WorldWideScience

Sample records for policies inevitably exert

  1. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  2. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  3. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gazprom, or the inevitable headlong rush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2007-01-01

    With 32% of world gas reserves and 644 Gm 3 of gas production in 2006, Russia is the world number one of gas production. 85% of this production is covered by Gazprom company which is the holder of the Russian gas transport and export monopoly. The European Union dependence of Gazprom exports, the links between Gazprom and other gas producers, like Sonatrach, the first steps of Gazprom in European domestic markets and the rough and authoritative relations with its immediate neighbours make the Russian company an inevitable energy actor and the privileged relay of Moscow's policy. But, is Gazprom really this omnipotent giant and how strong is it really inside its own market and own borders? This article tries to answer these questions. It describes the Russian gas market and the specificities of the Russian gas offer, the institutional evolutions of the Russian gas industry, and the gas relations between Russia and the CIS. (J.S.)

  5. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  6. Inevitable caesarean myomectomy; a case report | Igwegbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical caesarean section in spite of its risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies had been prescribed in its place.We report a case of a 32 year old nullipara who had an inevitable removal of a huge intramural fibroid in order to assess the baby. A high dose oxytocin infusion, and skillful surgery ensured minimal ...

  7. FEMINISM AND COSMOPOLITANISM: SOME INEVITABLE CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELENA NEAGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will approach the issue of feminism and cosmopolitanism in order to give arguments in sustaining the fact that, today, feminism and cosmopolitanism are inevitable connected. In constructing my discourse I will begin by laying out the main ideas of cosmopolitanism, followed by a presentation of the construction of the feminist movement over time, inter-relating these two discourses at the end of the analysis. Connected with political ethics, political theory and political philosophy, the theoretical framework selected for this paper is based on the cosmopolitan theory developed by scholars like Martha Nussbaum, Fiona Robinson and Kwame Anthony Appaih who, underlining universality, define cosmopolitism as a universal concern with every human life and its well-being, but who are also giving value to the differences (seen as cultural or/ and of identity insofar as they are not harmful to people.

  8. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  9. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian–Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause–effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments. PMID:21833199

  10. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  11. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's more common in athletes who participate in activities that involve repetitive impact, such as running. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome ... and female athletes under 30. Type of exercise. Repetitive impact activity — such as running or fast walking — increases your ...

  12. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adrian P

    2017-02-01

    Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3-5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms "error" and "discrepancy" and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and system-based. Possible strategies to minimise error are considered, along with the means of dealing with perceived underperformance when it is identified. The inevitability of imperfection is explained, while the importance of striving to minimise such imperfection is emphasised. • Discrepancies between radiology reports and subsequent patient outcomes are not inevitably errors. • Radiologist reporting performance cannot be perfect, and some errors are inevitable. • Error or discrepancy in radiology reporting does not equate negligence. • Radiologist errors occur for many reasons, both human- and system-derived. • Strategies exist to minimise error causes and to learn from errors made.

  13. The inevitability of knotting: Polymers, filaments and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Stu

    Knots are ubiquitous in physics and in biology. They occur in biopolymers such as DNA and proteins, in vortices in fluids, in optical beams, in liquid crystals and in surfaces. Indeed, long flexible objects are knotted with high probability. This talk will review some rigorous results about the inevitability of knotting in ring polymers and in surfaces, and will discuss the extension of these results to other physical systems. For many lattice models one can prove that knotting is a high probability event, by showing that a local structure that ensures knotting occurs with high probability somewhere in large flexible structures.

  14. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  15. Inevitable surface dependence of some operator products and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemoto, Kazuyasu; Tanaka, Azuma; Taguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    In general even in local theory the operator products at the same space-time point must be considered as a limit of non-local products. It is natural to confine non-locality on a space-like surface. In this case some operator products with three or more constituents possess an inevitable and purely quantum-mechanical surface dependence. Taking the pion-nucleon system as an example, we explicitly calculate in the order of g 2 this kind of the surface dependence of the interaction Hamiltonian. In order to obtain a consistent theory, this surface is required to be identified with the space-like surface in the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation. Then the interaction Hamiltonian needs an additional, non-canonical and surface-dependent term, which can be derived uniquely from the canonical Hamiltonian. The integrability of the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation is proved by taking account of this surface dependence together with the gradient term in the equal-time commutator. (auth.)

  16. Obesity in menopause – our negligence or an unfortunate inevitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kozakowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous concerns about menopause exist among women, and fear of an increase in body weight is one of the most important of them. This paper presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity related to menopause and about the mechanisms of its development, with particular regard to the hormonal changes that occur during this period of life. The role of estrogens in the regulation of energy balance and the effect of sex hormones on metabolism of adipose tissue and other organs are presented. The consequence of the sharp decline in the secretion of estrogens with subsequent relative hyperandrogenemia is briefly discussed. The main intention of this review is to clarify what is inevitable and what perhaps results from negligence and unhealthy lifestyles. In the last part of the paper the possibilities of counteracting the progress of adverse changes in body composition, by promoting beneficial lifestyle modifications and the use of hormonal substitution treatment, in cases where it is reasonable and possible, are described.

  17. The inevitable colonisation of Singapore by Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dale; Cutter, Jeffery

    2016-11-21

    Singapore is endemic for Dengue virus, with approximately 10,000 to 20,000 annual cases reported in recent years. In 2012, Chikungunya was introduced, although the numbers of cases reported is much fewer. The current Zika virus pandemic originating in Brazil represents a threat to all regions with Aedes mosquitoes, particularly those well connected by travellers. In this respect, it was felt inevitable that Singapore would eventually realise its third endemic flavivirus. In late August 2016, a primary care practitioner observed a cluster of geographically linked patients attending with fever and rash. This resulted in the first identification of locally transmitted Zika in Singapore on August 27, 2016. This prompted a robust response in an attempt to stop further spread, which continued for approximately 10 days until a large number of laboratory-confirmed cases were found as a result of active case finding. Surprisingly, the strain was later identified to be of Asian lineage and distinct from that originating in the Americas, prompting speculation over the epidemiology of this under recognised virus in Asia.

  18. [Inactivated poliovirus vaccines: an inevitable choice for eliminating poliomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, J D; Jean-Denis, Shu

    2016-12-06

    The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries. Very good protection against paralysis is achieved with IPV through the presence of circulating antibodies able to neutralize virus infectivity toward motor neurons. In addition, with IPV, a variable degree of protection against mucosal infection (and therefore transmission) through mucosal antibodies and immune cells is achieved, depending on previous exposure of subjects to wildtype or vaccine polioviruses. The use of an IPV-followed-by-OPV sequential immunization schedule has the potential advantage of eliminating the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) risk, while limiting the risks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPVs). Sabin strain-derived IPVs are new tools, only recently beginning to be deployed, and data are being generated to document their performance. IPVs will play an irreplaceable role in global eradication of polio.

  19. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  20. Inevitability of nuclear power in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Asian region, most populous and fastest growing in terms of economic growth, has countries with lowest per capita energy/electricity consumption. Barring the Middle East, the rest of the region is, by and large, modest in conventional energy resources. This is also a region where large sections of population suffer from income inequality and inadequate economic development. Economic growth and quality of life of a population depend heavily on per capita availability of energy/electricity, and thus there is an urgent need to increase the per capita electricity production/consumption in the region. Unlike in the past, it is the Asian region that is poised to dwarf the today's developed world in new capacity addition in the coming years. This fact alone asks for sensible choices to be made. Also, the Asian region is quite vulnerable to the effects of climate change, given the geography and population distribution. Today, governments must seriously consider the environmental impact of electricity generation, in order to help mitigate global warming and its consequences. Nuclear power, being environmentally benign, affords sustainability at the very outset. But that's not all. The other compelling reasons in favour of nuclear power are its compact nature as a source of energy and the promise of long-term energy security. Nuclear power is, therefore, inevitable for the region. Recognising this, the rapidly developing countries in the region - such as India and China - are pursuing ambitious nuclear power programmes, while several other countries in the region are also planning to embark on the nuclear power route for electricity generation. As nuclear power is inherently technology-intensive, there is a need for greater cooperation, to reach out to countries that presently do not have the technology base for starting nuclear power programmes on their own. Even in the countries with established commercial nuclear power programmes, there is a need to reach out to the

  1. Inevitability of atomic energy in India's power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1977-01-01

    The case for atomic energy as the inevitable answer to the energy problem of India has been emphatically put up and supported with data. Hydroelectric power is costly to develop and moreover its potential is not enough to meet India's growing energy requirements. On the grounds of economics and safety, nuclear power has been shown to be superior to power from coal-based power plants. India's proved reserves of coal are 21 billion tonnes out of which 80% has ash content more than 20% and in order to reach only half of the present per capita energy consumption in Europe, the present output of 90 million tonnes/year of coal will have to be increased by a factor of 10, which in addition raises the problem of its transportation to the plant sites. Secondly, total energy from the available coal is estimated at 160 x 10 12 kwh, while that from known reserves of 52,000 tonnes of uranium is 7.2 x 10 12 kwh if used in thermal reactors and 208 x 10 12 kwh if used in fast reactors. Thorium with its known reserves of 320,000 tonnes would give another 1280 x 10 12 kwh. As for safety and ecology, it has been pointed out that : (1) in U.S., the number of coal miners dying of black cancer is 1000 per 10 12 kwh of electricity generated, whereas the fatality rate of uranium miners due to lung cancer is 20 per 10 12 kwh of electricity generated and (2) safety has been the primary concern in all aspects of nuclear technology - mining, fuel production, reactor operation and radioactive waste processing. It has also been explained how the fear of any terrorist getting possession of plutonium for spreading it into atmosphere or making a nuclear bomb is highly improbable, because at any point throughout the fuel cycle plutonium is under strict security surveillance and it is impossible to make a nuclear device without the back-up of powerful laboratory facilities. Finally, India's three stage atomic power programme is described in brief. (M.G.B.)

  2. Reading about explanations enhances perceptions of inevitability and foreseeability: a cross-cultural study with Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; von der Beck, Ina; Nestler, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    In hindsight, people often perceive events to be more inevitable and foreseeable than in foresight. According to Causal Model Theory (Nestler et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34: 1043-1054, 2008), causal explanations are crucial for such hindsight distortions to occur. The present study provides further empirical support for this notion but extends previous findings in several ways. First, ecologically valid materials were used. Second, the effect of causal information on hindsight distortions was investigated in the realm of previously known events. Third, cross-cultural differences in reasoning (analytic vs. holistic) were taken into account. Specifically, German and Vietnamese participants in our study were presented with Wikipedia articles about the nuclear power plant in Fukushima Daiichi, Japan. They read either the version that existed before the nuclear disaster unfolded (Version 1) or the article that existed 8 weeks after the catastrophe commenced (Version 2). Only the latter contained elaborations on causal antecedents and therefore provided an explanation for the disaster. Reading that version led participants to perceive the nuclear disaster to be more likely inevitable and foreseeable when compared to reading Version 1. Cultural background did not exert a significant effect on these perceptions. Hence, hindsight distortions were obtained for ecologically valid materials even if the event was already known. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Native Americans, the National Parks, and the Concept of Historical Inevitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about native Americans, the national parks and the concept of historical inevitability. The notion of historical inevitability, always a victor's argument, is as old as the stories of the ancient conquerors. It has permeated the history of Indian America, as told by white historians, and people are still today…

  4. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy: Inevitable Repeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    open GLs to serve.27 In fact, experts note that the United Kingdom lifted their GL ban in 2000 and Russia did the same in 2003.28 In 2000, the RAND...television series such as The Real World: San Francisco in 1993; The Real World: Miami; Richard Hatch on Survivor in 2000; and Queer Eye for the

  5. [Demographic variables, inevitable passage. Irrigated areas and health of populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, D

    1992-06-01

    The Kou Valley rice production area is the largest irrigated expanse in use by peasants in Burkina Faso. 1260 hectares of rice paddy provide two harvests each year for one thousand families, who are mostly in-migrants. The Kou Valley rice paddy was brought into production between 1970 and 1974 to reduce crowding in the overpopulated Mossi plateau, control emigration, increase national rice production, and improve living conditions. A research project in the area is intended to clarify relations between development policies and demographic trends, health conditions, and economic and social welfare of the population. A study compared the rice growing families with 1255 non-rice growing natives of the area and 4763 non-rice growing spontaneous in-migrants. The rice growers enjoyed an impressive increase in incomes, but their infant mortality rates did not decline as greatly as expected and were slightly higher than those of the spontaneous in-migrants. Contaminated water, malaria, schistosomiasis, and the lack of health infrastructure and education were probably factors in the high infant mortality. The incidence of child malnutrition was also greater among the rice growers than among the spontaneous migrants. Women in rice growing families work in the paddies all year. They no longer have access to their own lands and they have less time for child care. The improved economic conditions of the rice growers have not been accompanied by improved living conditions for their families. Women of rice growing families have an average of 6.8 children at age 50, compared to 6.1 among spontaneous in-migrants and 3.1 in the native population. Average household size fluctuated among the rice growers as families sought to add workers to maximize production and later to shed members in response to population pressure and reduced per capita income. The project experience suggests that greater thought should be given to the predictable demographic evolution of households and to the

  6. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  7. ''Inevitable'' dibaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1991-01-01

    However, the widest variation in effects arises from the color magnetic spin-spin (CMSS). In fact, since it tends to oppose quark delocalization by introducing new repulsive interactions (for example, between color-6 pairs of quarks), most dibaryon predictions are highly sensitive to the CMSS. What I want to discuss here are a few that are not sensitive, and, indeed, where the CMSS and quark delocalization act in concert to enhance binding

  8. INEVITABLE SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ouser

    worsening hypokalemia, hpoglycemia and anemia. The risk of continued unrewarding resuscitation was weighed against the benefit of quick risky surgical intervention. Laparotomy was done with face mask anesthesia. 700 milliliters of seropurulent peritoneal fluid, inter – loop abscesses, fibrous adhesions and an ileo-colic.

  9. Digital Futures: Changes in Scholarship, Open Educational Resources and the Inevitability of Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Digital scholarship is becoming a contested area. The huge potential offered by the affordances of the technological possibilities has been illustrated by a range of contributors both in this issue and elsewhere. Other commentators are less convinced about the nature of the changes and the inevitability of changes to the practices of academics.…

  10. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  11. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  12. State of the field: Are the results of science contingent or inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Katherina

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a survey of the literature on the problem of contingency in science. The survey is structured around three challenges faced by current attempts at understanding the conflict between "contingentist" and "inevitabilist" interpretations of scientific knowledge and practice. First, the challenge of definition: it proves hard to define the positions that are at stake in a way that is both conceptually rigorous and does justice to the plethora of views on the issue. Second, the challenge of distinction: some features of the debate suggest that the contingency issue may not be sufficiently distinct from other philosophical debates to constitute a genuine, independent philosophical problem. And third, the challenge of decidability: it remains unclear whether and how the conflict could be settled on the basis of empirical evidence from the actual history of science. The paper argues that in order to make progress in the present debate, we need to distinguish more systematically between different expressions that claims about contingency and inevitability in science can take. To this end, it introduces a taxonomy of different contingency and inevitability claims. The taxonomy has the structure of an ordered quadruple. Each contingency and each inevitability claim contains an answer to the following four questions: (how) are alternatives to current science possible, what types of alternatives are we talking about, how should the alternatives be assessed, and how different are they from actual science? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inevitable recidivism--the origin and centrality of an urban legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Tamara Rice

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the pervasive conviction that sex offenders - particularly child molesters - will continue to re-offend. This belief in inevitable recidivism turns out to be absolutely essential to both the justification for, and the structure of, the sexually violent predator laws. When actual evidence of sex offender recidivism is examined, however, a huge gap exists between what is assumed and what the data actually show because most sex offenders do not in fact re-offend. Thus there is a galaxy of sexually violent predator laws and an entire branch of Supreme Court jurisprudence that is founded upon a demonstrable urban legend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    fractions than on the PM2⋅5–0⋅1 fractions, supporting the previous findings that respirable PM and urban samples contain fewer free radical sources than inhalable PM and industrial samples. [Greenwell L L, Moreno T and Richards R J 2003 Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against urban and ...

  15. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When repeated in the presence of a low molecular weight fraction of fresh pulmonary lavage fluid, as well as in artificial lung lining fluid (200 M urate, glutathione and ascorbate), the DNA damage was significantly reduced in all cases ( < 0.05). The antioxidants exerted a greater effect on the industrial samples than on ...

  16. Perceived exertion influences pacing among ultramarathon runners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study investigated whether post-race mood changes among ultramarathon runners are associated with perceived exertion or the discrepancy between their actual and predicted performance times. Methods. Eight runners completed the Puffer ultramarathon, which is a challenging 73 km mountainous race ...

  17. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice models .... field microscope [20]. Statistical analysis. All data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test were used ...

  18. Depression and dispiritedness in later life: a 'gray drizzle of horror' isn't inevitable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Howard K; McGonigal-Kenney, Meghan

    2005-12-01

    The misconception that aging and depression are inevitably entwined is not only common but also dangerous. It can lead to a variety of adverse events, which might have been avoided had the depression been recognized and treated. However, recognizing depression in older adults can be difficult as it may present differently in this population than it does in younger adults. Furthermore, while treatment options are similar, adjustments may need to be made to deal with the physiological changes inherent to age. The authors address the recognition and treatment of depression in older adults. They also propose a diagnosis of dispiritedness, "a feeling of being in low spirits" that they have found to be common among older adults and suggest appropriate nursing interventions.

  19. Lessons for Libya? Flawed Policy and the Inevitability of Military Failure: The Anglo-French Suez Expedition of 1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-28

    rise of Arab nationalism as advocated by Egypt’s President Gamal Abdel Nasser . On 23 July 1952, a military coup in Egypt deposed King Farouk. The...OMEGA in March 1956 to destabilize the Nasser regime by non- military means. Commensurate with OMEGA, the U.S. refused to provide funds for the...construction of the Aswan Dam. In response, Nasser would take his most aggressive act of defiance by nationalizing the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956. To

  20. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified...

  1. Minimizing Warehouse Space with a Dedicated Storage Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fumi

    2013-07-01

    inevitably be supported by warehouse management system software. On the contrary, the proposed methodology relies upon a dedicated storage policy, which is easily implementable by companies of all sizes without the need for investing in expensive IT tools.

  2. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  3. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  4. Virtual exertions: evoking the sense of exerting forces in virtual reality using gestures and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Karen B; Ponto, Kevin; Tredinnick, Ross D; Radwin, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    This study was a proof of concept for virtual exertions, a novel method that involves the use of body tracking and electromyography for grasping and moving projections of objects in virtual reality (VR). The user views objects in his or her hands during rehearsed co-contractions of the same agonist-antagonist muscles normally used for the desired activities to suggest exerting forces. Unlike physical objects, virtual objects are images and lack mass. There is currently no practical physically demanding way to interact with virtual objects to simulate strenuous activities. Eleven participants grasped and lifted similar physical and virtual objects of various weights in an immersive 3-D Cave Automatic Virtual Environment. Muscle activity, localized muscle fatigue, ratings of perceived exertions, and NASA Task Load Index were measured. Additionally, the relationship between levels of immersion (2-D vs. 3-D) was studied. Although the overall magnitude of biceps activity and workload were greater in VR, muscle activity trends and fatigue patterns for varying weights within VR and physical conditions were the same. Perceived exertions for varying weights were not significantly different between VR and physical conditions. Perceived exertion levels and muscle activity patterns corresponded to the assigned virtual loads, which supported the hypothesis that the method evoked the perception of physical exertions and showed that the method was promising. Ultimately this approach may offer opportunities for research and training individuals to perform strenuous activities under potentially safer conditions that mimic situations while seeing their own body and hands relative to the scene. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. The Inevitable Universe---Parker-Rhodes' peculiar mixture of ontology and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1989-12-01

    When asked to give a lecture on Parker-Rhodes' physics, I was somewhat non-plused. I almost replied What physics '' --- a point of view that Frederick expresses himself more than once in the book he was working on when he died. But that would be unjust. Whatever his view, I assert that the discovery of the Combinational Hierarchy is one of the most important discoveries'' --- or whatever you want to call it --- in physics made in this century. His calculation of the proton-electron mass ratio is also a fantastic result that we are still trying to come to grips with. And his insight into early cosmology --- what he called a cold big bang'' --- which appeared in an early version of the Theory of Indistinguishables, also had merit. His early universe is a lot closer to my own views now than I realized when I first encountered it. We will mention other insights as I go along. But his views are so different from those of anyone I know or knew, that I have decided to let him speak for himself by reading passages from his manuscript The Inevitable Universe, or TIU, which was still unpublished at the time of his death, and add a few comments on them.

  6. The Inevitable Universe---Parker-Rhodes' peculiar mixture of ontology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1989-12-01

    When asked to give a lecture on Parker-Rhodes' physics, I was somewhat non-plused. I almost replied ''What physics?'' --- a point of view that Frederick expresses himself more than once in the book he was working on when he died. But that would be unjust. Whatever his view, I assert that the discovery of the Combinational Hierarchy is one of the most important ''discoveries'' --- or whatever you want to call it --- in physics made in this century. His calculation of the proton-electron mass ratio is also a fantastic result that we are still trying to come to grips with. And his insight into early cosmology --- what he called a ''cold big bang'' --- which appeared in an early version of the Theory of Indistinguishables, also had merit. His early universe is a lot closer to my own views now than I realized when I first encountered it. We will mention other insights as I go along. But his views are so different from those of anyone I know or knew, that I have decided to let him speak for himself by reading passages from his manuscript The Inevitable Universe, or TIU, which was still unpublished at the time of his death, and add a few comments on them

  7. The Inevitability of Strengthening the Nation-Building Subjectivity of Ethnic and National Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.sc. Harun Hadzic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very courageous, scientifically founded prediction, concerning the imminent and inevitable process of strengthening  the political and nation-building subjectivity of national minorities and ethnic groups, i.e., minority indigenous people. For, a more lasting peace and stability, for which we want to dominate in Europe and the world, can only be achieved by deflection of the discontent of these nationalities, on one hand, and strengthening of the public recognition of their international legal subjectivity, on the other hand. This implies the exercise of their right to self-determination and the creation of independent autonomies, regions or countries, which also implies reclassification and conversion of the internal, but also of the interstate borders. These new limits must be established precisely in those parts of the world where there is a political struggle, and a long-time demand of these organized groups, which would, in effect, mean that the international community should accept their demand for creation of new states, or, at least, another, lower, level of independence.

  8. Evidence That BRCA1- or BRCA2-Associated Cancers Are Not Inevitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Bess; Lech, Denise; Friedenson, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Inheriting a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation can cause a deficiency in repairing complex DNA damage. This step leads to genomic instability and probably contributes to an inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Complex DNA damage has been viewed as an integral part of DNA replication before cell division. It causes temporary replication blocks, replication fork collapse, chromosome breaks and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Chemical modification of DNA may also occur spontaneously as a byproduct of normal processes. Pathways containing BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene products are essential to repair spontaneous complex DNA damage or to carry out SCEs if repair is not possible. This scenario creates a theoretical limit that effectively means there are spontaneous BRCA1/2-associated cancers that cannot be prevented or delayed. However, much evidence for high rates of spontaneous DNA mutation is based on measuring SCEs by using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Here we find that the routine use of BrdU has probably led to overestimating spontaneous DNA damage and SCEs because BrdU is itself a mutagen. Evidence based on spontaneous chromosome abnormalities and epidemiologic data indicates strong effects from exogenous mutagens and does not support the inevitability of cancer in all BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We therefore remove a theoretical argument that has limited efforts to develop chemoprevention strategies to delay or prevent cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:22972572

  9. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Exertional fatigue early in exercise is a clinical hallmark of muscle glycogenoses, which is often coupled with painful muscle contractures and episodes of myoglobinuria. A fundamental biochemical problem in these conditions is the impaired generation of ATP to fuel muscle contractions, which...... relates directly to the metabolic defect, but also to substrate-limited energy deficiency, as exemplified by the "second wind" phenomenon in McArdle disease. A number of secondary events may also play a role in inducing premature fatigue in glycogenoses, including (1) absent or blunted muscle acidosis......, which may be important for maintaining muscle membrane excitability by decreasing chloride permeability, (2) loss of the osmotic effect related to lactate accumulation, which may account for absence of the normal increase in water content of exercised muscle, and thus promote higher than normal...

  10. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified...... carried out with 699 myocardial infarction patients after onset of the disease. These cases represented 47 percent of all cases in the study base, and 70 percent of all nonfatal cases. The relative risk from vigorous exertion was 6.1 (95% confidence interval: 4.2, 9.0). The rate difference was 1.5 per...... by socioeconomic status. Premonitory symptoms were common, and this implies risks of reverse causation bias and misclassification of case exposure information that require methodological consideration. Different techniques (the use of the usual-frequency type of control information, a pair-matched analysis...

