Geeth R.

    2017-05-01

    It is envisioned that the success of future military operations depends on the better integration, organizationally and operationally, among allies, coalition members, inter-agency partners, and so forth. However, this leads to a challenging and complex environment where the heterogeneity and dynamism in the operating environment intertwines with the evolving situational factors that affect the decision-making life cycle of the war fighter. Therefore, the users in such environments need secure, accessible, and resilient information infrastructures where policy-based mechanisms adopt the behaviours of the systems to meet end user goals. By specifying and enforcing a policy based model and framework for operations and security which accommodates heterogeneous coalitions, high levels of agility can be enabled to allow rapid assembly and restructuring of system and information resources. However, current prevalent policy models (e.g., rule based event-condition-action model and its variants) are not sufficient to deal with the highly dynamic and plausibly non-deterministic nature of these environments. Therefore, to address the above challenges, in this paper, we present a new approach for policies which enables managed systems to take more autonomic decisions regarding their operations.

  9. Operating Policies and Procedures of Computer Data-Base Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David O.

    Speaking on the operating policies and procedures of computer data bases containing information on students, the author divides his remarks into three parts: content decisions, data base security, and user access. He offers nine recommended practices that should increase the data base's usefulness to the user community: (1) the cost of developing…

  10. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  11. Interactions between Monetary and Fiscal Policy via Open Market Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine interactions of monetary and fiscal policy in a sticky price model where public debt is non-neutral, as it provides transaction services. This property is brought about by a legal restriction on open market operations by which only government bonds are eligible. Debt creation eases access

  12. The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as

  13. Formation of strategy and policy of banking credit operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic management of credit operations as the activities on credit strategies of banking institutions, the formation of goals, objectives, and the choice of methods to achieve them. The basis of this is the strategic management analysis of the factors affecting the lending operations, strategic planning, communication mechanisms of strategic and tactical decisions, monitoring the implementation of the strategy and timely adjustments. For the purpose of effective implementation of the developed strategy, the article argues that banks in modern conditions should develop their own internal credit policy which should cover the essential elements and principles of credit at these banks. The study determines that the credit policy is based on the factors determined by the amount of capital assets and loan portfolio, the structure of its clientele, specialization, location, presence of branch network, the situation in the money market.

  14. Operators' policy about the management of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, A.; Ricaud, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In France, nuclear power plants are the main producers of radioactive wastes which can be divided in two categories: power plant wastes due to daily operation and which are stored in surface sites, and spent fuels which produce wastes after reprocessing. The operators policy consist in minimizing the production of technical wastes during operation, maintenance and dismantling. The conditioning and the packaging of these wastes is directly performed in the plants. Spent fuels are reprocessed by Cogema, in particular using the Melox process for uranium and plutonium recycle (La Hague plant). Fission products, hulls and nozzles are reprocessed to reduce their volume. The use of remote handling equipment allows a considerable reduction of personnel dosimetry and of additional wastes. New techniques (compacting, incineration..) are developed by Cogema to further reduce the cost-benefit ratio of the existing processing techniques and to reduce the volume of wastes before ultimate storage. (J.S.)

  15. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...

  16. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be ab...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis.......This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...

  17. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  18. Optimizing Multireservoir System Operating Policies Using Exogenous Hydrologic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Jasson; Tilmant, Amaury; Côté, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few available algorithms to optimize the operating policies of large-scale hydropower systems. This paper presents a variant, called SDDPX, in which exogenous hydrologic variables, such as snow water equivalent and/or sea surface temperature, are included in the state space vector together with the traditional (endogenous) variables, i.e., past inflows. A reoptimization procedure is also proposed in which SDDPX-derived benefit-to-go functions are employed within a simulation carried out over the historical record of both the endogenous and exogenous hydrologic variables. In SDDPX, release policies are now a function of storages, past inflows, and relevant exogenous variables that potentially capture more complex hydrological processes than those found in traditional SDDP formulations. To illustrate the potential gain associated with the use of exogenous variables when operating a multireservoir system, the 3,137 MW hydropower system of Rio Tinto (RT) located in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean River Basin in Quebec (Canada) is used as a case study. The performance of the system is assessed for various combinations of hydrologic state variables, ranging from the simple lag-one autoregressive model to more complex formulations involving past inflows, snow water equivalent, and winter precipitation.

  19. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  20. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  1. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  2. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    optimization algorithm into the state transition that lowers the starting problem dimension and alleviates the curse of dimensionality. The algorithms can solve multi-objective optimization problems, without significantly increasing the complexity and the computational expenses. The algorithms can handle dense and irregular variable discretization, and are coded in Java as prototype applications. The three algorithms were tested at the multipurpose reservoir Knezevo of the Zletovica hydro-system located in the Republic of Macedonia, with eight objectives, including urban water supply, agriculture, ensuring ecological flow, and generation of hydropower. Because the Zletovica hydro-system is relatively complex, the novel algorithms were pushed to their limits, demonstrating their capabilities and limitations. The nSDP and nRL derived/learned the optimal reservoir policy using 45 (1951-1995) years historical data. The nSDP and nRL optimal reservoir policy was tested on 10 (1995-2005) years historical data, and compared with nDP optimal reservoir operation in the same period. The nested algorithms and optimal reservoir operation results are analysed and explained.

  3. Making residential cannabis growing operations actionable: a critical policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Connie

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the British Columbia (BC) government passed amendments to its Safety Standards Act. These amendments permit the routine disclosure of electrical usage information from electrical producers to BC's municipalities, ostensibly to identify and eradicate residential cannabis growing operations (grow ops). These amendments originated in a pilot project in Surrey, BC, known as the electrical and fire safety inspection initiative (EFSI), which drew together police, firefighters and others, to identify grow ops through the process of municipal electrical inspections. This paper draws on narrative analysis to critically explore how the report of the EFSI Surrey pilot project uses a series of linked claims to generate interpretative change in the definition of the problem of grow ops. This analysis also shows how claims about grow ops are constructed and gain their potency through links with other social problems, persons, and practices. Though the report of the EFSI project is a prohibitionist text replete with stock characters and themes from the history of Canadian drug policy, the problem of residential cannabis cultivation is made actionable by establishing grow operators as "superdeviants" constructed both as dangerous outsiders and as risks to a host of public safety concerns. These claims are then linked to the notion of an overwhelmed criminal justice system that establishes a "crisis" that justifies extraordinary methods of social control outside the due process of the criminal justice system. Construction of all cannabis cultivators as "dangerous" disavows other possibilities and shores up neo-liberal practices of government that draw on multi-partner initiatives to implement extraordinary methods of social control not necessarily subject to public accountability.

  4. Optimal Operational Monetary Policy Rules in an Endogenous Growth Model: a calibrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    This paper constructs an endogenous growth New Keynesian model and considers growth and welfare effect of Taylor-type (operational) monetary policy rules. The Ramsey equilibrium and optimal operational monetary policy rule is also computed. In the calibrated model, the Ramseyoptimal volatility of inflation rate is smaller than that in standard exogenous growth New Keynesian model with physical capital accumulation. Optimal operational monetary policy rule makes nominal interest rate respond s...

  5. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Probandari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design: Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results: Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions: Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored.

  6. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  7. Wartime Distribution Operations: Roles of Focused Logistics, Velocity Management, Strategic Distribution Policy and Air Clearance Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ...) and service policies on materiel consolidation and air clearance authority. The paper argues that developing common DoD and services policies for materiel consolidation and air clearance will result in a more effective joint distribution system...

  8. 75 FR 50936 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit... sound operation of System institutions by strengthening their risk management practices and abilities to... the establishment of consistent, uniform and prudent concentration risk management policies by System...

  9. Technology Opportunities: Implementation of Deployment Health Policy in Operational Theaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Lopez, Lester

    2004-01-01

    It is U.S. policy that medical and personnel information systems be designed, integrated, and utilized with military medical surveillance to protect the physical and mental health of Service members throughout...

  10. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  11. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  12. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  13. Offensive Cyber Operations: The Need for a Policy to Contend with the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    policy document, language detailing that the United States will conduct offensive cyber operations to protect the country and its national interests...06-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ga. CONTRACT NUMBER OFFENSIVE CYBER OPERATIONS: Sb. GRANT NUMBER THE NEED FOR A POLICY TO CONTEND WITH THE FUTURE 5c...States. An excellent example ofan offensive cyber operation is the Stuxnet malicious virus which attacked the Iranian nuclear program. Stuxnet

  14. Philosophy, policies, and procedures - The three P's of flight-deck operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Standard operating procedures are drafted and provided to flightcrews to dictate the manner in which tasks are carried out. Failure to conform to Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is frequently listed as the cause of violations, incidents, and accidents. However, procedures are often designed piecemeal, rather than being based on a sound philosophy of operations and policies that follow from such a philosophy. A framework of philosophy, policies, and procedures is proposed.

  15. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  16. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo, C.; Romero, I.; D’Apolito, C.; Bayona, G.; Duarte, E.; Louwye, S.; Escobar, J.; Luque, J.; Carrillo-Briceño, J.D.; Zapata, V.; Mora, A.; Schouten, S.; Zavada, M.; Harrington, G.; Ortiz, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during theMiocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in theLlanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and

  17. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic

  19. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  20. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  1. 76 FR 29992 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... (collectively loan) concentration risks. We expect this final rule will increase the safe and sound operation of...

  2. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  3. 49 CFR 199.239 - Operator obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.239 Operator obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol. (a) General requirements. Each operator shall provide... misuse of alcohol. 199.239 Section 199.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  4. 77 FR 75362 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... of agricultural real estate loans (guaranteed securities); and (2) To issue debt obligations (which... be read for ``Farm Credit securities,'' and ``Farmer Mac'' shall be read for ``Farm Credit banks... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 615 Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and...

  5. Air emissions of ammonia and methane from livestock operations: valuation and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Siikamäki, Juha

    2008-09-01

    The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of ammonia (NH3), which is a precursor of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)--arguably, the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. The industry is also a major emitter of methane (CH4), which is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce NH3 and CH4 emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: PM offset credits for NH3 control, GHG offset credits for CH4 control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane (CH4) gas. Individually these policies vary substantially in the economic incentives they provide for farm operators to reduce emissions. We report on initial steps to fully develop the integrated process model that will provide guidance for policy-makers.

  6. Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, D.C.; de Fries, R.S.; Randerson, J.T; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; van der Werf, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Fire-driven deforestation is the major source of carbon emissions from Amazonia. Recent expansion of mechanized agriculture in forested regions of Amazonia has increased the average size of deforested areas, but related changes in fire dynamics remain poorly characterized. We estimated the

  7. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross......-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within...

  8. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or Agency), through the FCA Board (Board...

  10. Occupational health and safety policy in the operations of the wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operations of the Wood Processing Industry (WPI) are generally associated with high levels of occupational hazards with consequent health risks. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived occupational health hazards exposure and the effectiveness of the policies put in place to ensure the health and safety ...

  11. Operational policy for disposal of land-derived wastewater to the marine environment of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available , amongst others. To fulfil its legal obligation in terms of the management and control of land-derived wastewater discharges (classified as a water use under the National Water Act), DWAF adopted the operational policy for disposal of land-derived water...

  12. Predicting anthropogenic soils across the Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmichael, C.; Palace, M. W.; Bush, M. B.; Braswell, B. H.; Hagen, S. C.; Silman, M.; Neves, E.; Czarnecki, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hidden under the forest canopy in lowland Amazonia are nutrient-enriched soils, called terra pretas (or Amazonian black earths), which were formed by prehistoric indigenous populations. These anthrosols are in stark contrast to typical nutrient-poor Amazonian soils, and have retained increased nutrient levels for hundreds of years. Because of their long-term nutrient retaining ability, terra pretas may be crucial for developing sustainable agricultural practices in Amazonia, especially given the deforestation necessary for traditional slash-and-burn systems. However, the frequency and distribution of terra preta soils across the landscape remains debatable, and archaeologists have estimated that terra pretas cover anywhere from 0.1% to 10% of the lowland Amazonian forests. The highest concentration of terra preta soils has been found along the central and eastern portions of the Amazon River and its major tributaries, but whether this is a true pattern or simply reflects sampling bias remains unknown. A possible explanation is that specific environmental or biotic conditions were preferred for human settlement and terra preta formation. Here, we use environmental parameters to predict the probabilities of terra preta soils across lowland Amazonian forests. We compiled a database of 2708 sites across Amazonia, including locations that contain terra pretas (n = 917), and those that are known to be terra preta-free (n = 1791). More than 20 environmental variables, including precipitation, elevation, slope, soil fertility, and distance to river were converted into 90-m resolution raster images across Amazonia and used to model the probability of terra preta occurrence. The relationship between the predictor variables and the occurrence of terra preta was examined using three modeling techniques: logistic regression, auto-logistic regression, and maximum entropy estimations. All three techniques provided similar predictions for terra preta distributions and the amount

  13. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  14. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  15. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Romero, Ingrid; D'Apolito, Carlos; Bayona, German; Duarte, Edward; Louwye, Stephen; Escobar, Jaime; Luque, Javier; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Zapata, Vladimir; Mora, Alejandro; Schouten, Stefan; Zavada, Michael; Harrington, Guy; Ortiz, John; Wesselingh, Frank P

    2017-05-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted ~0.9 My (million years) (18.1 to 17.2 Ma) and a middle Miocene that lasted ~3.7 My (16.1 to 12.4 Ma). These two marine intervals are also seen in Amazonas/Solimões Basin (northwestern Amazonia) but were much shorter in duration, ~0.2 My (18.0 to 17.8 Ma) and ~0.4 My (14.1 to 13.7 Ma), respectively. Our results indicate that shallow marine waters covered the region at least twice during the Miocene, but the events were short-lived, rather than a continuous full-marine occupancy of Amazonian landscape over millions of years.

  16. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  17. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Emergency diesel generating sets for the 900 MW PWR units operation and maintenance policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, A.; Lallier, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the emergency diesel generating EDF has taken steps to ensure that: - sets are only started up when they are really needed, in order to reduce the thermal cycles and the mechanical stresses associated with start-up. - the maintenance policy is adapted to the conditions of use, by including the notion of a start-up being equivalent to a predetermined number of hours of operation. (authors)

  19. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  20. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  1. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  2. Factors Controlling Liquid Particulate Matter in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; de Sá, S. S.; Wernis, R. A.; Yee, L.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Castillo, P.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Alexander, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The hygroscopic response of particulate matter (PM) during GoAmazon 2014/5 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The hygroscopic response was measured online and in real-time using a custom designed impaction apparatus. The impaction apparatus was calibrated with respect to particle viscosity indicating a liquid state (viscosity hygroscopic response and phase state of the PM under investigation was determined. The hygroscopic response curves were categorized according to the rebound fraction at high RH (80 - 98%) bounded by two extremes. 1) Time periods that resemble pure SOM generated under controlled chamber conditions, where no particle rebound is observed above 80% RH. 2) Time periods that a large fraction (10 - 40%) of particles rebound at RH values >95%, an indication of hydrophobic particles. The role of anthropogenic and biogenic factors in controlling the hygroscopic response of PM in Amazonia is investigated through meteorological conditions and particle chemical composition.

  3. Learning function in nuclear reactor operation and its implications for siting policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.C.; Burwell, C.C.

    1981-05-01

    The annual frequency of Licensee Events Reports (LERs) is used to measure the learning that takes place in reactor operations. Learning curve theory is found to apply to the separate sets of reporting frequencies associated with pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The method of analysis is then used to discover whether learning is enhanced at multireactor sites and for utilities operating several sites. Although no pattern is observed for owners of several sites, a clear learning benefit accrues to multireactor sites compared to single-reactor sites. The authors use the learning index derived from the analyses and conclude that if all future reactors are placed at sites already in operation with one or more reactors, the total probability for accident (as measured by LER reporting frequencies) will actually decrease even as the total number of reactors increases. This finding funishes additional evidence in support of the existing-site policy advocated by the Institute for Energy Analysis

  4. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  5. On the Relationship of Rainfall and Temperature across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme droughts in Amazonia seem to become more frequent and have been associated with local and global impacts on society and the ecosystem. The understanding of the dynamics and causes of Amazonia droughts have attracted some attention in the last years and pose several challenges for the scientific community. For instance, in previous work we have identified, based on empirical data, a compounding effect during Amazonia droughts: periods of low rainfall are always associated with positive anomalies of near surface air temperature. This inverse relationship of temperature and rainfall appears at multiple time scales and its intensity varies across Amazonia. To our knowledge, these findings have not been properly addressed in the literature, being not clear whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, and in this case, which one leads the other one, or they are just responding to the same causal factor. Here we investigate the hypothesis that high temperatures during drought periods are a major response to an increase in the shortwave radiation (due to the lack of clouds) not compensating by an expected increase in the evapotranspiration from the rainforest. Our empirical analysis is based on observed series of daily temperature and rainfall over the Brazilian Amazonia and reanalysis data of cloud cover, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and moisture fluxes. The ability of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to reproduce such compounding effect is also investigated for the historical period and for future RCP scenarios of global climate change. Preliminary results show that this is a plausible hypothesis, despite the complexity of land-atmosphere processes of mass and energy fluxes in Amazonia. This work is a step forward in better understanding the compounding effects of rainfall and temperature on Amazonia droughts, and what changes one might expect in a future warming climate.

  6. A proposed regulatory policy statement on human factors requirements in the design and operation of Canadian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    With the increasing complexity of new nuclear facilities and the extent to which automation is being applied, it is essential that the staff who operate a facility be considered as integral components in the design and safety analyses. This policy statement is proposed to indicate those areas of facility design and operation where the role of the human operator must be especially examined

  7. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance.

  8. Dynamic-accumulative operation policy of continuous distillation for the purification of anisole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhibo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the B10 isotope enrichment industry, the purification of anisole mixture makes great sense. A dynamic-accumulative operation policy of continuous distillation (DACD with repeated filling and dumping of the still is proposed for the separation of trace heavy impurities in the recycled anisole. To simulate and optimize the purification process of anisole, a mathematical model of DACD is derived, and the computer codes are developed in the MATLAB environment. Moreover, the experiment is performed in a pilot-scale distillation column. The results show that the experimental date agrees well with simulation results. DACD could solve the difficulty of flow rate control when the bottom flow rate is very small in continuous distillation. The size of the still in this operation mode is also smaller than that in batch distillation. And the yield of anisole is raised to 99.91%. In a word, DACD is especially suitable for separating trace heavy impurities from the recycled anisole.

  9. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  10. Aspectos econômicos e operacionais das viagens da frota pesqueira de Manaus, Amazônia Central Economical and operational aspects of the fishing trips of Manaus fleet, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesca na Amazônia representa uma importante atividade social, econômica e cultural, com desembarque de pescado estimado em 25 mil toneladas por ano, somente no terminal de desembarque de Manaus, porém com poucas avaliações socioeconômicas que são fundamentais para o manejo da atividade. O presente trabalho visou avaliar aspectos funcionais das operações de pesca sob o ponto de vista econômico. As informações foram coletadas por intermédio de questionário estruturado junto aos proprietários das embarcações e, ou encarregados das expedições de pesca, entre outubro de 1999 e junho de 2000. Foram amostradas 92 embarcações, para destacar os aspectos referentes aos custos efetuados quando das expedições de pesca. Embarcações pequenas apresentaram custo operacional médio por expedição de 45,2% da renda bruta da venda do pescado, embarcações médias e grandes apresentaram valores de 42,0% e 47,8% dos custos respectivamente. Os combustíveis se destacaram como o componente principal destes custos.Fishery in the Amazon represents an important social, economic and cultural activity with yearly fish landings around 25 thousand tons in the fishing harbour of Manaus alone, with little socioeconomic evaluations that are fundamental for its management. The present paper sought to evaluate functional aspects of fishing operations from the economic point of view. Information was collected from 92 boats, between October of 1999 and June of 2000, through questionnaires given to boat owners or general managers of fishing expeditions. Small fishing boats presented mean operational cost of 45.2% of the gross income of fish sales. Medium and larger boats presented values of 42.0% and 47.8% costs, respectively, where fuel was the main expenditure.