  11. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  12. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players'

  13. An inevitable end? The collapse of the Lombard kingdom facing the Franks and the papacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gasparri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the Italian historiography, from Alessandro Manzoni (1822 to the two major Italian historians who studied the Lombards at the middle of the twentieth century, Gian Piero Bognetti and Ottorino Bertolini, the Lombards remained always separated from the Roman population, of which the pope was the natural leader; the Lombards, too, became very late Catholics, in time, though, to experience the "drama" of having to fight against the pope, whose supreme spiritual authority the Lombards themselves at that point recognized. Consequently, the fall of the independent kingdom by the hands of the Franks would be logical and inevitable. This is an old and outdated position: the end of the independent Lombard kingdom wasn’t inevitable. At the time of the Frankish conquest, the kingdom was politically solid inward, in economic growth and very dynamic outward. During the reigns of Liutprand, Ratchis and Aistulf (712-757, the kingdom exercised its hegemony over the whole Italy. In this period no strong elements of internal weakness emerged. Therefore, the defeat of 774 was substantially caused by external factors, ie the alliance between the Franks and the papacy. However, the attitude of the popes against the Lombard kingdom was not always hostile. Things changed only with Stephen II, because of two simultaneous events occurring in 751: the royal anointing of Pepin in the Frankish kingdom and the conquest of the Exarchate by Aistulf. Italian political balance broke and caused the decisive rapprochement between Rome and the Franks. But there were still many uncertainties, as proved, for example, by Charlemagne’s marriage with a daughter of Desiderius. Carloman’s death in 771 and, the following year, the election of the new pope Adrian I caused the repudiation of the Lombard bride by Charlemagne, his descent into Italy in 773, and the capture of Pavia the year after: Desiderius was exiled in France and Charlemagne became rex Langobardorum. The

  14. A Study on clinical Considerations caused by inevitably Extended SSD for Electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Jeong Man

    1996-01-01

    We are often faced with the clinical situations that is inevitably extended SSD for electron beam therapy due to anatomical restriction or applicator structure. But there are some difficulties in accurately predicting output and properties. In electron beam treatment , unlike photon beam the decrease in output for extended SSD does not follow inverse-square law accurately because of a loss of side scatter equilibrium, which is particularly significant for small cone size and low energies. The purpose of our study is to analyze the output in changing with the energy, cone size, air gap beyond the standard SSD and to compare inverse-square law factor derived from calculated effective SSD, mominal SSD with measured output factor. In addition, we have analyzed the change of PDD for several cones with different SSDs which range from 100 cm to 120 cm with 5 cm step and with different energies(6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, 16 MeV, 20 MeV). In accordance with our study, an extended SSD produces a significant change in beam output, negligible change in depth dose which range from 100 cm to 120 cm SSDs. In order to deliver the more accurate dose to the neoplastic tissue, first of all we recommend inverse-square law using the table of effective SSDs with cone sizes and energies respectively or simply to create a table of extended SSD air gap correction factor. The second we need to have an insight into some change of dose distribution including PPD, penumbra caused by extended SSD for electron beam therapy.

  15. Conditional inevitability: Expert perceptions of carbon capture and storage uncertainties in the UK context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evar, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings on expert perceptions of uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and policy in the UK, through survey data and semi-structured interviews with 19 individual participants. Experts were interviewed in industry, research, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the summer of 2009 and were asked to comment on a range of technical processes as well as policy concerns. The survey revealed that perceptions of the technology conform to a 'certainty trough' with users expressing the lowest level of uncertainty, and outsiders expressing the highest level of uncertainty. The interviews revealed that experts express certitude in the prospects for deploying large-scale CCS technology in the UK, all the while questioning several underlying technical and policy premises that are necessary to ensure this goal. - Highlights: → Expert perceptions of CCS in the UK are reported in interviews and a survey. → Surveyed perceptions conform to a 'certainty trough'. → Experts express certitude in prospect of large-scale CCS deployment in the UK. → Experts state that several technical and policy premises are necessary to ensure this goal. → Prospect of large-scale CCS deployment is observed to be highly belief-based.

  16. Environmental Consideration in Tax Policy Design

    OpenAIRE

    John Whalley

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal, which inevitably will involve the particular rather than the general. As a result, notions of neutrality which dominate current thinking on tax design will come ...

  17. Factors associated with high physical exertion during manual lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... pain intensity (OR 2.80 [95% CI 1.43-5.48] for high) were associated with high perceived physical exertion. Age, smoking, Body Mass Index (BMI), and time of the day were not associated with physical exertion. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, load, back muscle strength and back pain influence physical exertion...

  18. Space-Derived Imagery and a Commercial Remote Sensing Industry: Impossible Dream or Inevitable Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Felsher

    sector entities. Will the template now fashioned by the U.S. -- that of licensing private industry to build, fly, and operate remote sensing satellites as well as to distribute their imagery worldwide -- be replicated by other nations? Eventually, yes. Availability of the World Wide Web is an international communications reality. Availability of world wide imaging will be just as real. And much of that imagery will be marketed, sold, and distributed via that same global Internet. I feel that as an expected outcome of our technological age, we can ensure not only our own national security but international security as well, by assuring worldwide accessibility to worldwide space- derived image information. This requires -- in fact demands -- the presence of a viable international remote sensing industry. It is not impossible; It is inevitable.

  19. Solar geoengineering economics: From incredible to inevitable and half-way back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anthony; Moreno-Cruz, Juan B.

    2016-12-01

    Solar geoengineering technologies are unique in many ways, and the economic incentives they could unleash are just as interesting. Since their introduction as a potential alternative, economists have been intrigued by the potential of these technologies to dramatically alter the way we think about climate policy. As our scientific understanding of the technologies evolve, so does the way economists think about them. In this paper, we document the evolution of economic thinking around these technologies since before Crutzen (2006) until today and provide some fruitful areas for further research.

  20. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G P

    2017-04-01

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' perceptions has not been explained. To determine the relation between intended and observed training exertion by the coach and perceived training exertion by the players and establish whether on-field training characteristics, intermittent endurance capacity, and maturity status explain the mismatch. During 2 mesocycles of 4 wk (in November and March), rating of intended exertion (RIE), rating of observed exertion (ROE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored in 31 elite young soccer players. External and internal training loads were objectively quantified with accelerometers (PlayerLoad) and heart-rate monitors (TRIMPmod). Results of an interval shuttle-run test (ISRT) and age at peak height velocity (APHV) were determined for all players. RIE, ROE, and RPE were monitored in 977 training sessions. The correlations between RIE and RPE (r = .58; P base their intended and observed exertion on what they expect players will do and what they actually did on the field. When doing this, they consider the intermittent endurance capacity of individual players.

  1. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirements of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  3. 20 CFR 416.967 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirments of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  4. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  5. Open access publishing in the biomedical sciences: could funding agencies accelerate the inevitable changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steven William; Webb, Anne; Gleghorn, Colette

    2006-09-01

    Open access is making a noticeable impact on access to information. In 2005, many major research funders, including the Wellcome Trust, National Institutes for Health (NIH), and the Research Councils UK (RCUK), set out their position in a number of statements. Of particular note was the stipulation that authors receiving grants must deposit their final manuscript in an open access forum within 6-12 months of publication. The paper will look at the open access position statements issued by some of the major funding bodies in the biomedical sciences. The paper will also look at the models used by publishers to provide open or delayed access, such as Oxford Open from Oxford University Press, HighWire Press' delayed access policy, BioMed Central, and Public Library of Science (PLoS). There are now over 1.2 million articles in PubMed that are freely accessible via publishers' websites.(1) Could funding agencies accelerate the move to open access? The list of funding agencies supporting open access is growing. The National Institutes for Health and the Wellcome Trust have been joined by many of the world's major funders in biomedical research whose goal it is to make their research findings available with no barriers.

  6. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes e; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. Methods: The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: “mental exertion”, “mental fatigue”, “mental fatigue and performance”, “mental exertion and sports” “mental exertion and exercise”. Results: We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Conclusion: Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates. PMID:27867415

  7. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  8. CULTURAL POLICY IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES: NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. SHCHURKO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the new conditions of countries’ development in the post-crisis period. Challenges to the cultural and socio-economic policy during last decade were analyzed. Religious factors are offered to be considered as important mechanisms of solving transition period problems, and at the same time as the causes of many conflicts in the world. It was offered to include those factors as inevitable elements into modern policy making process.

  9. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalco, R.S.; Snoeck, M.; Quinlivan, R.; Treves, S.; Laforet, P.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild

  10. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  11. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Mothes

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a the effects of exercise and b the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  12. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  13. Challenging the Inevitability of Prostate Enlargement: Low Levels of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Eid Rodriguez, Daniel; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Often considered an inevitable part of male aging, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common non-life threatening disease to affect men in Western populations. We examine age-related change in prostate size and BPH risk and related serum biomarkers among the Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon who live a traditional lifestyle of hunting and small-scale horticulture. The Tsimane are a critical case study for understanding the etiology of BPH as they have low levels of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as lower levels of testosterone than age matched U.S. males, factors associated with BPH in previous research. Ultrasounds were conducted on 348 men aged 28-89 years (median age 56 years). Testosterone, prostate specific antigen, sex hormone binding globulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were examined in relationship to prostate size and BPH. Tsimane have less than half of the BPH prevalence experienced by U.S. men, and prostate volumes 62.6% smaller. While Tsimane have low levels of testosterone and subclinical levels of metabolic syndrome compared to U.S. men, Tsimane with high testosterone were more likely to experience BPH, as were those with higher glycosylated hemoglobin, suggesting targets for clinical interventions to reduce BPH. These results have clinical significance for the growing number of men taking testosterone supplementation; even at low levels the additional testosterone exposure could be placing these men at higher risk of BPH. Overall, these data suggest that BPH may not have been an inevitable part of male aging throughout human evolutionary history. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  15. Inhibiting the inevitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    conservation is to ‘buy time’ for the object. Inhibitive conservation of plastics involves the removal or reduction of factors causing or accelerating degradation including light, oxygen, acids, relative humidity and acidic breakdown products. Specific approaches to conservation have been developed......Once plastics objects are registered in museum collections, the institution becomes responsible for their long term preservation, until the end of their useful lifetime. Plastics appear to deteriorate faster than other materials in museum collections and have a useful lifetime between 5 and 25...... years. Preventive or inhibitive conservation involves controlling the environments in which objects are placed during storage and display, with the aim of slowing the major deterioration reactions. Once in progress, degradation of plastics cannot be stopped or reversed, so the aim of preventive...

  16. Fighting the Inevitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    culture and the uneven changes and transformations of the Terminal Classic period. This is particularly true of sites such as Cahal Uitz Na and Chaac Mool Ha, and Pook's Hill. Several caves and rockshelters have also been investigated in the valley and they reflect a peak in ritual cave utilization...

  17. The Inevitability of India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puntney, G. T

    2005-01-01

    Believing a hegemonic United States can reign indefinitely into the future is brassily self-defeating, for it fails to account for what happens to America -- long accustomed to its position as first...

  18. The inevitable QSAR renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    QSAR approaches, including recent advances in 3D-QSAR, are advantageous during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery and complementary with bioinformatics and growing data accessibility. Hints for future QSAR practitioners are also offered.

  19. Reckoning with the Inevitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Since 15 March 2011, Syria has seen a humanitarian crisis escalate and we are now witnessing outright civil war in many parts of the country. From a relatively peaceful start, the whole affair has turned ugly. Bombs are exploding not just in remote parts of Syria but in its largest cities. Death...

  20. Senescence is not inevitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Owen; Vaupel, James W.

    2017-01-01

    trajectories exists. These empirical observations support theoretical work indicating that a wide range of mortality and fertility trajectories is indeed possible, including senescence, negligible senescence and even negative senescence (improvement). Although many mysteries remain in the field...

  1. Fighting the Inevitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations in the upper Roaring Creek Valley have revealed a complex Maya Landscape of settlements and ritual cave sites. This paper reports on data recorded at these settlements, which, also provides excellent evidence for local continuities and discontinuities in Classic Maya...... in this area was likely prompted by this broader set of social and political stresses and partly brought on by environmental degradation....

  2. The Inevitable War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    leaders not to cause conflict that might affect trade.44 Commercial Liberalism dates back at least to Montesquieu , a French philosopher from 1689-1755...century and modified it to modern-day conditions. 45 Hilary Bok, "Baron de Montesquieu , Charles-Louis de Secondat," The Stanford Encyclopedia of...Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2010/entries/ montesquieu />. 46 Dale C. Copeland

  3. Mechanochemistry Induced Using Force Exerted by a Functionalized Microscope Tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yongfeng; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density-functional calc......Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density...

  4. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  5. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 2014. CASE STUDY. This case report describes chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a professional rower. We consider this to be a rare anatomical location for this type of syndrome. Morever, not much is known about its clinical presentation and the subsequent optimal medical management thereof ...

  6. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... symptoms appear, such as orthopnea, hemoptysis, and peripheral edema. This is the first ... characteristics of a 55-year-old woman with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension, whose first symptom was exertional .... mitral stenosis: Its postoperative management with a diet of medium-chain.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... some physical feature(s) of certain work settings, e.g., you cannot tolerate dust or fumes; or (vi) You... as pain, only affect your ability to perform the nonexertional aspects of work-related activities... of jobs by various exertional levels (sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy) in terms of...

  8. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hearing; (v) Difficulty tolerating some physical feature(s) of certain work settings, e.g., the claimant... nonexertional aspects of work-related activities, the rules in appendix 2 do not direct factual conclusions of... of jobs by various exertional levels (sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy) in terms of...

  9. Visual control in basketball shooting under exertion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Popowczak, Marek; Woźniak, Jarosław; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-07-25

    This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis. The type of basketball shot differentiated gaze control: (1) fixations were longer and more frequent during free throws as compared to jump shots, (2) shooting accuracy was positively influenced by less frequent and longer fixations, (3) physical exertion resulted in significantly more frequent fixations during free throws, and (4) exertion conditions resulted in a high variation in the patterns of total fixation times during jump shots. The findings suggest that physical exertion may reduce oculomotor efficiency during aiming at a distant target. Moreover, stationary and dynamic shots require different gaze behavior strategies.

  10. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare presentation of mitral stenosis (MS). MS is a common valvular disease, the first manifestation of which is usually easy fatigability and exertional dyspnea. As the disease progresses in severity, other signs and symptoms appear, such as orthopnea, hemoptysis, and peripheral edema. This is the first report of ...

  11. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 416.969a Section 416.969a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... the strength demands for sitting, standing, walking, lifting, carrying, pushing, and pulling. Sections...

  12. 20 CFR 220.132 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 220.132 Section 220.132 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... of walking and standing is often necessary in carrying out job duties. Jobs are sedentary if walking...

  13. Measurement and Relation between Received and Exerted Violence against Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A female victimization model is often assumed in the study of couple violence, even in general population. In Mexico, a questionnaire of couple violence has been developed. This instrument evaluates suffered and exerted violence. The aims of this paper were to contrast the factor structure of this questionnaire, calculate its internal consistency, describe its distributions, compare means of violence between both sexes and between persons who live or not with their partners, and study the relationship between received and exerted violence. A non-experimental research with a trans-sectional design was performed. The questionnaire was applied to a non probability sample of 223 women and 177 men with heterosexual couples from general population. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. The factor structure of received violence scale was one-dimensional, and the one of exerted violence scale was two-dimensional. Both sexes reported to exert violence with the same frequency, but men complained to receive violence with more frequency than women. Persons who live with their partners reported to receive more violence and to exert more non-psychological violence than persons who do not live with their partners. The correlations between received and exercised violence were moderate. A recursive model of violent reaction showed a fit to data from good to adequate, and had good properties of invariance between both sexes, and between persons who live or not with their partners. It is concluded that the questionnaire has good properties of factor structure and internal consistency, and data refute a model of female victimization.

  14. Safety, danger and catastrophe inevitability in operation of safety-critical software algorithms: a possible new look at software safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper provides basic definitions and describes the basic procedure of the Formal Qualitative Safety Analysis (FQSA) of critical software algorithms. The procedure is described by C-based pseudo-code. It uses the notion of weakest precondition and representation of a given critical algorithm by a Gurevich's Abstract State Mashine (GASM). For a given GASM and a given Catastrophe Condition the procedure results in a Catastrophe Inevitability Condition (it means that every sequence of algorithm steps lead to a catastrophe early or late), Danger Condition (it means that next step may lead to a catastrophe or make a catastrophe to be inevitable, but a catastrophe may be prevented yet), Safety Condition (it means that a next step can not lead to a catastrophe or make a catastrophe to be inevitable). The using of proposed procedure is illustrated by a simplest test example of algorithm. The FQSA provides a logical basis for PSA of critical algorithm. (author)

  15. A comparison of a maximum exertion and a model-based, sub-maximum exertion method for normalizing trunk EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cholewicki, J.; van Dieen, J.H.; Lee, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem with normalizing EMG data from patients with painful symptoms (e.g., low back pain) is that such patients may be unwilling or unable to perform maximum exertions. Furthermore, the normalization to a reference signal, obtained from a maximal or sub-maximal task, tends to mask differences

  16. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  17. Differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE VOl 14, No 5. Pp 397-405. 1982 -1982 Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion during physical...Subjects are asked to indicate a Aeciied e pblicfim1mw.196 y - . ; MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE local muscular rating pertaining to...suggests that the interrela-11 1 1 Jl MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND

  18. Optimal diet of horses with chronic exertional myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C; Firshman, Anna M

    2009-04-01

    Chronic exertional rhabdomyolysis represents a syndrome of recurrent exercise-associated muscle damage in horses that arises from a variety of etiologies. Major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease, and causative genetic defects have been recently identified for two conditions-polysaccharide storage myopathy of quarter horses, paints, warm bloods, and draft breeds. Dietary management in combination with a regular exercise regimen comprises the most effective means for control of clinical signs.

  19. Measurement and Relation between Received and Exerted Violence against Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Moral de la Rubia, José; López Rosales, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    A female victimization model is often assumed in the study of couple violence, even in general population. In Mexico, a questionnaire of couple violence has been developed. This instrument evaluates suffered and exerted violence. The aims of this paper were to contrast the factor structure of this questionnaire, calculate its internal consistency, describe its distributions, compare means of violence between both sexes and between persons who live or not with their partners, and study the rel...

  20. Inevitable evolution: back to the origin and beyond the 20th century paradigm of contingent evolution by historical natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Lars

    2008-08-01

    Since neo-Darwinism arose from the work of Darwin and Mendel evolution by natural selection has been seen as contingent and historical being defined by an a posteriori selection process with no a priori laws that explain why evolution on Earth has taken the direction of the major evolutionary trends and transitions instead of any other direction. Recently, however, major life-history trends and transitions have been explained as inevitable because of a deterministic selection that unfolds from the energetic state of the organism and the density-dependent competitive interactions that arise from self-replication in limited environments. I describe differences and similarities between the historical and deterministic selection processes, illustrate concepts using life-history models on large body masses and limited reproductive rates, review life-history evolution with a wider focus on major evolutionary transitions, and propose that biotic evolution is driven by a universal natural selection where the long-term evolution of fitness-related traits is determined mainly by deterministic selection, while contingency is important predominately for neutral traits. Given suitable environmental conditions, it is shown that selection by energetic state and density-dependent competitive interactions unfolds to higher level selection for life-history transitions from simple asexually reproducing self-replicators to large bodied organisms with senescence and sexual reproduction between males and females, and in some cases, to the fully evolved eusocial colony with thousands of offspring workers. This defines an evolutionary arrow of time for open thermodynamic systems with a constant inflow of energy, predicting similar routes for long-term evolution on similar planets.

  1. Despite their inevitable conflicts--science, religion and New Age spirituality are essentially compatible and complementary activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Until recently it seemed that the continued expansion of scientific ways of thinking was destined to render religion extinct and spirituality unfeasible. But the example of the United States disproves this, since America is the most successful scientific nation of this era, church-going remains strong and New Age spiritualities are thriving. Therefore, despite the obvious conflicts; science, religion and spirituality are essentially compatible. Future science will continue to win territory from religion since its validation procedures are more objective and reliable. However, churches can survive and grow by dropping those aspects of doctrine which clash with science, and expanding their social functions. The fast-growing US 'mega-church' movement shows the way - since these organizations are minimally dogmatic but instead provide a family-orientated and morally-cohesive social milieu. Like organized religion, New Age spirituality comes into conflict with science when it makes incredible or bizarre factual claims. However, in practice modern spirituality is based on subjective evaluations which do not clash with the procedures of science. Indeed, the reliance upon individual, emotion-based evaluations (e.g., 'my truth', 'whatever works for you') renders New Age spirituality 'science-proof', and has enabled it to expand massively in an age of science. Science, religion and spirituality perform different functions in the modern world, and their relationship is therefore one of mutual-dependence. Borderline disputes will inevitably occur, but as part of a broader context of complementarity. Science, 'social' churches and New Age spirituality all have a bright future.

  2. Cable Robot Performance Evaluation by Wrench Exertion Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Boschetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although cable driven robots are a type of parallel manipulators, the evaluation of their performances cannot be carried out using the performance indices already developed for parallel robots with rigid links. This is an obvious consequence of the peculiar features of flexible cables—a cable can only exert a tensile and limited force in the direction of the cable itself. A comprehensive performance evaluation can certainly be attained by computing the maximum force (or torque that can be exerted by the cables on the moving platform along a specific (or any direction within the whole workspace. This is the idea behind the index—called the Wrench Exertion Capability (WEC—which can be employed to evaluate the performance of any cable robot topology and is characterized by an efficient and simple formulation based on linear programming. By significantly improving a preliminary computation method for the WEC, this paper proposes an ultimate formulation suitable for any cable robot topology. Several numerical investigations on planar and spatial cable robots are presented to give evidence of the WEC usefulness, comparisons with popular performance indices are also provided.

  3. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms, measurement and management of exertional dyspnoea in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Weatherald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, with dyspnoea during exercise affecting individuals to a variable degree. This narrative review explores the mechanisms and measurement of exertional dyspnoea in asthma and summarises the available evidence for the efficacy of various interventions on exertional dyspnoea. Studies on the mechanisms of dyspnoea in asthma have largely utilised direct bronchoprovocation challenges, rather than exercise, which may invoke different physiological mechanisms. Thus, the description of dyspnoea during methacholine challenge can differ from what is experienced during daily activities, including exercise. Dyspnoea perception during exercise is influenced by many interacting variables, such as asthma severity and phenotype, bronchoconstriction, dynamic hyperinflation, respiratory drive and psychological factors. In addition to the intensity of dyspnoea, the qualitative description of dyspnoea may give important clues as to the underlying mechanism and may be an important endpoint for future interventional studies. There is currently little evidence demonstrating whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions specifically improve exertional dyspnoea, which is an important area for future research.

  5. Clinical usefulness of dynamic determination of serum progesterone and HCG levels in patients with threatened abortion, inevitable abortion and ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Fengjuan; Ding Jiefeng; Liu Qi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical differential diagnostic usefulness of dynamic determinations of serum progesterone and HCG levels in patients with abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Methods: Serum progesterone (with CLIA) and HCG (with RIA) levels were determined twice (48h apart) in 98 patients with threatened abortion, 75 patients with inevitable abortion, 52 patients with ectopic pregnancy, and 83 controls. Results: Among the three groups of patients, the serum progesterone levels were highest in the patients with threatened abortion, being significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The progesterone levels were lowest in the patients with ectopic pregnancy, being significantly less than those in other two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The serum HCG levels were also significantly higher in the patients with threatened abortion than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05 ), but there were no significant differences between the levels in patients with inevitable abortion and patients with ectopic pregnancy. The differences between the first and second determination HCG levels, either increased or decreased, in patients with ectopic pregnancy were significantly less than those in patients with inevitable abortion (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dynamic determination of serum progesterone and HCG levels might be of differential diagnostic help in patients with threatened abortion, inevitable abortion and ectopic pregnancy. (authors)

  6. A comprehensive model for the implementation of national public policies and guidelines : Empangeni Education District / Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent Mthethwa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthethwa, Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of the public policy process, which encapsulates the public policy implementation, has been in existence long before the political transformation that took place in South Africa in 1994. However, the ushering in of the new dispensation saw the integration of the existing public policies. In addition, it inevitably heralded the introduction of the new public policies and national guidelines across all sectors of the South African public institutions. Public policy implementation...

  7. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  8. Effect of inclusion of cellulose in the diet on the inevitable endogenous amino acid losses in the ileum of broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inevitable endogenous amino acid (AA) loss at the terminal ileum of broilers that were fed diets with 2 different fiber levels using a regression approach. The design of the study was a randomized complete block employing a factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 CP levels (50, 90, and 130 g/kg) and 2 fiber levels. The fiber level was adjusted by inclusion of cellulose at the expense of cornstarch. The AA pattern of the CP was the same in all diets. Titanium dioxide was used as indigestible marker. Six cages of 8 birds were allocated to each diet. The experimental diets were offered for ad libitum consumption for 3 d, starting on 21 d of age. Digesta were sampled on a cage basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileo-ceca-colonic junction. Inevitable endogenous CP and AA losses were determined by extrapolating the linear regressions between intake and prececal flow toward zero intake. The inevitable losses of CP and AA, expressed in relation to DM intake, were significantly increased by increased cellulose inclusion in the diet. Amino acids with the greatest loss were Glu, Asp, and Thr, whereas Met was the AA with the lowest loss. The ranking of the concentrations of AA of inevitable CP loss was very similar between the 2 fiber levels. This ranking also was similar in comparison to published values for the endogenous AA losses in broilers. It was concluded that the fiber level in the diet can affect the amount of AA inevitably lost at the terminal ileum and that all AA are affected to a similar extent. The results suggest that there is no effect of enhanced fiber level in the diet on AA composition of prececal endogenous CP loss in broilers. These findings can be considered in modeling the AA requirements of broilers.