  11. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  12. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  13. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  14. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  15. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  16. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  17. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  18. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  19. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  20. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  1. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  2. Improving of safe operation and new open policy at VR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklenka, Lubomir; Matejka, Karel; Kropik, Martin

    2003-01-01

    non-stop information, web-portal Vrabec (Sparrow) has been installed there with on-line information from the training reactor VR-1 operation. Bilingual (Czech and English) website is intended for: students and teachers taking part in the training and teaching process at the reactor as a source of information on experiments performed at the reactor; regulatory body in Czech Republic (State Office for Nuclear Safety) and international organisations (IAEA, EURATOM, etc.) as a tool that can help fulfil all aspects of the safe operation in the frame of non-military use and non-proliferation treaty; public audience as a source of information on construction and safe operation of a small nuclear installation in the university campus located in a populated area of Prague Web-portal Vrabec with on-line information from the training reactor VR-1 operation brings new potential in the aspect of educational process at the Department of Nuclear Reactors and it will be useful tool for new 'open policy' in the operation of the VR-1 Reactor. (author)

  3. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  4. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  5. Astrocaryum (palmae in Amazonia a preliminary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri. Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.

  6. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  7. Particle Rebound and Phase State in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Bateman, A.; Liu, P.; Gong, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Sato, B. B.; Cirino, G. G.; Manzi, A. O.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the extent of semisolidity of particulate matter during GoAmazon 2014 was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. Particle rebound measurements from the same region during the 2013 dry and wet season are also presented. The physics governing particle rebound has been previously modeled and can be attributed to the surface and material properties. Recent studies suggest that a particle phase transition from liquid to semisolid or solid phase states can alter chemical reaction pathways by shifting from absorption to adsorption mechanisms. The phase state of secondary organic material is regulated by the local relative humidity (RH), the recent history of RH in the case of hysteresis, and chemical composition, among other factors. Across the range of atmospheric RH, hygroscopic water uptake can occur and transitions from higher to lower viscosity phases are possible. By varying the particulate matter water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH, the phase state of the organic material under investigation can be determined. Custom made impactors were employed to study the effects of RH (up to 95%) on the particle phase. Results inferred from the particle rebound measurements indicate that under ambient conditions (RH > 70%) particles in Amazonia can be considered in a liquid phase state. However, during certain time periods, a small fraction (10 - 20 %) of particles are found to rebound during the highest RH conditions, an indication of a semi-solid or solid phase state. The possible chemical composition of this fraction of particles is investigated and correlated with additional measurements from the GoAmazon 2014 campaign.

  8. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  9. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  10. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  11. Towards co-operative governance in the development and implementation of cross-sectoral policy: water policy as an example

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacKay, HM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, because it is so fundamental and irreplaceable to humans and their activities, is an all pervasive issue that underpins the social fabric of every society. This means that water policy is cross-sectoral, directly and indirectly affecting...

  12. DETERMINING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL PLANNING POLICIES FOR AN AUTO CARRIER – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study was done to assist a local auto carrier company with tactical operational planning. The objective of the planning process is to maximise the number of vehicles delivered while being on time and adhering to staff and maintenance schedule constraints.

    We investigated the feasibility of allowing part of the fleet to roam the closed spatial network, as opposed to the traditional assignment of the complete fleet to fixed routes. We developed decision-making rules for roaming and fixed-to-route auto carriers, and evaluated the quality of these proposed rules, in combination with different fleet compositions, using discrete event simulation and four performance measures.

    We found that the auto carrier company should adopt a tactical operations policy where at least 50% of the fleet is allowed to roam, while roaming auto carriers pick vehicles to transport according to specific rules.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie is gedoen om ’n plaaslike motorvervoer-onderneming te help met taktiese bedryfsbeplanning. Die doelwit van die beplanningsproses is om die aantal voertuie wat betyds afgelewer word te maksimeer met inagneming van personeel- en instandhoudingbeperkings. Ons het die moontlikheid dat ’n deel van die vragmotorvloot swerwend in die geslote ruimtelike roete-network moet opereer, ondersoek. Dit is in teenstelling met die tradisionele vaste toedeling van vragmotors aan roetes. Besluitnemingreëls vir swerwende en vaste-roete vragmotors is ontwikkel, en die gehalte van die reëls is met diskrete simulasie en vier prestasiemaatstawwe evalueer.

    Ons het bevind dat die vervoeronderneming ’n bedryfsbeleid behoort te aanvaar wat toelaat dat ten minste 50% van die vloot swerf, terwyl hierdie swerwende vragmotors voertuie volgens spesifieke reëls by oplaaipunte moet kies.

  13. Droughts in Amazonia: Spatiotemporal Variability, Teleconnections, and Seasonal Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-12-01

    Most Amazonia drought studies have focused on rainfall deficits and their impact on river discharges, while the analysis of other important driver variables, such as temperature and soil moisture, has attracted less attention. Here we try to better understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of Amazonia droughts and associated climate teleconnections as characterized by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which integrates information from rainfall deficit, temperature anomalies, and soil moisture capacity. The results reveal that Amazonia droughts are most related to one dominant pattern across the entire region, followed by two seesaw kind of patterns: north-south and east-west. The main two modes are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The teleconnections associated with global SST are then used to build a seasonal forecast model for PDSI over Amazonia based on predictors obtained from a sparse canonical correlation analysis approach. A unique feature of the presented drought prediction method is using only a few number of predictors to avoid excessive noise in the predictor space. Cross-validated results show correlations between observed and predicted spatial average PDSI up to 0.60 and 0.45 for lead times of 5 and 9 months, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the region that, based on cross-validation results, leads to appreciable forecast skills for lead times beyond 4 months. This is a step forward in better understanding the dynamics of Amazonia droughts and improving risk assessment and management, through improved drought forecasting.

  14. Aerospace Policy Integration: USAF Operational Impacts in the Age of Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLeod, Mark

    1998-01-01

    .... Public policy is all about what you can do for citizens. Determining the probable success of policies is not easy, given our political system, and the difficulty in capturing costs and assigning values to perceived benefits...

  15. Policies for the design and operation of the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS/EHESS), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Toman, M. [Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington D.C. (United States)

    2003-07-01

    On September 24-25 1999, CIRED and RFF held a workshop at CIRED to explore a number of key policy issues surrounding the design and operation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This mechanism, created as part of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), has been the subject of much ongoing negotiation and debate. The multinational participants assembled not to seek consensus but to promote better understanding of commonalties and differences in views in a non politicized setting, as well as to see what new ideas and understandings might emerge from the discussions. The meetings were informal and ''off the record'' to promote frank exchange. This document is a summary of the discussions as seen through the eyes of the two co-organizers. We have tried to reflect as well as possible the range and diversity of the thoughts expressed at the meeting, and we have circulated this summary to other participants for their comments. But we alone are responsible for its content. (author)

  16. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  17. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  18. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  19. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph

    and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects......Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non......-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected...

  20. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  1. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    SOARES, Emílio A.A.; TATUMI, Sonia H.; Riccomini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising ...

  2. Genome Sequence of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Marin, Michel A.; Dias, Graciela M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Edwards, Robert A.; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis revealed that it contains Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 and a set of genes related to pathogenesis and fitness, such as the type VI secretion system, present in choleragenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21952545

  3. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE COSTUS (COSTACEAE DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALINAS NELSON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Costus fissicalyx N. R. Salinas, Clavijo & Betancur, una especienueva del sudeste de la Amazonia colombiana; además, se presenta información sobresus relaciones taxonómicas, distribución y hábitat. Costus fissicalyx se diferencia delas otras especies del género principalmente por la forma y el tipo de crecimientodel cáliz

  4. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,ICG.; Toledo,PM.; Silva,JMC.; Higuchi,H.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops ...

  5. Operational policy for disposal of land-derived wastewater to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic Principles, providing the broad reference framework or direction of the policy • Ground Rules, providing more specific rules, derived within the broader context of the Basic Principles • Management Framework, providing a generic, structured approach within which to implement the policy. This paper is to provide an ...

  6. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  7. Las palmeras en los valles principales de la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALMIERS DES PRINCIPALES VALLEES DE L’AMAZONIE PERUVIENNE. La distribution géographique des espèces de palmiers de l’Amazonie péruvienne est présentée selon les principales vallées. Pour chaque affluent important est donnée la liste des espèces récoltées, et pour chaque espèce sont réunies les références des échantillons d’herbiers, collecteur(s et numéro de collection, ainsi que les herbiers de dépôt. Se presenta la distribución de las palmeras de la Amazonia en función de los valles principales. Por cada río de mayor importancia, se da la lista de las especies colectadas, las referencias de las muestras botánicas, colector(es y número de colección, y los herbarios de depósito de dichas muestras. PALMS OF THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEYS OF PERUVIAN AMAZONIA. Palm species distribution in Peruvian Amazonia is presented according to the major river valleys. The species collected are listed for each tributary valley. The collection references, collector(s and number of the specimen and the herbaria of deposit are given for each species.

  8. Age of depositional and weathering events in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Lucy Gomes; Soares, Emílio Alberto do Amaral; Riccomini, Claudio; Tatumi, Sonia Hatsue; Yee, Marcio

    2017-08-01

    In the last three decades, several studies have been devoted to understanding the role of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Amazonia lowlands environment. However, most of these studies used data obtained from sedimentary deposits (lakes, swamps, and colluvium) located away from the central plain or on the edges of the Amazonia region. This article integrates optically stimulated luminescence and accelerated mass spectrometry 14C ages with sedimentological and geomorphological data obtained during this study or compiled from the literature for fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the central alluvial plain of the Solimões-Amazon River. The age data allow us to present a chronological framework for the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and conclude that (i) the dryness of the LGM in central Amazonia lowlands is recorded by the formation of fluvial terraces and their weathering to pedogenic hematite between 25.3 ka and 17.7 ka; (ii) floodplain deposition was contemporaneous with terrace weathering and occurred in a context of decreased water volume in fluvial channels, lowering of river base level and sea level, and isostatic rebound of the continent; and (iii) lateral and mid-channel fluvial bars in the Solimões-Amazon River have a minimum age of 11.5 ± 1.5 ka, and their deposition responded to increased precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene.

  9. The large scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA); concise experimental plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) aims at enhancing knowledge of the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia. It will address the effects of changes in land use and climate on these functions, including also the

  10. Spatial welfare effects of shared taxi operating policies for first mile airport access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing availability of alternative mobility options for first/last mile, it is necessary to better understand how shared taxis are impacting airport access demand and consumer surplus. However, no study has been conducted to evaluate the welfare effects of the range of shared taxi matching and fare allocation policies for airport access. Using several data sources primarily from Port Authority of NY and NJ and The Taxi and Limousine Commission, a mode choice model is estimated for access to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. The baseline model and data show that passengers have a value of time of $101 per hour, consistent with Harvey’s study from 1986. Airport taxi travelers are also elastic to cost in a similar manner to public transit. The model is used to evaluate two policies: a first (we call this wait-share policy where taxis can offer shared rides for two passengers from the same zip code, incorporating an endogenous expected wait time variable; and a second (we call this space-share policy where taxis match randomly arriving passengers from any zip codes in the city. These two policies reflect extreme ends of a spectrum of policies between waiting and detouring. Findings suggest that having a shared taxi option benefit passengers in NYC going to JFK airport by at least 10% increase in consumer surplus. However, the increase in taxi ridership comes at a cost to transit ridership. Furthermore, the population in NYC that benefits most is highly dependent on the type of shared taxi policy. A wait-share policy benefits passengers from the dense parts of Manhattan most, while a space-share policy distributes the benefits more to other boroughs. These insights can help policymakers set regulations in providing first/last mile ride-sharing taxi options in different cities around the world.

  11. Arms Transfer Policies and International Security: the Case of Brazilian-Swedish Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses arms trade policies from an international security perspective. Arms transfers are widely treated as political issues even when economic incentives exist. They affect bilateral and multilateral relations among suppliers, countries receiving the arms, non-state actors, taxpayers, and victims. Following the agreement to build Swedish SAAB Gripen NG fighter jets in Brazil, more may be produced for sale to third countries. This, in turn, calls for a review of Brazil’s arms transfer policy. In this instance, Sweden’s principled arms sales model could serve as a basis for a revised Brazilian arms transfer policy as well.

  12. Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation. Volume 11A. Reimbursable Operations Policy and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In addition, it directs statutory and regulatory financial reporting requirements. Volume 11 A of the "DoD Financial Management Regulation" establishes policy and procedures for Department of Defense...

  13. Optimal operation and forecasting policy for pump storage plants in day-ahead markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate unit commitment deploying stochastic and deterministic approaches. • We consider day-ahead markets, its forecast and weekly price based unit commitment. • Stochastic and deterministic unit commitment are identical for the first planning day. • Unit commitment and bidding policy can be based on the deterministic approach. • Robust forecasting models should be estimated based on the whole planning horizon. - Abstract: Pump storage plants are an important electricity storage technology at present. Investments in this technology are expected to increase. The necessary investment valuation often includes expected cash flows from future price-based unit commitment policies. A price-based unit commitment policy has to consider market price uncertainty and the information revealing nature of electricity markets. For this environment stochastic programming models are suggested to derive the optimal unit commitment policy. For the considered day-ahead price electricity market stochastic and deterministic unit commitment policies are comparable suggesting an application of easier implementable deterministic models. In order to identify suitable unit commitment and forecasting policies, deterministic unit commitment models are applied to actual day-ahead electricity prices of a whole year. As a result, a robust forecasting model should consider the unit commitment planning period. This robust forecasting models result in expected cash flows similar to realized ones allowing a reliable investment valuation

  14. THE STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN CONTEXT OF THE STRENGTHENING OF OPERABILITY OF BUDGETARY POLICY OF STIMULATION OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of state financial control as an important factor of strengthening of operability of budgetary policy of stimulation of the socio-economic development of regions is disclosed. The main institutions of control and their authority are defined; the instruments of control and levers of influence are indicated. It is marked the importance of the auditing of efficiency. The estimating index of the level of execution of the budgetary stimulative programs is offered.

  15. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    during most of the 19th century , for example, and riverine warfare during most of its history (except for the American Civil War, the Vietnam War...Select a caveat DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and...Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty- first Century Peter M. Swartz January 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract

  16. Impact of North Atlantic Treaty Organization Policies and Procedures on Combined Medical Operations: Food and Water Safety and Veterinary Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Timothy H; Chevalier, Nicole A; Scher, Gregory R; Burke, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Effective multilateral military operations such as those conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) require close cooperation and standardization between member nations to ensure interoperability. Failure to standardize policies, procedures, and doctrine prior to the commencement of military operations will result in critical interoperability gaps, which jeopardize the health of NATO forces and mission success. To prevent these gaps from occurring, US forces must be actively involved with NATO standardization efforts such as the Committee of the Chiefs of Medical Services to ensure US interests are properly represented when NATO standards are developed and US doctrine and procedures will meet the established NATO requirements.

  17. An interoperable architecture and principles for implementing strategy and policy in operational processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's economy managers expect new strategies and policies to be implemented quickly. Yet practice shows that current systems are not able to implement changes within a short time frame. Nowadays a variety of technologies including semantic web services, business rules and software agents are

  18. An Operations Research Study of a Variable Loan and Duplication Policy at the University of Lancaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1972-01-01

    The variable" loan and duplication policy which was developed is described and also the considerable impact of implementation. The work is presented as a case study in library O.R. The great importance of analyzing the structure of problems is stressed and the nature and usefulness of models is described. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  19. Naval Operations In Support of the U.S. Counterdrug Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Leroy

    1999-01-01

    .... Tremendous headway has been made in the drug war since the Navy became involved, and future participation is a virtual certainty. This paper will illustrate several missions of the United States Navy as part of DoD's efforts in the war on drugs in support of national policy.

  20. Development and selection of operational management strategies to achieve policy objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Rockmann, C.; Aanesen, M.; Armstrong, C.; Quesne, Le W.; Bloomfield, H.; Hal, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform of the EU Common Fisheries Policy in 2002, effort has been devoted to addressing the governance, scientific, social and economic issues required to introduce an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in Europe. Fisheries management needs to support the three pillars of

  1. Climate-based policies may increase life-cycle social costs of vehicle fleet operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac; Mbonimpa, Eric; Thal, Alfred E.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability guidelines and regulations in the United States often focus exclusively on carbon or petroleum reductions. Though some of these policies have resulted in substantial progress toward their goals, the effects of these efforts on other social and environmental externalities are often ignored. In this study, we examine the life-cycle air pollutant emissions for alternative fuel and vehicle purchase scenarios at a military installation near a typical urban area in the United States (U.S.). We find that scenarios which minimize petroleum use or greenhouse gas emissions do not concomitantly minimize criteria air pollutant emissions. We also employ social cost methodologies to quantify economic externalities due to climate change and health-related air pollutant impacts. Accounting for the social costs of climate change and air pollution from vehicle use reveals that criteria air pollutants may have a greater total impact than greenhouse gas emissions in locations similar to the urban area examined in this study. Use of first-generation biofuels, particularly corn grain ethanol, may reduce net petroleum use at the cost of increased total health impacts. More comprehensive policies may be needed to ensure that sustainability policies result in a net benefit to society. - Highlights: • U.S. energy and transportation policies focus on petroleum use and greenhouse gases. • Use of corn ethanol at a military base in Ohio, U.S. increases total social costs vs. gasoline. • Renewable electricity provides cost-effective climate and health protection. • DOD strategy to improve energy security may damage Americans' health. • More inclusive policies needed to protect health and climate.

  2. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-02-01

    The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilisations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarise the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth and address relevant cultural issues. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  4. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  5. Eficiencia reproductiva de diferentes genotipos bovinos en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Naveda, N. R.; Castro Guamán, W. E.; Marin, P. R.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas reproductivos en el centro de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, están condicionados por un sin número de factores, que directa e indirectamente conspiran para mejorar los parámetros productivos de la zona. Las condiciones ambientales, el manejo, la falta de energía en la dieta, la salud, la infraestructura y los genotipos utilizados influyen para no lograr una eficiente reproducción Lopez et al., 2014). El anestro posparto es el principal factor que afecta negativamente el desempeño repr...

  6. Diversity of Treegourd (Crescentia cujete Suggests Introduction and Prehistoric Dispersal Routes into Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila A. Moreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use and dispersal of domesticated plants may reflect patterns of early human diffusion of technologies and lifestyles. Treegourd (Crescentia cujete has fruits with ancient utilitarian and symbolic value in the Neotropics. We assessed diversity based on chloroplast (SNPs, nuclear (SSR markers, and fruit shapes of cultivated treegourds and wild relatives across Amazonia and Mesoamerica in order to discuss hypothesis of dispersal routes and diversification of fruits along its distribution. The haplotype network showed three distinct groups: Crescentia amazonica, wild Mesoamerican C. cujete, and cultivated C. cujete from Brazilian Amazonia and Mexico. Mexico and Brazil shared two haplotypes, with slightly different distributions in Amazonia. The most divergent haplotype is well-represented in Eastern Amazonia. Nuclear differentiation between Mesoamerican wild and cultivated C. cujete is relatively low (FST = 0.35, compared with Amazonian cultivated (FST = 0.45–0.61. Differentiation is also higher between wild C. amazonica and cultivated C. cujete (FST = 0.57, but modest within cultivated C. cujete from Amazonia and Mexico (FST = 0.04, with higher genetic similarity in northwestern Amazonia. Mexico and Amazonia showed similar chloroplast nucleotide diversity (4.66 × 10−2 and 5.31 × 10−2, respectively, although sample sizes are very different. Except in Northwestern and Eastern Amazonia, we found ample genetic homogeneity of cultivated C. cujete across Amazonia, but highest morphological diversity in the Northwest, with fruit shapes that are absent in Mexico. We conclude that treegourds introduced into the Amazon Basin and Mexico share a common ancestry with a currently unknown origin. The patterns of genetic diversity across Amazonia allow two hypotheses of the routes of introduction: a northwestern introduction into the Negro and Solimões Rivers, and an eastern introduction from the coastal Guianas into the Amazonas River. The dispersal

  7. Tiempos afroindígenas en la Amazonia brasileña. Primera mitad del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Peinado Alonso, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian Amazonia was marked by extraordinary political-military instability: its belated support of Brazil’s independence (1823, the discussion on slavery and the explosion of the Cabanagem. During this period the leading figures were not only the Portuguese-Brazilian political elites, but also the different groups of fugitive slaves and natives who operated along the vast and complicated border areas, alert to revolutionary ideas coming from abroad, and who played an essential role in the construction of the specificity of northern Brazil.

    La Amazonia brasileña durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por una extraordinaria inestabilidad político-militar. Su adhesión tardía a la independencia de Brasil (1823, el debate sobre la esclavitud y la explosión de la Cabanagem fueron procesos que tuvieron como protagonistas no sólo a las elites políticas lusobrasileñas, sino también a diferentes grupos cimarrones e indígenas que actuaban desde amplios e intrincados espacios de frontera, atentos a las ideas revolucionarias que provenían del exterior y que jugaron un papel fundamental en la construcción de la especificidad del norte de Brasil.

  8. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  9. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  10. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  11. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis,

  12. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  13. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  14. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  15. Nuevas especies de Axonopus (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Cañas Diego

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Axonopus, A. morronei (series Axonopus and A. zuloagae (series Barbigen are described. The new species are known only from the savannas and sandstone plateau of Colombian northwest Amazonia.Se describen dos nuevas especies de Axonopus, A. morronei y A. zuloagae, de las series Axonopus y Barbigeri, respectivamente. Las nuevas especies son conocidas únicamente de las sabanas y afloramientos rocosos de la Amazonia noroccidental colombiana.

  16. Continuity of Operations Plans: Policy and Strategy for K-12 Schools in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Standard Operating Procedure TT&E Test, Training and Exercise USDOE United States Department of Education WTC World Trade Center x THIS...Prior to September 11, 2001, no one considered such an attack on the World Trade Center ( WTC ) occurring, much less utilizing fueled aircraft as manned...cruise missiles. The fact that a terrorist attack had occurred in 1993 on the WTC was still fresh in the memories of New York citizens; somehow

  17. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  18. Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Gregory; Finkelstein, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    Many real-world critical systems, e.g., aircrafts, manned space flight systems, and submarines, utilize mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a rescue or recovery procedure is then initiated. For systems exposed to external impacts, the malfunctions are often caused by the consequences of these impacts. Traditional system reliability models typically cannot address a possibility of mission aborts. Therefore, in this article, we first develop the corresponding methodology for modeling and evaluation of the mission success probability and survivability of systems experiencing both internal failures and external shocks. We consider a policy when a mission is aborted and a rescue procedure is activated upon occurrence of the mth shock. We demonstrate the tradeoff between the system survivability and the mission success probability that should be balanced by the proper choice of the decision variable m. A detailed illustrative example of a mission performed by an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Evolutionary pattern, operation mechanism and policy orientation of low carbon economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of low carbon economy development is a continuous evolution and innovation process of socio-economic system from traditional high carbon economy to new sustainable green low carbon economy to achieve a sustainable dynamic balance and benign interactive development of various elements between society, economy and natural ecosystem. At the current stage, China’s socio-economy is showing the feature of "three high" (high energy consumption, high emissions and high pollution. In this case, quickly to promote the development of green low carbon economy is necessary and urgent. This research indicates that, low carbon economy development is achieved by micro-economic agents such as households, businesses and social intermediary organizations through Government’s guidance and the role of market mechanism. In low carbon economy development, the state (government is a leader and markets are core, while economic agents (e.g., households, businesses and social intermediary organizations are basis. For this reason, it is necessary to build an effective cleaner development and incentive-compatible policy system oriented to end-users.

  20. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro......CHP units with the national energy systems has been analysed. Our main findings are that net metering would be an appropriate tool to support FC based microCHP in Denmark, whereas a price premium would be the preferable tool in France and Portugal. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC...

  1. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  2. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  3. Pervasive Rise of Small-scale Deforestation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Mitchard, Edward; Quincey, Duncan; Ziv, Guy; Spracklen, Dominick; Spracklen, Benedict; Adami, Marcos; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David

    2018-01-25

    Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.

  4. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  5. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  6. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  8. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response.

  9. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  10. Energy policy. The choice of operators; Le scelte paese piu' controverse e le posizioni degli operatori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In this document are discussed the problems of economic policy, energy policy, environmental policy and industrial policy in italian scenario. [Italian] L'attenzione e' stata posta su problemi sui quali i dibattiti di politica economica, energetica, ambientale ed industriale sono vivi ed irrisolti. Nel documento vengono riportati i differenti scenari energetici prospettati dagli operatori che hanno attivamente partecipato al dibattito.

  11. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  12. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  13. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur

    2011-11-01

    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  14. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Schneider

    Full Text Available Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  15. Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

    2009-05-30

    Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5°S-5°N, 60°W-40 70°W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  16. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  17. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  18. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  19. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  20. Arcella peruviana sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida, Arcellidae), a new species from a tropical peatland in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczuga, Monika K; Swindles, Graeme T; Grewling, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    There has only been one study on the ecology of testate amoebae from Amazonian peatlands, despite Amazonia being a biodiversity hotspot of global importance. During analysis of litter samples from Aucayacu peatland, western (Peruvian) Amazonia, we discovered a testate amoeba with a distinct morphology unlike any other species reported previously. We describe a new species, Arcella peruviana, based on its distinct morphology, compare it to morphologically similar species and provide information about its ecology. This new species is characterised by a distinct cruciform aperture (diameter ranges between 12 and 17μm) which is slightly invaginated. The test is small (height 43-57μm) and polygonal in cross-section. Our discovery suggests the existence of an unknown diversity of testate amoebae in Amazonia. The absence of the new Arcella species in more intensively-sampled regions supports the view that protists have restricted distributions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling a district heating system: Introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skoevde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power

  2. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  3. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  4. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  5. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  6. Human papillomaviruses in Amerindian women from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, E. B.; Martins, S. J.; Menezes, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Amerindian women from a tribe in Brazilian Amazonia. Demographic data, pap smears and cervical samples for HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were obtained for women aged above 10 years old. In total, 79 (85.9%) out of 92 eligible women who lived there were interviewed; all women already had engaged in sexual activity. Seventy-eight and 49 women allowed collection of pap smears and PCR samples, respectively. Cytological signs of HPV infection were observed in 11 patients; 6 of these were probed for HPV infection and 1 shown to be HPV 16. Overall prevalence of HPV infection detected by PCR was 14.3%. Three patients presented high-risk HPV DNA types:two HPV 16 and one co-infection of HPV 16 and 58. Cervical infection by oncogenic HPV types occurs in Amerindian women and cervical cancer screening should be a priority in this setting. PMID:12113494

  7. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  8. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  9. Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Bettina B.; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Gordon, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and 'green' energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits from anaerobic digestion of livestock manure were investigated. Cost-efficiencies arising from economies of scale for on-farm anaerobic biogas production were found for swine farms, and less so for dairy production systems. Without incentive schemes, on-farm biogas energy production was not economically feasible across the farm size ranges studied, except for 600- and 800-sow operations. Among single policy schemes investigated, green energy credit policy schemes generated the highest financial returns, compared to cost-share and low-interest loan schemes. Combinations of multiple policies that included cost-share and green energy credit incentive schemes generated the most improvement in financial feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production, for both swine and dairy operations

  10. Modeling Fire Emissions from Multiple Land Use Transitions in Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Fires for deforestation and other land cover changes in southern Amazonia are an uncertain but significant source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent expansion of mechanized cropland in the region has increased the rates, clearing sizes, and combustion completeness of forest and Cerrado conversion compared to previous deforestation for cattle ranching. To more accurately quantify the influence of agricultural intensification on carbon emissions, we developed a high-resolution (250 m) model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF). DECAF estimates variations in forest and Cerrado biomass based on time series of MODIS NDVI and explicitly tracks the duration and combustion completeness of new deforestation as a function of post-clearing vegetation phenology and MODIS-based fire frequency. In our model runs for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, we quantified the contribution of fires for deforestation, conversion of pasture and Cerrado to mechanized cropland, and pasture maintenance to total fire emissions under low, middle, and high emissions scenarios. During 2001-2005, carbon losses from all types of deforestation were 48-82 Tg per year (mean = 67 Tg C), representing approximately 74% of annual fire emissions in the study region. Cropland expansion in non-forest areas contributed 19% of estimated fire emissions, while maintenance fires in pasture and Cerrado land cover types averaged 7% of all fire emissions during 2001-2005. Conversion of forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. In total, DECAF-based emissions for Mato Grosso represent 1/3 of estimated fire emissions for all of southern hemisphere South America during this period. Our results demonstrate how DECAF can be used to model

  11. The role of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in assuring project feasibility in Brazil-case study: the alcohol fuel program and the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel system in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, S.K.; Tolmasquim, M.T.T. [COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil). Transport Engineering Program

    2001-07-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the Clean Development Mechanism for the implementation of projects which ensure reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Brazil, while analyzing if an existing cooperation project might have been planned and implemented differently if it had been organized as a CDM activity right from the start. Case studies analyzed were : Brazil's Alcohol Fuel Program for vehicles, and the electrification of remote areas through hybrid photovoltaic-diesel systems. The former is fully managed and financed domestically with no outside support, while the latter is the outcome of an international cooperation program. In the first case study analyzed, the Fuel Alcohol Program can only be revived to the same level at which it was operating during the mid-1990s through some type of financing mechanism, meaning that no over-ambitious comeback was considered. This would be a new cooperation model for this project, as until now Brazilian Government subsidies have been used. However, Brazil there is little headroom at the moment for incentive policies supporting alcohol production. The CDM has a important role in the second case study too. The new subsidies created by the government to finance renewable energy projects will not be sufficient to ensure the feasibility of hybrid systems for power generation. This could make the CDM a key factor in ensuring the feasibility of this energy alternative. There is almost no difference between the cooperation model adopted by Brazilian US institutions for the implementation of the hybrid photo voltaic-diesel system in Amazonia and a CDM activity model. The only difference would be the need to include an independent accredited entity to assess, certify and monitor the emissions avoided. The rest of the cooperation project liking the NREL-DOE and CEPEL-CEAM as described seems to comply seemlessly with the requirements of a CDM activity. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  13. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study

  14. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: the LBA EUSTACH experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M.O.; Artaxo, P.; Brandão, C.; Carswell, F.E.; Ciccioli, P.; Costa, da A.L.; Culf, A.D.; Esteves, J.L.; Gash, J.H.C.; Grace, J.; Kabat, P.; Lelieveld, J.; Malhi, Y.; Manzi, A.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.; Lourdes Ruivo, de M.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Stefani, P.; Valentini, R.; Jouanne, von J.; Waterloo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin was investigated in the project European Studies on Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry as a Contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). We present an

  15. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, G; Santos, L A R dos

    2008-01-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles

  16. Description of Trichophoromyia velezbernali, a New Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-López, L; Galvis-Ovallos, F; Galati, E A B

    2018-01-10

    A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Trichophoromyia velezbernali sp. n. Posada-López, Galvis & Galati, from Colombian Amazonia is described with illustrations and images of male and female adults. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  18. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  19. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  20. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  1. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LiDAR in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciane Sato; Vitor Gomes; Yosio Shimabukuro; Michael Keller; Egidio Arai; Maiza dos-Santos; Irving Brown; Luiz Aragão

    2016-01-01

    Fire is one of the main factors directly impacting Amazonian forest biomass and dynamics. Because of Amazonia’s large geographical extent, remote sensing techniques are required for comprehensively assessing forest fire impacts at the landscape level. In this context, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) stands out as a technology capable of retrieving direct...

  2. Relating Change Patterns to Anthropogenic Processes to Assess Sustainability: A Case Study in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libia Patricia Peralta Agudelo

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on identifying deforestation patterns and relating these to social processes in an extractive reserve of Acre (western Amazonia). Using multitemporal satellite imagery deforestation is observed as a series of distinctive patches against the background of forest cover. The study of patterns emphasizes the important relationships existing between...

  3. Evaluating ipe (Tabebuia, Bignoniaceae) logging in Amazonia: sustainable management or catalyst for forest degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Schulze; James Grogan; Chris Uhl; Marco Lentini; Edson. Vidal

    2008-01-01

    Prized for their dense, rot-resistant wood, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia (vernacular name = ipeˆ ) are among the most valuable Amazonian timbers. We analyzed the geographical extent, spread and trajectory of ipeˆ logging in Brazilian Amazonia, and evaluated harvest pressure on this forest resource. We also examine Tabebuia population response to reduced-...

  4. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  5. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galia Selaya, N.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Vos, Vincent A.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Brown, Foster Irving; Duchelle, Amy E.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Oliveiracarillo, Luis A.; Vasquez Colomo, Guido H.; Chupinagua, Severo Meo; Nay, Hugo Fuentes; Perz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC). We used 41 1-hectare

  6. Distance decay of tree species similarity in protected areas on terra firme forests in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, Á.; Phillips, J.F.; von Hildebrand, P.; Posada, C.A.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Suescún, M.; Stevenson, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of floristic similarity as a function of geographical distances and environmental variability in well-drained uplands (terra firme) in Colombian Amazonia. The study site comprised three National Natural Parks, Tinigua, Chiribiquete, and Amacayacu, located

  7. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, S.; van Soelen, E.E.; Teunissen van Manen, Milan L.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, Elton Luiz; van Loon, Emiel; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-western Amazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also determined the sediment provenance in the fluvio-estuarine system and reconstructed the overall floral composition of the Amazon lowland forest during the

  8. Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Steege, ter H.; Bermudez, M.A.; Mora, A.; Sevink, J.; Sanmartín, I.; Sanchez-Meseguer, A.; Anderson, C.L.; Figueiredo, J.P.; Jaramillo, C.; Riff, D.; Negri, F.R.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lundberg, J.; Stadler, T.; Särkinen, T.; Antonelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian rainforest is arguably the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystem in the world, yet the timing of the origin and volutionary causes of this diversity are a matter of debate. We review the geologic and phylogenetic evidence from Amazonia and compare it with uplift records from the

  9. Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonia basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) with evidence of marine incursions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsch, KA

    1998-01-01

    New evidence indicates marine influences during the Miocene in the northwestern Amazonia basin. This is the first major survey of the ichthyofauna from this area in the Miocene. Fossil fish remains from taxa such as the Dasyatoidea, Myliobatoidea, Characiformes, Siluriformes and Sciaenidae are

  10. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes,

  11. Palynological differentiation of savanna types in Carajás, Brazil (southeastern Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absy, M.L.; Cleef, A.; D'Apolito, C.; da Silva, M.F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen rain studies in Amazonia are scarce but of utmost importance to support interpretations of pollen records. We have investigated modern surface pollen spectra and vegetation in an Amazon location, Carajás, Brazil, where open and woody types of vegetation, swamps and lakes develop under rock

  12. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  13. Estimating population and energy consumption in Brazilian Amazonia using DMSP night-time satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Silvana; Camara, Gilberto; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DPI - Divisao de Processamento de Imagens, C.P. 515, CEP 12201-097 SJC-SP, (Brazil); Quintanilha, Jose Alberto [Escola Politecnica da USP-POLI-USP, Av. Almeida Prado, Trav. 2, no. 83, CEP 05508-900 SP-SP, (Brazil); Elvidge, Christopher D. [National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO, 80305-3328, (United States)

    2005-03-15

    This paper describes a methodology to assess the evidence of human presence and human activities in the Brazilian Amazonia region using DMSP/OLS night-time satellite sensor imagery. It consists on exploring the potential of the sensor data for regional studies analysing the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and population, and the correlation between DMSP night-time light foci and electrical power consumption. In the mosaic of DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery from September 1999, 248 towns were detected from a total of 749 municipios in Amazonia. It was found that the night-time light foci were related to human presence in the region, including urban settlements, mining, industries, and civil construction, observed in ancillary Landsat TM and JERS imagery data. The analysis considering only the state of Para revealed a linear relation (R{sup 2} = 0.79) between urban population from the 1996 census data and DMSP night-time light foci. Similarly, electrical power consumption for 1999 was linearly correlated with DMSP night-time light foci. Thus the DMSP/OLS imagery can be used as an indicator of human presence in the analysis of spatial-temporal patterns in the Amazonia region. These results are very useful considering the continental dimension of Amazonia, the absence of demographic information between the official population census (every 10 years), and the dynamics and complexity of human activities in the region. Therefore DMSP night-time light foci are a valuable data source for global studies, modelling, and planning activities when the human dimension must be considered throughout Amazonia. (Author)

  14. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural...

  15. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  16. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural census data...

  17. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  18. Pre-operative antiseptic shower and bath policy decreases the rate of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus surgical site infections in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Kristin; Statz, Catherine; Glover, James; Banton, Kaysie; Beilman, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following joint arthroplasty increases length of stay, hospital cost, and leads to patient and healthcare provider dissatisfaction. Due to the presence of non-biologic implants (the prosthetic joint) in these procedures, infection is often devastating and treatment of the infection is more difficult. For this reason, prevention of SSI is of crucial importance in this population. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nares of approximately 30-40% of the population, is the most common pathogen causing SSI, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A pre-operative shower or bath with an antiseptic is an inexpensive and effective method of removal of these transient skin pathogens prior to the procedure and may be used to decrease SSI. We hypothesize that a preoperative antiseptic shower or bath will decrease the rate of SSI. A retrospective review was performed at two affiliated hospitals within the same system, one with a hospital-wide policy enforcing pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath and the other with no policy, with cases included from January 2010 to June 2012. International Classification of Disease-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing joint arthroplasty and to identify those with SSI. Two thousand three-hundred forty-nine arthroplasties were performed at the University of Minnesota Medical Center, a tertiary-care hospital with a pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath policy in place. An additional 1,693 procedures were performed at Fairview Ridges Hospital, a community hospital with no pre-operative policy. There was no difference in the rate of SSI between the two hospitals (1.96% vs. 1.95%; p=1.0). However, the rate of SSI caused by S. aureus was significantly decreased by pre-operative antiseptic shower/bath (17% vs. 61%; p=0.03), as was the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections (2% vs. 24% p=0.002). A pre-operative

  19. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  20. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  1. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  2. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  3. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  5. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  6. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Improved carbon management with EU Regional Policy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schram, J. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Amerighi, O. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Ten Donkelaar, M. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model supports national and regional authorities in making balanced decisions for their investment portfolio under their regional development programmes, in particular under their Operational Programmes of EU Regional Policy. The EU's climate objectives require that investments across the EU are channeled towards low-carbon development. The carbon impacts of investments should therefore be seriously considered in the decision making process of regional development programmes. The CO2MPARE model informs national and regional authorities on the impacts that the investments under various Operational Programmes can have in terms of CO2 emissions. Knowing which investments lead either to additional emissions or rather to emission reductions, and what the overall impact of a programme is, represents the first step towards investment decisions that have decarbonisation co-benefits. CO2MPARE estimates the combined carbon impact of all activities that take place under a programme, and provides insights into the relative contributions of the different themes. Through its high aggregation level, it allows comparison of investment scenarios rather than individual projects. As such, it aims to support informed decisions on investment strategies rather than project investment decisions. In doing so, it also helps to build and develop a 'carbon culture' within the authorities directly or indirectly in charge of managing Regional Policy Operational Programmes. The model is primarily aimed at Operational Programmes co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

  7. Mid-Late Pleistocene OSL chronology in western Amazonia and implications for the transcontinental Amazon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences

  8. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  9. The Crisis in Higher Education: The Views of Academic Professionals on Policy, Leadership Values and Operational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    There is a perception of crisis in UK higher education, particularly in England. This article identifies elements of the perceived crisis, quantifies the depth of the crisis from the perceptions of a sample of nearly 300 academic staff, and exemplifies the gap between stated policy and the realities of delivery. Comparisons are made between…

  10. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  11. Ministerial Decree of 3 March 1978 approving the general conditions of the third party liability insurance policy for operators of nuclear installations and the general conditions of insurance policies for third party liability for transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decree by the Ministry for Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Ministry for transport of Italy was made in implementation of Section 2 of the Decree No. 519 by the president of the Republic of 2 May 1975 amending Section 15 to 24 of Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This present Decree approves the general conditions of third party liability insurance policies for operators of nuclear installations and for transport of radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  12. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  13. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the current stress state in the Central Amazonia caused by surface water loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Delano M.; Riccomini, Claudio; Miranda, Fernando P.

    2014-11-01

    We present new fault data for the region of the Manaus, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Field measurements concentrate on the Miocene-Holocene sedimentary deposits exposed on the Amazonas River Basin, in order to investigate the development of this region in this time-interval. Two faulting events are distinguished since the Miocene. The oldest one is related to NW-SE extension during Miocene times and associated with paleoseismicity, while the younger is associated with NE-SW extension direction and seems to persist today. These two deformational events may be thereby considered Neotectonic. Moreover, the second extensional pulse with NE-SW orientation can be explained by the surface hydrological loading, which induces the Central Amazonia flexural subsidence and may promote extensional stresses in the upper crust.