  9. Progression of coronary artery calcification seems to be inevitable, but predictable - results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Raimund; Lehmann, Nils; Churzidse, Sofia; Rauwolf, Michael; Mahabadi, Amir A; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Bauer, Marcus; Kälsch, Hagen; Budde, Thomas; Montag, Michael; Schmermund, Axel; Stang, Andreas; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Weimar, Christian; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-07

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC), as a sign of atherosclerosis, can be detected and progression quantified using computed tomography (CT). We develop a tool for predicting CAC progression. In 3481 participants (45-74 years, 53.1% women) CAC percentiles at baseline (CACb) and after five years (CAC₅y) were evaluated, demonstrating progression along gender-specific percentiles, which showed exponentially shaped age-dependence. Using quantile regression on the log-scale (log(CACb+1)) we developed a tool to individually predict CAC₅y, and compared to observed CAC₅y. The difference between observed and predicted CAC₅y (log-scale, mean±SD) was 0.08±1.11 and 0.06±1.29 in men and women. Agreement reached a kappa-value of 0.746 (95% confidence interval: 0.732-0.760) and concordance correlation (log-scale) of 0.886 (0.879-0.893). Explained variance of observed by predicted log(CAC₅y+1) was 80.1% and 72.0% in men and women, and 81.0 and 73.6% including baseline risk factors. Evaluating the tool in 1940 individuals with CACb>0 and CACb400, yielded a sensitivity of 59.5%, specificity 96.1%, (+) and (-) predictive values of 68.3% and 94.3%. A pre-defined acceptance range around predicted CAC₅y contained 68.1% of observed CAC₅y; only 20% were expected by chance. Age, blood pressure, lipid-lowering medication, diabetes, and smoking contributed to progression above the acceptance range in men and, excepting age, in women. CAC nearly inevitably progresses with limited influence of cardiovascular risk factors. This allowed the development of a mathematical tool for prediction of individual CAC progression, enabling anticipation of the age when CAC thresholds of high risk are reached. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  10. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  11. Infrared imaging of the anterior deltoid during overhead static exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertmaring, Ian; Babski-Reeves, Kari; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2008-10-01

    Infrared imaging has been used to detect the presence of neuromuscular disorders of the cervical spine and upper extremities. Despite diagnostic uses, evaluative or prognostic uses of thermography are limited. The objective of this study was to quantify surface temperature changes over the anterior deltoid and evaluate efficacy of thermography as an assessment tool. Surface temperature, discomfort ratings and endurance time were quantified during overhead static exertions until exhaustion at two work loads (15 and 30% maximum voluntary contraction) and shoulder angles (90 degrees and 115 degrees ). Ten participants free of confounding conditions participated in the study. The 90 degrees shoulder angle and 30% exertion level resulted in significantly faster thermal image rates of change, shorter endurance times and faster perceived discomfort increases. Thermography readings were more sensitive to changes in shoulder posture than load changes. This study provides preliminary evidence that thermography may be a useful exposure assessment tool. There is a need for new evaluation tools to quantify risk factor exposure for injury. Thermography was sensitive to changes in task loadings, illustrating its potential use for risk assessment. Specifically, changes in observed blood flow patterns during task performance are likely to conform to known physiological responses to injury.

  12. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  13. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bresnahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms.

  14. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, James J; Hennrikus, William L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms.

  15. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  16. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  17. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  18. Gauss Modular-Arithmetic Congruence = Signal X Noise PRODUCT: Clock-model Archimedes HYPERBOLICITY Centrality INEVITABILITY: Definition: Complexity= UTTER-SIMPLICITY: Natural-Philosophy UNITY SIMPLICITY Redux!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, E. E.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Clock-model Archimedes [http://linkage.rockeller.edu/ wli/moved.8.04/ 1fnoise/ index. ru.html] HYPERBOLICITY inevitability throughout physics/pure-maths: Newton-law F=ma, Heisenberg and classical uncertainty-principle=Parseval/Plancherel-theorems causes FUZZYICS definition: (so miscalled) "complexity" = UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Watkins[www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/]-Hubbard[World According to Wavelets (96)-p.14!]-Franklin[1795]-Fourier[1795;1822]-Brillouin[1922] dual/inverse-space(k,w) analysis key to Fourier-unification in Archimedes hyperbolicity inevitability progress up Siegel cognition hierarchy-of-thinking (HoT): data-info.-know.-understand.-meaning-...-unity-simplicity = FUZZYICS!!! Frohlich-Mossbauer-Goldanskii-del Guidice [Nucl.Phys.B:251,375(85);275,185 (86)]-Young [arXiv-0705.4678y2, (5/31/07] theory of health/life=aqueous-electret/ ferroelectric protoplasm BEC = Archimedes-Siegel [Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.(89)-5-pprs] 1/w-"noise" Zipf-law power-spectrum hyperbolicity INEVITABILITY= Chi; Dirac delta-function limit w=0 concentration= BEC = Chi-Quong.

  19. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET.

  1. Physical exertion and working efficiency of reforestation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Alastair Nh; Kennedy, Michael D

    2011-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physical exertion during tree planting work and to examine the relationships between exertion, task efficiency, and productivity. Heart rate (HR) was monitored on 34 tree planters while they worked. HR data was collected for a complete working day on 19 subjects and for shorter periods of time on 15 subjects. Video of work tasks was recorded on 22 subjects (video was recorded on 7 of the subjects for whom HR was monitored through a full working day) and analyzed for working pace and proportion of time spent on each task. HR during a full day (9.0 ± 1.2 hours) of tree planting work was 115.2 ± 8.8 beats.min-1, and working HR was 128.2 ± 15.6 beats.min-1 for 82.5 ± 6.8% of the work day. Mean work pace was 452 ± 174 trees.h-1, and the proportion of time spent planting each tree was 53 ± 8% of the working time. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlations were found between work pace and experience level, and between work pace and working HR, and a significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation was found between experience level and HR for a given work pace. No significant relationships were found between experience level or work pace and the proportion of time spent planting each tree. Tree planters work at approximately 65% of age-predicted HRmax, and maintain HR at approximately 59% of HRmax throughout the entire working day. Productivity in these workers appears to be related to effort rather than to experience or task efficiency per se.

  2. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  3. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  4. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  5. New arrangements in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements

  6. Association between work engagement and perceived exertion among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complaints and musculoskeletal discomforts are common manifestations of individuals affected by work-related disorders (WRMD, and the influence of individual and/or psychosocial risk factors may play a significant role in WRMD development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare work engagement (WE and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and to assess the association between indexes of WE and RPE among healthcare workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen female subjects (36 ± 11 years, 1.58 ± 0.06 m and 59 ± 9 kg participated, all officially employed on a nonprofit agency. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints and the Borg Scale used to evaluate the RPE. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale quantified WE (vigor, dedication and absorption domains. Participants were divided into two groups, according to their sectors: healthcare clinics and institution for the elderly. The independent student t test was used to verify differences between groups and the chi-square test to verify associations between variables. RESULTS: All subjects reported musculoskeletal complaints, mainly in the low back (58%. RPE did not differ between groups, while in the vigor, it was found a significant statistically difference (p = 0.035. An association between RPE and vigor and RPE and dedication was establish (p = 0.02 and p = 0.036, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between WE and RPE suggests that workers with lower indexes of vigor and dedication may perceive greater physical demand, which can be imposed by work demands.

  7. Is muscle energy production disturbed in exertional heat stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagui, Emmanuel; Abriat, Amandine; Kozak-Ribbens, Geneviève; Foutrier-Morello, Catherine; Bernard, Monique; Canini, Frédéric; Brosset, Christian; Bendahan, David

    2014-03-01

    Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a life-threatening disease that shares some clinical similarities with malignant hyperthermia (MH). By use of (31)Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), EHS patients with MH susceptibility and MH patients shared common metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine whether subjects who suffered from an EHS episode had disturbed muscle energetics. This retrospective study was performed within the French database of military subjects that were explored from 2004 to 2010 after they suffered an EHS. All subjects had both in vitro contracture test to determine their MH susceptibility and (31)Phosphorus MRS at 4.7 Tesla to assess muscle energetics by means of MRS score, a composite score corresponding to the sum of metabolic abnormalities recorded during a standardized rest-exercise-recovery protocol. 437 subjects were investigated and 32.5% of them exhibited abnormal MRS score. MRS score did not segregate subjects on demographic, clinical, or biological grounds. No clear correlation could be done between MH status and MRS score. These results did not confirm the potential relationship between calcium homeostasis and muscle energetics previously reported. However, muscle energy production was disturbed in a significant number of EHS subjects. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ATX is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX.

  9. Ratings of perceived exertion during aerobic exercise in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Dan M; White, Lesley J; Larson, Jennifer; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Ng, Alexander V

    2008-08-01

    To compare ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) during aerobic exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and control participants. Prospective experimental study. An exercise testing laboratory. Sedentary adults (n=12) with mild MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score exercise test on a cycle ergometer with breath-by-breath gas measurements and continuous heart rate monitoring. After completing the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, participants rated their effort sense every 30 seconds during exercise using the modified Borg 10-point scale. The 2 study groups showed similar baseline characteristics except for higher fatigue scores in the MS group. There were no significant differences for any fitness measure, including oxygen cost slope (in VO(2) x min(-1) x W(-1)), VO(2), or work rate during exercise. Neither heart rate nor RPE--measured at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of VO(2)peak--differed between groups. Despite greater reported fatigue levels, participants with MS showed similar RPE and physiologic responses to submaximal and maximal exercise compared with controls. In MS, the Borg 10-point scale may help improve evidence-based exercise prescriptions, which otherwise may be limited by fatigue, motor impairment, heat sensitivity, or autonomic dysfunction.

  10. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye J Dabo

    Full Text Available Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9's role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR.

  11. Petiveria alliacea exerts mnemonic and learning effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Paixão, Thiago Portal da; Silva, João Paulo Bastos; Belém-Filho, Ivaldo Jesus Almeida; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina Baetas; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; de Andrade, Marciene Ataíde; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz

    2015-07-01

    Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Amazon region and other tropical areas such as Central America and the Caribbean. Popularly known as mucuracaá, P. alliacea is used in the folk medicine for a broad variety of therapeutic purpose and also in religious ceremonies by slaves as a sedative, which highlights its properties on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The present study evaluated the effects of the P. alliacea leaves hydroalcoholic extract (PaLHE) on the cognition, including learning and memory. Three-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=8-10/group) were administered with 900mg/kg of PaLHE. The behavioral assays included Step-down Inhibitory avoidance (IA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Consistent with our previous reports, P. alliacea improved long-term memory. It also exerted previously unreported effects on short-term and spatial memory improvement, and increased learning in the tasks. The P. alliacea extract elicited mnemonic effects and improved the learning process in both IA and MWM tests. Our results highlight the importance of further studies in order to identify the active substances of the PaLHE and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms that underlies the reported effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic oligorotaxanes exert high forces when folding under mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Damien; Hubert, Sandrine; Bruns, Carson J.; Zhu, Zhixue; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Duwez, Anne-Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Folding is a ubiquitous process that nature uses to control the conformations of its molecular machines, allowing them to perform chemical and mechanical tasks. Over the years, chemists have synthesized foldamers that adopt well-defined and stable folded architectures, mimicking the control expressed by natural systems1,2. Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, are prototypical molecular machines that enable the controlled movement and positioning of their component parts3-5. Recently, combining the exquisite complexity of these two classes of molecules, donor-acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers have been synthesized, in which interactions between the mechanically interlocked component parts dictate the single-molecule assembly into a folded secondary structure6-8. Here we report on the mechanochemical properties of these molecules. We use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically unfold oligorotaxanes, made of oligomeric dumbbells incorporating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. Real-time capture of fluctuations between unfolded and folded states reveals that the molecules exert forces of up to 50 pN against a mechanical load of up to 150 pN, and displays transition times of less than 10 μs. While the folding is at least as fast as that observed in proteins, it is remarkably more robust, thanks to the mechanically interlocked structure. Our results show that synthetic oligorotaxanes have the potential to exceed the performance of natural folding proteins.

  13. Effect of radiation exerted to creep rate of resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirade, Tetsuya; Hama, Yoshimasa (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Udagawa, Akira; Takeda, Nobuo; Seguchi, Tadao

    1990-12-01

    One of the high performance composite materials which became to be manufactured by the progress of working techniques and the improvement of material performance is fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP). Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used as space and aircraft material, and glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) are expected as the structural material for superconducting magnets in nuclear fusion. In these materials, the use for long term must be considered, and the creep characteristics, of resin should be taken as one of the design factors. Therefore, the effect that radiation exerted to the stress relaxation of epoxy resin was measured, and its mechanism was investigated. The sample was bisphenol F system epoxy. The measurements of DSC, dynamic viscoelasticity and stress relaxation were carried out. The stress relaxation in bisphenol F system epoxy resin occurred down to 10 % of the initial stress only at 3 MGy. This is the dose far lower than the life in the radiation resistance of this resin. It is considered that the stress relaxation of the resin was caused by the change in molecular structure instead of the cut of molecular chain, as energy was given to the microscopic region by the interaction with radiation. (K.I.).

  14. Do Economic Theories Inform Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    Adopting the (institutionalist) premise that ideas and the economic theories within which they are embedded influence policy, the dissertation investigates the influence of the Chicago School of antitrust analysis on the competition policy of the European Union (EU). The dissertation encapsulates...... three articles. The first article employs qualitative content analysis to assess whether and the extent to which the European Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition policy. It does so on the basis of current Commission Guidelines, Notices, and Block Exemption Regulations...... the Harvard School, the Freiburg School, and considerations for Single Market integration underpin EU merger control, in addition to the influence of the Chicago School. The analysis presented in the articles suggests that the Chicago School has exerted considerable influence over EU competition policy...

  15. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Xuexian Gao; Haidong Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) fac...

  16. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  17. Reference-dependent Preferences and the Transmission of Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffeo, E.; Petrella, I.; Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel explanation of the vast empirical evidence showing that output and prices react asymmetrically to monetary policy innovations over contractions and expansions in the business cycle. We use VAR techniques to show that monetary policy exerts stronger e¤ects on the U.S. GDP

  18. Reference-Dependent Preferences and the Transmission of Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffeo, E.; Petrella, I.; Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel explanation of the vast empirical evidence showing that output and prices react asymmetrically to monetary policy innovations over contractions and expansions in the business cycle. We use VAR techniques to show that monetary policy exerts stronger e¤ects on the U.S. GDP

  19. Rotenone exerts developmental neurotoxicity in a human brain spheroid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Block, Katharina; Lau, Pierre; Gribaldo, Laura; Pardo, Carlos A; Barreras, Paula; Smirnova, Lena; Wiersma, Daphne; Zhao, Liang; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T

    2018-02-08

    Growing concern suggests that some chemicals exert (developmental) neurotoxicity (DNT and NT) and are linked to the increase in incidence of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. The high cost of routine tests for DNT and NT assessment make it difficult to test the high numbers of existing chemicals. Thus, more cost effective neurodevelopmental models are needed. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in combination with the emerging human 3D tissue culture platforms, present a novel tool to predict and study human toxicity. By combining these technologies, we generated multicellular brain spheroids (BrainSpheres) from human iPSC. The model has previously shown to be reproducible and recapitulates several neurodevelopmental features. Our results indicate, rotenone's toxic potency varies depending on the differentiation status of the cells, showing higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial dysfunction during early than later differentiation stages. Immuno-fluorescence morphology analysis after rotenone exposure indicated dopaminergic-neuron selective toxicity at non-cytotoxic concentrations (1 μM), while astrocytes and other neuronal cell types were affected at (general) cytotoxic concentrations (25 μM). Omics analysis showed changes in key pathways necessary for brain development, indicating rotenone as a developmental neurotoxicant and show a possible link between previously shown effects on neurite outgrowth and presently observed effects on Ca2+ reabsorption, synaptogenesis and PPAR pathway disruption. In conclusion, our BrainSpheres model has shown to be a reproducible and novel tool to study neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity. Results presented here support the idea that rotenone can potentially be a developmental neurotoxicant. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  1. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, T N; Lamberts, R P; Nummela, A; Lambert, M I

    2017-03-01

    The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36) completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake) followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC MAG ), the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR 60s ) and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ) for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR 60s (r=-0.69), EPOCτ (r=0.52) and HRRτ (r=0.43) but not with EPOC MAG . This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR 60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  2. Humanin Exerts Neuroprotection During Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumfu, Sirinart; Charununtakorn, Savitree T; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2018-01-01

     Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been shown to impair brain function. Humanin analogue (HNG) given prior to cardiac ischemia has been shown to attenuate both heart and brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cardiac I/R injury. In a clinical setting, patients received medical treatment for acute myocardial infarction either during or after the onset of myocardial ischemia; thus, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that the administration of HNG during cardiac I/R injury has therapeutic potential for brain protection. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a cardiac I/R group (n = 30), and a sham group (n = 6). The I/R rats were then divided into five subgroups to receive: 1) vehicle; 2) HNG (84 μg/kg); 3) HNG (168 μg/kg); 4) HNG (252 μg/kg) intravenously administered during the cardiac-ischemia; and 5) HNG at 252 μg/kg given at the onset of reperfusion. At the end of treatment, brains were removed for determination of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial function, brain mitochondrial dynamics, p-tau, amyloid-β (Aβ) and apoptosis. HNG at a dose of 168 and 252 μg/kg administered during ischemia, and 252 μg/kg given at the onset of reperfusion effectively attenuated the brain mitochondrial dysfunction, tau hyperphosphorylation and Aβ accumulation, and apoptosis, without reducing BBB breakdown, brain oxidative stress, or mitochondrial dynamic, caused by cardiac I/R injury. In conclusion, humanin exerted neuroprotection during induced cardiac I/R injury via improvement in brain mitochondrial function, and the reduction of Alzheimer's disease pathology and apoptosis.

  3. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  5. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  6. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  7. Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk, and Prostitution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Barbara G.; Hausbeck, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines violence in legalized brothels in Nevada. Debates over prostitution policies in the United States have long focused on questions of safety and risk. These discourses inevitably invoke the coupling of violence and prostitution, though systematic examinations of the relationship between the two are sparse. This article explores…

  8. Avoiding a Hard Brexit in Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Whitman, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that the United Kingdom and European Union’s current shared foreign-policy interests will be saved from the broader disruption of Brexit.\\ud \\ud The current public image of the Brexit process is of a British government negotiating with itself while simultaneously making little progress in Article 50 talks with the EU. It is perhaps inevitable that disputes over money, borders, citizens and a future trading relationship should overshadow other areas where the EU and UK cou...

  9. Space weapon technology and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  10. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  11. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  12. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch C. Chow

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  14. Impaired Player-Coach Perceptions of Exertion and Recovery During Match Congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Steven H.; Brink, Michel S.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    During intensified phases of competition, attunement of exertion and recovery is crucial to maintain performance. Although a mismatch between coach' and players' perceptions of training load is demonstrated, it is unknown if these discrepancies also exist for match exertion and recovery. PURPOSE:

  15. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  16. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  17. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. "Un hecho cierto e inevitable"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Villar Gómez

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina y el Caribe, políticas para mejorar la inserción en la economía mundial. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe CEPAL y Fondo de Cultura Económica, Santiago, Chile, 1998

  19. The Inevitability of Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  20. Evolutionary inevitability of sexual antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-02-07

    Sexual antagonism, whereby mutations are favourable in one sex and disfavourable in the other, is common in natural populations, yet the root causes of sexual antagonism are rarely considered in evolutionary theories of adaptation. Here, we explore the evolutionary consequences of sex-differential selection and genotype-by-sex interactions for adaptation in species with separate sexes. We show that sexual antagonism emerges naturally from sex differences in the direction of selection on phenotypes expressed by both sexes or from sex-by-genotype interactions affecting the expression of such phenotypes. Moreover, modest sex differences in selection or genotype-by-sex effects profoundly influence the long-term evolutionary trajectories of populations with separate sexes, as these conditions trigger the evolution of strong sexual antagonism as a by-product of adaptively driven evolutionary change. The theory demonstrates that sexual antagonism is an inescapable by-product of adaptation in species with separate sexes, whether or not selection favours evolutionary divergence between males and females.

  1. Implementing exertional heat illness prevention strategies in US high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6500 high school football athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). In 2009, the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)-led Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) released preseason heat acclimatization guidelines to help athletes become accustomed to environmental factors contributing to EHI. This study examines compliance with NATA-IATF guidelines and related EHI prevention strategies. The study used a cross-sectional survey completed by 1142 certified athletic trainers (AT), which captured compliance with 17 NATA-IATF guidelines and EHI prevention strategies in high school football during the 2011 preseason. On average, AT reported football programs complying with 10.4 NATA-IATF guidelines (SD = 3.2); 29 AT (2.5%) reported compliance with all 17. Guidelines with the lowest compliance were as follows: "Single-practice days consisted of practice no more than three hours in length" (39.7%); and "During days 3-5 of acclimatization, only helmets and shoulder pads should be worn" (39.0%). An average of 7.6 EHI prevention strategies (SD = 2.5) were used. Common EHI prevention strategies were as follows: having ice bags/cooler available (98.5%) and having a policy with written instructions for initiating emergency medical service response (87.8%). Programs in states with mandated guidelines had higher levels of compliance with guidelines and greater prevalence of EHI prevention strategies. A low proportion of surveyed high school football programs fully complied with all 17 NATA-IATF guidelines. However, many EHI prevention strategies were voluntarily implemented. State-level mandated EHI prevention guidelines may increase compliance with recognized best practices recommendations. Ongoing longitudinal monitoring of compliance is also recommended.

  2. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated. (author)

  3. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  4. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Posterior Tibial Arterial System Deficiency Mimicking Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Kyle P; Parcells, Bertrand W; Hosea, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old female competitive high school basketball player presented as an outpatient with a 3-month history of bilateral exertional calf pain. Patient history and compartment pressure measurements were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and the patient underwent bilateral fasciotomies. Postoperatively, her symptoms recurred and she was found to have a deficient posterior tibial arterial system bilaterally, as confirmed on advanced imaging. We advocate the careful consideration of vascular etiologies in athletes who present with exertional leg pain.

  7. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  8. An investigation of perceived exertion via whole body exertion and direct muscle force indicators during the determination of the maximum acceptable weight of lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K G; Jorgensen, M J; Marras, W S

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the perceived exertion mechanisms (direct muscle force and whole body exertion) associated with the decision to change the weight of lift during the determination of the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL). Fifteen males lifted a box of unknown weight at a rate of 4.3 lifts/min, and adjusted the weight until their MAWL was reached. Variables such as the predicted muscle forces and heart rate were measured during the lifting exertion, as well as the predicted spinal loading in three dimensions using an EMG-assisted biomechanical model. Multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify variables that were associated with the decision to change the weights up and down prior to a subsequent lift. Results indicated that the force in the left erector spinae, right internal oblique, and left latissimus dorsi muscles as well as heart rate were associated with decreases in the weight prior to the next lift. It appears that a combination of local factors (muscle force) and whole body exertion factors (heart rate) provide the feedback for the perceived exertion when decreasing the weight. The up-change model indicated that the forces of the right erector spinae, left internal oblique, and the right latissimus dorsi muscles were associated with the decision to increase the weight prior to the next lift. Thus, local factors provide feedback during the decision to increase the weight when starting from light weights. Collectively, these findings indicate that psychophysically determined weight limits may be more sensitive to muscular strain rather than spinal loading.

  9. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  10. EXERT Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer's Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer’s Cure Can exercise slow or prevent cognitive decline in older people who are at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease? The EXERT Study: Building Memories Through Exercise ...

  11. Inevitability of One Type of Universe, One Set of Physical Laws and Where to Observe Failed Inflation Events Within Our Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael

    Starting from the simple premises of one size of fundamental building block, two types of energy and only three dimensions, it is shown that there can be no multiverses outside our universe, that some black holes are observable failed inflation events within our universe and that there can be only one underlying set of the laws of physics. These laws will be the same everywhere and fail nowhere. Composites formed from the building blocks during different inflation events can produce different sizes of fermions, nucleons and atoms, but a type of universe with symmetries similar to ours is the inevitable outcome of a successful inflation event. The building blocks provide the base for matter, anti-matter and dark matter in the same composite forms and show how the existence or otherwise of dark energy can be observed. Also explained are why only positive masses are observed, why some particle configurations and orbits are stable and what the terms `energy' and `inertia' really describe.

  12. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  13. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  14. Exertional heat stroke management strategies in United States high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year period of 2005-2009 saw more exertional heat stroke-related deaths in organized sports than any other 5-year period in the past 35 years. The risk of exertional heat stroke appears highest in football, particularly during the preseason. To estimate the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and assess the utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies during the 2011 preseason in United States high school football programs. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A self-administered online questionnaire addressing the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies (eg, removing athlete's football equipment, calling Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) was completed in May to June 2012 by 1142 (18.0%) athletic trainers providing care to high school football athletes during the 2011 preseason. Among all respondents, 20.3% reported treating at least 1 exertional heat stroke event. An average of 0.50 ± 1.37 preseason exertional heat stroke events were treated per program. Athletic trainers responding to exertional heat stroke reported using an average of 6.6 ± 1.8 management strategies. The most common management strategies were low-level therapeutic interventions such as removing the athlete's football equipment (98.2%) and clothing (77.8%) and moving the athlete to a shaded area (91.6%). Few athletic trainers reported active management strategies such as calling EMS (29.3%) or using a rectal thermometer to check core body temperature (0.9%). Athletic trainers in states with mandated preseason heat acclimatization guidelines reported a higher utilization of management strategies such as cooling the athlete through air conditioning (90.1% vs 65.0%, respectively; P < .001), immersion in ice water (63.0% vs 45.4%, respectively; P = .01), or fans (54.3% vs 42.0%, respectively; P = .06) and monitoring the athlete's temperature (60.5% vs 46.2%, respectively; P = .04). Preseason

  15. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (p<0.01). Between-group differences in physical exertion at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) was -0.5 points (95% CI -0.8 to -0.2). Within-group effect size (Cohen's d) in WORK and HOME was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P sleep efficiency (R2 = 0.48). Moreover, high self-perceived exercise exertion was associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Among active component service members in 2016, there were 525 incident diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion and/or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). The crude incidence rate in 2016 was 40.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 46.2% between 2013 and 2016, with the greatest percentage change occurring between 2014 and 2015. In 2016, relative to their respective counterparts, the highest incidence rates of exertional rhabdomyolysis affected service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; and black, non-Hispanic. During the surveillance period, annual incidence rates were highest among service members of the Marine Corps, intermediate among those in the Army, and lowest among those in the Air Force and Navy. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or the Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain or swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (possibly due to myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  18. Among cosmopolitan values and strategic interests: liberal and realist discourses of canada’s international security policy during post- cold war

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez M., Federmán

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to explain the liberal and realist discourses that underpinned the Canadian International Security Policy (CISP) during the post-Cold War. In particular, it offers evidence to show that Canadian governments inevitably debate between cosmopolitan values and strategic interests in formulating their respective policies of international security. After considering how liberal and realist orientations of this policy have been studied in the literature on CISP, it expl...