  15. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  16. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonomamacrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  17. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  18. Barriers to Integration of Immigrants and Integration Policy in the Czech Republic with Focus on Stakeholders and Their Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rákoczyová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social integration of migrants and related social work with this target group is increasingly becoming a focus of the enlarged conception of social policies in advanced economies. While immigration policy is often defined and shaped at a national level, its effects influence the lives of migrants and, consequently, also the host society, particularly at the regions and localities, where this policy is confronted with the specifics of the measures in other policy areas. Integration policies at the local level are created and implemented by a wide range of stakeholders, which places considerable demands on the mutual coordination and co-operation to achieve maximum efficiency of services provided. In the Czech Republic, coordination among different actors is still under-developed. Non-governmental organizations, which are oriented towards specific needs of foreigners, are generally considered to be the principal actors in the delivery of services to and social work with migrants. Public institutions’ competences are usually limited to the exercise of specific services defined by the legislation. Yet the cooperation between actors from among representatives of government and nonprofit organizations is not based on equal partnership. Based on qualitative interviews with the key stakeholders of social integration in the Czech Republic, this study aims to provide some insight into strategies for the integration of foreigners charged with activities of local actors with special emphasis on the role of NGOs in this process. Moreover, the authors try to highlight some barriers of collaboration between the actors, and the risk of inefficient allocation of resources to support social services for migrants.

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of surficial Acre Basin sediments (Western Amazonia): key information for climate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, B.I.; Benchimol, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Geochemical and geochronological analyses of samples of surficial Acre Basin sediments and fossils indicates an extensive fluvial-lacustrine system, occupying this region, desiccated slowly during the last glacial cycle (LGC). This research documents direct evidence for aridity in western Amazonia during the LGC and is important in establishing boundary conditions for LGC climate models as well as in correlating marine and continental (LGC) climate conditions. (author)

  20. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. IKONOS imagery for the Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hurtt; Xiangming Xiao; Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rob Braswell; Brond& #305; Eduardo S. zio; Manoel Cardoso; Claudio J.R. Carvalho; Matthew G. Fearon; Liane Guild; Steve Hagen; Scott Hetrick; Berrien Moore III; Carlos Nobre; Jane M. Read; S& aacute; Tatiana NO-VALUE; Annette Schloss; George Vourlitis; Albertus J. Wickel

    2003-01-01

    The LBA-ECO program is one of several international research components under the Brazilian-led Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The field-oriented research activities of this study are organized along transects and include a set of primary field sites, where the major objective is to study land-use change and ecosystem dynamics, and a...

  2. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  3. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  4. Black and brown carbon over central Amazonia: Long-term aerosol measurements at the ATTO site

    OpenAIRE

    Saturno, Jorge; Holanda, Bruna A.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Ditas, Florian; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Cheng, Yafang; Chi, Xuguang; Ditas, Jeannine; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Hrabe de Angelis, Isabella; Könemann, Tobias; Lavrič, Jošt V.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest is considered a very sensitive ecosystem that could be significantly affected by a changing climate. It is still one of the few places on Earth where the atmosphere in the continent approaches near-pristine conditions for some periods of the year. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been built in central Amazonia to monitor the atmospheric and forest ecosystem conditions. The atmospheric conditions at the ATTO site oscillate between biogenic and biomass burning...

  5. The Economic Use of Palms in Amazonia -Raphia taedigera in the estuary-

    OpenAIRE

    CARNEY, Judith; HIRAOKA, Mario; HIDA, Noboru

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a biogeographical and socio-economic study of the significance ofjupati (Raphia taedigera) for peasant livelihood strategies in the Amazon esutuary. It engages current research interest in indigenous agroforestry systems as an alternative to deforestation in Amazonia and especially, the role of palms for providing marketable products and sustainable land use systems. While several studies illuminate the economic importance of marketing w;:ai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits, ther...

  6. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Arag?o, Luiz E. O. C.; Galv?n, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectorie...

  7. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Arag?o, Luiz Eduardo O.C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all var...

  8. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  9. Use of Landsat and SRTM Data to Detect Broad-Scale Biodiversity Patterns in Northwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation maps are the starting point for the design of protected areas and regional conservation plans. Accurate vegetation maps are missing for much of Amazonia, preventing the development of effective and compelling conservation strategies. Here we used a network of 160 inventories across northwestern Amazonia to evaluate the use of Landsat and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data to identify floristic and edaphic patterns in Amazonian forests. We first calculated the strength of the relationship between these remotely-sensed data, and edaphic and floristic patterns in these forests, and asked how sensitive these results are to image processing and enhancement. We additionally asked if SRTM data can be used to model patterns in plant species composition in our study areas. We find that variations in Landsat and SRTM data are strongly correlated with variations in soils and plant species composition, and that these patterns can be mapped solely on the basis of SRTM data over limited areas. Using these data, we furthermore identified widespread patch-matrix floristic patterns across northwestern Amazonia, with implications for conservation planning and study. Our findings provide further evidence that Landsat and SRTM data can provide a cost-effective means for mapping these forests, and we recommend that maps generated from a combination of remotely-sensed and field data be used as the basis for conservation prioritization and planning in these vast and remote forests.

  10. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  11. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  12. Resident operative experience in general surgery, plastic surgery, and urology 5 years after implementation of the ACGME duty hour policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simien, Christopher; Holt, Kathleen D; Richter, Thomas H; Whalen, Thomas V; Coburn, Michael; Havlik, Robert J; Miller, Rebecca S

    2010-08-01

    Resident duty hour restrictions were implemented in 2002-2003. This study examines changes in resident surgical experience since these restrictions were put into place. Operative log data for 3 specialties were examined: general surgery, urology, and plastic surgery. The academic year immediately preceding the duty hour restrictions, 2002-2003, was used as a baseline for comparison to subsequent academic years. Operative log data for graduating residents through 2007-2008 were the primary focus of the analysis. Examination of associated variables that may moderate the relationship between fewer duty hours and surgical volume was also included. Plastic surgery showed no changes in operative volume following duty hour restrictions. Operative volume increased in urology programs. General surgery showed a decrease in volume in some operative categories but an increase in others. Specifically the procedures in vascular, plastic, and thoracic areas showed a consistent decrease. There was no increase in the percentage of programs' graduates falling below minimum requirements. Procedures in pancreas, endocrine, and laparoscopic areas demonstrated an increase in volume. Graduates in larger surgical programs performed fewer procedures than graduates in smaller programs; this was not the case for urology or plastic surgery programs. The reduction of duty hours has not resulted in an across the board decrease in operative volume. Factors other than duty hour reforms may be responsible for some of the observed findings.

  13. Policies and practices pertaining to the selection, qualification requirements, and training programs for nuclear-reactor operating personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culbert, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit.

  14. Policies and practices pertaining to the selection, qualification requirements, and training programs for nuclear-reactor operating personnel at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the policies and practices of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) regarding the selection of and training requirements for reactor operating personnel at the Laboratory's nuclear-reactor facilities. The training programs, both for initial certification and for requalification, are described and provide the guidelines for ensuring that ORNL's research reactors are operated in a safe and reliable manner by qualified personnel. This document gives an overview of the reactor facilities and addresses the various qualifications, training, testing, and requalification requirements stipulated in DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter VI (Safety of DOE-Owned Reactors); it is intended to be in compliance with this DOE Order, as applicable to ORNL facilities. Included also are examples of the documentation maintained amenable for audit

  15. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  16. Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Karuna D; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit S; Wilson, Nevin C; Kumar, Ajay M V; Moonan, Patrick K; Oeltmann, John E; Chadha, Vineet K; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Ghosh, Smita; Q Lo, Terrence; Volkmann, Tyson; Willis, Matthew; Shringarpure, Kalpita; Reddy, Ravichandra Chinnappa; Kumar, Prahlad; Nair, Sreenivas A; Rao, Raghuram; Yassin, Mohammed; Mwangala, Perry; Zachariah, Rony; Tonsing, Jamhoih; Harries, Anthony D; Khaparde, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice. From September 2010 to September 2016, three key OR-related activities were implemented. First, practical output-oriented modular training courses were conducted (n = 3) to build research capacity of personnel involved in the TB programme, co-facilitated by The Union, in collaboration with the national TB programme, WHO country office and CDC, Atlanta. Second, two large-scale Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) surveys were conducted at baseline and mid-project to assess the changes pertaining to TB knowledge, attitudes and practices among the general population, TB patients and health care providers over the project period. Third, studies were conducted to describe the project's core activities and outcomes. In the training courses, 44 participant teams were supported to develop research protocols on topics of national priority, resulting in 28 peer-reviewed scientific publications. The KAP surveys and description of project activities resulted in 14 peer-reviewed publications. Of the published papers at least 12 have influenced change in policy or practice. OR within a Global Fund supported TB project has resulted in building OR capacity, facilitating research in areas of national priority and influencing policy and practice. We believe this experience will

  17. Landscape Dynamics in Northwestern Amazonia: An Assessment of Pastures, Fire and Illicit Crops as Drivers of Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies. PMID:23382890

  18. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. On the association between hydrometeorological conditions in Amazonia and the extremes of the southern oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available ASSOCIATION ENTRE LES CONDITIONS HYDROMÉTÉOROLOGIQUES EN AMAZONIE ET LES EXTRÊMES DE L’OSCILLATION DU SUD. L’Amazonie du nord et du centre montre une tendance vers une anomalie négative de la pluviométrie de l’été au cours des phases avancées d’événements El Niño forts comme ceux de 1982/83, 1986/87 et de 1997/98. Cependant on observe aussi une tendance vers une anomalie positive de la pluviométrie, certaines années El Niño comme 1972/73. Une inversion des variations de la pluviométrie entre le nord et le sud de l’Amazonie est évidente. On a aussi observé que certaines stations en Amazonie reçoivent une pluviométrie excédentaire l’année qui précède le maximum du El Niño, alors que d’autres montrent des tendances nettement négatives au début de l’été, compensées par d’importantes anomalies positives au coeur de la saison des pluies dans l’année du El Niño. De plus un fort événement El Niño est aussi concomitant de nuages de fumées résultants des incendies provoqués par une saison sèche exceptionnellement longue, qui affecte les habitants des principales villes d’Amazonie. SOBRE LAS ASOCIACIONES ENTRE HIDROMETEOROLOGÍA DE LA AMAZONIA Y LOS EXTREMOS DE LA OSCILACIÓN DEL SUR. Las regiones norte y centro de la Amazonia presentan lluvia por debajo de lo normal durante el verano de los años de El Niño, donde el fenómeno alcanza su mayor intensidad, como en los eventos de 1982/83, 1986/87 y el actual 1997/98. De otro lado, también se observa una tendencia hacia lluvias por encima de lo normal durante otros años de El Niño, como en 1972/73. La Amazonia del Norte y del Sur presentan variaciones opuestas en lo que se refiere a lluvia y los efectos de El Niño. Se observa que en algunas estaciones en la Amazonia hay una tendencia por abundante lluvia en el año anterior al pico de El Niño, mientras que en otras estaciones se observan anomalías negativas de lluvia en el inicio del verano y final del

  20. Impact of oil on the marine environment: policy of the Paris Commission on operational discharges from the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihoul, C.; Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The input of oil to the North Sea due to the offshore industry has been estimated at 29% of the total input of oil. The operational discharges consist of production water and drilling cuttings. An overview of statistics collected over the last 10 years shows that although the amount of oil discharged via production water is increasing as platforms are getting older, cuttings still account for 75% of the oil entering the sea as a result of normal operations. Spills represent a relatively small source of oil. The effects on the marine environment of discharges of production water and of discarded oily cuttings have been extensively studied, by national authorities as well as by the industry. Although it has not always been possible to reach consensus about the significance of the observed effects, a number of 'agreed facts' have led to the establishment of regulations in the framework of the Paris Commission. The 'decisions' and 'recommendations' adopted by the Commission are regularly reviewed in the light of new developments. (author)

  1. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  2. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them fallows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use. PMID:20385814

  3. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  4. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly

  5. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  6. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  7. Conflicts between humans and giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Amanã Reserve, Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Danielle dos Santos; Marmontel,Miriam; Bernard,Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Commercial hunting was determinant in the disappearance of giant river otters along areas of historical occurrence in the Brazilian Amazonia. After approximately 30 years of absence, giant otters were spotted in the Amanã Lake in 2000, after the creation of the Amanã Reserve. Four years of field surveys were carried out to confirm the presence of giant river otters in the area and to assess local threats to the species. Information on the human impact on this otter population was compiled bas...

  8. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  9. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  10. Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; De Franceschi, Dario; Flynn, John J.; Nel, André; Baby, Patrice; Benammi, Mouloud; Calderón, Ysabel; Espurt, Nicolas; Goswami, Anjali; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical–equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia. PMID:16950875

  11. Economic effects of a reservoir re-operation policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for integrated human and environmental water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pablo Ortiz-Partida

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights: This study determines the economic feasibility of the EF policy. Results show that a proposed Environmental Flow policy would increase irrigated agriculture profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  12. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  13. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  14. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The following five species are described as new: Manota clava sp. n. (Colombia), Manota multilobata sp. n. (Colombia), Manota perplexa sp. n. (Costa Rica), Manota setilobata sp. n. (Colombia) and Manota subaristata sp. n. (Colombia). In addition, new records for the following 11 species are presented: Manota acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota arenalensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota corcovado Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota costaricensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, Costa Rica), Manota minutula Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota multisetosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota parva Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Costa Rica), Manota pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia) and Manota squamulata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica). Distribution patterns include (1) species known only locally in Costa Rica or Colombia, (2) distributions connecting Central America to west Andes lowlands, and (3) north-west Neotropical components, extending from Central America to Brazilian Amazonia. The possible biogeographical and taxonomical context of Manota species with a widespread distribution is considered.

  15. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  16. Miocene long-lived lake Pebas as a stage of mollusc radiations, with implications for landscape evolution in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas system was a huge (> 1 million km2) system of long-lived lakes and wetlands that occupied most of western Amazonia between c. 23 and 8 Ma. Remarkable endemic radiations of molluscs and ostracods occurred in the Pebas system. The continuity of many of the endemic lineages between c.

  17. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  18. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  19. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  1. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  2. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J C; Costa, Marcos H; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Coe, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO 2 . The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO 2 , (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO 2 , (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO 2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha −1 , 2.7 Mg-grains ha −1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha −1 yr −1 , respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes. (letter)

  3. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  4. The effects of biomass burning aerosols and clouds on the CO2 flux in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo H.F.; Artaxo, Paulo; Pires, Carlos; Lucca, Silvia De; Procopio, Aline; Holben, Brent; Schafer, Joel; Cardoso, Luiz F.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Rocha, Humberto R.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol particles associated with biomass burning emissions affect the surface radiative budget and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over large areas in Amazonia during the dry season. We analysed CO 2 fluxes as a function of aerosol loading for two forest sites in Amazonia as part of the LBA experiment. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were made with AERONET sun photometers, and CO 2 flux measurements were determined by eddy-correlation. The enhancement of the NEE varied with different aerosol loading, as well as cloud cover, solar elevation angles and other parameters. The AOT value with the strongest effect on the NEE in the FLONA-TapajOs site was 1.7, with an enhancement of the NEE of 11% compared with clear-sky conditions. In the RBJ site, the strongest effect was for AOT of 1.6 with an enhancement of 18% in the NEE. For values of AOT lager than 2.7, strong reduction on the NEE was observed due to the reduction in the total solar radiation. The enhancement in the NEE is attributed to the increase of diffuse versus direct solar radiation. Due to the fact that aerosols from biomass burning are present in most tropical areas, its effects on the global carbon budget could also be significant

  5. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  6. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen ‘complete’ time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0–2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia. PMID:21795268

  7. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  8. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  9. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  10. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised. PMID:25075790

  11. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  12. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  13. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in a remote site in Central Amazonia: the role of biogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Lara, L. L.; Antunes, M. L.; Artaxo, P.

    2007-08-01

    A long-term (2-3 years) measurement of aerosol and precipitation chemistry was carried out in a remote site in Central Amazonia, Balbina, (1°55' S, 59°29' W, 174 m above sea level), about 200 km north of Manaus city. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (dsmoke from biomass burning was the second most important contribution, reaching 77% of fine mode particulate mass during the dry season. Soil dust was responsible by a minor fraction of the aerosol mass (less than 17%). Rainwater chemistry was controlled by biogenic emissions. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was 4.90. The most important contribution to acidity was weak organic acids. The organic acidity was predominantly associated with the presence of acetic acid, instead of formic acid which is more often observed in pristine tropical areas. Deposition rates for major species did not differ significantly between dry and wet season, except for NH4+ and acetate, which had smaller deposition rates during dry season. While biomass burning emissions were clearly identified in the aerosol component, it was not possible to discern any presence of biomass burning emissions in rainwater chemistry. The long-range transport of sea salt and biogenic particles was observed both in aerosols and rainwater composition. The results showed here indicate that in Amazonia it is still possible to observe pristine atmospheric conditions, relatively free of anthropogenic influences.

  14. Sources of water vapor to economically relevant regions in Amazonia and the effect of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, G. F.; Fontes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest helps regulate the regional humid climate. Understanding the effects of Amazon deforestation is important to preserve not only the climate, but also economic activities that depend on it, in particular, agricultural productivity and hydropower generation. This study calculates the source of water vapor contributing to the precipitation on economically relevant regions in Amazonia according to different scenarios of deforestation. These regions include the state of Mato Grosso, which produces about 9% of the global soybean production, and the basins of the Xingu and Madeira, with infrastructure under construction that will be capable to generate 20% of the electrical energy produced in Brazil. The results show that changes in rainfall after deforestation are stronger in regions nearest to the ocean and indicate the importance of the continental water vapor source to the precipitation over southern Amazonia. In the two more continental regions (Madeira and Mato Grosso), decreases in the source of water vapor in one region were offset by increases in contributions from other continental regions, whereas in the Xingu basin, which is closer to the ocean, this mechanism did not occur. As a conclusion, the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the less climate changes after deforestation.

  15. The movement of pre-adapted cool taxa in north-central Amazonia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apolito, Carlos; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of climate change on the lowland vegetation of Amazonia during the last glacial cycle are partially known for the middle and late Pleniglacial intervals (late MIS 3, 59-24 ka and MIS 2, 24-11 ka), but are still unclear for older stages of the last glacial and during the last interglacial. It is known that a more seasonal dry-wet climate caused marginal forest retraction and together with cooling rearranged forest composition to some extent. This is observed in pollen records across Amazonia depicting presence of taxa at glacial times in localities where they do not live presently. The understanding of taxa migration is hindered by the lack of continuous interglacial-glacial lowland records. We present new data from a known locality in NW Amazonia (Six Lakes Hill), showing a vegetation record that probably started during MIS 5 (130-71 ka) and lasted until the onset of the Holocene. The vegetation record unravels a novel pattern in tree taxa migration: (1) from the beginning of this cycle Podocarpus and Myrsine are recorded and (2) only later do Hedyosmum and Alnus appear. The latter group is largely restricted to montane biomes or more distant locations outside Amazonia, whereas the first is found in lowlands close to the study site on sandy soils. These findings imply that Podocarpus and Myrsine responded to environmental changes equally and this reflects their concomitant niche use in NW Amazonia. Temperature drop is not discarded as a trigger of internal forest composition change, but its effects are clearer later in the Pleniglacial rather than the Early Glacial. Therefore early climatic/environmental changes had a first order effect on vegetation that invoke alternative explanations. We claim last glacial climate-induced modifications on forest composition favoured the expansion of geomorphologic-soil related processes that initiated forest rearrangement.

  16. Introducing a new operational policy : the PIS operational policy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pattinson, T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Available online xx K Bat S PI Desig La MIL y, the d de disc 001). . Indu the e use term h infi torage to exploi 1 1 The production of low-volume high-value-added products such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals is the premise... at time point p(s, j, p) storage time for state s in unit j during latent store at time point p (s, p) amount of state s stored at time point p (s, p) amount of state s delivered to customers at time point p objective function to be evaluated...

  17. Aviation and climate change : aircraft emissions expected to grow, but technological and operational improvements and government policies can help control emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A number of policy options to address aircraft emissions are available to governments and can be part of broader policies to address emissions from many sources including aircraft. Market-based measures can establish a price for emissions and provide...