  19. STANDARDIZATION AS A DILEMNATIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suatmo Pantja Putra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard language is generally regarded as language well establishe by usage in the speech and writing of educated people. As a product of schooling, this learnt language has, in may societies, come to assume a special place and is looked upon as an authoritative model of correctness and quality and, at its best, perfection. In language conscious speech communities, standard language also serves as a reliable measure of language profeciency which is made use of by people in administrative or educational authority. Language planners and prcatitioners in particular are charged with the responsibility of upholding this language in its purest forms. Meanwhile, the learning and teaching of standard language have become accepted as an integral part of every national or state-level educational system�s long-term obligations. This paper presents the discussion on the innappropriateness of the use of them �standard� instead of �standardized� language. It also suggests that planning for language policy within a particular situation inevitably demands taking into account not only multiple social factors and goverment goals, but also the ways in which these conditions affect language and literary acquisition across segments of the population, otherwise it can be a dilemnatic and problematic policy.

  20. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  1. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579

  2. Russia-A New Empire Under Construction. The Russian Policy towards Former Communist Satellites-Mechanisms of Exertion of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Czesława Miłosza i Aleksandra Sołżenicyna) (Polish and Russian soul from Adam Mickiewicz to Aleksander Solzenicyn)).” Materiały do „katalogu... Mickiewicz to Aleksander Solzenicyn)).” Materiały do „katalogu” wzajemnych uprzedzeń Polaków i Rosjan (Data for the “Record” of Mutual Distrust

  3. Cognitive control exertion leads to reductions in peak power output and [Formula: see text] as well as increased perceived exertion on a graded exercise test to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zering, Jennifer C; Brown, Denver M Y; Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R

    2017-09-01

    We investigated effects of a brief (10.5 min) cognitively demanding task on graded exercise test performance. Untrained, university students (N = 15) completed two graded exercise tests in counterbalanced, randomised order. One test was preceded by restful viewing of a documentary video (control); the other by a stop-signal task. Cardiorespiratory functions and perceived exertion were monitored during exercise. Peak power output (W) was lower following the stop-signal task (M = 240.03, SD = 53.37) compared to control (M = 246.03, SD = 52.60), P = 0.002, η P 2  = 0.493, as was [Formula: see text] (P = 0.042, Cohen's d = 0.55). Perceived exertion was significantly higher at 50% (d = 0.77) and 75% (d = 0.83) of iso-time following the cognitive task (Ps ≤ 0.01). Results are consistent with research showing negative carryover effects of cognitively demanding tasks on whole-body endurance performance. Results also support the psychobiological model of exercise as performance of the cognitive task did not affect perceived exertion when exercise task demands were lower, but lead to greater perceived exertion and earlier withdrawal of effort at higher levels of exercise task demand. Findings have implications for understanding psychological determinants of exercise performance and conditions that may lead to underestimation of [Formula: see text].

  4. Assessment of health risks of policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals

  5. Rating of perceived exertion and acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Adrian J; Woods, David R; O'Hara, John; Howley, Mark; Watchorn, James; Boos, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that strenuous exercise should be avoided on arrival at high altitude (HA) and during acclimatization. Data from chamber studies are contradictory and the studies are usually of short duration, therefore differing from the "real world." We studied 48 trekkers during a 10-d ascent to 16,827 ft (5129 m) in the Cordillera Real area of Bolivia. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores were recorded for the hardest perceived exertion during the day after ascents to 12,576, 14,600, and 16,827 ft (3833, 4450, and 5129 m). Heart rate, Spo2, and Lake Louise Score (LLS) were recorded simultaneously. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS 21 software. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was deemed significant. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) rates were higher after trekking days with higher levels of perceived exertion. The LLS was higher in those with a Borg RPE score ≥ 15 both following exercise (mean LLS 2.6 vs. 1.7) and at rest the following day (mean LLS 2.7 vs. 1.7). Heart rate was higher in those with high Borg RPE scores (80 vs. 87) and oxygen saturations lower at rest (86 vs. 83) the following morning. This data lends weight to the advice of moderate exertion during a trek to HA and suggests that reducing perceived exertion may reduce AMS.

  6. Perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia: explanatory factors and comparison with healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Bjersing, Jan; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ghafouri, Bijar; Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    To investigate perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia. A controlled cross-sectional multi-centre study. Seventy-three women with fibromyalgia and 73 healthy women matched by occupation and physical workload were compared in terms of perceived exertion at work (0-14), muscle strength, 6-min walk test, symptoms rated by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), work status (25-100%), fear avoidance work beliefs (0-42), physical activity at work (7-21) and physical workload (1-5). Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted. Perceived exertion at work was significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the reference group (p = 0.002), while physical activity at work did not differ between the groups. Physical capacity was lower and symptom severity higher in fibromyalgia compared with references (p work showed moderate correlation with physical activity at work, physical workload and fear avoidance work beliefs (rs = 0.53-0.65, p work and fear avoidance work beliefs explained 50% of the perceived exertion at work. Women with fibromyalgia perceive an elevated exertion at work, which is associated with physical work-related factors and factors related to fear and anxiety.

  7. Implementing health policy: lessons from the Scottish Well Mens policy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS policy initiative as a ‘real world’ case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the ‘rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. Methods and materials: A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a ‘policy problem’, (b interventions intended to address the problem, and (c anticipated policy outcomes. Results and conclusions: This analysis revealed four key themes: (1 ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2 behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3 uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4 a focus on intervention as outcome. This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  8. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds government revenue and exchange rate reduce stock market development. A policy mix identified was that, the outcomes of government expenditure and government borrowing interest rate exert no influence on stock market development. For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in ...

  9. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  10. Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome - a Proposition for an Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Birk; Jensen, Steffen Skov

    Title: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome - a proposition for an algorithm based on case series of patients treated at Sports Medicine Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital, Denmark Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome...... (CECS) is a well recognized but often under diagnosed cause of chronic exertional lower extremity pain, most often encountered in young physically active individuals. Aim of Study: The aim of this preliminary study is to present an algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of CECS. We hypothesize...... in conjunction with a thorough medical history formed the basis for the diagnosis. Results: 11 patients were offered surgical treatment consisting of EASF of the affected compartment (10 bilateral and 1 unilateral, 8 affected in specific compartments and 3 affected in all compartments. Only 1 patient required...

  12. THE ROMANIAN ASPECT OF THE E.U. GOVERNANCE CASE STUDIES: EDUCATUION POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ANDREEA ION

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper belongs to the domestic studies which try to connect the Romanian research to the current debates within the EU studies. The authors' aim is to analyze the aspects and the implications of the EU governance at the Member States' domestic policies level, as most of these policies are currently facing the challenges brought by the Europeanization process. Therefore, the theoretical framework selected is the theory of governance, focusing on the explanatory and analytical opportunities of two components – multi-level governance and governance networks; in this way, it is underlined the separation from the classic model of relation between the (multiplied levels of political authority (supranational, national, subnational and the exponential increase in the number and types of actors participating at the decisional process and implementation of European public policy. Within the selected case studies (environmental policy and education policy, the authors advance a research structure with the aims (a to identify the relevant actors involved in the policy-making process of these policies, at all stages of its cycle; (b to offer an explanation of the types of interactions between these actors, and (c to identify the influence these interactions exert on the communitarization pronounced tendency of some EU policy sectors. The analysis is performed in terms of the Treaty of Lisbon (the selected policies being part of distinct categories of the Union competences and it is oriented towards the national level of the making process of these policies.

  13. Exertional Tolerance Assessments After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Bailes, Anna; Constand, Sara; Sroka, Mary Claire; Nissen, Katharine; Kurowski, Brad; Hugentobler, Jason

    2018-05-01

    To review the literature to identify and summarize strategies for evaluating responses to physical exertion after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) for clinical and research purposes. PubMed and EBSCOhost through December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on the following criteria: (1) inclusion of participants with mTBI/concussion, (2) use of a measurement of physiological or psychosomatic response to exertion, (3) a repeatable description of the exertion protocol was provided, (4) a sample of at least 10 participants with a mean age between 8 and 65 years, and (5) the article was in English. The search process yielded 2685 articles, of which 14 studies met the eligibility requirements. A quality assessment using a checklist was conducted for each study by 2 independent study team members and verified by a third team member. Data were extracted by one team member and verified by a second team member. A qualitative synthesis of the studies revealed that most protocols used a treadmill or cycle ergometer as the exercise modality. Protocol methods varied across studies including differences in initial intensity determination, progression parameters, and exertion duration. Common outcome measures were self-reported symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. The strongest evidence indicates that exertional assessments can provide important insight about mTBI recovery and should be administered using symptoms as a guide. Additional studies are needed to verify optimal modes and protocols for post-mTBI exertional assessments. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  15. Variación de la violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra: la violación en la guerra no es inevitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wood

    2012-02-01

    ón de políticas públicas: la variación observada en la violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra, particularmente la ausencia relativa de este tipo de violencia por parte de muchos grupos armados, indica que la violación no es inevitable en la guerra.

  16. [Exercise laryngoscopy: a new method for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Iljukov, Sergei; Niskanen, Minna-Liisa; Vilkman, Erkki; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Exertional dyspnea originating from the laryngeal level can be established with certainty only if the paradoxical vocal cord adduction is observed during dyspnea. We have developed a novel diagnostic method, exercise laryngoscopy, which involves observation of the larynx with a flexible endoscope applied via the nose during a bicycle ergometry test. It has been our aim to improve the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion and thus also reduce unnecessary antiasthmatic medication. Exercise laryngoscopy allows examination in the out-patient clinics because the method is well tolerated.

  17. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

    2008-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

  19. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  20. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  1. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  2. The effects of China's universal two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-15

    In October, 2015, China's one-child policy was replaced by a universal two-child policy. The effects of the new policy are inevitably speculative, but predictions can be made based on recent trends. The population increase will be relatively small, peaking at 1·45 billion in 2029 (compared with a peak of 1·4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy continued). The new policy will allow almost all Chinese people to have their preferred number of children. The benefits of the new policy include: a large reduction in abortions of unapproved pregnancies, virtual elimination of the problem of unregistered children, and a more normal sex ratio. All of these effects should improve health outcomes. Effects of the new policy on the shrinking workforce and rapid population ageing will not be evident for two decades. In the meantime, more sound policy actions are needed to meet the social, health, and care needs of the elderly population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby

  4. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; van Brunschot, C.; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac (R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  5. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac(R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  6. [Characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-06-01

    This report shows characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan. The findings are similar to those of previous reports in heatwaves of Europe and The United States. Eldery people with pre-existing diseases, homeless, living alone, poverty are independent risk factors of heatstoke and are strongly associated with severity and mortality.

  7. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Michele; Carabalona Roberta; Petrilli Silvia; Sibilla Paolo; Negrini Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from ...

  8. Baseline Intraocular Pressure Is Associated with Subjective Sensitivity to Physical Exertion in Young Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García, José Antonio; Perales, José Cesar; Cárdenas, David

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the effect of physical effort (cycling for 60 min at 60 ± 5% of individually computed reserve heart-rate capacity), combined with 2 different levels of cognitive demand (2-back, oddball), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and subjective judgments of perceived exertion (ratings of perceived…

  9. Citrus-derived flavonoid naringenin exerts uterotrophic effects in female mice at human relevant doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke Miller; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2004-01-01

    ingestion of 400-760 ml of orange juice (Erlund et al. 2001). This could be taken to suggests that ingestion of orange juice and other citrus fruits and juices may give rise to sufficiently high tissue levels of naringenin in man to exert a biological effect....

  10. Prevalence and potential determinants of exertional dyspnea after acute pulmonary embolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F.A.; Kralingen, K.W. van; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Heyning, F.H.; Vliegen, H.W.; Huisman, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The exact prevalence and etiology of exertional dyspnea in the clinical course of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have not yet been established. METHODS: A large cohort of consecutive patients diagnosed with acute PE was subjected to a dyspnea questionnaire and invited for cardiopulmonary

  11. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  12. Exertion of forces by children performing a free-style jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Visser, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This research project focuses on the force characteristics and force/time relationships of loads exerted by jumping children. The current study is an experimental research into children jumping on both hard and soft substrates. The hard substrate is obtained by using a force plate. For the soft

  13. Equity and the Global Policy on Climate Change: a Law and Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisana, Andri Gunawan

    2012-01-01

    The opponents of the global commitment to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions seem to have shifted their arguments from the one emphasising on the issue of uncertainty to the one focusing on the economic burdens disproportionately placed on the current generation in general, and some developed countries in particular. Inevitably, the issue of equity becomes of highly importance in the recent climate policy debates. This paper attempts to analyze the implementation of equity principle...

  14. Superiority of the dominant and nondominant hands in static strength and controlled force exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shinichi; Aoki, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    The dominant hand can be defined in such a way that Oldfield's Handedness Inventory may not identify the superior hand, i.e., the hand with more strength and/or more force control. The dominant and nondominant hands were compared for two different grip force-exertion tests. 50 healthy young men (M age = 21.1 yr.) performed two tests with each hand: a maximal grip strength test and a controlled force-exertion test with dynamic demand. In the latter test, the participants matched their submaximal grip force to the changing demand values with real-time feedback. The total sum of the differences between the demand value and grip force value for 25 sec. was used as an evaluation parameter for the test (unit: %). Mean maximal grip force values in the right and left hands were 439.9 N (SD = 59.1) and 405.6 N (SD = 59.3), respectively. Mean controlled force-exertion test values in the right and left hands were 610.3% (SD = 150.2) and 722.6% (SD = 147.8), respectively. In both tests, the dominant hand was significantly stronger and controlled dynamic force better. The relationship between the two hands was very high. Based on this study's criteria, the dominant hand was stronger in 34% (n = 17) of participants during the maximal grip strength test and more controlled in 54% (n = 27) of participants during the controlled force-exertion test. Thus, the dynamic force control test showed that for significantly more people the dominant hand is stronger and controls force better. Controlled force exertion may be a better test for identifying the superior hand.

  15. Effects of acclimation on water and electrolitic disbalance in soldiers during exertional heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Sonja S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. The aim of this study was to examine changes in body water and serum concentrations of some electrolites in soldiers during exertional heat stress (EHST, as well as effects of 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC WBGT-wet bulb globe temperature, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. The subjects were allowed to drink tap water ad libitum during EHST. Mean skin (Tsk and tympanic (Tty temperatures and heart rates (HR measured physiological strain, while sweat rate (SwR, and serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and osmolality measured changes in water and electrolyte status. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty, HR, and SwR, with significant decrease in serum sodium concentration (140.6±1.52 before vs 138.5±1.0 mmol/l after EHST, p < 0.01 and osmolality (280.7±3.8 vs 277.5±2.6 mOsm/kg, p < 0.05 in the unacclimatized group. The acclimated soldiers suffered no such effects of exertional heat stress, despite almost the same degree of heat strain, measured by Tty, HR and SwR. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber can prevent disturbances in water and electrolytic balance, i.e. decrease in serum sodium concentrations and osmolality induced by exertional heat stress.

  16. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a 21-Year-Old Healthy Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Miramonti, Amelia A; Cramer, Joel T

    2017-05-01

    McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy. Incidentally, this type of resistance training has gained popularity. In the process of testing this hypothesis in a research study in our laboratory, a subject was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis after completing a resistance training session that involved 3 sets to failure at 30% 1RM. Reviewed were the events leading up to and throughout the diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a healthy recreationally-trained 21-year-old woman who was enrolled in a study that compared the acute effects of high-load low-repetition vs. low-load high-repetition resistance training. The subject completed a total of 143 repetitions of the bilateral dumbbell biceps curl exercise. Three days after exercise, she reported excessive muscle soreness and swelling and sought medical attention. She was briefly hospitalized and then discharged with instructions to take acetaminophen for soreness, drink plenty of water, rest, and monitor her creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. Changes in the subject's CK concentrations, ultrasound-determined muscle thickness, and echo intensity monitored over a 14-day period are reported. This case illustrates the potential risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis after a low-load high-repetition resistance training session in healthy, young, recreationally-trained women. The fact that exertional rhabdomyolysis is a possible outcome may warrant caution when prescribing this type of resistance

  17. Science and Security Policy: The Case of Advanced Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The revolution in biotechnology presents unprecedented opportunities and dangers for the health and well being of mankind. Today, one can plausibly imagine the eradication of many historic diseases. One can also envisage the creation of new diseases that would endanger a substantial proportion of the entire human species. As powerful applications for biotechnology research are identified, appropriate arrangements for managing their extraordinary consequences will inevitably become necessary. This presentation will explore recent efforts to balance science and security policy in the area of advanced biotechnology research. Key developments on the dual-use issue will be discussed, together with a variety of governance options aimed at mitigating the risk from such research. (author)

  18. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  19. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  20. Responding to the silent problems. Turkey. Developing suitable governmental programs to accomodate the changing needs of the growing and aging population is necessary and inevitable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, B

    1996-01-01

    The author believes that both socioeconomic change and expanded services had a significant impact upon Turkish couples' behavior, resulting in a smaller family norm. A recent survey indicates that the total fertility rate in the country declined to 2.7 from 5.7 in 1971. That sharp decline in fertility was coupled with an equally sharp decline in mortality, especially in the infant mortality rate. However, even though fertility decline has been observed in all regions, there remain significant variations in fertility rates across regions. There is substantial unmet need for contraceptives; in 1993, 12% of married women were not using a method even though they wanted to do so either for birth spacing or birth limiting. 37.6% of acceptors in urban areas and 50.8% of acceptors in rural areas use withdrawal as their main method of contraception. In 1993, there were an estimated 524 induced abortions per 1000 women in their childbearing years. That latter figure may, however, be an underestimate given the reluctance of Turkish people to publicly discuss abortion. The author considers change in population and family planning policy and argues that it will be necessary to develop governmental programs capable of coping with the changing needs of the growing and aging population in the areas of health, education, employment, social security, and other issues. Turkey's demographic changes demand a new population policy which is more integrated with development.

  1. Modeling trajectories of perceived leg exertion during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; Therneau, Terry; McGrath, Patrick; Pianosi, Paolo

    2014-01-09

    Borg developed scales for rating pain and perceived exertion in adults that have also been used in pediatric populations. Models describing functional relationships between perceived exertion and work capacity have not been studied in children. We compared different models and their fits to individual trajectories and assessed the variability in these trajectories. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from 79 children. Progressive cycle ergonometric testing was performed to maximal work capacity with test duration ranging from 6- 12 minutes. Ratings were obtained during each 1-minute increment. Work was normalized to individual maximal work capacity (Wmax). A delay was defined as the fraction of Wmax at which point an increase in ratings of leg fatigue occurred. Such a delay term allows the characterization of trajectories for children whose ratings were initially constant with increasing work. Two models were considered, a delay model and a power model that is commonly used to analyze Borg ratings. Individual model fit was assessed with root mean squared error (RMSE). Functional clustering algorithms were used to identify patterns. Leg tiredness developed quickly for some children while for others there was a delay before an in- creased ratings of leg exertion occurred with increasing work. Models for individual trajectories with the smallest RMSE included a delay and a quadratic term (quadratic-delay model), or a power function and a delay term (power-delay model) compared to a simple power function. The median delay was 40% Wmax (interquartile range (IQR): 26-49%) in a quadratic-delay model, while the median exponent was 1.03 (IQR: 0.83-1.78) in a power-delay model. Nine clusters were identified showing linear or quadratic patterns with or without a delay. Cluster membership did not depend on age, gender or diagnosis. Children and adolescents vary widely in their capacity to rate their perceptions and exhibit different functional relationships

  2. Epidemiology of Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Susceptibility in Standardbred Horses Reveals Associated Risk Factors and Underlying Enhanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgren, Cajsa M.; Upjohn, Melissa M.; Fernandez-Fuente, Marta; Massey, Claire; Pollott, Geoff; Verheyen, Kristien L. P.; Piercy, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records) was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry) from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.2%) per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1–23.4; p = 0.001) and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3–27.0; p = 0.001). Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04) than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006). All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. Conclusions/Significance Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may

  3. Epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis susceptibility in standardbred horses reveals associated risk factors and underlying enhanced performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa M Isgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1 mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.2% per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1-23.4; p = 0.001 and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3-27.0; p = 0.001. Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04 than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006. All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may be

  4. Making health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buse, Kent; Mays, Nicholas; Walt, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    ... understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability and qua...

  5. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  6. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  7. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way.

  8. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Koppisetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT, found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE DVT in patients <30 years of age. Affected population is in the early thirties, predominantly male, often with a history of major physical exertion and presents with extensive or bilateral DVTs. Patients with IVC anomalies usually develop compensatory circulation through the collateral veins with enlarged azygous/hemizygous veins. Despite the compensatory circulation, the venous drainage of the lower limbs is often insufficient leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. We describe a case of extensive and bilateral deep venous thrombosis following physical exertion in a thirty-six-year-old male patient with incidental finding of IVCA on imaging.

  9. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted

  10. [Relationship between efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines and aquaporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Qiu-hong; Kuang, Hai-xue

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the discovery and studies on aquaporin have made us have a more in-depth understanding about the physiological and pathological processes of water metabolism. Over years, however, there has been no quantitative study on the target sites of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines at the molecular level. In that case, aquaporin was found to been a new target molecule to explain the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. By studying aquaporin, researchers can understand the implicit meaning of the diuretic effect of traditional Chinese medicines and conduct quantitative studies on the diuretic effect. So far, many scholars have conducted a series of studies in the traditional Chinese medicine field by using the findings on aquaporin and made certain advances. This article provides a summary about the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines through target molecule aquaporin.

  11. Amphetamine Exerts Dose-Dependent Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Attractor Dynamics during Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lapish, C.C.; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Seamans, J.K.; Phillips, A.G.; Durstewitz, D.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of neural activity by monoamine neurotransmitters is thought to play an essential role in shaping computational neurodynamics in the neocortex, especially in prefrontal regions. Computational theories propose that monoamines may exert bidirectional (concentration-dependent) effects on cognition by altering prefrontal cortical attractor dynamics according to an inverted U-shaped function. To date, this hypothesis has not been addressed directly, in part because of the absence of app...

  12. Cylindrical spirals of myofilamentous origin associated with exertional cramps and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, G I; Burns, D K; Krampitz, D; Barohn, R J

    1997-12-01

    We describe the presence of cylindrical spirals on muscle biopsy from a 31-year-old man who developed rhabodomyolysis following a long run. He had a prior history of exertional cramps and myoglobinuria. His maternal grandfather had similar symptoms. Transmission electron micrographs demonstrated continuity between the lamellae of the cylindrical spirals and native myofilaments. Whether these unusual structures confer a derangement in myofilament function is uncertain.

  13. Within-year Exertional Heat Illness Incidence in U.S. Army Soldiers, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ranging from relatively minor heat cramps and heat exhaustion to more severe illnesses, including potentially-fatal exertional heat stroke. The...the within-season proportion to 78.7%. Next, we used week 17 as the start of the season but retained the original week 39 end-of-season breakpoint...calculated the within-season proportion, using the original 1 May and 30 September definition of the heat season (weeks 18 and 39). This approach

  14. Fgf8-Related Secondary Organizers Exert Different Polarizing Planar Instructions along the Mouse Anterior Neural Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens) detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical...

  15. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...... week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. RESULTS: 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1...

  16. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  17. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Jan Louis; Peersman, Benjamin; Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Peersman, Geert; Roelant, Ella; Roeykens, Johan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS. (orig.)

  19. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, Jan Louis [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Benjamin; Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Geert [ZNA, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Antwerp (Belgium); Roelant, Ella [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Scientific Coordination, Antwerp (Belgium); Roeykens, Johan [Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS. (orig.)

  20. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  1. Whole-Exome Molecular Autopsy After Exertion-Related Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason H; Tester, David J; Will, Melissa L; Ackerman, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Targeted postmortem genetic testing of the 4 major channelopathy-susceptibility genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, and RYR2) have yielded putative pathogenic mutations in ≤30% of autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases with highest yields derived from the subset of exertion-related SUDY. Here, we evaluate the role of whole-exome sequencing in exertion-related SUDY cases. From 1998 to 2010, 32 cases of exertion-related SUDY were referred by Medical Examiners for a cardiac channel molecular autopsy. A mutational analysis of the major long-QT syndrome-susceptibility genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia-susceptibility gene (RYR2) identified a putative pathogenic mutation in 11 cases. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the remaining 21 targeted gene-negative SUDY cases. After whole-exome sequencing, a gene-specific surveillance of all genes (N=100) implicated in sudden death was performed to identify putative pathogenic mutation(s). Three of these 21 decedents had a clinically actionable, pathogenic mutation (CALM2-F90L, CALM2-N98S, and PKP2-N634fs). Of the 18 remaining cases, 7 hosted at least 1 variant of unknown significance with a minor allele frequency autopsy-negative SUDY cases. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. [Preliminary study on the best-exerted force chance in the female menstrual cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Dai, Hongwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Lan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the exerted force in different phases of the female menstrual cycle, as well as the changes in estrogen (E2), osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement, to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of the best opportunity for efficient tooth movement. Twelve women (aged 18 years to 28 years) with extracted first premolars had been selected. Six women in the group were randomly selected as the menstrual period group, whereas the remaining six were assigned to the ovulation period group. Right canines were retracted with 1.5 N NiTi close coil spring. GCF samples were collected prior to the force exertion experiments at 0 (T0), 15 (T1), 30 (T2), and 45 d (T3). The levels of E2, OCN, OPG and RANKL in GCF were measured by chemiluminescence and enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. The E2 and OCN levels were significantly higher in the ovulation period group than in the menstrual period group (P 0.05). Finally, no significant difference was found in RANKL/OPG ratio between the two groups (P > 0.05). Exerted force on teeth during the menstrual period may promote rapid tooth movement.