  18. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  19. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  20. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and economic environment in which they operate and work. EPR enlists experts in public policy, business, economic theory and practice to express their thoughts and views in the most influential way possible on economic policy and direction of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms.

  1. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots. PMID:29118625

  2. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  3. Water fluxes in forest of different ages in the Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boshell, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall reaching the canopy of a forest ecosystem may be divided into different fluxes: intercepted water, through fall and stem flow. This partitioning determines the spatial distribution of soil water. This paper describes the fixes and their spatial and temporal variability in a mature forest and three secondary forests of different ages (5, 18 and 30 years old) in the middle Caqueta, in Colombian Amazonia. Results showed that there are no significant differences in the mean rainfall (P) and through fall (TH) among the land uses. However, there were differences in the percentages of TH with respect to different ranges of magnitude of P, mainly for heavy rain showers with more than 20 mm rainfall. The temporal variability of TH was high, while the spatial variability was low. Stem flow (ST) showed significant differences, which were related to the vegetation characteristics. The spatial and temporal variability of ST were high

  4. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16-18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572-1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  5. Genetic footprints of demographic expansion in North America, but not Amazonia, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Enrique P.; Cook, Joseph A.; Patton, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The biotic consequences of climate change have attracted considerable attention. In particular, the “refugial debate” centers on the possible retraction of habitats to limited areas that may have served as refuges for many associated species, especially during glaciations of the Quaternary. One prediction of such scenarios is that populations must have experienced substantial growth accompanying climatic amelioration and the occupation of newly expanded habitats. We used coalescence theory to examine the genetic evidence, or lack thereof, for late Pleistocene refugia of boreal North American and tropical Amazonian mammals. We found substantial and concordant evidence of demographic expansion in North American mammals, particularly at higher latitudes. In contrast, small mammals from western Amazonia appear to have experienced limited or no demographic expansion after the Late Pleistocene. Thus, demographic responses to climate change can be tracked genetically and appear to vary substantially across the latitudinal gradient of biotic diversity. PMID:12913123

  6. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.

  7. Hydrogen utilization for the reduction of iron ore in the Brazilian Amazonia: prospective natural resources preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, L.C. de; Arantes, N.A.S. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    In average 20% the annual energy consumption of Brazil corresponds to the use of wood under the form of either charcoal or fuelwood. The utilization of fuelwood is decreasing and the utilization of charcoal is growing at the same rate (about 2.5%) yearly. The growing demand for charcoal is forcing the charcoal-based iron and steel industry to move to the north of Brazil where wood is still abundant. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using electrolytic hydrogen instead of charcoal or coke for the reduction of iron ore in the Program Grande Carajas - Amazonia. Technical, economic and environmental aspects will be considered. This study can be beneficial to the Amazon region since natural resources will be preserved. (author)

  8. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  9. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  10. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  11. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  12. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  13. Using digital soil maps to infer edaphic affinities of plant species in Amazonia: Problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulatlet, Gabriel Massaine; Zuquim, Gabriela; Figueiredo, Fernando Oliveira Gouvêa; Lehtonen, Samuli; Emilio, Thaise; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Tuomisto, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    Amazonia combines semi-continental size with difficult access, so both current ranges of species and their ability to cope with environmental change have to be inferred from sparse field data. Although efficient techniques for modeling species distributions on the basis of a small number of species occurrences exist, their success depends on the availability of relevant environmental data layers. Soil data are important in this context, because soil properties have been found to determine plant occurrence patterns in Amazonian lowlands at all spatial scales. Here we evaluate the potential for this purpose of three digital soil maps that are freely available online: SOTERLAC, HWSD, and SoilGrids. We first tested how well they reflect local soil cation concentration as documented with 1,500 widely distributed soil samples. We found that measured soil cation concentration differed by up to two orders of magnitude between sites mapped into the same soil class. The best map-based predictor of local soil cation concentration was obtained with a regression model combining soil classes from HWSD with cation exchange capacity (CEC) from SoilGrids. Next, we evaluated to what degree the known edaphic affinities of thirteen plant species (as documented with field data from 1,200 of the soil sample sites) can be inferred from the soil maps. The species segregated clearly along the soil cation concentration gradient in the field, but only partially along the model-estimated cation concentration gradient, and hardly at all along the mapped CEC gradient. The main problems reducing the predictive ability of the soil maps were insufficient spatial resolution and/or georeferencing errors combined with thematic inaccuracy and absence of the most relevant edaphic variables. Addressing these problems would provide better models of the edaphic environment for ecological studies in Amazonia.

  14. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  15. Reproductive traits associated with species turnover of amphibians in Amazonia and its Andean slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Robles, Octavio; Guayasamin, Juan M; Ron, Santiago R; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a.s.l.). At local scale, species composition showed strong differences among habitats, explained mainly by turnover. Reproductive modes occurred differently across habitats (e.g., prevalence of direct developers at high elevation, where breeding in ground level water disappears). At regional scale, elevation was the most important factor explaining the changes in species richness, reproductive trait occurrences, and biotic dissimilarities. Species number in all groups decreased with elevation except for those with lotic tadpoles and terrestrial reproduction stages. Seasonality, annual precipitation, and relative humidity partially explained the occurrence of some reproductive traits. Biotic dissimilarities were also mostly caused by turnover rather than nestedness and were particularly high in montane and foothill sites. Within lowlands, geographic distance explained more variability than elevation. Habitat filtering was supported by the different occurrence of reproductive traits according to elevation, water availability, and breeding microhabitats at both scales, as well as other assembly mechanisms based in biotic interactions at local scale. Human-generated land use changes in Amazonia and its Andean slopes reduce local amphibian biodiversity by alteration of primary forests and loss of their

  16. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  17. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-05-27

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all variables analysed, except deforestation. For the annual cycle, we found correlations above 90% with a time lag between variables. Deforestation and fires reach the highest values three and six months, respectively, after the peak of the rainy season. The cumulative number of hot pixels was linearly related to the size of the area deforested annually from 1998 to 2004 (r2=0.84, p=0.004). During the 2005 drought, the number of hot pixels increased 43% in relation to the expected value for a similar deforested area (approx. 19000km2). We demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as land-use change, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region even with decreased deforestation rates. We may expect that the ongoing deforestation, currently based on slash and burn procedures, and the use of fires for land management in Amazonia will intensify the impact of droughts associated with natural climate variability or human-induced climate change and, therefore, a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  19. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  20. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Kergoat, Gael J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2012-06-12

    The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33-42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades+Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the "museum model" of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old lineages and contributed to the steady

  1. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood par...

  2. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  3. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella , Penthesilenula ) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis ) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ 18 O- and δ 13 C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis ) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  4. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  5. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  6. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  7. Human Strategies for Coping with El Nino Related Drought in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil

  8. Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Gozze, Amanda B; Lima, Nathália F; Batista, Camilla L; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C; Fontoura, Pablo S; Gonçalves, Raquel M; Viana, Susana Ariane S; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G; Cavasini, Carlos E; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M; Castro, Márcia C; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2014-08-01

    New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March-April 2010) to 3.0% (April-May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March-April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2-3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P. vivax infections that were left untreated progressed to

  9. Financial globalization and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.; Sutherland, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The process of financial globalization has significantly altered the environment in which national monetary policy authorities operate. What implications does this have for the design of monetary policy? The question can be properly addressed only in the context of a model where monetary policy interacts with financial market efficiency. This paper is concerned with the effects of monetary policy when international portfolio choice is endogenous. We analyze the link between monetary policy an...

  10. Policy as Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  11. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  12. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ18O and δ13C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake (“Lake Pebas”) or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  13. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  14. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Frederick C.; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Lawson, Ian T.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis; Zaráte, Ricardo; Baker, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km2 and contain 3.14 (0.44-8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha-1). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems.

  15. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  16. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  17. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  18. Party size and diet of syntopic atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, S; Ferrari, S F

    2001-01-01

    Syntopic Alouatta seniculus, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana (Atelidae) were studied in southwestern Amazonia. Primate populations were first surveyed, and then the party size, diet and vertical spacing were monitored over a 5-month period. Atelids accounted for more than half the survey sightings and Lagothrix was the most abundant. Party sizes recorded for both Alouatta and Lagothrix during monitoring were significantly larger than those recorded during surveys, but no such difference was found for Ateles. Monitored parties were significantly larger in Lagothrix in comparison with either Alouatta or Ateles, as were groups of Ateles in comparison with Alouatta. Mean party size in Ateles decreased progressively during the course of the study, from 8.9 +/- 3.4 in June to 3.9 +/- 2.3 in October. Moraceae was the most important dietary resource for Ateles and Lagothrix, in terms of both feeding records and number of species exploited. There was considerable overlap in the plant taxa exploited, but some notable differences, such as the exclusive use of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpinaceae) by Lagothrix and of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) by Ateles. As at other sites in the region, Ateles occupied significantly higher forest strata in comparison with Lagothrix. Despite the preliminary nature of the study, the results indicate a number of ecological differences between species that undoubtedly play an important role in niche separation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  20. Constructing regional climate networks in the Amazonia during recent drought events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Ramos, Antônio M T; Macau, Elbert E N; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Climate networks are powerful approaches to disclose tele-connections in climate systems and to predict severe climate events. Here we construct regional climate networks from precipitation data in the Amazonian region and focus on network properties under the recent drought events in 2005 and 2010. Both the networks of the entire Amazon region and the extreme networks resulted from locations severely affected by drought events suggest that network characteristics show slight difference between the two drought events. Based on network degrees of extreme drought events and that without drought conditions, we identify regions of interest that are correlated to longer expected drought period length. Moreover, we show that the spatial correlation length to the regions of interest decayed much faster in 2010 than in 2005, which is because of the dual roles played by both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The results suggest that hub nodes in the regional climate network of Amazonia have fewer long-range connections when more severe drought conditions appeared in 2010 than that in 2005.

  1. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  2. Allometry and growth of six tree species in a terra firme forest in colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Pamplona Wilson A; Dairon, Alvaro; Cardenas Montoya J, Duque

    2011-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazonia, we assessed the allometric relationship among different tree structural variables and the growth in diameter and biomass of six species classified according to their wood specific gravity. The tree species chosen were Eschweilera rufolia, Eschweilera itayensis, Conceveiba guianensis, Otoba parvifolia, Pseudolmedia laevis, and Apeiba aspera. The dbh was the most important structural explanatory variable. Regarding the total height dbh model, the allometric coefficient b changed between species showing a trend to increase, and thus a taper decrease, proportional to. There were o significant differences in diameter growth between species (P=0.119, F=1.80) or functional groups (P=0.153, F= 1.19). Likewise, biomass growth did not show significant differences neither between species (P=0.0784, F=2.05) nor functional groups (P=0.0711, F=2.71). However, there was a positive trend between and diameter growth and a negative one between and biomass growth. The results of this study suggest that this forest is recovering in biomass at a constant rate independent of the patch age, which emphasizes on the importance of pioneer species and gap formation on the carbon dynamics and the species coexistence in Amazonian tierra firme forests.

  3. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  4. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  5. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C.R.; Mapes, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , FeO, CaO, K 2 O, MgO, Na 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  6. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  7. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, Frederick C; Baker, Timothy R; Roucoux, Katherine H; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Zaráte, Ricardo; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km 2 and contain 3.14 (0.44–8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha −1 ). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems. (letter)

  8. The trophic role of microbial loop in an Amazonia central floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalao Lake in central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD) of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall). In general, it was found that the main source of carbon for heterotrophic bacteria was that of C4 origin, which presented a minimum contribution of 75% of bacterial biomass, to the extent that the bacteria D13C average value -17.72 Per Mille ± 2.25 was comparing this value with the D13C of zooplankton in the same period (-33.04 Per Mille ± 3.81) permit concludes that the contribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the carbon flow to higher trophic levels in the Catalao lake is minimal.

  9. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  10. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  12. Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Yasmine; Machado, Carolina de Barros; Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Oliveira, Marcio; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively.

  13. Isoprene photo-oxidation products quantify the effect of pollution on hydroxyl radicals over Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B; Goldstein, Allen H; Keutsch, Frank N; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; Artaxo, Paulo; Souza, Rodrigo A F; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from human activities are believed to regulate the atmospheric oxidation capacity of the troposphere. However, observational evidence is limited for the low-to-median NO x concentrations prevalent outside of polluted regions. Directly measuring oxidation capacity, represented primarily by hydroxyl radicals (OH), is challenging, and the span in NO x concentrations at a single observation site is often not wide. Concentrations of isoprene and its photo-oxidation products were used to infer the equivalent noontime OH concentrations. The fetch at an observation site in central Amazonia experienced varied contributions from background regional air, urban pollution, and biomass burning. The afternoon concentrations of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO y ), indicative of NO x exposure during the preceding few hours, spanned from 0.3 to 3.5 parts per billion. Accompanying the increase of NO y concentration, the inferred equivalent noontime OH concentrations increased by at least 250% from 0.6 × 10 6 to 1.6 × 10 6 cm -3 . The conclusion is that, compared to background conditions of low NO x concentrations over the Amazon forest, pollution increased NO x concentrations and amplified OH concentrations, indicating the susceptibility of the atmospheric oxidation capacity over the forest to anthropogenic influence and reinforcing the important role of NO x in sustaining OH concentrations.

  14. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  15. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Asner, Gregory P; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Knapp, David E; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  16. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  17. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G.; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth’s radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of nanometer to submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of nanoparticles and may provide insight into new particle formation in Amazonia.

  18. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliola, Risto; Toivonen, Tuuli; Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere

  19. Food habits of Anilius scytale (Serpentes: Aniliidae in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleomar F. Maschio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diet of Anilius scytale is provided based on the analysis of 162 specimens from the Brazilian Amazonia. Amphisbaenians (Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Leposternon polystegumn [Duméril, 1951] and Amphisbaena sp., which are highly specialized for a fossorial life, accounted for 81.25% of the recorded items, followed by snakes - Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758, and Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758: 12.5% - and caecilians - Caecilia cf. gracilis Shaw, 1802: 6.25%. We found a positive, although not significant, relationship between the snout-vent length of A. scytale and the total length of the prey and a tendency for smaller specimens to ingest proportionately larger prey. Anilius scytale forages mainly on the ground, at night, as well as in aquatic environments. The non-selective capture of either proportionately large or small prey by A. scytale may reflect the opportunistic nature of the encounters. A tendency of the juveniles of this species to ingest proportionately larger prey may be associated with either a low availability of prey with a size compatible to that of the juveniles, or with their inexperience in selecting prey. Ingestion of prey headfirst may be an attempt to minimize the risk of injury the prey could cause through their rigid, pointed and sharp structures or powerful bites.

  20. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  1. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  2. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  3. Patterns of orchid bee species diversity and turnover among forested plateaus of central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina de Barros; Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Oliveira, Marcio; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia. Variance partitioning techniques were applied to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on bee species richness, phylogeny and composition. We hypothesized that greater abundance and richness of orchid bees would be found on larger plateaus, with a set of core species occurring on all of them. We also hypothesized that smaller plateaus would possess lower phylogenetic diversity. We found 55 bee species distributed along the nine sampling sites (plateaus) with 17 of them being singletons. There was a significant decrease in species richness with decreasing size of plateaus, and a significant decrease in the similarity in species composition with greater distance and climatic variation among sampling sites. Phylogenetic diversity varied among the sampling sites but was directly related to species richness. Although not significantly related to plateau area, smaller or larger PDFaith were observed in the smallest and the largest plateaus, respectively. PMID:28410432

  4. Seasonal Variability of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo at Biomass Burning Sites in Southern Africa and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Slutsker, I.

    2002-05-01

    Monitoring of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia was initiated in 1995, when an AERONET sun/sky radiometer site was established at the Mongu airport. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we present monthly means of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from July (0.845) to October (0.93). The slope of the spectral dependence of aerosol single scattering albedo with wavelength decreased as SSA increased from July to October. However, there was no significant change in particle size in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for Etosha Pan, Namibia also show increasing values through the burning season in 2000. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of Amazonia. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in aging to due transport speed and distance from source regions, differences in biomass fuel types in different regions (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), and differences in fuel moisture content (October is the beginning of the rainy season on both continents).

  5. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  6. Dende oil: an analysis of a new bio-fuel for the Amazon region; Oleo de dende: uma analise de um biocombustivel para Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, Elizabeth; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Eletricidade

    1997-12-31

    The strategy practicable to Amazonia is implantation of an energy valuation plan of the biomass resource, for example, the natives oleaginous (oil palm, buriti, castanha, etc.) to produce fuel. Presently, the use of the oil plant to produce energy is so insignificant that is not considered in the brazilian energy matrix, despite of being produced and consumed in cooking and and chemistry purposes. This work presents the characteristics of the oil palm cultivated in Amazonia and the possibility of using in diesel engines, when suitably processed and in Elsbett engines for `in natura` oil burning. (author) 6 refs.; e-mail: eliza at fua.br

  7. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh) Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh) en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de C...

  8. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  9. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  10. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  11. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km 2 ) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km 2 . Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  12. Application of the Forhyd model to simulate net precipitation and intercepted water evaporation in forest canopies in Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boschell Villamarin, Francisco; Tobon Marin, Conrado

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic simulation is a technique, which allows us to understand the relationships among hydrological, biological and ecological variables in an ecosystem. In this research, the FORHYD model is used to simulate the net precipitation and the water intercepted by the canopies of a mature forest, a 30-year old secondary forest, an 18-year old secondary forest, a 5-year old secondary forest, and a shifting cultivation plot, all located in Colombia's amazonia. The model calculates the water budget of the canopy by using the precipitation rates, canopy drainage and evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. This paper is the second one in a series of papers reporting the results of the research on the simulation of the hydrological fluxes in three different land use types of Colombian amazonia. The research was carried out in middle Caqueta of Colombian amazonia (northwest amazon basin). The FORHYD model was calibrated and validated by using field observations of the climate, net precipitation (PT), thoughtful (TH) and stem flow (ST), which were monitored during a period of 15 months from March 2001 to June 2002. These observations were used as both input variables and diagnostic variables to probe the model's precision to simulate field observations. Results showed that FORHYD simulates with a good precision the net precipitation and the evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. However, the model's precision depends on a good parameterization, which in turn depends on a good database of field observations. The model is a good tool for simulating the hydrological cycle and can be used to simulate critical scenarios of climate variability

  13. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Deep Learning Policy Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.