  3. Comparison of Fourier and wavelet analysis for fatigue assessment during repetitive dynamic exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Suman Kanti; Nimbarte, Ashish D

    2015-04-01

    The comparative ability of the Fourier transform (FFT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) algorithms in assessing muscle fatigue during sub-maximal repetitive dynamic exertion was investigated in this study. Surface electromyography data recorded from the upper trapezius muscle during forty minutes of repetitive upper extremity exertion performed by 10 male participants were used in the analysis. Multi-model regression analysis was performed to study the trend in the power values of the different frequency bands estimated using the FFT and DWT algorithms. Less variability and higher statistical significance was observed for the power value trend computed using the DWT algorithm compared to the FFT algorithm. The regression models provided a better fit for the power values estimated under more fatigued condition compared to the less fatigued condition. The lower frequency bands of 23-46 Hz and 46-93 Hz exhibited the expected and consistent power trend independent of the algorithm (DWT or FFT) used. For the exertions tested in this study, a cubic or curvilinear model explained the fatigue development process with a higher precision than the linear models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  5. Computer mouse position as a determinant of posture, muscular load and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, L K; Bernmark, E; Ekenvall, L; Hagberg, M; Isaksson, A; Rostö, T

    1998-02-01

    This study concerned the influence of 6 positions of the computer mouse on the work table on posture, muscular load, and perceived exertion during text editing. An optoelectronic 3-dimensional motion analysis system was used to register the postures of 10 men and 10 women using video display units. Muscular load was also registered (with electromyography), as was perceived exertion (with rating scales). A neutral posture with a relaxed and supported arm showed the least perceived exertion, and the electromyographic results showed low activity in both trapezius muscles in this position. Short operators (all women) showed a numerically higher activity in the 4 examined muscles than the tall operators (all men, except 1). This finding could be related to lower muscle force among women and to anthropometric differences, which also influence biomechanic load moments. Narrow-shouldered operators (8 women and 1 man) and short operators worked with larger outward rotation and abduction of the shoulder in a position of the mouse lateral to the keyboard than the broad-shouldered (7 men and 2 women) and tall operators did. Arm support markedly reduced muscle load in the neck-shoulder region among the operators. The operators using video display units in this study preferred to use the mouse on a table in a close to relaxed, neutral posture of the arm in combination with arm support. Short and narrow-shouldered operators worked in more strenuous postures of the arm when the mouse was located lateral to the keyboard.

  6. An Exploration of Exertion in Mixed Reality Systems via the ``Table Tennis for Three'' Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Florian ‘Floyd'; Gibbs, Martin R.; Vetere, Frank

    Humans experience their physical and social environment through their bodies and their associated movement actions. However, most mixed reality systems approach the integration of the real with a virtual world from a computational perspective, often neglecting the body’s capabilities by offering only limited interaction possibilities with a few augmented tangible objects. We propose a view on mixed reality systems that focuses on the human body and its movements, because we believe such an approach has the potential to support novel interaction experiences, as explored by a prototypal gaming system that was inspired by exertion actions exhibited in table tennis. “Table Tennis for Three” enables augmented bodily experiences while offering new opportunities for interaction, such as supporting three players simultaneously across geographical distances. This case study offers an exploration of the role of the human body and its associated movement actions in mixed reality systems, aiming to contribute toward an understanding of the use of exertion in such systems. Such an understanding can support leveraging the many benefits of exertion through mixed reality systems and therefore guide future advances in this research field.

  7. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  8. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Team Size and Stretching-Exercise Effects on Simulated Chest Compression Performance and Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Schoen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers’ compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1 larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2 brief stretching and breathing exercises during rest periods would sustain compressor performance and mitigate fatigue. Methods: In Phase I, a volunteer cohort of pre-clinical medical students performed four minutes of continuous compressions on a Resusci-Anne manikin to gauge the spectrum of compressor performance in the subject population. Compression rate, depth, and chest recoil were measured. In Phase II, the highest-performing Phase I subjects were placed into 2-, 3-, and/or 4-compressor teams; 2-compressor teams were assigned either to control group (no recovery exercises or intervention group (recovery exercises during rest. All Phase II teams participated in 20-minute simulations with compressor rotation every two minutes. Investigators recorded compression quality and real-time heart rate data, and calculated caloric expenditure from contact heart rate monitor measurements using validated physiologic formulas. Results: Phase I subjects delivered compressions that were 24.9% (IQR1–3: [0.5%–74.1%] correct with a median rate of 112.0 (IQR1–3: [103.5–124.9] compressions per minute and depth of 47.2 (IQR1–3: [35.7–55.2] mm. In their first rotations, all Phase II subjects delivered compressions of similar quality and correctness (p=0.09. Bivariate analyses of 2-, 3-, and 4-compressor teams’ subject compression characteristics by subsequent rotation did not identify significant differences within or across teams. On multivariate analyses, only subjects in 2-compressor teams exhibited significantly lower compression rates (control subjects; p<0.01, diminished chest release (intervention

  10. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch

    2016-03-01

    Among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015, there were 456 incident episodes of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 17% between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the highest incidence rates occurred in service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; black, non-Hispanic; members of the Marine Corps and Army; recruit trainees; and in combat-specific occupations. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain and swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (e.g., myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  11. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Jung, Minna; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Using a quality improvement framework to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care highlights multiple opportunities for federal and state governments to exert policy leverage, particularly through their roles as purchasers and regulators. Under such a framework, federal and state governments can expand their roles in collecting race/ethnicity data; define universal and meaningful race/ethnicity categories; more broadly disseminate standards for cultural competence; and demand the reduction of disparities through leveraging their status as collectively the largest U.S. health care payer.

  12. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  13. Analysis of Inevitable Variation in C13 or HNMR Spectra Derived from One Substance for a aStructure Elucidation on the Basis of a Concept of Informational Homology

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Noriko; Sugai, Toshitaka

    1992-01-01

    Abstract In order to design a spectral comparison complementary with structure elucidation, actual aspects of differences among C13- or H-nmr spectra of a common compound were examined. Two handbooks, one for C13- and one for H-nmr spectra, were assumed to be data bases of the reference spectra. The handbooks were searched for common substances whose about 400 spectra were used as exercises in three books. It was confirmed that spectral variation was inevitable whenever spectral data are extr...

  14. [Effect of dynamic hyperinflation on exertional dyspnea, exercise performance and quality of life in COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Atis, Sibel; Kanik, Arzu

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dynamic hyperinflation (DH) have negative effects on exercise performance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of dynamic hyperinflation on exertional dyspnea, exercise performance and quality of life in patients with COPD. 72 clinically stable patients with moderate to severe COPD and 30 healthy age-matched control subjects were included in this study. Pulmonary function tests including lung volumes and maximal respiratory muscle forces, arterial blood gas analyses, evaluation of exertional dyspnea with the Borg scale, and The Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Turkish version) were performed at rest and after a 6-min walk test. We measured the change in inspiratory capacity (AlphaIC) after exercise to reflect DH. 80% of patients with COPD significantly decreased IC after exercise (DH). AlphaIC were -0.27 +/- 0.26 L in COPD and 0.8 +/- 0.17 L in controls (p= 0.001). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that to be a patient with COPD, Basal Dyspnea Index (BDI) and AlphaIC were the best predictors of 6 MWD (r(2)= 0.53, p< 0.001). FEV1 added an additinal 9% to the variance in 6 MWD. Exertional dyspnea (AlphaBorg) correlated with AlphaIC (r= -0.44, p= 0.0001) and BDI (r= 0.34, p= 0.02). AlphaIC significantly correlated with symptom (r= -0.36, p= 0.008), activity (r= -0.31, p= 0.03) and total scores (r= -0.30, p= 0.04) of SGRQ. Dynamic hyperinflation can often occur during exersice in patients with COPD. Extent of dynamic hyperinflation could able to explain exercise capacity limitation, exercise dyspnea, and poor quality of life in patients with COPD.

  15. Humanin exerts cardioprotection against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury through attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummasorn, Savitree; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-12-01

    Myocardial reperfusion via the re-canalization of occluded coronary arteries is gold standard for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a process known as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Cardiac mitochondria are the major organelle of ROS production in the heart. Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by an increased ROS production can increase cardiac arrhythmia incidence, myocardial infarct size, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, preservation of cardiac mitochondrial function is a promising pharmacological approach to reduce cardiac I/R injury. Humanin (HN), a newly discovered 24-amino acid polypeptide, has been shown to exert antioxidative stress and antiapoptotic effects. Although the cardioprotective effects of HN against I/R injury has been reported, the effect of HN on cardiac mitochondrial function has not yet been investigated. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that HN exerts its cardioprotective effects against I/R injury through the attenuation of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. I/R protocol was carried out using a 30-minutes occlusion of a left anterior descending coronary artery followed by a 120-minutes of reperfusion. The plasma HN level, infarct size, arrhythmia incidence, left ventricular function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Endogenous HN level before I/R injury showed no difference between groups, but was markedly decreased after I/R injury. HN analogue pretreatment decreased arrhythmia incidence and infarct size, improved cardiac mitochondrial function, and attenuated cardiac dysfunction. Humanin analogue pretreatment exerted cardioprotective effects against I/R injury through the attenuation of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Perceived Exertion After Blood Flow Restriction Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-11-01

    Brandner, CR, and Warmington, SA. Delayed onset muscle soreness and perceived exertion after blood flow restriction exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3101-3108, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptual responses to resistance exercise with heavy loads (80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), light loads (20% 1RM), or light loads in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Despite the use of light loads, it has been suggested that the adoption of BFR resistance exercise may be limited because of increases in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and perceived exertion. Seventeen healthy untrained males participated in this balanced, randomized cross-over study. After 4 sets of elbow-flexion exercise, participants reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), with DOMS also recorded for 7 days after each trial. Delayed onset muscle soreness was significantly greater for low-pressure continuous BFR (until 48 hours postexercise) and high-pressure intermittent BFR (until 72 hours postexercise) than for traditional heavy-load resistance exercise and light-load resistance exercise. In addition, RPE was higher for heavy-load resistance exercise and high-pressure intermittent BFR than for low-pressure continuous BFR, with all trials greater than light-load resistance exercise. For practitioners working with untrained participants, this study provides evidence to suggest that to minimize the perception of effort and postexercise muscle soreness associated with BFR resistance exercise, continuous low-pressure application may be more preferential than intermittent high-pressure application. Importantly, these perceptual responses are relatively short-lived (∼2 days) and have previously been shown to subside after a few exercise sessions. Combined with smaller initial training volumes (set × repetitions), this may limit RPE and DOMS to strengthen uptake and adherence and assist in program progression for muscle hypertrophy and gains in strength.

  17. Systemic exertion intolerance disease/chronic fatigue syndrome is common in sleep centre patients with hypersomnolence: A retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Caroline; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L; Olvera, Victoria; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn M

    2018-04-06

    Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population. One-hundred and eighty-seven hypersomnolent patients completed questionnaires regarding sleepiness and fatigue; questionnaires and clinical records were used to assess for systemic exertion intolerance disease. Sleep studies, hypocretin and cataplexy were additionally used to assign diagnoses of hypersomnolence disorders or sleep apnea. Included diagnoses were idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 63), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 25), persistent sleepiness after obstructive sleep apnea treatment (n = 25), short habitual sleep duration (n = 41), and sleepiness with normal sleep study (n = 33). Twenty-one percent met systemic exertion intolerance disease criteria, and the frequency of systemic exertion intolerance disease was not different across sleep diagnoses (p = .37). Patients with systemic exertion intolerance disease were no different from those without this diagnosis by gender, age, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, depressive symptoms, or sleep study parameters. The whole cohort reported substantial fatigue on questionnaires, but the systemic exertion intolerance disease group exhibited more profound fatigue and was less likely to respond to traditional wake-promoting agents (88.6% versus 67.7%, p = .01). Systemic exertion intolerance disease appears to be a common co-morbidity in patients with hypersomnolence, which is not specific to hypersomnolence subtype but may portend a poorer prognosis for treatment response. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  19. An exertional heat illness triage tool for a jungle training environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike; Withnall, R; Boulter, M

    2017-09-06

    This article introduces a practical triage tool designed to assist commanders, jungle training instructors (JTIs) and medical personnel to identify Defence Personnel (DP) with suspected exertional heat illness (EHI). The challenges of managing suspected EHI in a jungle training environment and the potential advantages to stratifying the urgency of evacuation are discussed. This tool has been designed to be an adjunct to the existing MOD mandated heat illness recognition and first aid training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Endogenous IFN-β signaling exerts anti-inflammatory actions in experimentally induced focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inácio, Ana R; Liu, Yawei; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-β exerts anti-inflammatory effects, coupled to remarkable neurological improvements in multiple sclerosis, a neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system. Analogously, it has been hypothesized that IFN-β, by limiting inflammation, decreases neuronal death...... and promotes functional recovery after stroke. However, the core actions of endogenous IFN-β signaling in stroke are unclear. METHODS: To address this question, we used two clinically relevant models of focal cerebral ischemia, transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and two genetically...

  1. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  2. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  3. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  4. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  5. Climate change adaptation: policy and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Amanda H.; Brunner, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Worldwide, the threefold increase in the incidence of extreme weather events since 1960 was been accompanied by a ninefold increase in damages, reaching a peak of US$219 billion in 2005 due to the impacts of Hurricane Katrina. There is strong evidence that the increases in extremes, particularly heatwave and flood, are related to climate change. Adaptive governance presents an opportunity to factor the global problem into many simpler local problems to be addressed in parallel. We propose opening up the established frame, based on insights from field testing the principles of adaptive governance and independently corroborated by other research. First, in terms of science, we propose more intensive research centred on case studies of local communities and extreme events, each of which is unique under a comprehensive description. Differences among them must be taken into account to understand past damages or reduce vulnerability. Second, in terms of policy, we support a procedurally-rational approach, one that accommodates inevitable uncertainties, integrates scientific and local knowledge into policies to advance the community's common interest, and relies on learning from experience. Importantly, the approach is constructed to give something back of value to the participating communities - usually information and insight on their own circumstances - in return for their time, expertise, and good will. Third, in terms of decision-making, we suggest structural changes that begin with harvesting experience from the bottom-up, to make policies that have worked anywhere on the ground available for voluntary adaptation by similar communities elsewhere, and to inform higher-level officials about local resource needs. This approach produces lessons that can be re-contextualised to inform both scientific understanding and policy action in similar contexts directly, without going through generalisations. The common interest lies in reducing the

  6. Decline of Civilian power in Japan's Defense Policy

    OpenAIRE

    SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫

    2006-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...

  7. Histamine exerts multiple effects on expression of genes associated with epidermal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowska-Owsiak, D; Salimi, M; Selvakumar, T A; Wang, X; Taylor, S; Ogg, G S

    2014-01-01

    The role of epidermal barrier genes in the pathogenesis of atopic skin inflammation has recently been highlighted. Cytokines that are abundant in the skin during inflammation have been shown to exert various effects on the expression of barrier genes, although the role of histamine in this area of skin biology is not yet fully understood. To assess the effect of stimulation with histamine on keratinocytes by analysis of the pathways involved in epidermal barrier integrity. We performed a gene expression analysis of histamine-stimulated keratinocytes. Functional changes were tested using the dye penetration assay. Differential changes in filaggrin and the filaggrin-processing enzyme bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH) were validated at the protein level, and expression was also assessed in filaggrin knock-down keratinocytes. Histamine altered expression of multiple barrier genes. Expression of filaggrin was downregulated, as was that of other markers, thus suggesting the presence of delayed/aberrant keratinocyte differentiation. Expression of genes involved in cellular adhesiveness and genes of protease expression was dysregulated, but expression of protease inhibitors was increased. BLMH was upregulated in keratinocytes subjected to histamine and filaggrin knockdown. Histamine exerts a dual effect on epidermal barrier genes; it suppresses keratinocyte differentiation and dysregulates genes of cellular adhesiveness, although it induces genes contributing to stratum corneum function. Upregulation of BLMH and protease inhibitors could support maintenance of the permeability barrier by enhanced generation of moisturizing compounds and suppressed desquamation. In contrast, in the case of stratum corneum damage, histamine could enhance transcutaneous sensitization.

  8. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  9. Cognition and performance: anxiety, mood and perceived exertion among Ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David; Chinnasamy, Camilla; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Noakes, Timothy; Micklewright, Dominic

    2011-11-01

    The authors examined the changing patterns of mood before and after an Ironman triathlon, and the relationships between expected performance outcomes, perception of effort and pacing. Twelve participants in the 2008 Ironman Austria triathlon competition were studied before, during and after the event. Each participant completed measures of mood, anxiety and perceived exertion, while pacing was calculated from official race timings at various points on the course. Positive correlations were found between distance covered and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during each of the individual disciplines, and also between RPE and the percentage of overall race time completed (r=0.826, panxiety was higher before the race compared with baseline measures. RPE followed a linear progression of RPE during each discipline followed by a re-setting of the perception of effort at the start of the next discipline. The increase in RPE for the entire event followed a linear increase. The linear decline in run pace is consistent with a recent model in which expected RPE is used to modulate pacing. Anxiety and mood responses of participants in this study indicate that the emotional response of athletes before and after ultra-endurance exercise is closely aligned with their conscious thoughts.

  10. The effects of hand force variation on shoulder muscle activation during submaximal exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Kimberly A; Vidt, Meghan E; Dickerson, Clark R

    2018-03-01

    Upper limb injuries are highly prevalent in the workplace and new tools are needed to proactively design workstations to reduce injury risk. The objective was to characterize spatial, load and direction dependency of muscle activity for hand exertions in the upper limb workspace. Electromyographic signals were collected from 14 upper limb muscles during exertions for all combinations of 4 submaximal hand forces (20/30/50/60 N) in 6 cardinal (up/down/left/right/forward/backward) directions at 5 hand locations. Linear muscle activity increases accompanied increased hand forces. Total muscle activity increases between 20 and 60 N hand forces ranged by direction from 92% (downward) to 189% (right). Prediction equations for all muscles depended on hand force, and linear, quadratic and interaction permutations of hand location. Muscle activity associated with manual tasks is load, direction and spatially dependent. Equations developed to describe these complex relationships can be used to better design future and evaluate current occupational activities.

  11. Post-match Perceived Exertion, Feeling and Wellness in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessi, Mohamed Saifeddin; Moalla, Wassim

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess post-match perceived exertion, feeling and wellness according to the match outcome (winning, drawing or losing) in professional soccer players. Twelve outfield players were followed during 52 official matches where the outcomes (win, draw or lose) were noted. Following each match players completed both a 10-point scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and an 11-point scale rating of perceived feeling. Rating of perceived sleep quality, stress, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected separately on a 7-point scale the day following each match. Player RPE was higher by a very largely magnitude following a loss compared to a draw or a win and higher by a small magnitude after a draw compared to a win. Players felt more pleasure after a win compared to a draw or loss and more displeasure after a loss compared to draw. The players reported a largely and moderately better-perceived sleep quality, less stress and fatigue following a win compared to draw or a loss, and a moderately bad-perceived sleep quality, higher stress and fatigue following a draw compared to a loss. In contrast, only a trivial-small change was observed in perceived muscle soreness between all outcomes. Matches outcomes moderately to largely affect RPE, perceived feeling, sleep quality, stress and fatigue whereas perceived muscle soreness remains high regardless of the match outcome. However, winning a match decreases the strain and improves both pleasure and wellness in professional soccer players.

  12. Validity of the CALER and OMNI-bike ratings of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Jacob E; Roemmich, James N

    2008-04-01

    To test the validity of the Cart and Load Effort Rating (CALER) and OMNI bike RPE scales. Children (16 boys aged 9.5 +/- 0.7 and 16 girls aged 9.4 +/- 0.8) performed a progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion. Random effects models and correlation analysis were used to determine the association of the undifferentiated perceived exertion from the CALER and OMNI bike scales with heart rate and V O2 for concurrent validity and the association of the CALER scale with the validated OMNI bike scale for construct validity. Tests of proportions were performed to compare the proportion of maximal RPE scale (CALER, OMNI bike) with the proportion of maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test. Concurrent validity of the CALER and OMNI bike scales was established, as increases in scores of both scales were associated with (P bike scale (r = 0.93). The proportion of maximal CALER (75 +/- 20%) and OMNI bike (74 +/- 19%) scales were less (P bike RPE scales was established for a progressively increasing exercise paradigm. However, the proportion of maximal perceived exertion scores from both scales was lower than the proportion of predicted maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test.

  13. Activity Exerted by a Testosterone Derivative on Myocardial Injury Using an Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and coronary resistance were evaluated in isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Additionally, molecular mechanism involved in the activity exerted by the testosterone derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in the absence or presence of the following compounds: flutamide, prazosin, metoprolol, nifedipine, indomethacin, and PINANE TXA2. The results showed that the testosterone derivative significantly increases (P = 0.05) the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated heart. Other data indicate that the testosterone derivative increases left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001–100 nM); however, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited (P = 0.06) by indomethacin and PINANE-TXA2  (P = 0.05) at a dose of 1 nM. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone derivative induces changes in the left ventricular pressure levels through thromboxane receptor activation. PMID:24839599

  14. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Ji, Yoon Cheol; Shin, Eun-Seok; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-08-01

    Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using a novel method. Based on a physiological observation that longer coronary arteries have more daughter branches feeding a larger mass of cardiac muscle, the method measures the vessel lengths from coronary angiogram or CT images (vessel length-based method) and predicts the coronary flow resistances. The underlying equations are derived from the physiological relation among flow rate, resistance, and vessel length. To validate the present estimation method, we calculate the coronary flow division over coronary major arteries for 50 patients using the vessel length-based method as well as the muscle volume-based one. These results are compared with the direct measurements in a clinical study. Further proving the usefulness of the present method, we compute the coronary FFR from the images of optical coherence tomography.

  15. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease: Three Distinct Clinical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank N.M. Twisk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME. However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease, as recently suggested.

  16. Problems and Recommendations over Tax Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ONER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is a tool that state uses on economic, social and financial fields. Funding public expenditure is its financial goal, providing economic stability and development is its economic goal and contributing to fair distribution of income and wealth is its social goal. In result of high debt load, rupture between taxes and economic goals, being not established a document and registration order and lacking in management of administration and control functions, significantly increasing tax loss and evasion and factors such as unfair competition that it leads to show that our tax system is ineffective and have a negative influence in economic life. In order to succeed in tax policies, “taxes should be minimalistic, should consider the ability to pay with respect to income level, should prevent the luxurious consumption and waste, should decrease tax evasion and loss, should tax informal economy, should encourage export, employment and development, should be reformed in a permanent way and implementing tax consciousness into whole society” is inevitable.

  17. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is needed to enable a real and efficient classification of perceived individual efforts. In this paper, we propose a heart rate-based personalized method to assess perceived exertion; our method uses fuzzy logic as an option to manage imprecision and uncertainty in involved variables. We applied some experiments to cleaning staff and obtained results that highlight the importance of a custom method to classify perceived exertion of people doing physical work.

  18. The effect of wearing jeans on maximum static lifting strength for men and women at various exertion heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Li, Chia-Ying; Wang, Chao-Hsuan; Hu, Shiun

    2018-03-13

    This study collected maximum static lifting strength (MSLS) data from 13 males and 13 females at an exertion height of 10-100 cm above the floor (in 10-cm increments) in wearing athletic shorts and wearing jeans conditions. Knee angles were also examined when participants performed the MSLS tasks. Results showed that gender, pant type and exertion height significantly affected participants' MSLS and corresponding knee angle. The effect of wearing jeans primarily occurred at 10-40 cm; meanwhile, male participants tended to stoop while exerting force. This substantially decreased their MSLS (55 N). For female participants in this exertion height range, no significant difference was found in knee angles; accordingly, wearing jeans only slightly affected their MSLS. In summary, wearing jeans had a noticeable effect on the MSLS of male participants, who should be particularly careful when performing lifting tasks at a height of less than 50 cm above the floor.

  19. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  20. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Pancardo, Pablo; Hernández-Nolasco, J. A.; Acosta-Escalante, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is ne...

  1. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  2. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  3. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  4. Exertional Heat Illness in American Football Players: When Is the Risk Greatest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Earl R; Ferrara, Michael S; Casa, Douglas J; Powell, John W; Broglio, Steven P; Resch, Jacob E; Courson, Ronald W

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge about the specific environmental and practice risks to participants in American intercollegiate football during preseason practices is limited. Identifying risks may mitigate occurrences of exertional heat illness (EHI). To evaluate the associations among preseason practice day, session number, and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the incidence of EHI. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty colleges and universities representing 5 geographic regions of the United States. National Collegiate Athletic Association football players. Data related to preseason practice day, session number, and WBGT. We measured WBGT every 15 minutes during the practice sessions and used the mean WBGT from each session in the analysis. We recorded the incidence of EHIs and calculated the athlete-exposures (AEs). A total of 553 EHI cases and 365 810 AEs were reported for an overall EHI rate of 1.52/1000 AEs (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42, 1.68). Approximately 74% (n = 407) of the reported EHI cases were exertional heat cramps (incidence rate = 1.14/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.25), and about 26% (n = 146) were a combination of exertional heat syncope and heat exhaustion (incidence rate = 0.40/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.48). The highest rate of EHI occurred during the first 14 days of the preseason period, and the greatest risk was during the first 7 days. The risk of EHI increased substantially when the WBGT was 82.0°F (27.8°C) or greater. We found an increased rate of EHI during the first 14 days of practice, especially during the first 7 days. When the WBGT was greater than 82.0°F (27.8°C), the rate of EHI increased. Sports medicine personnel should take all necessary preventive measures to reduce the EHI risk during the first 14 days of practice and when the environmental conditions are greater than 82.0°F (27.8°C) WBGT.