  15. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  16. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  17. Chronology of Terra Firme formation in western Amazonia and implications for the diversification of Amazonian biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do N.; Sawakushi, André O.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Savian, Jairo F.; Kern, Andrea K.; Mineli, Thays D.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Almeida, Renato P.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ribas, Camila C.; d'Horta, Fernando M.; Bertassoli, Dailson J.; Marconato, André; Nogueira, Luciana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2017-04-01

    The shift from a large wetland dominated by avulsive channels and flooded forests to the incised transcontinental Amazon River valley (Várzea) bounded by non-flooded forests (Terra Firme) is suggested as one of the main drivers of diversification of the mega diverse Amazonian Biota. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about the timing of this landscape shift, with the current literature suggesting a period that ranges from the Miocene (11 Ma) and the Late Pleistocene (100 ka). This uncertainty may be due to a lack of absolute ages for the sediments forming Terra Firme forest substrates in western Amazonian lowlands. In Brazil, the Içá Formation represents the uppermost fluvial deposits of Terra Firme forests substrates in western Amazonia. Therefore, a reliable chronology for the last depositional stage of the Içá Formation is key for an improved understanding of the formation of the current Terra Firme-Várzea system. Four sediment profiles were sampled along the margins of the Solimões and Içá rivers for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, geomagnetic excursions, and palynological analysis. OSL dating was performed in twelve samples using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol in quartz sand grains. The equivalent doses ranged from 47 to 130 Gy (Central Age Model) and the dose rate values ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 Gy/ka. The resulting sediment burial ages range from 48 to 112 ka. Paleomagnetic data were obtained from samples collected at same profiles sampled for OSL dating and results suggest the presence of Post-Blake geomagnetic excursion ( 100 ka). The age of 100 ka for Post-Blake excursion are adopted for the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale. Pollen assemblage data show a similarity to a more modern flora and the presence of Alnus clearly points towards Pleistocene deposition as it is unknown before in South America. The combined OSL, paleomagnetism and pollen data is a robust geochronological dataset that indicates Late Pleistocene

  18. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  19. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  20. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  1. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  2. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  3. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  4. Annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America and their temporal scaling in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra Romero, Alejandro; Poveda, German

    2006-01-01

    Investigating the dynamics of forest fires in time is a challenge for environmental sciences, due to their close relation to land use and land change and their connections with the earth's climate through land surface-atmosphere feedbacks, as well as interannual variability associated with ENSO. By means of the ATSR world fire atlas data set (ESA, Europe), pertaining to the GOFC/GOLD-Fire program (monitoring and mapping implementation team), we quantify the annual and interannual variability of forest fires in South America (in three zones: Amazonia, river of La Plata and Colombo Venezuelan plain) on annual and interannual time scales, and the properties of temporary scaling of registered forest fires in the river basin of the Amazon River are quantified for the period 1997-2003. The fires in South America exhibit a noticeable annual cycle that is associated with the annual cycle of precipitations in each zone of study. The effect of the two phases of phenomenon ENSO is demonstrated, with greater fire incidence during El Nino and diminution during La Nina. The power law that relates the area to the fire frequency (fire surface versus number of events) exhibits three zones of scaling such that fires of 1 km 2 or less (θ = 0,4253, R 2 0,9701), between 1 - 20 km 2 θ - 1,1972, R 2 = 0,9893), and between 20 km 2 - 232 km 2 (θ = 2,7354, R 2 - 0,9396). The results reveal that the temporary evolution of forest fires in a site can be modeled like a fractal process of long-term memory, with exponents of scaling between 2,199 (log time vr log factor Fano (t) and 2,2476 (Log Time vr log factor Allan (t)

  5. A New Anthropophilic Species of Simulium (Trichodagmia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Amazonia: Morphology, Chromosomes, and DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jeane Marcelle Cavalcante Do; Hamada, Neusa; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Adler, Peter H

    2018-01-10

    The black fly Simulium (Trichodagmia) hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae) is widely distributed in southern Brazil, with one report from Amapá state in the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia. Morphological comparison of northern and southern populations revealed differences in all life stages, corroborated by chromosomal and molecular analyses, and indicated that the population previously identified as S. hirtipupa from Amapá state represents an undescribed species. This new species is described based on all life stages above the egg, and its chromosomal and molecular divergence from S. hirtipupa is highlighted. Simulium criniferum n. sp. can be diagnosed by the deeply concave male ventral plate with a prominent median projection bearing a ventral keel; female anal lobe in lateral view with a broadly rounded, distal membranous area about as long as wide; pupa with a boot-shaped cocoon bearing a minutely bubbled surface, cephalic plate and thorax with abundant hair-like tubercles, and gill of 12 translucent filaments with darkly sclerotized, acuminate tips; and larva with the body cuticle bearing spiniform setae, abdomen truncated posteriorly, and gill histoblast in situ with the filament tips directed ventrally. Chromosomally, the new species has five unique fixed inversions and uniquely shares three additional fixed inversions with its nearest relative, S. hirtipupa. Partial COI sequences indicate a genetic distance of ~9% between the new species and S. hirtipupa. Females of the new species are anthropophilic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kourtchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic–biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  7. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  8. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rafael; Stow, Adam J.; Magnusson, William E.; Lima, Albertina P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities. PMID:25147930

  9. Tropical Timber Rush in Peruvian Amazonia: Spatial Allocation of Forest Concessions in an Uninventoried Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Matti; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2009-10-01

    Land-use allocation has important implications for the conservation and management of tropical forests. Peru’s forestry regime has recently been reformed and more than 7 million ha has been assigned as forest concessions. This potentially has a drastic impact on the land-use practices and species composition of the assigned areas. Nevertheless, the environmental variation found within the concessions and the process applied to delimit them are poorly studied and documented. Thus, it is difficult to estimate the biological impacts of forestry activities in concessions or plan them sustainably. This paper reveals the characteristics of the current concession allocation in Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, using environmental and access-related variables and compares the concessions to other major land-use assignments. The work draws on a number of data sets describing land-use, ecosystem diversity, and fluvial network in the region. According to our data, certain environment types such as relatively fertile Pebas soils are overrepresented in the concessions, while others, like floodplain forests, are underrepresented in comparison to other land-use assignments. Concessions also have less anthropogenic disturbance than other areas. Furthermore, concessions are located on average further from the river network than the other land-use assignments studied. We claim that forest classification based on productivity, soil fertility, accessibility, and biodiversity patterns is an achievable long-term goal for forest authorities in Peru, and in many other tropical countries. We present a rough design of a geographic information system incorporating environmental, logging, and access-related data that could be applied to approach this goal in Peru.

  10. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  11. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

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    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  12. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  13. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

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    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  14. Las palmas entre los grupos cazadores-recolectores de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Morcote Ríos Gaspar

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare past and present systems of management of palms in the Colombian Amazon, based on archaeological studies of preceramic groups in the middle Caquetá region and ethnographic research on the nomadic Nukak people, who inhabit northeastern Guaviare department. Astrocaryum aculeatum, Attalea maripe, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora, have been used from the early Holocene through the present time. Among these, Oenocarpus bataua has remained the most important food species. We conclude that one of the mananging strategies of the tropical rain forest is the simultaneous improvement of ecological units, especially in the tertiary sedimentary plains, and that such management probably has a long history in the region.Se presenta una comparación sobre el manejo de las palmas en la Amazonia Colombiana, basado en los resultados de un estudio arqueológico de grupos precerámicos en la región del Medio Caquetá y uno etnográfico del pueblo nómada Nukak que habita la zona nororiental del departamento del Guaviare. Se encontró que Astrocaryum aculeatum, A ttalea maripa, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora son algunas de las palmas usadas desde el Holoceno temprano hasta el presente. Entre estas Oenocarpus bataua es la especie más importante como fuente de alimento. Así mismo, se concluye que una de las estrategias de manejo en el bosque húmedo tropical es el aprovechamiento simultáneo de diferentes unidades ecológicas, con predominio del plano sedimentario terciario. Es probable que este tipo de manejo tenga en la región una larga historia.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  16. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  17. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  18. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  19. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SEVERAL MEASURES OF BUDGETARY POLICY

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    Ioan Dan Morar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Budget policy for the funding and sometimes care about the public sector, certain actions and utilities on the private sector within limits set by the strategies, tactics and operational deciyiile promoted executive. Phenomenon budget includes both revenues and expenditure side edge contained in the public budget. Often, perhaps excessive zeal in translating domain-specific phrases are even officially speak about "fiscal policy measures", with reference to all areas of the budget, containing and thus the budget expenditure. Budgetary policy has several specific policy budget subdomains like Cookie fiscal policy, budget expenditure allocation Polti, policy and public loans.

  1. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  2. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

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    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  3. The effects of biomass burning aerosols and clouds on the CO{sub 2} flux in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo H.F. E-mail: pauloh@if.usp.br; Artaxo, Paulo; Pires, Carlos; Lucca, Silvia De [Laboratorio de Fisica Atmosferica, Inst. de Fisica, Univ. de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Procopio, Aline [Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brig. Trompowski, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., CEP: 21949-900 (Brazil); Holben, Brent; Schafer, Joel [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Cardoso, Luiz F. [UNIR Fundacao Univ. Federal de Rondonia, Campus de Ji-Parana, Ji-Parana (Brazil); Wofsy, Steven C. [Harvard Univ., Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science, 29 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rocha, Humberto R. [Dept. de Ciencias Atmosfericas - IAG - Univ. de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226 - CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    Aerosol particles associated with biomass burning emissions affect the surface radiative budget and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over large areas in Amazonia during the dry season. We analysed CO{sub 2} fluxes as a function of aerosol loading for two forest sites in Amazonia as part of the LBA experiment. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were made with AERONET sun photometers, and CO{sub 2} flux measurements were determined by eddy-correlation. The enhancement of the NEE varied with different aerosol loading, as well as cloud cover, solar elevation angles and other parameters. The AOT value with the strongest effect on the NEE in the FLONA-TapajOs site was 1.7, with an enhancement of the NEE of 11% compared with clear-sky conditions. In the RBJ site, the strongest effect was for AOT of 1.6 with an enhancement of 18% in the NEE. For values of AOT lager than 2.7, strong reduction on the NEE was observed due to the reduction in the total solar radiation. The enhancement in the NEE is attributed to the increase of diffuse versus direct solar radiation. Due to the fact that aerosols from biomass burning are present in most tropical areas, its effects on the global carbon budget could also be significant.

  4. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  5. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Peroni, Nivaldo; Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Lemes, Maristerra R; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Clement, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE) along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  6. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2014-12-18

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The "smooth" group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the "ornate" group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90% of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian-early Tortonian).

  7. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

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    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  8. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  9. Spatial and temporal contrasts in the distribution of crops and pastures across Amazonia: A new agricultural land use data set from census data since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, P.; Manrow, M.; Barona, E.; Barretto, A.; Hyman, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-06-01

    Amazonia holds the largest continuous area of tropical forests with intense land use change dynamics inducing water, carbon, and energy feedbacks with regional and global impacts. Much of our knowledge of land use change in Amazonia comes from studies of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for two thirds of the region. Amazonia outside of Brazil has received less attention because of the difficulty of acquiring consistent data across countries. We present here an agricultural statistics database of the entire Amazonia region, with a harmonized description of crops and pastures in geospatial format, based on administrative boundary data at the municipality level. The spatial coverage includes countries within Amazonia and spans censuses and surveys from 1950 to 2012. Harmonized crop and pasture types are explored by grouping annual and perennial cropping systems, C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, planted and natural pastures, and main crops. Our analysis examined the spatial pattern of ratios between classes of the groups and their correlation with the agricultural extent of crops and pastures within administrative units of the Amazon, by country, and census/survey dates. Significant correlations were found between all ratios and the fraction of agricultural lands of each administrative unit, with the exception of planted to natural pastures ratio and pasture lands extent. Brazil and Peru in most cases have significant correlations for all ratios analyzed even for specific census and survey dates. Results suggested improvements, and potential applications of the database for carbon, water, climate, and land use change studies are discussed. The database presented here provides an Amazon-wide improved data set on agricultural dynamics with expanded temporal and spatial coverage.

  10. Spatial and temporal contrasts in the distribution of crops and pastures across Amazonia: A new agricultural land use data set from census data since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, P; Manrow, M; Barona, E; Barretto, A; Hyman, G; Ciais, P

    2015-06-01

    Amazonia holds the largest continuous area of tropical forests with intense land use change dynamics inducing water, carbon, and energy feedbacks with regional and global impacts. Much of our knowledge of land use change in Amazonia comes from studies of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for two thirds of the region. Amazonia outside of Brazil has received less attention because of the difficulty of acquiring consistent data across countries. We present here an agricultural statistics database of the entire Amazonia region, with a harmonized description of crops and pastures in geospatial format, based on administrative boundary data at the municipality level. The spatial coverage includes countries within Amazonia and spans censuses and surveys from 1950 to 2012. Harmonized crop and pasture types are explored by grouping annual and perennial cropping systems, C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, planted and natural pastures, and main crops. Our analysis examined the spatial pattern of ratios between classes of the groups and their correlation with the agricultural extent of crops and pastures within administrative units of the Amazon, by country, and census/survey dates. Significant correlations were found between all ratios and the fraction of agricultural lands of each administrative unit, with the exception of planted to natural pastures ratio and pasture lands extent. Brazil and Peru in most cases have significant correlations for all ratios analyzed even for specific census and survey dates. Results suggested improvements, and potential applications of the database for carbon, water, climate, and land use change studies are discussed. The database presented here provides an Amazon-wide improved data set on agricultural dynamics with expanded temporal and spatial coverage. Agricultural census database covers Amazon basin municipalities from 1950 to 2012Harmonized database groups crops and pastures by cropping system, C3/C4, and main cropsWe explored

  11. Reflexões sobre água de abastecimento e saúde pública: um estudo de caso na Amazônia brasileira Considerations about water supply and public health: a case study in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Giatti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora a Amazônia ostente grandioso patrimônio ambiental e abundância de recursos hídricos, é na região Norte do Brasil, contida neste notável bioma, que se verificam os piores índices de acesso a serviços de saneamento e respectivos indicadores de saúde pública. Por meio de estudo de caso efetuado na cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, localizada à noroeste do Estado do Amazonas, com aproximadamente 18.000 habitantes e substancial parcela de população indígena, verificou-se a complexidade de fatores relacionados ao provimento de água e à melhoria da saúde pública para núcleos urbanos da Amazônia. A ausência de políticas concisas, as peculiaridades ambientais, as dificuldades logísticas e financeiras somam-se a questões socioculturais, a aspectos migratórios e a processo de urbanização desordenada, associada a impactos ambientais. Para melhoria da saúde pública nessas circunstâncias torna-se necessária uma abordagem interdisciplinar, que possibilite a gestão dos recursos hídricos, a implementação de saneamento básico e, não obstante, a promoção de adesão dos habitantes.Even though Amazonia displays magnificent environmental heritage and abundance of water resources, it is exactly in the Brazilian northern region, contained in this remarkable biome, that the worst indices of access to sanitation services and respective public health indicators are found. A case study carried out in the town of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, located to the northwest in the State of Amazonas, with nearly 18,000 inhabitants, a large portion of whom are Indians, revealed a complexity of factors related to water supply and public health improvement for urban centers in Amazonia. Lack of proper policies, environmental peculiarities, logistic and financial difficulties, are added to socio-cultural matters, migratory processes, and unorganized urbanization associated with environmental impacts. In order to improve the public health

  12. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  13. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  15. Anthropogenic Emissions Change the Amount and Composition of Organic PM1 in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Thalman, R.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Artaxo, P.; Goldstein, A. H.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Wang, J.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    processes. Results suggest that polluted conditions are associated with higher organic mass concentrations, with certain pathways being favored to the detriment of others. This analysis and results represent a step toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic influences on the production of PM1 in Amazonia.

  16. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Mark I; Peres, Carlos A; Costa, Hugo C M

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not "emptied" the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable hunting of wildlife

  17. Mayaro Virus Infection in Amazonia: A Multimodel Inference Approach to Risk Factor Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Vanessa S.; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Braga, Wornei S. M.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2012-01-01

    . This suggests either a vector shift (synanthropic mosquitoes vectoring MAYV) or a habitat/habits shift (classical MAYV vectors adapting to densely populated landscapes and nocturnal biting); any such ecological/adaptive novelty could increase the likelihood of MAYV emergence in Amazonia. PMID:23071852

  18. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    in village-like areas. This suggests either a vector shift (synanthropic mosquitoes vectoring MAYV or a habitat/habits shift (classical MAYV vectors adapting to densely populated landscapes and nocturnal biting; any such ecological/adaptive novelty could increase the likelihood of MAYV emergence in Amazonia.

  19. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  20. The Elusive Multiplying Factor for Sustainable Development: The Case for Integrating Scientific Research and Basic Education in the MAP Region, SW Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; de Los Rios, M.; Mendoza, E.; Reis, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Region of Madre de Dios-Peru, the State of Acre-Brazil, and the Department of Pando-Bolivia, known collectively as the trinational MAP Region, lies at the heart of Southwestern Amazonia. This region covers over 300,000 km2 with a population of 700,000 that ranges from urban dwellers to indigenous groups trying to avoid contact with industrial society. This region, home of incredible biological and cultural wealth, represents some of the economically poorest areas of the respective countries. It is also a site of accelerating global change in land-use, with three highways being developed for all-weather transport between central Brazil and Pacific ports. Our group has engaged in pilot experiments to provide regional societies with access to recent scientific results. Our objective is to help these societies in their quest to develop through: a) the use of GPS and satellite imagery for land use planning by small rural producers; b) municipal-level meetings in two countries to evaluate current problems and future land use along the inter-oceanic highway; c) the analysis of deforestation in the trinational river basin; d) dissemination via the media of imagery and analysis of fires during the burning season; and e) incorporation of nearby forests into the rural educational system. While most of these experiments have proven successful, they pale before the challenge of expanding them to become significant in changing land use and promoting sustainable development in this region. The multiplying factors need to be in the range of ten to a thousand times the size of the pilot experiments. Public policy and economic initiatives are crucial, but are often treated as the only means for such multiplication. The basic education system represents another, complementary multiplying factor. In the State of Acre, about a third of the population, 200,000, are in the K-12 school system and of these over 80% are in the 1- to 8-year series. Currently, we are helping local school

  1. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T.; Sear, Alan M.; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM). Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs). Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (−4.68) and positive at NFPs (0.08), meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident. PMID:26294267

  2. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Langland-Orban PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP and not-for-profit (NFP hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM. Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs. Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (−4.68 and positive at NFPs (0.08, meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident.

  3. Policy analysis of the budget used in training program for reducing lower back pain among heavy equipment operators in the construction industry: System dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitharana, V. H. P.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    Lower back pain (LBP), prevalence is high among the heavy equipment operators leading to high compensation cost in the construction industry. It is found that proper training program assists in reducing chances of having LBP. This study, therefore aims to examine different safety related budget available to support LBP related training program for different age group workers, utilizing system dynamics modeling approach. The simulation results show that at least 2.5% of the total budget must be allocated in the safety and health budget to reduce the chances of having LBP cases.

  4. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  5. Payroll Operational Data Store

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Payroll ODS will provide a single repository of payroll data to produce accurate and timely financial reports to support operating, budget, and policy decisions.

  6. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Molina, M.; Barcena, J.; Salas, E.; Sanchez, M.; Codee, H.; Deckers, J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  7. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  8. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  9. Comparative measurements and seasonal variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and pasture in South West Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Randow, C.; Manzi, A. O.; Kruijt, B.; de Oliveira, P. J.; Zanchi, F. B.; Silva, R. L.; Hodnett, M. G.; Gash, J. H. C.; Elbers, J. A.; Waterloo, M. J.; Cardoso, F. L.; Kabat, P.

    Comparative measurements of radiation flux components and turbulent fluxes of energy and CO2 are made at two sites in South West Amazonia: one in a tropical forest reserve and one in a pasture. The data were collected from February 1999 to September 2002, as part of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). During the dry seasons, although precipitation and specific humidity are greatly reduced, the soil moisture storage profiles down to 3.4m indicate that the forest vegetation continues to withdraw water from deep layers in the soil. For this reason, seasonal changes observed in the energy partition and CO2 fluxes in the forest are small, compared to the large reductions in evaporation and photosynthesis observed in the pasture. For the radiation balance, the reflected short wave radiation increases by about 55% when changing from forest to pasture. Combined with an increase of 4.7% in long wave radiation loss, this causes an average reduction of 13.3% in net radiation in the pasture, compared to the forest. In the wet season, the evaporative fraction (λE/Rn) at the pasture is 17% lower than at the forest. This difference increases to 24% during the dry season. Daytime CO2 fluxes are 20-28% lower (in absolute values) in the pasture compared to the forest. The night-time respiration in the pasture is also reduced compared to the forest, with averages 44% and 57% lower in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. As the reduction in the nocturnal respiration is larger than the reduction in the daytime uptake, the combined effect is a 19-67% higher daily uptake of CO2 in the pasture, compared to the forest. This high uptake of CO2 in the pasture site is not surprising, since the growth of the vegetation is constantly renewed, as the cattle remove the biomass.

  10. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  11. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  12. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  13. Biodiversidad en espacios productivos y los aspectos sociales de las comunidades ribereñas de la Amazonia Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas agrícolas ribereño representan una alternativa de producción sustentable para las comunidades tradicionales de la Amazonia, especialmente en cuanto a la diversidad de productos y la generación de ingresos. Por lo tanto, teniendo en cuenta las funciones ecológicas y sociales el propósito de este estudio fue analizar las áreas productivas y aspectos etnosociais de las comunidades ribereñas de la lejano Amazonia Occidental, Acre, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas participativas, formales e inductivo después de un cuestionario semi-estructurado. Toda la información recogida se transfiere a una base de datos electrónica, que sistematizado y procesado. Los sistemas agrícolas en estas comunidades son los cultivos y quintales. Los cultivos tienen una especie agrodiversidad en la misma zona, el producto principal es el cultivo de la yuca. Los quintales tienen arreglos espaciales de especies frutales, medicinales y sobre todo los cultivos de hortalizas. Así, tanto los astilleros como los claros son responsables de la sostenibilidad de las familias ribereñas de esta comunidad, sirviendo de subsistencia y asistencia económica.Por otra parte, se trata de ser una alternativa adaptada a las condiciones de los ecosistemas agrícolas llanura de inundación en la región.