  5. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, Pjudo fight simulations (Pjudo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  6. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  7. Influence of plane bed on the force exerted on a cylinder oscillating in still water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeeni, S.T.O. [Tehran Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Narayanan, R. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2005-12-01

    The wall pressure field on a cylinder oscillating over a plane bed in still water is reported in this paper. Two gaps between the cylinder and the bed were considered. Pressures on the periphery of the cylinder were measured by a transducer and were found to be essentially repeatable from one cycle to the next. The forces determined from the pressure profiles compare well with those measured directly by a force transducer except significantly at Keulegan-Carpenter number of 15.0. The importance of the plane bed when it is stationary or moving with the cylinder is examined. The significance of the roughness of the bed with respect to the oscillatory forces exerted on the cylinder is also assessed. (Author)

  8. A three-year follow-up of 195 reported occupational over-exertion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmlert, K; Orelius-Dallner, M; Kilbom, A; Gamberale, F

    1993-03-01

    Three years after reporting occupational over-exertion injuries, 181 persons took part in a follow-up study by questionnaire. The objective was to study these persons with respect to their current status of health, well-being and functional capacity and when possible compare collected data to reference data from the "normal population". The studied group reported more physical and psychological symptoms than the reference groups. More than 50% reported difficulties in activities of daily living. Long sick-leaves in the year following the reported injury were associated with remaining pain and low rate of employment. Three years after the injury, 109 persons were in employment. Almost one third of these had changed occupations and now had more varied tasks than at the time of the report. Those whose work loads had been reduced after the injury, did not report less musculoskeletal disorders than others. However, access to social support was positively related with health and psychological well-being.

  9. Fgf8-related secondary organizers exert different polarizing planar instructions along the mouse anterior neural tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Crespo-Enriquez

    Full Text Available Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical location of the secondary organizers: the isthmic organizer (IsO and the anterior neural ridge (anr but not on zona limitans intrathalamica (zli. Our results suggest that Sprouty2, a negative modulator of RAS/ERK pathway, is important for regulating Fgf8 morphogenetic signal activity by controlling Fgf8-induced signaling pathways and positional information during early brain development.

  10. Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector arbitrary-order Bessel beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiping; Li, Renxian

    2016-01-01

    An analytical description of optical force on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is investigated. Linearly, radially, azimuthally, and circularly polarized Bessel beams are considered. The radial, azimuthal, and axial forces by a vector Bessel beam are numerically simulated. The effect of polarization, order of beams, and half-cone angle to the optical force are mainly discussed. For Bessel beams of larger half-cone angle, the non-paraxiality of beams plays an important role in optical forces. Numerical calculations show that optical forces, especially azimuthal forces, are very sensitive to the polarization of beams. - Highlights: • Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is analytically derived. • Radial, azimuthal, and axial forces are numerically analyzed. • The effect of polarization, order of beam, and non-paraxiality is analyzed.

  11. Exertional myopathy in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) captured by leghold snare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon; Bollinger, Trent

    2008-10-01

    We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the primary cause of death because autolysis precluded accurate evaluation of all tissues. Nevertheless, comparison of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations and survival between the affected bear and other grizzly bears captured by leghold snare in the same research project suggests EM also occurred in other bears, but that it is not generally a cause of mortality. We propose, however, occurrence of nonfatal EM in grizzly bears after capture by leghold snare has potential implications for use of this capture method, including negative effects on wildlife welfare and research data.

  12. Subsidy Policies on Wool Sheep and Cashmere Goat Industry Background of Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Haiyan; XIAO, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Grassland ecological protection measures such as grazing prohibition and livestock changed traditional production mode of the cashmere goat industry, and exerted adverse influence on production of cashmere and income of farmers and herdsmen. On the basis of the survey in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shanxi, and Yunnan, this paper evaluated effect of subsidy policies on cashmere goat industry and present some existing problems in the implementation of these policies. Finally, it ...

  13. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  14. Auxin and physical constraint exerted by the perianth promote androgynophore bending in Passiflora mucronata L. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, D I; Monte Bello, C C; Sobol, S; Samach, A; Dornelas, M C

    2015-05-01

    The androgynophore column, a distinctive floral feature in passion flowers, is strongly crooked or bent in many Passiflora species pollinated by bats. This is a floral feature that facilitates the adaptation to bat pollination. Crooking or bending of plant organs are generally caused by environmental stimulus (e.g. mechanical barriers) and might involve the differential distribution of auxin. Our aim was to study the role of the perianth organs and the effect of auxin in bending of the androgynophore of the bat-pollinated species Passiflora mucronata. Morpho-anatomical characterisation of the androgynophore, including measurements of curvature angles and cell sizes both at the dorsal (convex) and ventral (concave) sides of the androgynophore, was performed on control flowers, flowers from which perianth organs were partially removed and flowers treated either with auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D) or with an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (naphthylphthalamic acid; NPA). Asymmetric growth of the androgynophore column, leading to bending, occurs at a late stage of flower development. Removing the physical constraint exerted by perianth organs or treatment with NPA significantly reduced androgynophore bending. Additionally, the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D were more curved when compared to controls. There was a larger cellular expansion at the dorsal side of the androgynophores of plants treated with 2,4-D and in both sides of the androgynophores of plants treated with NPA. This study suggests that the physical constraint exerted by perianth and auxin redistribution promotes androgynophore bending in P. mucronata and might be related to the evolution of chiropterophily in the genus Passiflora. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  16. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  18. Changing the policy for intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, Chikondi A; de Jager, Christiaan; Longwe, Herbert; Phiri, Kamija; Hongoro, Charles; Mutero, Clifford M

    2017-02-20

    The growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment for uncomplicated malaria led to a recommendation by the World Health Organization for the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Inevitably, concerns were also raised surrounding the use of SP for intermittent prevention treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) amidst the lack of alternative drugs. Malawi was the first country to adopt intermittent prevention treatment with SP in 1993, and updated in 2013. This case study examines the policy updating process and the contribution of research and key stakeholders to this process. The findings support the development of a malaria research-to-policy framework in Malawi. Documents and evidence published from 1993 to 2012 were systematically reviewed in addition to key informant interviews. The online search identified 170 potential publications, of which eight from Malawi met the inclusion criteria. Two published studies from Malawi were instrumental in the WHO policy recommendation which in turn led to the updating of national policies. The updated policy indicates that more than two SP doses, as informed by research, overcome the challenges of the first policy of two SP doses only because of ineffectiveness by P. falciparum resistance and the global lack of replacement drugs to SP for IPTp. International WHO recommendations facilitated a smooth policy change driven by motivated local leadership with technical and financial support from development partners. Policy development and implementation should include key stakeholders and use local malaria research in a research-to-policy framework.

  19. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  20. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  1. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  2. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....

  3. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Cadaveric Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Daniel R; Sellon, Jacob L; Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Academic institution procedural skills laboratory. Ten unembalmed cadaveric knee-ankle-foot specimens from 1 female (2 specimens) and 7 male donors aged 62-91 years (mean 78.6 years) with body mass indices of 18.9-35.3 kg/m 2 (mean 27.1 kg/m 2 ). Two experienced operators each performed USG anterior and lateral compartment fasciotomies on 5 unembalmed cadaveric legs. A third physician subsequently dissected the legs to assess the continuity of the fasciotomies and to identify any neurovascular damage related to the procedures. Fasciotomy length (in centimeters) and classification by completeness (achieved target length or did not achieve target length) and continuity (continuous or discontinuous) based on predetermined criteria. Muscles, retinaculae, and neurovascular structures were assessed for damage. No neurovascular injuries occurred in any of the 20 USG fasciotomies. The average fasciotomy length was 22.5 cm. All 20 of the fasciotomies achieved the target length. A continuous cephalocaudal fasciotomy was accomplished in 13 of 20 fasciotomies. When a fasciotomy was not continuous, the average length and number of intact fascial bands was 1.52 cm and 2.3, respectively. USG fasciotomy of the anterior and lateral leg compartments can be safely performed in a cadaveric model and can achieve a fasciotomy length comparable to surgical fasciotomy. Most procedures successfully

  5. Prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in endurance horses in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberger, M S; McKenzie, E C; Payton, M E; Rigas, J D; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a reported syndrome in competing endurance horses; however, the prevalence and cause of ER in this population have not been defined. To determine the prevalence of ER in a sample of endurance racing horses and investigate factors, including relevant genetic defects, contributing to the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in this group. Prospective clinical study. Riders of 101 horses participating in one of four 50-mile (80.5 km) distance races completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding the medical history, management and performance of their horse. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was measured before and 4 h after completion of exercise. Hair samples were analysed by PCR for the R309H mutation in the glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) and the C7360G mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene causing malignant hyperthermia (MH). Samples were obtained from 68 Arabians, 20 half-Arabians and 13 horses of other breeds. Serum CK was above the resting reference interval (145-633 u/l) in 38 horses after racing (median 883 u/l, range 658-3739) but was compatible with values previously reported in apparently healthy endurance horses. Pathological ER was suspected to occur in 4 horses with serum CK activities exceeding 10,000 u/l 4 h after racing (median 84,825 u/l; range 10,846-381,790) including 3 Arabians and one half-Arabian horse. GYS1 and RYR1 mutations were not present in hair samples from any horses. Exertional rhabdomyolysis occurred at a prevalence of 4.0% in a sample of horses participating in 50 mile distance events and all affected horses were Arabian or half-Arabian. The cause of ER in the endurance horse population remains unknown; however, ER in competing Arabian endurance horses is unlikely to be due to type 1 PSSM or MH. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  6. The Strategic Threat of Inevitable Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    patterns.2 For the purposes of this paper global warming will mean the warming of the earth’s surface a result of increased greenhouse gasses in the... greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels5. In the ensuing two decades, much of the debate over climate change and how to...since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution has already led to a substantial increase in Greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere including carbon dioxide

  7. Case Report: Inevitable Caesarean Myomectomy | Ezechi | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  9. An Inevitable Moment: US Brain Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brian Coppola begins by discussing the 2007 National Academies of Sciences (NAS) publication, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm" which called for for reprioritizing investments because "the world is changing rapidly, and our advantages are no longer unique. Without a renewed effort to bolster the foundations of our…

  10. PERSONALIDAD Y CEREBRO: UN ENCUENTRO INEVITABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Pedrero Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La personalidad es un constructo que, hasta los últimos años, no había suscitado demasiado interés entre los neuropsicólogos. Sin embargo, durante la década pasada han proliferado los estudios interesados en buscar correlatos cerebrales, estructurales y funcionales de rasgos de personalidad propuestos por las distintas teorías, especialmente el modelo de los cinco grandes factores de personalidad. Se ha ido acumulando evidencia sobre el hecho de que los cinco rasgos se relacionan con localizaciones cerebrales concretas pudiendo, actualmente, trazar un mapa cerebral asociado a cada rasgo. Estudios más recientes relacionan a estos rasgos con la red cerebral por defecto, donde residiría el compendio de reglas implícitas de gestión (personalidad, que se iría formando durante la vida mediante mecanismos de “plasticidad dependiente de la experiencia”. Estas propuestas suponen el umbral de un cambio de paradigma que puede llevar el estudio de los “trastornos mentales” al territorio de las alteraciones en la conectividad cerebral

  11. PERSONALIDAD Y CEREBRO: UN ENCUENTRO INEVITABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo J. Pedrero Pérez; José M. Ruiz Sánchez de León; Marcos Llanero Luque

    2015-01-01

    La personalidad es un constructo que, hasta los últimos años, no había suscitado demasiado interés entre los neuropsicólogos. Sin embargo, durante la década pasada han proliferado los estudios interesados en buscar correlatos cerebrales, estructurales y funcionales de rasgos de personalidad propuestos por las distintas teorías, especialmente el modelo de los cinco grandes factores de personalidad. Se ha ido acumulando evidencia sobre el hecho de que los cinco rasgos se relacionan con localiza...

  12. Crisis management: Planning for the inevitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyaz Aboudzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify important factors influencing organizational readiness to deal with the crisis in business organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts who work for Mapna company in Iran. The study uses the method developed by Mitroff (2005 [Mitroff, I. I. (2005. Why some companies emerge stronger and better from a crisis: 7 essential lessons for surviving disaster. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.], which investigates the effects of four factors including job satisfaction, increase in income, cost reduction and change in strategies on crisis management. Using Pearson correlation ratio, the study has confirmed a positive and meaningful relationship between crisis management and three factors including increase in income, cost reduction and change in strategies. However, the study did not find any evidence to support the relationship between job satisfaction and crisis management.

  13. Heterothermy in large mammals: inevitable or implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2016-02-01

    Advances in biologging techniques over the past 20 years have allowed for the remote and continuous measurement of body temperatures in free-living mammals. While there is an abundance of literature on heterothermy in small mammals, fewer studies have investigated the daily variability of body core temperature in larger mammals. Here we review measures of heterothermy and the factors that influence heterothermy in large mammals in their natural habitats, focussing on large mammalian herbivores. The mean 24 h body core temperatures for 17 species of large mammalian herbivores (>10 kg) decreased by ∼1.3°C for each 10-fold increase in body mass, a relationship that remained significant following phylogenetic correction. The degree of heterothermy, as measured by the 24 h amplitude of body core temperature rhythm, was independent of body mass and appeared to be driven primarily by energy and water limitations. When faced with the competing demands of osmoregulation, energy acquisition and water or energy use for thermoregulation, large mammalian herbivores appear to relax the precision of thermoregulation thereby conserving body water and energy. Such relaxation may entail a cost in that an animal moves closer to its thermal limits for performance. Maintaining homeostasis requires trade-offs between regulated systems, and homeothermy apparently is not accorded the highest priority; large mammals are able to maintain optimal homeothermy only if they are well nourished, hydrated, and not compromised energetically. We propose that the amplitude of the 24 h rhythm of body core temperature provides a useful index of any compromise experienced by a free-living large mammal and may predict the performance and fitness of an animal. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. War in the Caucasus is Inevitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    of discrimination , racism, bigotry, hatred, mistrust, qualms, injustice, intimidation, and coercion in an effort to classify, categorize, and...with the Olympic Games held in China. An Azeri offensive supported by Turkey would surely be considered by Russian politicians as a NATO threat to...demographics will undoubtedly weaken the military competitiveness. The Armenian-Azeri war over Nagorno-Karabakh drastically offset the gender ratio

  15. Supporting the inevitable, not pushing the impractical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging household customers in a greener and more energy efficient future is one which will be driven more by innovation in technologies and new business models than by the efforts or restrictions of the energy industry. Where there is a compelling benefit from an offering, it will be adopted by consumers. But the energy industry needs to support the technology and models in their early stages, without excessively supporting fruitless developments. We need facilitating regulations and outstanding customer education and awareness, and we need to enable and assist customers in their journey. All of this will require investment but in the long term the customer, society and the environment will benefit. (author).

  16. Thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: is hypothyroidism inevitable?

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, M.; Talbot, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    The outcome of 234 patients with Graves' disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy over a 12-year period is analysed with specific reference to hypothyroidism. Of definite hypothyroid cases, 98% occurred within 2 years. Failure to develop hypothyroidism was statistically related to large remnant size and a large goitre preoperatively. Histological review showed that any degree of lymphocytic infiltration was associated with the development of hypothyroidism (50% vs 22%). Late onset hypothyroi...

  17. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    OpenAIRE

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantit...

  18. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  20. Investigation of a cuboidal permanent magnet’s force exerted on a robotic capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wan’an Yang,1 Chengbing Tang,2 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, 2CNPC Chuanqing Geophysical Prospecting Company Research Center Computer Department, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To control and drive a robotic capsule accurately from outside a patient’s body, we present a schema in which the capsule enclosing the imaging device, circuits, batteries, etc is looped by a permanent magnet ring that acts as an actuator. A cuboidal permanent magnet situated outside the patient's body attracts or pushes the magnet ring from different directions to make the capsule move or rotate. A mathematic model of attractive or repulsive force that the cuboidal magnet exerts on the magnet ring is presented for accurate calculation of force. The experiments showed that the measuring force was in agreement with the theoretical one, and the relations between the dimensions of the cuboidal magnet and force are useful to produce a cuboidal magnet with optimal shape to get appropriate force. Keywords: control and drive, robotic capsule, permanent magnet ring, optimal dimension, force model

  1. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  2. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  3. Thymus cell population exerting a regulatory function in the immune response of mice of polyvinyl pyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, V.; Trainin, N.

    1974-01-01

    An increased response to PVP was observed after adult mouse thymectomy and was partially reversed either by thymus implantation or by a single injection of thymic cells. In addition, an injection of thymic cells was found to reduce the response to PVP in normal recipients. An enhanced response to PVP was measured in B mice compared to that of normals. In such mice reduction of the response to PVP was observed when repeated doses of thymus cells were administered. Lower doses of HC resistant thymus cells strongly inhibited the response to PVP. The cells involved in the thymus regulatory function appear to be radiosensitive, since it was shown that radiation by itself resulted in an increased response to PVP. This inhibitory function of the thymus seems to disappear relatively early in progression of life, as seen by an increased response to PVP in elder mice. These results indicate that a T cell population exerts a regulatory function in the immunological response to PVP that was previously considered to be thymus independent

  4. Magnolol Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effects in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobuaki; Akae, Haruka; Hirashima, Nana; Kido, Yuki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Koseki, Mayumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Akagi, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    Magnolol is the main constituent of Magnolia bark and has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in rodent models. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor are integrally involved in the action of conventional antidepressants. Here, we investigated the effects of magnolol on depressive behaviours, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related signal transduction in an olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) mouse model of depression. Mice were submitted to OBX to induce depressive behaviour, which was evaluated in the tail suspension test. Magnolol was administered orally by gavage needle. Neurogenesis was assessed by analysis of cells expressing NeuN, a neuronal marker, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein were evaluated by Western blot. Fourteen day treatment with magnolol (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) significantly improved OBX-induced depressive behaviour in tail suspension test. In agreement, magnolol significantly rescued impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, single treatments with magnolol (50 mg/kg) significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein after 3 h. The present data indicate that magnolol exerts antidepressant-like effects on behaviours by enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related intracellular signalling in OBX mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Acute Effect on Arterial Stiffness after Performing Resistance Exercise by Using the Valsalva Manoeuvre during Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yip Vincent Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Performing resistance exercise could lead to an increase in arterial stiffness. Objective. We investigate the acute effect on arterial stiffness by performing Valsalva manoeuvre during resistance exercise. Materials and Methods. Eighteen healthy young men were assigned to perform bicep curls by using two breathing techniques (exhalation and Valsalva manoeuvre during muscle contraction on two separate study days. Carotid pulsed wave velocity (cPWV was measured as an indicator to reflect the body central arterial stiffness using a high-resolution ultrasound system, and its value was monitored repeatedly at three predefined time intervals: before resistance exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise. Results. At the 0th minute after resistance exercise was performed using the Valsalva manoeuvre during exertion, a significant increase in cPWV (4.91 m/s ± 0.52 compared with the baseline value (4.67 m/s ± 0.32, P=0.008 was observed, and then it nearly returned to its baseline value at the 15th minute after exercise (4.66 m/s ± 0.44, P=0.010. These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion. Our result suggests short duration of resistance exercise may provoke a transient increase in central arterial stiffness in healthy young men.

  6. Rating of perceived exertion during cycling is associated with subsequent running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Vleck, Veronica; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Vicenzino, Bill

    2013-01-01

    To determine which commonly measured variables of cycling intensity are related to subsequent running economy in triathletes. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Running economy was compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in eighteen triathletes. Power output, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration were monitored throughout the cycle. The relationship between measures of cycle intensity and the change in running economy was evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation. Changes in running economy were also interpreted using the smallest worthwhile change (>2.4%) and grouped accordingly (i.e. impaired, no change, or improved running economy). Triathletes' RPE at the end of the cycling bout was significantly associated with the change in running economy after cycling (r=0.57, p=0.01). Average RPE of the cycle bout and RPE at the end of the cycling bout were significantly different between groups, with higher RPE scores being related to impairments in running economy (p=0.04 and p=0.02 respectively). RPE during cycling is associated with subsequent running economy in triathletes. RPE is a simple, cost-effective measure that triathletes and their coaches can use in competition and training to control cycling intensity without the need for specialist equipment such as crank systems or blood analysers. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective range of reproductive interference exerted by an alien dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, on a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishida, Takayoshi; Nishida, Sachiko

    2011-03-01

    Reproductive interference (RI), defined as the fitness cost of interspecific sexual interactions, such as interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) in plants, is ecologically important. Theoretically, RI could result in competitive exclusion, as it operates in a frequency-dependent manner. Additionally, IPT may have a greater range than resource competition, although information about the range of IPT is lacking. In the present study, we measured the range of IPT exerted by Taraxacum officinale (an alien species) on a native dandelion, T. japonicum. We used two approaches. In one, we analyzed the RI effect on a native seed set at three spatial scales. In the second, we tracked IPT from alien to native flower heads using fluorescent pigments as markers. We estimated that pollination distances were in the order of several meters. These distances exceeded the mean distance from each native plant to the nearest alien. As hypothesized, the effect of RI reached farther than neighboring individuals. These data indicate the spatial range from which alien dandelions should be removed to allow the conservation of natives.

  8. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammation-reactive astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Linda; Jörneberg, Per; Björklund, Ulrika; Westerlund, Anna; Biber, Björn; Hansson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a widely used, local anesthetic agent that blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels when used for neuro-axial blockades. Much lower concentrations of bupivacaine than in normal clinical use, bupivacaine exerts an influence on the Ca2+ signaling and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in inflammation-reactive astrocytes when used at ultralow concentrations, bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- (5-HT) and glutamate-receptor systems. With respect to the μ-opioid- and 5-HT-receptor systems, bupivacaine restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. With respect to the glutamate-receptor system, bupivacaine, in combination with an ultralow concentration of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and μ-opioid receptor agonists, restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine attenuated the inflammation-induced upregulation of IL-1β secretion. The results indicate that bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-HT- and glutamate-receptor systems by affecting Ca2+ signaling and IL-1β release in inflammation-reactive astrocytes. These results suggest that bupivacaine may be used at ultralow concentrations as an anti-inflammatory drug, either alone or in combination with opioid agonists and ultralow concentrations of an opioid antagonist. PMID:24083665

  9. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  10. The prozone effect exerted by the complement-binding anti-Lea on anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Parekh, Kamlesh H

    2017-01-01

    Prozone phenomenon is seen with very high-titer antibodies in an immune serum. The prozone effect on anti-D by a low-titer anti-Le a was investigated associated with neonatal jaundice. Standard methods were used in investigations. The child was born at full-term developed mild jaundice. With weak direct antiglobulin test+, her indirect serum bilirubin was progressed to 27.5 mg/dL in 48 h. Anti-D and anti-Le a were detected in the mother. Both these antibodies were detected in the child's serum though the eluate from red blood cells (RBCs) contained only anti-D. Mother's anti-D was masked by anti-Le a if the RBCs possessed both the antigens together. Anti-D was revealed only with D-positive RBCs lacking Le a or if the serum was modified by mixing with Le a+ saliva or was heated at 56°C or fortified with citrate solution. An anti-D showed prozone effect exerted by the complement-fixing anti-Le a in the test.

  11. Exertional dyspnoea in interstitial lung diseases: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis, decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature. The respiratory derangement observed in ILD patients at rest is even more evident during exercise. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for exertional dyspnoea and reduced exercise tolerance include altered respiratory mechanics, impaired gas exchange, cardiovascular abnormalities and peripheral muscle dysfunction. This review describes the respiratory physiology of ILD, both at rest and during exercise, and aims to provide comprehensive and updated evidence on the clinical utility of the cardiopulmonary exercise test in the assessment and management of these pathological entities. In addition, the role of exercise training and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in the ILD population is addressed.

  12. Validity of Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Active Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brandon S; Barkley, Jacob E; Potenzini, Nick; Desalvo, Renee M; Buser, Stacey L; Otterstetter, Ronald; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judith A

    During physically interactive video game play (e.g., Nintendo Wii), users are exposed to potential distracters (e.g., video, music), which may decrease their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) throughout game play. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the association between RPE scores and heart rate while playing the Nintendo Wii. Healthy adults (N = 13, 53.5 ± 5.4 years old) participated in two exercise sessions using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus. During each session participants played a five-minute warm-up game (Basic Run), two separate Wii Fit Plus games (Yoga, Strength Training, Aerobics or Balance Training) for fifteen minutes each, and then a five-minute cool down game (Basic Run). Borg RPE and heart rate were assessed during the final 30 seconds of the warm up and cool down, as well during the final 30 seconds of play for each Wii Fit Plus game. Correlation analysis combining data from both exercise sessions indicated a moderate positive relationship between heart rate and RPE (r = 0.32). Mixed-effects model regression analyses demonstrated that RPE scores were significantly associated with heart rate ( p positively associated with heart rate in adults during exercise sessions using the Wii Fit Plus. However, this relationship was lower than observed in past research assessing RPE validity during different modes of exercise (e.g. walking, running) without distracters.

  13. Selection mosaic exerted by specialist and generalist herbivores on chemical and physical defense of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Guillermo; Cruz, Laura L; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Olmedo-Vicente, Eika; Carmona, Diego; Anaya-Lang, Ana Luisa; Fornoni, Juan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Valverde, Pedro L; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species) to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants). We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine) and a physical defense (trichome density) can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine) confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine), and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine) was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies.