  14. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  15. First Record of Leucocytozoon (Haemosporida: Leucocytozoidae) in Amazonia: Evidence for Rarity in Neotropical Lowlands or Lack of Sampling for This Parasite Genus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, A; Silveira, P; Weckstein, J D; Dispoto, J H; Anciães, M; Bosholn, M; Tkach, V V; Bell, J A

    2018-04-01

    Birds harbor an astonishing diversity of haemosporidian parasites belonging to the genera Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium. Currently there are more than 250 morphologically described avian haemosporidian species and 2,828 unique lineages found in virtually all avian clades and zoogeographic regions, except for Antarctica. Our report is based on PCR and microscopic screening of 1,302 individual avian samples from Brazil to detect the underrepresented genus Leucocytozoon. This survey primarily focuses on passerine birds collected from Amazonia, the Atlantic Rain Forest, and Pantanal. We also summarize studies conducted in Brazil that report haemosporidian prevalence using both microscopy and molecular tools and present for the first time a record of Leucocytozoon infecting an avian host population in Amazonia. Based on our findings, we suggest that high average temperatures may be constraining both the distribution and diversity of Leucocytozoon in lowland tropical South America.

  16. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  17. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    Full Text Available We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use.We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development.We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees.Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in

  18. Mapping of oil spill environmental sensitivity index (ESI) in western Amazonia, Brazil, using USTC classification of dual season GRFM SAR image mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fernando P. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Beisl, Carlos H.; Pedroso, Enrico C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Centro Brasileiro de Recursos - RADARSAT

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazonia, Brazil, using a pair of multi seasonal (1995 - low flood to 1996 - high flood) GRFM JERS-1 SAR mosaics. Fuzzy analysis is carried out to extract information about landscape modifications within half hydrological cycle. The oil spill hazard information derived from JERS-1 SAR data is straightforward to interpret and constitutes a representation of the original Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) product conceived by PETROBRAS. (author)

  19. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in Colombia.

  20. Evolution of a Quaternary paleoria (Southwest Amazonia) and its impact on the distribution of modern vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, T. C.; Rossetti, D.; Hayakawa, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial rias and patches of open vegetation in sharp contrast with dense tropical forest are among the most remarkable features in many areas of the Amazonian lowlands. These features occupy large areas and often display similar geometry and dimensions, especially when located nearby main river courses. The fluvial rias in the Amazonas basin have been described as lakes formed by the impoundment of tributary rivers in their lower courses due to increased aggradation. The origin of this kind of lake has been related to post-glacial eustatic variations, although neotectonic influence has also been considered an important control of the contemporary conformation observed for these Amazonian lakes. Groups of fluvial rias do follow the basin's superimposed axis, and are not randomly located, as opposed to erosive lakes within the floodplains. In addition, open vegetation patches within the Amazonas basin have been, in general, related to Pleistocene climatic oscillations or edaphic variations resulting from geological and geomorphological processes. However, a few of these patches have geometry and dimensions conforming to many modern fluvial rias of the Amazonian region, leading to hypothesize an origin potentially related to this landform. Studies integrating geological and remote sensing data for different Amazonian areas have suggested changes in fluvial sedimentary dynamics during the late Quaternary as the key for the establishment of many patches of open vegetation. Morphostructural evidence also has been used to relate frequent changes in the river systems to fault reactivations. The purpose of this work is to present the results of an interdisciplinary investigation including remote sensing, sedimentology, radiocarbon chronology δ13C, δ15N, and C/N from a landform related to the infill of a paleoria of the Madeira River in southwestern Amazonia. The results of this investigation revealed a sedimentary succession displaying ages between 21,547 - 22,285 cal

  1. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; Mann de Toledo, Peter; Góes, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    associated with a lake system (i.e., fan-delta) and/or fluvial flood plain areas. After a period of erosion, a fluvial system with eastward draining channels started to develop at around 27,000 14C yr B.P. The fluvial channels were overflooded in mid-Holocene time. This flooding is attributed to an increased period of humidity, with a peak between 5000 and 2500 14C yr B.P. The data presented herein support that, rather than being a monotonous area, the Amazonia was a place with frequent changes in landscape throughout the Neogene-Quaternary, probably as a result of climatic and tectonic factors. We hypothesize that these changes in the physical environment stressed the biota, resulting in speciation and thus had a great impact on modern biodiversity.

  2. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  3. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene – 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv than the wet season (isoprene – 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m−2 h−1 and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m−2 h−1 were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m−2 h−1. These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf

  4. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  5. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  6. 12 CFR 563.161 - Management and financial policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management and financial policies. 563.161... ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.161 Management and financial policies. (a)(1) For... corporation must be well managed and operate safely and soundly. Each also must pursue financial policies that...

  7. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  8. PACS policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Documentation of policies and procedures are critical for the proper operation and management of a picture archival and communication system (PACS). Policies, procedures, and site specific documentation may be organized in several categories. Through the use of broad categories one can easily begin to break down the specific areas which require attention and prioritize them as necessary. One way to categorize them is: administration, maintenance, support, architecture and integration, and disaster recovery/business continuity. One area that requires a great deal of focus and discipline is a policy for "change management." It is essential to have a policy in place for making changes to the information system. This would include not only changes to the system such as software upgrades, but changes to workflows such as how images are being distributed, compression settings, network settings, monitor settings, locations of workstations, integration, and disaster recovery/ business continuity. Modifying existing information technology (IT) policies and using published resources can largely simplify the development of organization specific policies and procedures.

  9. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  10. Health policy and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichmann, U

    2002-01-01

    Health policy has great influence on the daily work of every cardiologist. The influence of progress of practical cardiology on health policy in our country on the one hand and the influence of health policy on cardiology on the other hand are discussed, In the 1970s cardiac rehabilitation in special rehabilitation clinics was developed as a consequence of the usual therapy at that time with longer periods of bedrest and late invasive diagnostic procedures. Patients got a right on rehabilitation by law. However, in the 1980s the increasing number of rehabilitation clinics in our country and their budgets caused the first controversial discussion on health policy in our society, which was primarily thought to be a scientific one. At that time one of the first guidelines of the Commission of Clinical Cardiology as to coronary dilatation demanded in necessity of immediate cardiac surgery. To get more influence on the ongoing discussion the group of chief clinical cardiologists founded their own working group which had later on considerable influence on policy and scientific work of our society. Overall, the awareness of the need for active health policy was developed relatively late. For instance, the register of nationwide heart catheterization procedures was started in the early 1980s but was not used to influence health policies, for establishment of new catheterization facilities. At present, the development of cardiology is limited by budget and total number of cardiac operations is reduced, so it is time to remember the highly effective conservative "soft" therapy of atherosclerosis with a combination of drugs and changing lifestyle which is well evaluated in prospective studies. It is time to apply and reevaluate the chances of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis and heart insufficiency. New non-invasive techniques as MRT and PET and therapeutic techniques as genetic or stem cell therapy will influence cost and health policy in the near future.

  11. UCAVs-Technological, Policy, and Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ... the most dangerous combat missions. Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) will be neither inexpensive enough to be readily expendable nor--at least in early development--capable of performing every combat mission alongside or in lieu of manned sorties...

  12. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  13. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation ... facs.org Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL 60611-3295 | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use

  14. Quantitative probabilistic safety criteria for regulatory policy and operation of nuclear power plants: Status and developments at the international level; Quantitative probabilistische Sicherheitskriterien fuer Genehmigung und Betrieb kerntechnischer Anlagen: Status und Entwicklung im internationalen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, H.P.; Goertz; Schaefer, T.; Schott, H.

    1996-09-01

    Internationally, probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are applied in many cases and for different purposes. Primarily, the qualitative results of PSA are of interest for assessing the balancedness of the design of nuclear power plants and for identifying plant vulnerabilities to severe accidents. As compared to the comprehensive development of PSA methods, quantitative probabilistic safety criteria (QPS) have not reached the same level. In this report, available quantitative probabilistic safety criteria for licensing and operation of nuclear facilities are compiled for a number of countries, in first place for OECD member states. Most of the countries consider those criteria only as not legally binding safety targets or even do not apply them at all. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are exceptions, they require corresponding demonstration of compliance with QPS in the licensing procedure. Regarding the numerical values - whether binding or not - the following trend can be observed which is consistent with IAEA-Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3. Plants in operation should not have core damage frequencies above 10{sup -4}/a, for licensing of new plants a core damage frequency of 10{sup -5}/a is considered as an upper bound and the frequency of large radioactive release should be below 10{sup -6}/a. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently issued a policy statement on the enhanced use of PSA in its future decisions. Though quantitative probabilistic safety criteria are not emphasized in this policy statement, it contributes to strengthen the importance of PSA in the regulatory process with respect to deterministic safety assessments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse (PSA) wird international intensiv angewendet. Genutzt werden in erster Linie die qualitativen Resultate im Hinblick auf die Beurteilung der Ausgewogenheit der Auslegung von Kernkraftwerken und der Identifizierung moeglicher Schwachstellen. Die Entwicklung

  15. Administrative Assistant - Policy and Planning | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the supervision of the Director, Policy and Planning, the administrative assistant provides operational and administrative support to the Director and the Policy and Planning team (consisting of the Senior Policy Analyst and the Research Officer) in carrying out the activities of the Group. Performing a ...

  16. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  17. 32 CFR 631.16 - Navy policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Navy policy. 631.16 Section 631.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.16 Navy policy. The...

  18. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran región septentrional de Brasil, la Amazonia, que por varios siglos ha representado un enorme vacío y una potencial fuente de riqueza, ha sido objeto durante el último medio siglo de un acelerado proceso de ocupación y puesta en explotación de forma intensiva. Una dinámica de apropiación apreciable, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, cuando la materialización de la red terrestre que ha articulado la margen derecha del gran río facilitó la incursión de los recursos humanos y financieros en el hinterland amazónico.Una red que ha reestructurado el espacio regional, al que daba sentido la malla fluvial y la débil red de lugares, configurada por los núcleos de población surgidos en las orillas de los cauces. Santarém, una ciudad histórica con una localización estratégica entre los dos mayores centros urbanos amazónicos, ha sido palco de enormes transformaciones desde la construcción de las carreteras, pues ligada mediante la Cuibá-Santarém al Centro Oeste de Brasil y a través de la Transamazônica al Nordeste brasileño y a la Amazonia Occidental ha pasado a desempeñar un importante papel como nexo articulador en la región Norte. Al mismo tiempo, se erige como el principal asentamiento humano de esta vasta región central, dirigiendo un proceso emergente de construcción regional.La grande région septentrionale du Brésil, l'Amazonie, qui durant plusieurs siècles n’a représenté qu’un énorme vide et une source de richesse potentielle, a fait l'objet pendant le dernier demi-siècle d'un processus accéléré d’occupation et d’une mise en exploitation intensive. Une forte dynamique d'appropriation a facilité l'incursion de nouvelles ressources humaines et financières dans l’hinterland amazonien, spécialement au cours des trois dernières décennies, quand la réalisation d’un réseau terrestre a articulé la rive droite de la grande rivière.Ce réseau a restructuré l'espace r

  19. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity": Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-07-20

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... and is financed by consumers, while deficiency payments operate in the so-called low price system and are financed by taxpayers. In the high price system, support is given mainly by means of import regulations, etc., which ensure a relatively high domestic price. In the low price system, support is given by means...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...

  1. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  2. Tropical Forest Backscatter Anomaly Evident in SeaWinds Scatterometer Morning Overpass Data During 2005 Drought in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, S. E.; Milliman, T.; Palace, M. W.; Wisser, D.; Lammers, R. B.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    A severe drought occurred in many portions of Amazonia in the dry season (June-September) of 2005. We analyzed ten years (7/99-10/09) of SeaWinds active microwave Ku-band backscatter data collected over the Amazon Basin, developing a monthly climatology and monthly anomalies from that climatology in an effort to detect landscape responses to this drought. We compared these to seasonal accumulating water deficit anomalies generated using Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data (1999-2009) and 100 mm/mo evapotranspirative demand as a water deficit threshold. There was significant interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter only for ascending (early morning) overpass data, and little interannual variability in monthly mean backscatter for descending (late afternoon) overpass data. Strong negative anomalies in both ascending-overpass backscatter and accumulating water deficit developed during July-October 2005, centered on the southwestern Amazon Basin (Acre and western Amazonas states in Brazil; Madre de Dios state in Peru; Pando state in Bolivia). During the 2005 drought, there was a strong spatial correlation between morning overpass backscatter anomalies and water deficit anomalies. We hypothesize that as the drought persisted over several months, the forest canopy was increasingly unable to recover full leaf moisture content over night, and the early morning overpass backscatter data became anomalously low. This is the first reporting of tropical wet forest seasonal drought detection by active microwave scatterometry.

  3. Territorio y Poder: La reivindicación territorial de los indígenas de la amazonia boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Canedo Vásquez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende mostrar la centralidad que tiene el territorio y la demanda territorial para los grupos indígenas de la amazonia boliviana. El territorio tiene un papel importante en la reproducción cultural y en la organización política. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la provincia Mojos del departamento del Beni, y muestra que el manejo territorial itinerante y la percepción del territorio que tenían los grupos indígenas se ha transformado a partir del marco estatal –concretamente desde la ley INRA–. Hoy en día los indígenas demandan títulos de propiedad de los espacios ocupados, ante el avasallamiento de los blancos/karayanas. Es así que aquella concepción ilimitada del territorio, propio de los pueblos panindios, se ha transformado, pues en la actualidad los indígenas perciben un territorio limitado, cercado por propiedades privadas. Sin embargo, el territorio al convertirse en una de las demandas centrales de la organización indígena, es el elemento que les permite posicionarse políticamente en un escenario local y nacional.

  4. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  5. Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José T F; Sahoo, Prafulla K; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Figueiredo, Mariana M J Costa DE; Reis, Luiza S; Silva, Marcio S DA; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M

    2017-07-24

    Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.

  6. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  7. Hydro-edaphic conditions defining richness and species composition in savanna areas of the northern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maria Aparecida de Moura; da Rocha, Antônio Elielson Sousa; Miranda, Izildinha de Souza; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2017-01-01

    Studies on plant communities in the Amazon have reported that different hydro-edaphic conditions can affect the richness and the species composition of different ecosystems. However, this aspect is poorly known in the different savanna habitats. Understanding how populations and plant communities are distributed in these open vegetation areas is important to improve the knowledge about which environmental variables influence the occurrence and diversity of plants in this type of regional ecosystem. Thus, this study investigated the richness and composition of plant species in two savanna areas of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, using the coverage (%) of the different life forms observed under different hydro-edaphic conditions as a structural reference. We report 128 plant species classified in 34 botanical families distributed in three savanna habitats with different levels of hydro-edaphic restrictions. In this study, the habitats are conceptually presented and they integrate environmental information (edaphic factors and drainage type), which determines differences between floristic composition, species richness and coverage (%) of plant life forms.

  8. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2018-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females. Body condition and plasmatic concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, lactate and uric acid of nesting females were significantly different from those of non-nesting females and males in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Our study also demonstrated that nest age and distance to water had a negative effect on female body condition in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Female C. crocodilus attending older nests or nests built further away from permanent water bodies tended to have lower body condition. Our results demonstrate that the nesting strategy of C. crocodilus has a metabolic cost associated with nest attendance for nesting females, which appear to depend on accumulated energetic reserves during nest attendance. In contrast, nest attendance had little effect on the physiology of female M. niger.

  9. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  10. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population.

  11. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  12. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Amazonia: a comparison of sex-biased incidence among rural settlers and field biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is more frequently reported in men than in women; this may be due to male-biased exposure to CL vectors, female-biased resistance against the disease or both. We sought to determine whether gender-specific exposure to vector habitats explains male-biased CL incidence in two human populations of central Amazonia. We compared the CL incidence in one population of field researchers (N = 166), with similar exposure for males and females, and one population of rural settlers (N = 646), where exposure is overall male-biased. We used a combination of questionnaires and clinical data to quantify CL cases, and modelled disease incidence in a Bayesian framework. There was a moderately higher incidence of CL among men than among women in both populations, but male bias decreased as exposure time increased. Disease incidence was overall higher among field researchers, suggesting that they are an important but understudied CL risk group. Our comparison of two contrasting populations provided epidemiological evidence that CL incidence can be male-biased even when exposure is comparable in both sexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  14. The cost of traditional universalization of attending electric power at the Brazilian rural Amazonia; O custo da universalizacao tradicional do atendimento de energia eletrica da Amazonia rural brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo Di; Dias, Elizabete Moreira; Melo, Ana Teresa Siqueira [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Depto. de Eng. Eletrica]. E-mails: marcodilascio@unb.br; bete.cead@gmail.com; anateresa22@bol.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a research performed on preliminary character by the Project Equinocious from University of Brasilia, on the investments required to universalize the attending of electric energy to the rural area of the legal brazilian amazon. The study was based on various field survey performed in four region states. Initially a panoram of the present situation was performed, in which prevails the lack of regular electric power supply. Afterwards the paper describes the conditions that orient the traditional planning to universalize the electric power supply. The distributed generation to the isolated communities and residences deserved a spatial emphasis due to the special significance for great part of the investment. The study highlights some points of the legislation which needs to be adequate to the local reality, in order to make possible the cost of implantation reduction and the operation and maintenance expenses. And last but not least it is discussed the validity of the existent model when it was indicated the lack of economic sustainability because the few return to be obtained with the sale of electric energy.

  15. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Gen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve.

  16. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  17. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  18. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  19. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  20. Ostracods biostratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene carbonate platform in the Northeastern Amazonia coast and its correlation with the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anna Andressa Evangelista; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Oligocene-Miocene ostracods biozones are proposed for the ∼65 m-thick platform carbonate succession exposed in the Northeastern Amazonia coast, Brazil. Previous biostratigraphic studies based on planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and palynomorphs are poorly age constrained and have hindered the correlation with other units of the Atlantic Equatorial margin. Tectonic stability of the Northeastern Amazonia coast during Neogene, associated with reduced riverine inflow and continuous sea level rise, allowed the establishment of lagoon/mangroves, tidal channel and shallow platform settings favoring massive proliferation of benthic ostracods. The recurrence of these depositional systems along of entire Oligocene-Miocene succession contributed mainly for the preservation of typical assemblages of lagoonal ostracods. Among thirty-two ostracods genera identified, the most of them are generally polyhalines associated with a mesohaline genus as Perissocytheridea. Rare ostracods genera typical of offshore zone indicate limited oceanic connection with lagoon. Additionally, the rare presence of Cyprideis indicates a relatively stable salinity degree suggesting change in the lagoon dynamic until estuarine conditions. The ostracods comprise more than 100 species, ranging from Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene with five index species correspondent to a single zone called the Cytherella stainforthi Zone that was subdivided in four sub-biozones: 1) Jugosocythereis pannosa, 2) Quadracythere brachypygaia, 3) Triebelina crumena and 4) Neocaudites macertus. This new zonation was calibrated with the Blow's and Wade's planktonic foraminifers zones (N.3 to N.7 zones corresponding to O6 to M4b of Wade) and with van den Bold's zonation in the Neogene Caribbean region. Ostracod assemblages described here provide an excellent biostragraphic framework for local, intrabasinal and regional correlation for the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Northeastern Amazonia coast and Caribbean regions

  1. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  2. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  3. ¿Por qué estudiar la formación histórica y la problemática actual de la Amazonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Amayo Zevallos

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo trata la Amazonia como una región sudamericana, o sea, la considera independientemente de sus fronteras nacionales. Eso es así porque su punto de partida metodológico asume que la historia y los problemas de la totalidad amazónica trascienden y son más complejos que los que corresponden a la mera suma de las historias y problemas de las ocho regiones amazónicas nacionales (correspondientes a Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Perú, Surina...

  4. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  5. TIPNIS y Amazonia: Contradicciones en la agenda ecológica de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calla Ortega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The ecological agenda of the government of Evo Morales shows great contradictions. In international meetings it presents itself as the radical defender of the environmental rights of the Latin American peoples. In its own country, it pursues developmentalist policies which are based on the extraction of natural resources. This policy is causing large conflicts within the country. The most striking has been over the construction of a highway through the national park of TIPNIS. The contradiction between its in-ternational position and internal policies, which are far less green, is causing severe damage to the credibility of the Morales government, within and outside the country.Resumen:La agenda ecológica del gobierno de Evo Morales demuestra grandes contradicciones. En los encuentros internacionales se presen-ta como un defensor radical de los derechos ecológicos de los pueblos latinoamericanos. En su propio país está persiguiendo un pro-yecto desarrollista basado en la extracción de recursos nacionales. Esta política está causando grandes conflictos dentro del país. La más llamativa ha sido sobre la construc-ción de una autopista por el parque nacional del TIPNIS. La contradicción entre su pos-tura internacional y una política mucho me-nos verde al interior está dañando aguda-mente la credibilidad del gobierno de Mora-les dentro y fuera del país.

  6. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  7. Competition policy costs to firms

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, André Demmich Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of competition policy forces companies to adjust their behaviour. This is also costly. Using a database from a company on contracts, I will try to estimate if a specific competition policy disposition, supply contracts cannot be longer than 60 months, has costs for the coffee suppliers operating in the Portuguese “on-trade” coffee market. The estimation method used in this paper will be OLS. The results suggest that limiting the duration of exclusivity contracts t...

  8. Greener manufacturing and operations: from design to delivery and back

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkis, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph Sarkis, Clark University Graduate School of Management, USA 11 15 part 1. 1 : Operations Strategy and Policy...

  9. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  10. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  11. High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity, cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Leonardo; Barbieri, Chiara; Barreto, Guillermo; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2018-02-01

    Northwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups. We collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×. The mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations. Contrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little-studied region of the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elemental Mixing State of Dry Season Aerosols in Central Amazonia During GoAmazon2014/15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Bonanno, D.; Harder, T.; Wang, B.; Brito, J.; de Sá, S. S.; Carbone, S.; China, S.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Pöhlker, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2017-12-01

    The extent of aerosol aging as they travel over time and distance is complex and not well understood. To better understand this process, particle samples from three sites in Central Amazonia were collected as part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign during the dry season of 2014. The sites are as follows: site T3 (near Manacapuru, downwind from metropolitan Manaus), site ZF2 (also TT34, T0t, 80 km north of T3), and the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, also T0a, 170 km northwest of T3). With these samples, two techniques were used on the exact same region on each sample. First, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy/Near Edge Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) was used to quantify elemental masses of C, N, and O, followed by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) to quantify elemental masses for Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn. K-means cluster analysis was conducted on data set, which identified 12 particle clusters based on size, and elemental composition. Samples from the ATTO site had the least cluster diversity whereas the other two sampling sites showed an increase in the number of particle classes present. This data also allowed for individual particle diversity and mixing state parameters to be calculated. From this, mixing state parameters were universally high (χ > 0.8) and had a large uncertainty due to the varied particle types identified in clustering. Two diversity populations were also observed, one at 2.4 and another at 3.6 suggesting a distinction between fresh and aged aerosol. The high diversity population wasn't observed at site T3 due to the large number of fresh emissions from Manaus.

  13. Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on the climate of Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.H.; Foley, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: (1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and (2) concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO{sub 2} concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate. In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day{sup {minus}1} over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day{sup {minus}1}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day{sup {minus}1}. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations both tent to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO{sub 2}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5 C.

  14. Determinants of plant community assembly in a mosaic of landscape units in central Amazonia: ecological and phylogenetic perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Natalia Umaña

    Full Text Available The Amazon harbours one of the richest ecosystems on Earth. Such diversity is likely to be promoted by plant specialization, associated with the occurrence of a mosaic of landscape units. Here, we integrate ecological and phylogenetic data at different spatial scales to assess the importance of habitat specialization in driving compositional and phylogenetic variation across the Amazonian forest. To do so, we evaluated patterns of floristic dissimilarity and phylogenetic turnover, habitat association and phylogenetic structure in three different landscape units occurring in terra firme (Hilly and Terrace and flooded forests (Igapó. We established two 1-ha tree plots in each of these landscape units at the Caparú Biological Station, SW Colombia, and measured edaphic, topographic and light variables. At large spatial scales, terra firme forests exhibited higher levels of species diversity and phylodiversity than flooded forests. These two types of forests showed conspicuous differences in species and phylogenetic composition, suggesting that environmental sorting due to flood is important, and can go beyond the species level. At a local level, landscape units showed floristic divergence, driven both by geographical distance and by edaphic specialization. In terms of phylogenetic structure, Igapó forests showed phylogenetic clustering, whereas Hilly and Terrace forests showed phylogenetic evenness. Within plots, however, local communities did not show any particular trend. Overall, our findings suggest that flooded forests, characterized by stressful environments, impose limits to species occurrence, whereas terra firme forests, more environmentally heterogeneous, are likely to provide a wider range of ecological conditions and therefore to bear higher diversity. Thus, Amazonia should be considered as a mosaic of landscape units, where the strength of habitat association depends upon their environmental properties.

  15. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano Torres, Patricia; Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources-especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests-is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point.

  16. Vegetation changes and human impact inferred from an oxbow lake in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil since the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zorro, Paula A.; Enters, Dirk; Hermanowski, Barbara; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Pollen and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analyses from a 272 cm-long sediment core of Lago Amapá, an oxbow lake in western Amazonia, reveal the first palaeoecological investigation of late Holocene sediments in Acre state, Brazil. Radiocarbon dating of older sediments failed due to re-deposition of organic material but a historical map suggests that lacustrine deposition started at 1900 AD. We detected two periods of changes in sediment and vegetation, dominated by pioneer taxa especially Cecropia. The first period around 1900 AD is documenting an initial oxbow lake, with regular fluvial input (high Ti) and low accumulation of organic matter (low inc/coh ratio). During that period Andean pollen taxa originating from Peruvian Andean headwaters were deposited. A fully lacustrine phase started about 1950 AD and is characterized by prolonged periods of stagnant water (low Fe/Mn ratio). The increase of pioneer taxa, sedimentation rates and a reduction of most of the XRF element counts point to a period during which Lago Amapá was a more isolated lake which was flooded only during exceptional severe flood events and is catching mainly anthropogenic disturbances. The extensive human influence during this period was assumed by 1) the high occurrence of pioneer taxa and the absence of charcoal which could indicate changes in vegetation possibly as a result of logging, 2) the Ca and Ti/K ratio which reflect changes to a local sediment source, and 3) comparison of Landsat images from the last 30 years which shows broad changes in vegetation cover and land transformation in the peripheral areas of the oxbow lake.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon and pCO2 in two small streams draining different soil types in Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete dos Santos Sousa, Cleber Ibraim Salimon, Reynaldo Luiz Victoria, Alex Vladimir Krusche, Simone Rebecca Alin, Nei Kavaguichi Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC andpCO2 concentrations in two third order streams in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. From May2004 to June 2005 water dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature weremeasured to stream water chemical and physical description. DIC and pCO2 measurementswere made by headspace extraction and gas samples for pCO2 and DIC extractions were runon an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR Instruments model LI-820. Results indicate arelationship between soil type and water chemistry, where sandy soil stream presented lowerpH than silty soil stream – consequently DIC and pCO2 concentrations also varied with soiltype. Mean DIC concentration for sitly soil stream was 403±130 μM month-1, while sandy soilstream DIC concentration was 170±59 μM month-1. Free CO2 was the dominant form of DICin both streams. Nevertheless, HCO3- contribuition to DIC was greater for the silty soil stream.DIC contentration also varied seasonally with greater values in the drier period. AbsolutepCO2 values were greater for silty soil stream, mean 3067±1228 Iatm month-1 and2321±1020 Iatm month-1 for sandy soil stream. Seasonality, pCO2 was higher in the dryseason in both streams. Our findings have important implications on the role of soil type inwater chemistry and carbon dynamics and also are used in other studies on carbon balance atthe landscape level.

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon and pCO2 in two small streams draining different soil types in Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rebecca Alin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and pCO2 concentrations in two third order streams in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. From May 2004 to June 2005 water dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature were measured to stream water chemical and physical description. DIC and pCO2 measurements were made by headspace extraction and gas samples for pCO2 and DIC extractions were run on an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR Instruments model LI-820. Results indicate a relationship between soil type and water chemistry, where sandy soil stream presented lower pH than silty soil stream – consequently DIC and pCO2 concentrations also varied with soil type. Mean DIC concentration for sitly soil stream was 403±130 ?M month-1, while sandy soil stream DIC concentration was 170±59 ?M month-1. Free CO2 was the dominant form of DIC in both streams. Nevertheless, HCO3- contribuition to DIC was greater for the silty soil stream. DIC contentration also varied seasonally with greater values in the drier period. Absolute pCO2 values were greater for silty soil stream, mean 3067±1228 µatm month-1 and 2321±1020 µatm month-1 for sandy soil stream. Seasonality, pCO2 was higher in the dry season in both streams. Our findings have important implications on the role of soil type in water chemistry and carbon dynamics and also are used in other studies on carbon balance at the landscape level.

  19. Desmatamento na Amazônia: dinâmica, impactos e controle Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, impacts and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento na Amazônia procede a um alto ritmo por várias razões, muitas das quais dependem de decisões do governo. O desmatamento leva à perda de serviços ambientais, que têm um valor maior que os usos pouco sustentáveis que substituem a floresta. Estes serviços incluem a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono que evitam o agravamento do efeito estufa. Retroalimentações entre as mudanças climáticas e a floresta, por meio de processos tais como os incêndios florestais, a mortalidade de árvores por seca e calor e a liberação de estoques de carbono no solo, representam ameaças para o clima, a floresta e a população brasileira. Eventos recentes indicam que o desmatamento pode ser controlado, tendo a vontade política, pois os processos subjacentes dependem de decisões humanas.Deforestation in Amazonia proceeds at a rapid rate for various reasons, many of which depend on government decisions. Deforestation causes losses of environmental services that are more valuable than the short-lived uses that replace the forest. These services include maintenance of biodiversity, of water cycling and of the stocks of carbon that avoid further intensification of the greenhouse effect. Feedbacks between climatic changes and the forest through such processes as forest fires, tree mortality from drought and heat and the release of carbon stocks in the soil represent dangers for the climate, the forest and the Brazilian population. Recent events indicate that deforestation can be controlled, given the political will, because the underlying processes depend on human decisions.

  20. Late Quaternary sedimentary dynamics in Western Amazonia: Implications for the origin of open vegetation/forest contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Bertani, T. C.; Zani, H.; Cremon, E. H.; Hayakawa, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    This work investigated the evolution of sedimentary environments during the latest Quaternary and their influence on the paradoxical occurrence of open vegetation patches in sharp contact with the Amazonian forest. The approach integrated pre-existing geological and floristic data from lowlands in the Brazilian Amazonia, with remote sensing imagery including multispectral optical images (TM, ETM+, and ASTER), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), InSAR C-band SRTM-DEMs, and high resolution images obtained from Google Earth™. The detection of an abundance of paleomorphologies provided evidence of a scenario in which constant environmental shifts were linked to the evolution of fluvial and megafan depositional systems. In all studied areas, the open vegetation patches are not random, but associated with sedimentary deposits representative of environments either deactivated during the Holocene or presently in the process of deactivation. Sedimentary evolution would have determined the distribution of wetlands and terra firme in many areas of the Amazonian lowlands, and would have a major impact on the development of open vegetated patches within the modern rainforest. Subsiding areas were filled up with megafan deposits, and many fluvial tributaries were rearranged on the landscape. The close relationship between vegetation and the physical environment suggests that sedimentary history related to the evolution of depositional settings during the latest Quaternary played a major role in the distribution of flooded and non-flooded areas of the Amazonian lowlands, with a direct impact on the distribution of modern floristic patterns. As the depositional sites were abandoned and their sedimentary deposits were exposed to the surface, they became sites suitable for vegetation growth, first of herbaceous species and then of forest. Although climate fluctuations might have been involved, fault reactivation appears to have been the main cause of changes in

  1. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...

  2. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  3. Trade-offs among forest value components in community forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Baraloto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion has focused on policy options, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the potential for trade-offs among different tropical forest value components. We assessed multiple components of forest value, including tree diversity, carbon stocks, and both timber and nontimber forest product resources, in forest communities across the trinational frontier of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. We installed 69 0.5-ha vegetation plots in local communities, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot. Principal components analyses revealed two major axes of forest value, the first of which defined a trade-off between diversity of woody plant communities (taxonomic and functional versus aboveground biomass and standing timber volume. The second axis described abundance of commercial species, with strong positive loadings for density of timber and nontimber forest products, including Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.. The observed trade-off between different components of forest value suggests a potential for management conflicts prioritizing biodiversity conservation versus carbon stocks in the region. We discuss the potential for integrative indices of forest value for tropical forest conservation.

  4. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  5. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de Colombia y que podría ser un sustituto para los cultivos ilícitos. Si somos hábiles en logra establecer el cultivo del arazá. En reglones con características ecológicas adecuadas para esta especie en corto tiempo, obtendremos un fruto para el consumo humano y su usa extensivo en Colombia.

  6. Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marengo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment, with a focus on the 2014–2015 rainy season. In addition, global reanalyses are also used to identify changes in circulation leading to the establishment of the rainy season in the region. Our results show that the onset occurred in January 2015, 2–3 pentads later than normal, and the rainy season during the austral summer of 2015 contained several periods with consecutive dry days in both Manacapuru and Manaus, which are not common for the wet season, and resulted in below-normal precipitation. The onset of the rainy season has been strongly associated with changes in large-scale weather conditions in the region due to the effect of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO. Regional thermodynamic indices and the height of the boundary layer did not present a significant difference between the onset and demise of the wet season of 2015. This suggests that local changes, such as those in the regional thermodynamic characteristics, may not have influenced its onset. Thus, variability of the large-scale circulation was responsible for regional convection and rainfall changes in Amazonia during the austral summer of 2014–2015.

  7. Air drilling: the first experience in the Amazon; Perfuracao a ar: primeira experiencia na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Gabriel Raimundo L.; Santana, Esdras Gomes de; Souza, Gilberto Bellas de [PETROBRAS, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Amazonia. Superintendencia de Operacoes; Leme Junior, Leandro; Machado, Jorge Barreto [PETROBRAS, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Amazonia. Div. de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The development of drilling techniques closely follows the difficulties of operating well events at low costs. In the Amazon Region, problems such as logistic support at high costs did not allow for the use of air drilling techniques as a means of obtaining the results necessary to the development of the field. Without these, there was no justification for promoting initial investments in air drilling equipment. After the Urucu/AM roads were completed, we were able to bring equipment to the area of operation. This equipment was tested in two wells, one directional and one vertical. In this paper, we describe the pioneer use of air drilling in their region and present the results obtained through it as well as the problems encountered and the techniques used to solve them. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  9. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  10. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  11. Abundancia de actinomicetes y micorrizas arbusculares en paisajes fragmentados de la Amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Gladys I. Cardona

    2005-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    Se evalúo la abundancia de actinomicetes y hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (MA en suelos bajo coberturas de bosque y pasto, en una zona de colonización de la Amazonia colombiana con tres grados de transformación antrópica. Se realizó una estratificación espacial de la fragmentación del paisaje de tierra firme, en cercanías de San Jos

  12. Inter- and transdisciplinary scenario construction to explore future land-use options in southern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Schönenberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to present a novel approach for developing story lines and scenarios by combining qualitative knowledge and quantitative data from different disciplines and discussing the results with relevant decision makers. This research strategy offers a solid foundation for perspectives into the future. The "laboratory" is the Brazilian Amazon, one of the hotspots of land-use change where local and global interests both collide and converge: local livelihoods are affected by regional and global climate change and by the loss of biodiversity caused by local and global economic interests in agro-industrial land use; such use contributes, in turn, to climate change. After decades of diverse policy interventions the question arises: What can we learn from past trajectories for a more sustainable development in the future? To answer this question, we combined qualitative story lines for the region, reviewed by local experts, with quantitative land-use scenarios, to study their regional and local manifestations in space. These results were then discussed again with local and national experts. Our findings suggest that in-depth knowledge of the diverging perspectives at a very local level is a fundamental prerequisite for downscaling global scenarios and upscaling local approaches to sustainable land-use management and thus, to producing communicable and applicable results.

  13. Evaluating Water Use for Agricultural Intensification in Southern Amazonia Using the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lathuillière

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT, Brazil, with the objectives of (1 tracking blue (as surface water and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation consumption in recent years (2000, 2014; and (2 evaluating agricultural intensification options for future years (2030, 2050 considering the effects of deforestation and climate change on water availability in the basin. The agricultural sector was the largest consumer of water in the basin despite there being almost no irrigation of cropland or pastures. In addition to water use by crops and pasture grass, water consumption attributed to cattle production included evaporation from roughly 9463 ha of small farm reservoirs used to provide drinking water for cattle in 2014. The WFSA showed that while blue and green water consumptive uses were within sustainable limits in 2014, deforestation, cattle confinement, and the use of irrigation to increase cropping frequency could drive water use to unsustainable levels in the future. While land management policies and practices should strive for protection of the remaining natural vegetation, increased agricultural production will require reservoir and irrigation water management to reduce the potential threat of blue water scarcity in the dry season. In addition to providing general guidance for future water allocation decisions in the basin, our study offers an interpretation of blue and green water scarcities with changes in land use and climate in a rapidly evolving agricultural frontier.

  14. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: The effect of population and land tenure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    LANDSAT data for 1978 and 1988-1991 indicate that by 1991 the area of forest cleared had reached 426 000 km 2 (10.5% of the 4 million km 2 originally forested portion of Brazil's 5 million km 2 Legal Amazon Region). Over the 1978-1988 period, forest was lost at a rate of 22 000 km 2 /yr (including hydroelectric flooding), while the rate was 19 000 km 2 /yr for 1988-1989, 14 000 km 2 /yr for 1989-1990 and 11 000 km 2 /yr for 1990-1991. The reduction in the rate since 1987 has mostly been due to Brazil's economic recession rather than to any policy changes. The number of properties censused in each size class explains 74% of the variation in deforestation rate among the 9 Amazonian states. Multiple regressions indicate that 30% of the clearing in 1991 can be attributed to small farmers (properties <100 ha in area), and the remaining 70% to either medium or large ranchers. The social cost of reducing deforestation rates would therefore be much less than is implied by frequent pronouncements that blame 'poverty' for environmental problems in the region. 46 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.

    1991-01-01

    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  16. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...... of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive...... results. In the broader sense, however, there is a limited used of available methods and technologies. Barriers for the use of sustainable building operation have been identified, and related to different types of ownership (social housing, private rented, owner-occupied and private co-ops). The survey...

  17. Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Costa-da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  18. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2016-07-02

    A huge wetland (the 'Pebas system') covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species ( Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma . We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical-tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ 18 O, δ 13 C) on co-occurring ostracod valves ( Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  19. From forest to cropland and pasture systems: a critical review of soil organic carbon stocks changes in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kenji; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Desjardins, Thierry; Bernoux, Martial; Balbino, Luiz Carlos; Brossard, Michel

    2015-02-26

    The impact of deforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important in the context of climate change and agricultural soil use. Trends of SOC stock changes after agroecosystem establishment vary according to the spatial scale considered, and factors explaining these trends may differ sometimes according to meta-analyses. We have reviewed the knowledge about changes in SOC stocks in Amazonia after the establishment of pasture or cropland, sought relationships between observed changes and soil, climatic variables and management practices, and synthesized the δ 13 C measured in pastures. Our dataset consisted of 21 studies mostly synchronic, across 52 sites (Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname), totalling 70 forest-agroecosystem comparisons. We found that pastures (n = 52, mean age = 17.6 years) had slightly higher SOC stocks than forest (+6.8 ± 3.1 %), whereas croplands (n = 18, mean age = 8.7 years) had lower SOC stocks than forest (-8.5 ± 2.9 %). Annual precipitation and SOC stocks under forest had no effect on the SOC changes in the agroecosystems. For croplands, we found a lower SOC loss than other meta-analyses, but the short time period after deforestation here could have reduced this loss. There was no clear effect of tillage on the SOC response. Management of pastures, whether they were degraded/nominal/improved, had no significant effect on SOC response. δ 13 C measurements on 16 pasture chronosequences showed that decay of forest-derived SOC was variable, whereas pasture-derived SOC was less so and was characterized by an accumulation plateau of 20 Mg SOC ha -1 after 20 years. The large uncertainties in SOC response observed could be derived from the chronosequence approach, sensitive to natural soil variability and to human management practices. This study emphasizes the need for diachronic and long-term studies, associated with better knowledge of agroecosystem management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for