  14. The Marine-Derived Kinase Inhibitor Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Thrombotic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ampofo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The marine-derived kinase inhibitor fascaplysin down-regulates the PI3K pathway in cancer cells. Since this pathway also plays an essential role in platelet signaling, we herein investigated the effect of fascaplysin on thrombosis. Methods: Fascaplysin effects on platelet activation, platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA formation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mouse dorsal skinfold chambers were used to determine in vivo the effect of fascaplysin on photochemically induced thrombus formation and tail-vein bleeding time. Results: Pre-treatment of platelets with fascaplysin reduced the activation of glycoprotein (GPIIb/IIIa after protease-activated receptor-1-activating peptide (PAR-1-AP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA stimulation, but did not markedly affect the expression of P-selectin. This was associated with a decreased platelet aggregation. Fascaplysin also decreased PLA formation after PMA but not PAR-1-AP and ADP stimulation. This may be explained by an increased expression of CD11b on leukocytes in PAR-1-AP- and ADP-treated whole blood. In the dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation, fascaplysin-treated mice revealed a significantly extended complete vessel occlusion time when compared to controls. Furthermore, fascaplysin increased the tail-vein bleeding time. Conclusion: Fascaplysin exerts anti-thrombotic activity, which represents a novel mode of action in the pleiotropic activity spectrum of this compound.

  15. The Marine-Derived Kinase Inhibitor Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Thrombotic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Später, Thomas; Müller, Isabelle; Eichler, Hermann; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2015-11-09

    The marine-derived kinase inhibitor fascaplysin down-regulates the PI3K pathway in cancer cells. Since this pathway also plays an essential role in platelet signaling, we herein investigated the effect of fascaplysin on thrombosis. Fascaplysin effects on platelet activation, platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA) formation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mouse dorsal skinfold chambers were used to determine in vivo the effect of fascaplysin on photochemically induced thrombus formation and tail-vein bleeding time. Pre-treatment of platelets with fascaplysin reduced the activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa after protease-activated receptor-1-activating peptide (PAR-1-AP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, but did not markedly affect the expression of P-selectin. This was associated with a decreased platelet aggregation. Fascaplysin also decreased PLA formation after PMA but not PAR-1-AP and ADP stimulation. This may be explained by an increased expression of CD11b on leukocytes in PAR-1-AP- and ADP-treated whole blood. In the dorsal skinfold chamber model of photochemically induced thrombus formation, fascaplysin-treated mice revealed a significantly extended complete vessel occlusion time when compared to controls. Furthermore, fascaplysin increased the tail-vein bleeding time. Fascaplysin exerts anti-thrombotic activity, which represents a novel mode of action in the pleiotropic activity spectrum of this compound.

  16. Exertional Dyspnoea in Chronic Respiratory Diseases: From Physiology to Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Vermeulen, François; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-02-01

    Dyspnoea is a complex, highly personalized and multidimensional sensory experience, and its underlying cause and mechanisms are still being investigated. Exertional dyspnoea is one of the most frequently encountered symptoms of patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, and is a common reason for seeking medical help. As the symptom usually progresses with the underlying disease, it can lead to an avoidance of physical activity, peripheral muscle deconditioning and decreased quality of life. Dyspnoea is closely associated with quality of life, exercise (in)tolerance and prognosis in various conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension, and is therefore an important therapeutic target. Effective management and treatment of dyspnoea is an important challenge for caregivers, and therapeutic options that attempt to reverse its underlying cause have been only partially successful This "review" will attempt to shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying dyspnoea during exercise and to translate/apply them to a broad clinical spectrum of cardio-respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  18. Phloretin exerts hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and improves insulin resistance in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen X

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin Shen,1,* Nan Zhou,1,* Le Mi,1 Zishuo Hu,2 Libin Wang,1 Xueying Liu,1 Shengyong Zhang1 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, 2Student Brigade, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The present study investigated the possible antiobesity and hypoglycemic effects of phloretin (Ph. In an attempt to discover the hypoglycemic effect and potential mechanism of Ph, we used the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and (L6 myotubes. Daily oral treatment with Ph for 4 weeks significantly (P<0.05 reduced postprandial blood glucose and improved islet injury and lipid metabolism. Glucose consumption and glucose tolerance were improved by Ph via GOD–POD method. Western blot results revealed that the expression of Akt, PI3K, IRS-1, and GLUT4 were upregulated in skeletal muscle of T2D rats and in L6 myotubes by Ph. The immunofluorescence studies confirmed that Ph improved the translocation of GLUT4 in L6 myotubes. Ph exerted hypoglycemic effects in vivo and in vitro, hence it may play an important role in the management of diabetes. Keywords: phloretin, diabetes, insulin sensitivity, blood glucose consumption, skeletal muscle

  19. Local strain exerted on Nb3Sn filaments in an ITER strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Machiya, Shutaro; Harjo, Stefanus; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Cheggour, Najib; Nijhuis, Arend

    2015-01-01

    As part of an international project to benchmark facilities for measuring the strain dependence of critical current in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Nb 3 Sn strands, direct measurement of local strain exerted on Nb 3 Sn filaments was attempted at cryogenic temperature by means of a pulsed neutron technique. The lattice axial strain increased linearly with a slope close to unity against applied strain, while the thermal axial strain was −0.22% at 8.5 K. As a result, the force-free strain was evaluated to be 0.22–0.23%. This key parameter should provide an accurate estimate of the peak location of critical current versus applied strain. The lattice transverse strain decreased linearly as a function of applied strain with a slope of 0.33–0.34. The lattice strains of the Nb and Cu components were also measured and their behavior was analyzed by computing diffraction elastic moduli based on micromechanics theories. The stress–strain curve calculated according to the rule of mixtures described quite well the macroscopic curve measured for the present ITER Nb 3 Sn strand. (paper)

  20. Melittin exerts an antitumor effect on non‑small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Chen, Zhe

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for a significant percentage of all cancer‑associated mortalities in men and women, with non‑small cell lung cancer being the most frequently occurring type of lung cancer. Melittin is the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that has been reported to exert anti‑chronic inflammatory and anti‑cancer effects. In the present study, the antitumor effect of melittin was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro analyses. The results demonstrated that melittin significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor‑induced invasion and migration of non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Subcutaneous injection of melittin at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed non‑small cell lung cancer tumor growth by 27 and 61%, respectively. In addition, melittin significantly inhibited the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Furthermore, melittin decreased the protein expression of VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α. Therefore, the antitumor activity of melittin may be associated with the anti‑angiogenic actions of inhibiting the VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor signaling pathways.

  1. Selection mosaic exerted by specialist and generalist herbivores on chemical and physical defense of Datura stramonium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Castillo

    Full Text Available Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants. We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine and a physical defense (trichome density can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine, and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies.

  2. Biological effects of compressive forces exerted on particulate bone grafts during socket preservation: animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Romanos, Georgios E; Alexandre Gerhke, Sergio; Gomez-Moreno, Gerardo; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2016-08-02

    To compare different compressive forces exerted on a particulate graft material during socket preservation and their effects on bone regeneration. Six male dogs were used. The second, third, and fourth premolars, and the first molar were extracted bilaterally at the lower jaws. A particulate synthetic biphasic grafting material (60% HA and 40% β-tricalcium phosphate) was used. Three different standardized compressive forces were applied randomly during the socket preservation. The sample was divided into four experimental groups Test A (10 g), Test B (50 g), Test C (200 g), and Control (empty sockets). Collagen membranes were placed, and primary closure was obtained. Two months after the surgery the animals were sacrificed, and histomorphometric analysis of non-decalcified samples was performed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Grafted sockets resulted in higher bony contour (3 ± 0.43 mm 2 ; P  0.05). Within the limitations of this experimental animal study, it might be concluded that grafted sockets compressed with 200 g force will have higher bony contours; higher compressive forces facilitate the penetration of the particulate graft material into the apical area of the socket and results in more bone formation at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Exertional muscle injury: evaluation of concentric versus eccentric actions with serial MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, F G; Fukunaga, T; Mink, J H; Edgerton, V R

    1991-06-01

    Eccentric muscular actions involve the forced lengthening or stretching of muscles and tend to produce exertional injuries. This study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to serially evaluate muscles in five healthy, untrained subjects who performed exhaustive biceps exercise by doing isolated eccentric and concentric actions with a dumbbell. Symptoms were assessed, and T2-weighted images of the arms were obtained before exercise and 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 40, 50, 60, and 80 days after exercise. Statistically significant increases in T2 relaxation times indicative of muscle injury occurred on each day of MR imaging evaluation in muscles performing eccentric actions, peaking on day 3 in two subjects; day 5, two subjects; and day 10, one subject. The pattern and extent of the abnormalities on MR images were variable. Pain, soreness, and joint stiffness were present on days 1, 3, and 5 in muscles that performed eccentric actions. MR imaging showed subclinical abnormalities that lasted as long as 75 days after the disappearance of symptoms (two subjects). Muscles that performed concentric actions had no changes in T2 relaxation times and were asymptomatic throughout the study.

  4. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  5. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  6. Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Pinto Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to relate the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-overall with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during stationary running with the elbow flexion/extension performed with water-floating equipment. The sample consisted of eleven women that performed the water-based exercise at submaximal cadences. The heart rate, oxygen uptake, ventilation, and electromyographic signal (EMG from biceps brachii (%EMG BB, triceps brachii (%EMG TB, biceps femoris (%EMG BF and rectus femoris (%EMG RF muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall RPE was measured immediately following its completion. The Pearson product-moment linear correlation was used to investigate associations between the variables analyzed in the present study. Significant relationships were observed between the RPE-overall and all the cardiorespiratory variables, with the r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.70 (p<0.05. In addition, the RPE-overall showed a significant (p<0.05 relationship with %EMG BB (r=0.55 and %EMG BF (r=0.50. These results suggest an association between the RPE-overall with all cardiorespiratory and two neuromuscular variables during the execution of a water-based aerobic exercise using water-floating equipment.

  7. Endothelial Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Size-dependently Exert Procoagulant Activity Detected by Thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Bonstingl, Cornelia; Hromada, Carina; Muehleder, Severin; Zipperle, Johannes; Stojkovic, Stefan; Redl, Heinz; Wojta, Johann; Schöchl, Herbert; Grillari, Johannes; Weilner, Sylvia; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2017-06-16

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are major modulators of hemostasis by expressing and releasing pro- and anticoagulant mediators into the circulation. Previous studies showed that cultured ECs release procoagulant mediators into cell culture supernatants as evidenced by the reduction of viscoelastic clotting time. This effect was reversed with an anti-tissue factor antibody. Here, we aimed to investigate whether tissue factor (TF) was released by endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and which portion of the released vesicles displays the most prominent procoagulant properties. After stimulation of ECs with tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) the supernatants of EC cultures were subjected to differential centrifugation steps to collect larger and smaller EVs which were then characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and flow cytometry. Mixed with fresh human blood and analysed by thromboelastometry EVs exerted a significant procoagulant stimulus, which could be partly reversed by addition of an anti-TF antibody. Moreover, TF activity was confirmed in the centrifuged fractions. In summary, our results provide evidence of the procoagulant potential of smaller and larger endothelial-derived EV fractions detected by thromboelastometry. The observed effect is most likely due to the release of TF-bearing EVs of different dimensions, which are released upon TNF-α stimulation of endothelial cell cultures.

  8. YAP1 Exerts Its Transcriptional Control via TEAD-Mediated Activation of Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Bardet, Anaïs Flore; Roma, Guglielmo; Bergling, Sebastian; Clay, Ieuan; Ruchti, Alexandra; Agarinis, Claudia; Schmelzle, Tobias; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Schübeler, Dirk; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    YAP1 is a major effector of the Hippo pathway and a well-established oncogene. Elevated YAP1 activity due to mutations in Hippo pathway components or YAP1 amplification is observed in several types of human cancers. Here we investigated its genomic binding landscape in YAP1-activated cancer cells, as well as in non-transformed cells. We demonstrate that TEAD transcription factors mediate YAP1 chromatin-binding genome-wide, further explaining their dominant role as primary mediators of YAP1-transcriptional activity. Moreover, we show that YAP1 largely exerts its transcriptional control via distal enhancers that are marked by H3K27 acetylation and that YAP1 is necessary for this chromatin mark at bound enhancers and the activity of the associated genes. This work establishes YAP1-mediated transcriptional regulation at distal enhancers and provides an expanded set of target genes resulting in a fundamental source to study YAP1 function in a normal and cancer setting.

  9. YAP1 Exerts Its Transcriptional Control via TEAD-Mediated Activation of Enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available YAP1 is a major effector of the Hippo pathway and a well-established oncogene. Elevated YAP1 activity due to mutations in Hippo pathway components or YAP1 amplification is observed in several types of human cancers. Here we investigated its genomic binding landscape in YAP1-activated cancer cells, as well as in non-transformed cells. We demonstrate that TEAD transcription factors mediate YAP1 chromatin-binding genome-wide, further explaining their dominant role as primary mediators of YAP1-transcriptional activity. Moreover, we show that YAP1 largely exerts its transcriptional control via distal enhancers that are marked by H3K27 acetylation and that YAP1 is necessary for this chromatin mark at bound enhancers and the activity of the associated genes. This work establishes YAP1-mediated transcriptional regulation at distal enhancers and provides an expanded set of target genes resulting in a fundamental source to study YAP1 function in a normal and cancer setting.

  10. Revised model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves on a rigid cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shen; Chaohui, Wang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a rigid cylinder in inviscid fluids is extended to account for the dependence on the Rayleigh angle. The conventional model for the radiation force used in the SSAW-based applications is developed in plane standing waves, which fails to predict the movement of the cylinder in the SSAW. Our revised model reveals that, in the direction normal to the piezoelectric substrate on which the SSAW is generated, acoustic radiation force can be large enough to drive the cylinder even in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, the force in this direction can not only push the cylinder away, but also pull it back toward the substrate. In the direction parallel to the substrate, the equilibrium positions for particles can be actively tuned by changing Rayleigh angle. As an example considered in the paper, with the reduction of Rayleigh angle the equilibrium positions for steel cylinders in water change from pressure nodes to pressure antinodes. The model can thus be used in the design of SSAWs for particle manipulations.

  11. Sam68 exerts separable effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnick Ross J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA-binding protein Sam68 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including transcription, RNA splicing and export, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle progression and replication of the human immunodeficiency virus and poliovirus. However, the precise impact it has on essential cellular functions remains largely obscure. Results In this report we show that conditional overexpression of Sam68 in fibroblasts results in both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle is associated with decreased levels of cyclins D1 and E RNA and protein, resulting in dramatically reduced Rb phosphorylation. Interestingly, cell cycle arrest does not require the specific RNA binding ability of Sam68. In marked contrast, induction of apoptosis by Sam68 absolutely requires a fully-functional RNA binding domain. Moreover, the anti-cancer agent trichostatin A potentiates Sam68-driven apoptosis. Conclusions For the first time we have shown that Sam68, an RNA binding protein with multiple apparent functions, exerts functionally separable effects on cell proliferation and survival, dependent on its ability to bind specifically to RNA. These findings shed new light on the ability of signal transducing RNA binding proteins to influence essential cell function. Moreover, the ability of a class of anti-cancer therapeutics to modulate its ability to promote apoptosis suggests that Sam68 status may impact some cancer treatments.

  12. Perceived exertion during muscle fatigue as reflected in movement-related cortical potentials: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Sun, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ri-Hui

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism on perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. A total of 15 individuals in the fatigue group and 13 individuals in the nonfatigue group were recruited into this study, performing 200 intermittent handgrip contractions with 30% maximal voluntary contraction. The force, surface electromyography (sEMG), movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), and rating perception of effort (RPE) were combined to evaluate the perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. The maximal handgrip force significantly decreased (Pfatigue. The RPE scores reported by the individuals and the motor potential amplitude of MRCPs in the fatigue group significantly increased (Pfatigue but could also reflect the peripheral local muscle fatigue.

  13. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  14. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and economic environment in which they operate and work. EPR enlists experts in public policy, business, economic theory and practice to express their thoughts and views in the most influential way possible on economic policy and direction of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Use and Policies: Global and Turkish Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmure Övül Arıoğlu Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and networks, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, the European Union (EU and the International Energy Agency (IEA. Turkey is a developing OECD member country and in the accession process to the EU. Thus, the renewable energy policies should be aligned with those of the EU. Moreover, despite the substantial amount and wide range of RES, it is still in a position to import more than half of its energy demand. In the light of these facts, this study aims to analyze and compare the renewable energy policies in Turkey with those adopted worldwide to lay out possible solutions regarding its energy problems.

  16. Risk, science and policy: definitional struggles, information management, the media and BSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the role of definitional struggles in the science policy interface using the example of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease in the UK. A central contention is that an explicit focus on definition illuminates the processes by which scientific judgements are made, promoted, communicated, assessed and judged and gives an improved picture of policy making. Neglected areas such as the role of secrecy, public relations and the mass media in the science-policy interface are brought into sharper focus as an intrinsic part of the wider operation of definitional struggles. The focus on definitional struggles also sheds light on some current work on risk in social theory. It is argued that the neglect of questions of agency which are central to definitional struggles has led to some theorists presenting risks as inevitable concomitants of technological and cultural developments leaving them in the grip of political quietism.

  17. Developing policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures.

  18. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    Public and individual support for a policy is affected by how it is designed – that is, how eligibility is determined. This results in universal policies being more popular than contributions-based policies, which in turn enjoy more public support than the selective kind. The literature on welfare...... benefits in Denmark shows a large impact on attitudes from being proximate to recipients under selective policies, little or no impact from universal policies and a pattern that falls in-between for the contributions-based policy. This article thus provides micro-level evidence for the different impacts...

  19. [Healthy pharmaceutical policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pier, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Today, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a profound transition. Globalization and technological advancement represent the principal pressures for change in the market, where it is increasingly more difficult for this type of industry to efficiently recoup the growing cost of innovation. Mexico needs to analyze the policy implications of these change factors and promote, in the pharmaceutical market, policies that maximize health gains on invested resources. Pharmaceutical policy offers a rare example for a complementary approach between a sound health policy and an efficient economic policy; that is, a "healthy pharmaceutical policy."

  20. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  1. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  2. Not Yes or No, But What If: An Examination of Policies and Issues to be Addressed with Open Homosexuality in the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into...Muslim, Mormon , Christian or Jewish Soldiers. This raises the dilemma with anti-discrimination proposals; such proposals inevitably curtail freedom...color, religion or sexual orientation/preference. This was exactly the case with the integration of Blacks during the Korean War. Long after the

  3. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy; Bandera Obrera. Politica Electrica Independiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahen, D. [Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de la Industria Nuclear, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  4. Determination of the appropriate energy policy for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutas, B.H. [Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Industrial Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Energy is an inevitable necessity for human beings. But the energy source is predicted to be scarce in the coming years as a result of population growth. Therefore people prefer energy sources that are renewable, clean and cost effective. Unfortunately there is not a sole energy source to meet these demands. Determination of the appropriate energy policy problem with interactive criteria and alternatives can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem within the context of the long range and strategic process. The analytic network process (ANO), one of MCDM methods, deals with the dependency and feedback that the problem has. The goal of this paper is to apply the ANP model to evaluate the alternative energy sources for the country. Finally when the results are discussed, it is apparent that the model can produce reasonable and applicable solutions for the case. (author)

  5. Foreign policy preaching and domestic practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    To most Americans who reflect on the matter, the further spread of nuclear weapons around the world is a profoundly disturbing prospect. Of those concerned with the foreign policy of the United States, many view the task of preventing nuclear weapons proliferation as transcending the national interest - even seeing it as a moral imperative. Though individual policymakers may be driven to act by an abhorrence of nuclear weapons and the possibility that they will be used, the United States as a nation can stake no claim to moral leadership in the struggle to prevent their spread. It pursues the goal of nonproliferation in parallel with its pursuit of a more effective national nuclear armament. Its government deplores the spread of nuclear weapons overseas while simultaneously stressing the military and political value of specific weapon systems for its own purposes. Its authority and influence in mitigating the risks of proliferation thus derive entirely from its standing as a global economic and military superpower. Its instruments are the tools of power, untempered by moral suasion: denial of technology; offers of economic cooperation, with political conditions attached; guarantees of security, often backed by its own nuclear forces. Inevitably, therefore, US nonproliferation efforts are seen overseas to bear the stamp of Realpolitik, as being intended first and foremost to serve American national interests, whatever the individual motivations of those responsible for them

  6. The Superconducting Supercollider and US Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, John H.

    2014-06-01

    Reasons for the Superconducting Supercollider's (SSC's) termination include significant changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects originating with management reforms introduced decades earlier. In the 1980s, the government insisted on inclusion of elements of these reforms in the SSC's management contract, including increased demands for accountability, additional liability for contractors, and sanctions for infractions. The SSC's planners could not have opted out of the reforms, which were by then becoming part of all large publicly funded projects. Once these reforms were in place, management mistakes in the SSC's planning and construction became highly visible, leading to termination of the machine. This episode contains two key lessons about science policy. One is that the momentum of the government's management reforms was unstoppable, and its impact on large scientific facilities and projects could not be reversed. The other is that specific measures such as cost and schedule-tracking systems to provide measures of program performance and impact were also inevitable; large scientific projects needed new parameters of accountability and transparency in what can be called the Principle of Assurance.

  7. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  8. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  9. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  10. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  11. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  12. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  13. Economics and obesity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  14. Ratings of Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate, and Power Output in Predicting Maximal Oxygen Uptake During Submaximal Cycle Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-two subjects completed a four-stage submaximal cycle ergometer test to determine if estimates of maximal oxygen uptake could be improved by using ratings of perceived exertion singly or in combination with easily obtainable physiological measures. These procedures could be used to estimate the aerobic power of patients and athletes. (MT)

  15. Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of the effectiveness of enalapril maleate in exertional angina pectoris in elderly and senile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Belay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term administration of enalapril maleate in complex therapy of exertional angina pectoris in elderly persons showed antiischemic, antiarrhythmic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Using chemical-pharmacological analysis the administration of enalapril against the background of basic therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease was grounded.

  16. Should Cooling Vests Be Used to Treat Exertional Heatstroke? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Megan L; Miller, Kevin C

    2017-05-01

    Clinical Scenario: Exercise performed in hot and humid environments increases core body temperature (T C ). If T C exceeds 40.5°C for prolonged periods of time, exertional heat stroke (EHS) may occur. EHS is a leading cause of sudden death in athletes. Mortality and morbidity increase the longer the patient's T C remains above 40.5°C; thus, it is imperative to initiate cooling as quickly as possible. Acceptable cooling rates in EHS situations are 0.08-0.15°C/min, while ideal cooling rates are above 0.16°C/min. Cooling vests are popular alternatives for cooling hyperthermic adults. Most vests cover the anterior and posterior torso and have varying numbers of pouches for phase-change materials (eg, gel packs); some vests only use circulating water to cool. While cooling vests offer several advantages (eg, portability), studies demonstrating their effectiveness at rapidly reducing T C in EHS scenarios are limited. Are T C cooling rates acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) when hyperthermic humans are treated with cooling vests postexercise? No significant differences in T C cooling rates occurred between cooling vests and no cooling vests. Cooling rates across all studies were ≤0.053°C/min. Clinical Bottom Line: Cooling vests do not provide acceptable cooling rates of hyperthermic humans postexercise and should not be used to treat EHS. Instead, EHS patients should be treated with cold-water immersion within 30 min of collapse to avoid central nervous system dysfunction and organ failure. Strength of Recommendation: Strong evidence (eg, level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggests that cooling vests do not reduce T C quickly and thus should not be used in EHS scenarios.

  17. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Amphetamine Exerts Dose-Dependent Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Attractor Dynamics during Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapish, Christopher C; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Seamans, Jeremy K; Phillips, Anthony G; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2015-07-15

    Modulation of neural activity by monoamine neurotransmitters is thought to play an essential role in shaping computational neurodynamics in the neocortex, especially in prefrontal regions. Computational theories propose that monoamines may exert bidirectional (concentration-dependent) effects on cognition by altering prefrontal cortical attractor dynamics according to an inverted U-shaped function. To date, this hypothesis has not been addressed directly, in part because of the absence of appropriate statistical methods required to assess attractor-like behavior in vivo. The present study used a combination of advanced multivariate statistical, time series analysis, and machine learning methods to assess dynamic changes in network activity from multiple single-unit recordings from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats while the animals performed a foraging task guided by working memory after pretreatment with different doses of d-amphetamine (AMPH), which increases monoamine efflux in the mPFC. A dose-dependent, bidirectional effect of AMPH on neural dynamics in the mPFC was observed. Specifically, a 1.0 mg/kg dose of AMPH accentuated separation between task-epoch-specific population states and convergence toward these states. In contrast, a 3.3 mg/kg dose diminished separation and convergence toward task-epoch-specific population states, which was paralleled by deficits in cognitive performance. These results support the computationally derived hypothesis that moderate increases in monoamine efflux would enhance attractor stability, whereas high frontal monoamine levels would severely diminish it. Furthermore, they are consistent with the proposed inverted U-shaped and concentration-dependent modulation of cortical efficiency by monoamines. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510172-16$15.00/0.

  19. Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Archie A; Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Khalil, Ayatakin; Walker, Matthew C; Ali, Afia B

    2018-03-25

    A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons. We also investigated whether in vivo treatment with CBD altered the fate of CCK and PV interneurons using immunohistochemistry. Electrophysiological intracellular whole-cell recordings combined with neuroanatomy were performed in acute brain slices of rat temporal lobe epilepsy (in vivo kainic acid-induced) and in vitro (Mg 2+ -free-induced) epileptic seizure models. For immunohistochemistry experiments, CBD was administered in vivo (100 mg kg -1 ) at zero time and 90 minutes post status epilepticus (SE) induced with kainic acid. Bath-application of CBD (10 μM), dampened excitability at unitary synapses between pyramidal cells, but enhanced inhibitory synaptic potentials elicited by fast spiking and adapting interneurons at postsynaptic pyramidal cells. Furthermore, CBD restored impaired membrane excitability of PV, CCK, and pyramidal cells in a cell type-specific manner. These neuroprotective effects of CBD were corroborated by immunohistochemistry experiments that revealed a significant reduction of atrophy and death of PV- and CCK-expressing interneurons after CBD treatment. In conclusion, our data suggest CBD restores excitability and morphological impairment in epileptic models to pre-epilepsy control levels through multiple mechanisms to restore normal network function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of perceived and self-reported manual forces exerted in occupational materials handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorin, C; Selin, K; Ekenvall, L; Kilbom, A; Alfredsson, L

    1996-08-01

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of workers to reproduce simulated manual work forces correctly and to quantify these forces in Newtons (N) by means of self-reports. Fourteen male and 14 female workers participated in the study. Three experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, the ability to reproduce the magnitudes of simulated manual forces occurring in daily work and to estimate these forces in Newtons was tested. A specially designed force-measuring device was used for this purpose. In the second experiment, the subjects estimated the weights of five boxes ranging from 1 to 30 kg. In the third experiment, the subjects were asked to produce five predetermined push and pull forces ranging in magnitude from 10 to 300 N on to the handle of the force-measuring device. The ability to reproduce the magnitudes of manual forces when simulating four familiar work tasks was good (the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.75 to 0.95). The ability to quantify these forces in Newtons was not as good (the product moment correlation coefficients ranged from 0.21 to 0.69). When the subjects estimated the weights of boxes they underestimated the weights. When they produced predetermined push and pull forces they exerted higher forces than expected when low force levels were requested and lower forces when high force levels were requested. However, the forces were correctly ranked. In summary, simulation of the manual push/pull forces used in familiar work tasks seemed to offer sufficient reproducibility to be worth testing for validity. Self-reports, used without previous training or without known 'reference forces', seemed to be very rough when the aim was to estimate in kg or Newtons. However, the fact that individuals could rank the forces correctly opens a potential for refinement of self-reports as a method for quantifying manual forces in objective terms, e.g. kg or Newtons.

  1. Silybin-mediated inhibition of Notch signaling exerts antitumor activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a global health burden that is associated with limited treatment options and poor patient prognoses. Silybin (SIL, an antioxidant derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum, has been reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. While SIL has been shown to have potent antitumor activity against various types of cancer, including HCC, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of SIL remain largely unknown. The Notch signaling pathway plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis and immune development. In the present study, we assessed the antitumor activity of SIL in human HCC HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo and explored the roles of the Notch pathway and of the apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of SIL. SIL treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of HCC cell viability. Additionally, SIL exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reductions in tumor cell adhesion, migration, intracellular glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capability (T-AOC but also by increases in the apoptotic index, caspase3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, SIL treatment decreased the expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD, RBP-Jκ, and Hes1 proteins, upregulated the apoptosis pathway-related protein Bax, and downregulated Bcl2, survivin, and cyclin D1. Notch1 siRNA (in vitro or DAPT (a known Notch1 inhibitor, in vivo further enhanced the antitumor activity of SIL, and recombinant Jagged1 protein (a known Notch ligand in vitro attenuated the antitumor activity of SIL. Taken together, these data indicate that SIL is a potent inhibitor of HCC cell growth that targets the Notch signaling pathway and suggest that the inhibition of Notch signaling may be a novel therapeutic intervention for HCC.

  2. Contralateral risk factors associated with exertional medial tibial pain in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrelst, Ruth; De Clercq, Dirk; Willems, Tine Marieke; Roosen, Philip; Witrouw, Erik

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to prospectively analyze the role of factors on the contralateral side of the kinetic chain in the development of exertional medial tibial pain (EMTP). Eighty-one female physical education students were tested at the beginning of their first academic year. Within the testing protocol, contralateral isokinetic hip muscle strength and full-body kinematic parameters during a single-leg drop jump were evaluated. Online questionnaires were administered weekly, and personal interviews were conducted every 3 months to assess injury follow-up. EMTP was diagnosed by an experienced medical doctor. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the potential risk factors for the development of EMTP. After exclusion of subjects with diagnosed bilateral EMTP, 11 subjects were included in the EMTP group. Fifty-three subjects did not develop any lower extremity overuse injury and were included in the control group. The leg not at risk within subjects who developed EMTP was compared with an uninjured leg of those in the control group. Increased transverse plane motion for the contralateral lower leg segment during landing phase was found to be a significant predictor (P = 0.012) for EMTP. Analysis of the isokinetic data did not reveal altered hip muscle strength parameters for the leg not at risk within the EMTP group. Impaired dynamic joint stability or accessory movements were found in the transverse plane of the contralateral lower leg segment of EMTP subjects. This contralateral instability might have contributed to altered movement patterns within the kinetic chain function of EMTP subjects. No contralateral hip muscle strength parameters were found to predict EMTP in this study.

  3. Risk factors associated with exertional medial tibial pain: a 12 month prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burne, S G; Khan, K M; Boudville, P B; Mallet, R J; Newman, P M; Steinman, L J; Thornton, E

    2004-08-01

    To investigate in a military setting the potential role of intrinsic biomechanical and anthropometric risk factors for, and the incidence of, exertional medial tibial pain (EMTP). A prospective clinical outcome study in a cohort of 122 men and 36 women at the Australian Defence Force Academy. Each cadet underwent measurements of seven intrinsic variables: hip range of motion, leg length discrepancy, lean calf girth, maximum ankle dorsiflexion range, foot type, rear foot alignment, and tibial alignment. Test-retest reliability was undertaken on each variable. A physician recorded any cadet presenting with diagnostic criteria of EMTP. Records were analysed at 12 months for EMTP presentation and for military fitness test results. 23 cadets (12 men, 11 women) met the criteria for EMTP after 12 months, with a cross gender (F/M) odds ratio of 3.1. In men, both internal and external range of hip motion was greater in those with EMTP: left internal (12 degrees, p = 0.000), right internal (8 degrees, p = 0.014), left external (8 degrees, p = 0.042), right external (9 degrees, p = 0.026). Lean calf girth was lower by 4.2% for the right leg (p = 0.040) but by only 2.9% for the left leg (p = 0.141). No intrinsic risk factor was associated with EMTP in women. EMTP was the major cause for non-completion of the run component of the ADFA fitness test in both men and women. Greater internal and external hip range of motion and lower lean calf girth were associated with EMTP in male military cadets. Women had high rates of injury, although no intrinsic factor was identified. Reasons for this sex difference need to be identified.

  4. Fluoxetine and aripiprazole treatment following prenatal immune activation exert longstanding effects on rat locomotor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtand, Neil M; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Grainger, Molly; Bronson, Stefanie L; McNamara, Robert K

    2012-05-15

    Studies characterizing treatment interventions in a naturalistic setting suggest that antidepressant and antipsychotic medications may be equally effective in improving clinical outcome in individuals at high risk for first-episode psychosis. Of interest, both beneficial as well as potentially adverse effects have been observed following fluoxetine treatment in a mouse prenatal immune activation model of relevance to psychosis prevention. We sought to extend those findings by examining the effects of fluoxetine, as well as the antipsychotic medication aripiprazole, in a rat prenatal immune activation model. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline-treated dams received fluoxetine (10.0 mg/kg/d), aripiprazole (0.66 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following drug discontinuation. Both fluoxetine and aripiprazole had beneficial effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Significantly, both drugs also exerted effects in offspring of control (saline-treated) dams on locomotor response to injection. Fluoxetine and aripiprazole pretreatment of poly I:C offspring from postnatal days 35 to 70 stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting through 3 months of age, similar to earlier findings in mice that fluoxetine treatment following prenatal immune activation prevented altered locomotor response to amphetamine. The current data also confirm earlier findings of potential adverse behavioral effects in offspring of control dams following treatment with fluoxetine and antipsychotic medications, highlighting the potential for both therapeutic as well as safety concerns with exposure to preventive pharmacological treatments over

  5. A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-κB inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Wada, Hiroo; Rossios, Christos; Takagi, Dai; Higaki, Manabu; Mikura, Shin'ichiro; Goto, Hajime; Barnes, Peter J; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNFα/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNFα release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-κB by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.

  6. Reliability and Validity of Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Brice T; Ingraham, Benjamin A; Pitluck, Molly C; Woo, Douglas; Ng, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    To test the reliability and validity of using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale (ratings 6-20) in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Nonrandomized repeated measures. Research laboratory. Volunteer sample (N=27) comprised of 16 PwMS (10 women) and 11 age-matched persons without multiple sclerosis (MS) (6 women). Clinical measures included symptomatic fatigue, depression, and MS functional capacity. A submaximal cycling test was performed to estimate maximal capacity. Participants then pedaled for 2 minutes at 50% and 60% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption per unit time (V˙o2), and physiological measures and RPE were obtained (week 1: response protocol). One week later, participants replicated the prescribed V˙o2 using the RPE range from week 1 (week 2: reproduction protocol). V˙o2, heart rate, and respiratory quotient were measured continuously; RPE and workload were measured every minute; and blood lactate and mean arterial pressure were measured after exercise. RPE, workload, V˙o2, and heart rate from week 1 to week 2. PwMS had greater fatigue (Pexercise, RPE, workload, V˙o2, and heart rate were similar between groups. Both groups had an intraclass correlation coefficient >.86 for RPE, workload, and V˙o2. The intraclass correlation coefficient was comparatively lower for heart rate for both groups (MS group: .72, non-MS group: .83). RPE was highly correlated with V˙o2 (r=.691, Pexercise prescription in mildly to moderately impaired PwMS during cycling exercise. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Timing Effect on Training-Session Rating of Perceived Exertion in Top-Class Soccer Referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Carlo; Bizzini, Mario; Póvoas, Susana Cristina Araújo; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effect of recall timing on training-session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) in a population of athletes well familiarized with the method and procedures during a 5-d training microcycle. Fifty-one top-class field referees (FRs) (age 38.4 ± 3.3 y, height 181 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 76.8 ± 6.8 kg, body-mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 , body fat 20.4% ± 3.6%, international refereeing experience 5 ± 3.5 y) from 43 national football associations worldwide, preselected by the FIFA refereeing department for officiating during the FIFA World Cup 2014 Brazil, volunteered for this study. The FRs were randomly allocated into 3 assessment groups (n = 17 each), defined according to the timing of the sRPE, ie, immediately at the end of or 30 min or 7 h after the training sessions' end. The CR10 Borg scale was used to rate the training sessions (n = 5). All FRs again rated each training session of the 5-d training microcycle on the next morning (~20 h after) for confirmation (absolute and relative reliability). No significant timing effect was found between or within groups. Relative reliability ranged from large to very large with trivial within- and between-groups differences. This study showed no effect of recall timing on postexercise RPE when well-familiarized athletes are submitted to training during a weekly microcycle. Posttraining RPE was reported to be a reliable subjective measure; however, specific timing is advisable to reduce difference in RPE values.

  8. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Adams, Wendy K; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2017-03-01

    Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana. We tested the hypothesis that THC impairs a relevant cognitive function for long-term success, namely willingness to exert cognitive effort for greater rewards, and that CBD could attenuate such decision-making impairments. Male Long-Evans rats ( n = 29) performing the rat cognitive effort task (rCET) received acute THC and CBD, independently and concurrently, in addition to other cannabinoids. Rats chose between 2 options differing in reward magnitude, but also in the cognitive effort (attentional load) required to obtain them. We found that THC decreased choice of hard trials without impairing the animals' ability to accurately complete them. Strikingly, this impairment was correlated with CB1 receptor density in the medial prefrontal cortex - an area previously implicated in effortful decision-making. In contrast, CBD did not affect choice. Coadministration of 1:1 CBD:THC matching that in nabiximols modestly attenuated the deleterious effects of THC in "slacker" rats. Only male rats were investigated, and the THC/CBD coadministration experiment was carried out in a subset of individuals. These findings confirm that THC, but not CBD, selectively impairs decision-making involving cognitive effort costs. However, coadministration of CBD only partially ameliorates such THC-induced dysfunction.

  9. Sex differences in the intensity and qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea in physically active young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Julia M.; Schaeffer, Michele R.; Wilkie, Sabrina S.; Ramsook, Andrew H.; Puyat, Joseph H.; Arbour, Brandon; Basran, Robbi; Lam, Michael; Les, Christian; MacDonald, Benjamin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea may provide insight into why women are more affected by this symptom than men. This study explored the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of dyspnea in 70 healthy, young, physically active adults (35 M and 35 F). Participants rated the intensity of their breathing discomfort (Borg 0-10 scale) and selected phrases that best described their breathing from a standardized list (work/effort, unsatisfied inspiration, and unsatisfied expiration) throughout each stage of a symptom-limited incremental-cycle exercise test. Following exercise, participants selected phrases that described their breathing at maximal exercise from a list of 15 standardized phrases. Intensity of breathing discomfort was significantly higher in women for a given ventilation, but differences disappeared when ventilation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation. The dominant qualitative descriptor in both sexes throughout exercise was increased work/effort of breathing. At peak exercise, women were significantly more likely to select the following phrases: “my breathing feels shallow,” “I cannot get enough air in,” “I cannot take a deep breath in,” and “my breath does not go in all the way.” Women adopted a more rapid and shallow breathing pattern and had significantly higher end-inspiratory lung volumes relative to total lung capacity throughout exercise relative to men. These findings suggest that men and women do not differ in their perceived quality of dyspnea during submaximal exercise, but subjective differences appear at maximal exercise and may be related, at least in part, to underlying sex differences in breathing patterns and operating lung volumes during exercise. PMID:26338458

  10. The effects of superset configuration on kinetic, kinematic, and perceived exertion in the barbell bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon Js; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Jones, Ben L

    2017-08-04

    Training that is efficient and effective is of great importance to an athlete. One method of improving efficiency is by incorporating supersets into resistance training routines. However, the structuring of supersets is still unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of agonist-antagonist (A-A), alternate peripheral (A-P), and similar biomechanical (SB) superset configurations on rate of perceived exertion (RPE), kinetic and kinematic changes during the bench press. 10 subjects performed resistance training protocols in a randomized-crossover design, with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within and between protocols. Changes in RPE were very likely and almost certainly greater in the A-P and SB protocols when compared with the A-A, while all superset protocols had very likely to almost certain reductions in mean velocity and power from baseline. Reductions in mean velocity and power were almost certainly greater in the SB protocol, with differences between the A-A and A-P protocols being unclear. Decreases in peak force were likely and almost certain in the A-A and SB protocols respectively, with changes in A-P being unclear. Differences between these protocols showed likely greater decreases in SB peak forces when compared to A-A, with all other superset comparisons being unclear. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise selection when incorporating supersets into a training routine. It is suggested that the practitioner uses A-A supersets when aiming to improve training efficiency and minimize reductions in kinetic and kinematic output of the agonist musculature while completing the barbell bench press.

  11. Effect of wearing clothes on oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion while swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Kurokawa, T; Ebisu, Y; Kikkawa, K; Shiokawa, M; Yamasaki, M

    2000-07-01

    For a comparative study between swimming in swimwear (control-sw) and swimming in clothes (clothes-sw), oxygen uptake (VO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The subjects were six male members of a university swimming team. Three swimming strokes--the breaststroke, the front crawl stroke and the elementary backstroke--were applied. With regards to clothes-sw, swimmers wore T-shirts, sportswear (shirt and pants) over swimwear and running shoes. In both cases of control-sw and clothes-sw, the VO2 was increased exponentially with increased swimming speed. The VO2 of the subjects during the clothed tests did not exceed 1.4 times of that in the case of control-sw at swimming speeds below 0.3 m/s. As swimming speeds increased, VO2 difference in both cases increased. Consequently, VO2 in the clothed tests was equal to 1.5-1.6 times and 1.5-1.8 times of that in the swimwear tests at speeds of 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, respectively. At speeds below 0.6 m/s in clothes-sw, the breaststroke showed lower VO2 than the front crawl stroke, and the elementary backstroke showed higher VO2 than the other two swimming strokes. RPE increased linearly with %peak VO2. In addition, any RPE differences among the three swimming strokes were not shown in the control-sw tests. At an exercise intensity above 60 %peak VO2, clothed swimmers showed slightly higher RPE in the front crawl stroke compared to that in the two other swimming strokes.

  12. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20 exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa’s scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results suggested that electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway.

  13. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kakehashi

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP. Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats.

  14. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis: a retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, Natalia; Sapa, Alexander; Dowling, James J; Riazi, Sheila

    2017-07-01

    Two potentially fatal syndromes, malignant hyperthermia (MH), an adverse reaction to general anesthesia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) share some clinical features, including hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated serum creatine kinase. Some patients with ER have experienced an MH event and/or have been diagnosed as MH susceptible (MHS). In order to assess the relationship between ER and MH further, we conducted a retrospective cohort study summarizing clinical and genetic information on Canadian patients with ER who were diagnosed as MHS. In addition, a systematic literature review was performed to compile further evidence on MH susceptibility and RYR1 and CACNA1S variants associated with rhabdomyolysis. Demographic, clinical, and genetic information was collected on Canadian MHS patients who presented with rhabdomyolysis. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the literature published during 1995-2016 on genetic screening of the RYR1 and CACNA1S genes in patients with ER. Retrospective data on Canadian MHS patients with ER showed that ten out of 17 patients carried RYR1 or CACNA1S variants that were either known MH-causative mutations or potentially pathogenic variants. The systematic review revealed 39 different rare RYR1 variants, including 13 MH-causative/associated mutations and five rare potentially deleterious CACNA1S variants in 78% of patients with ER. Findings from the Canadian patient cohort and the systematic review all signal a potential association between MH susceptibility and ER. The presence of MH-causative mutations and putative deleterious RYR1 variants in ER patients without a history of adverse anesthetic reactions suggests their possible increased risk for MH.

  15. The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). Objective: To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Results: Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. Conclusions: These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care. PMID:24933433

  16. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaw-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE and polysaccharide (Gt-PS extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL- 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5~50 µg/mL significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma.

  17. Physical Activity and Exertional Desaturation Are Associated with Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch Vainshelboim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic lung disease that manifests in hypoxemia, inactivity, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the prognostic role of physical activity (PA and exertional desaturation (ED with mortality in IPF. At baseline, 34 IPF patients (68 (50–81 years were interviewed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and SpO2 was assessed pre to post 6-min walking test (∆SpO2. Patients were prospectively followed up for 40 months. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis determined cut-off points associated with mortality, and Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR were conducted. Thresholds for increased mortality risk in IPF patients were determined as IPAQ ≤ 417 metabolic equivalent task (METS-min/week, p = 0.004 (HR; 9.7, CI 95% (1.3–71.9, p = 0.027, and ∆SpO2 ≥ 10%, p = 0.002, (HR; 23.3, CI 95% (1.5–365, p = 0.025. This study demonstrated a significant association of PA and ED with mortality in IPF patients. The findings emphasize the clinical importance of PA and ED assessments to aid in IPF risk stratification, prognosis prediction, and in providing early appropriate treatments, such as pulmonary rehabilitation, PA consultation, oxygen supplementation, and lung transplantation referral. These results underscore that even low levels of PA corresponding to 100–105 min/week were associated with a reduced mortality risk and better survival in IPF.

  18. Influence exerted by helicobacter pylori on regulatory t-cells differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.V. Matveichev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating risks of infections induced by gram-negative Helicobacter pylori, is a vital problem for healthcare due to wide spread of the agent and wide range of induced pathologies which include malignant neoplasms in gastrointestinal tract. The agent is prone to long-term chronic persistence despite its "fragility" and its being greatly demanding to culturing conditions. The persistence issue is of special interest here as it is related to data on Helicobacter pylori capability to change immune response in infected people inducing suppressive regulatory immune reactions which are more favorable for the agent, both in stomach and in a whole body. Our research goal was to estimate Helicobacter pylori capability to induce differentiation of regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ human T-cells as basic mediators of immune response regulation under direct contact between bacteria and T-cells without any participation of most professional antigen-presenting cells. Our research objects were clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and T-lymphocytes samples taken from people who didn't have Helicobacter pylori-infection in their case history; isolates and samples were jointly cultivated in vitro. We applied cytofluorometry to estimate changes in regulatory T-cells content. We detected that if T-lymphocytes and Helicobacter pylori were jointly cultivated during 18 hours in ratios from 1:10 to 1:50, regulatory T-cells content in cultures increased 2.12 times on average. This effects doesn't require any dendritic cells in a culture and obviously affects T-lymphocytes which are originally committed to regulatory T-cells in their development. Also, in our opinion, influence exerted on regulatory T-cells differentiation is a specific feature of Helicobacter pylori.

  19. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notochordal-cell derived extracellular vesicles exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Frances; Libregts, Sten; Creemers, Laura; Meij, Björn; Ito, Keita; Wauben, Marca; Tryfonidou, Marianna

    2017-10-24

    During intervertebral disc ageing, chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs) replace notochordal cells (NCs). NCs have been shown to induce regenerative effects in CLCs. Since vesicles released by NCs may be responsible for these effects, we characterized NC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and determined their effect on CLCs. EVs were purified from porcine NC-conditioned medium (NCCM) through size exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation or density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, the EVs were quantitatively analyzed by high-resolution flow cytometry. The effect of NCCM-derived EVs was studied on canine and human CLC micro-aggregates in vitro and compared with NCCM-derived proteins and unfractionated NCCM. Porcine NCCM contained a considerable amount of EVs. NCCM-derived EVs induced GAG deposition in canine CLCs to a comparable level as NCCM-derived proteins and unfractionated NCCM, and increased the DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of human micro-aggregates, although to a lesser extent than unfractionated NCCM. The biological EV effects were not considerably influenced by ultracentrifugation compared with size exclusion-based purification. Upon ultracentrifugation, interfering GAGs, but not collagens, were lost. Nonetheless, collagen type I or II supplemented to CLCs in a concentration as present in NCCM induced no anabolic effects. Porcine NCCM-derived EVs exerted anabolic effects comparable to NCCM-derived proteins, while unfractionated NCCM was more potent in human CLCs. GAGs and collagens appeared not to mediate the regenerative EV effects. Thus, NC-derived EVs have regenerative potential, and their effects may be influenced by the proteins present in NCCM. The optimal combination of NC-secreted factors needs to be determined to fully exploit the regenerative potential of NC-based technology.

  1. Annonacin Exerts Antitumor Activity through Induction of Apoptosis and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chee Voon; Subramaniam, Kavita S; Khor, Sik Wey; Chung, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata , is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC. To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs). Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting. Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC 50 values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells ( P cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  2. Vegetation exerts a greater control on litter decomposition than climate warming in peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nicholas J; Briones, J I; Thomson, Bruce C; Griffiths, Robert I; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Bardget, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO2 exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hypnum jutlandicum) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming.with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short-term litter decomposition than did approximately 1 degrees C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short-term litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short-term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when

  3. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    KAUST Repository

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Comparison of kettlebell swings and treadmill running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Caleb R; Soto, David T; Koch, Alexander J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic demand of a kettlebell (KB) swing routine with treadmill (TM) running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Thirteen subjects (11 male, 2 female, age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years, weight = 73.0 ± 9.2 kg) completed a 10-minute KB swing routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals followed by 25-second rest intervals. Men used a 16-kg KB, and women used an 8-kg KB. After 48 hours of rest, the subjects completed a 10-minute TM run at equivalent RPEs as measured during the swing workout. Metabolic data were monitored each minute during each exercise using an automated cart, with the final 7 minutes used for analysis. The RPE and heart rate (HR) recorded at minutes 5, 7, 9, and 10 increased by 2-3 and 7-9%, respectively, for each exercise, producing a significantly increasing pattern but no significant difference between exercises. Average HR and RPE were not significantly different between KB and TM and averaged 90 and 89%, respectively, of age-predicted HRmax. Oxygen consumption, METS, pulmonary ventilation, and calorie expenditure were significantly higher for TM (25-39%) than for KB. Respiratory exchange ratio (TM = 0.94 ± 0.04, KB = 0.95 ± 0.05) and respiratory rate (TM = 38 ± 7, KB = 36 ± 4 b·min) were not significantly different between the exercises at any time point. During TM and KB exercises matched for RPE, the subjects are likely to have higher oxygen consumption, work at a higher MET level, and burn more kilocalories per minute during TM running than during KB swings. However, according to the American College of Sports Medicine standards, this KB drill could provide sufficient exercise stress to produce gains in aerobic capacity.

  5. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome

  7. Performance of national policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Mastop, H.; Spit, T.

    1997-01-01

    National spatial policies are usually indicative and strategic. As a result, this kind of policy does not have a direct bearing on the spatial organisation of society. Instead the performance of these policies depends on whether or not they are used in subsequent decisionmaking and planning

  8. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  9. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  10. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  11. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  12. Next Generation Sequencing of RYR1 and CACNA1S in Malignant Hyperthermia and Exertional Heat Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszer, Dorota; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Fisher, Nickla A.; Carr, Ian M.; Gupta, Pawan K.; Watkins, Elizabeth J.; de Sa, Daniel Roiz; Kim, Jerry H.; Hopkins, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Variants in RYR1 are associated with the majority of cases of malignant hyperthermia (MH), a form of heat illness pharmacogenetically triggered by general anesthetics, and they have also been associated with exertional heat illness. CACNA1S has also been implicated in MH. We applied a targeted next generation sequencing approach to identify variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S in a cohort of unrelated patients diagnosed with MH susceptibility. We also provide the first comprehensive report of sequencing of these two genes in a cohort of survivors of exertional heat illness. Methods DNA extracted from blood was genotyped using a “long” polymerase chain reaction technique, with sequencing on the Illumina GAII® or MiSeq® platforms (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Variants were assessed for pathogenicity using bioinformatic approaches. For further follow up DNA from additional family members and up to 211 MH normal and 556 MH susceptible unrelated individuals was tested. Results In 29 MH patients we identified three pathogenic and four novel RYR1 variants, with a further five RYR1 variants previously reported in association with MH. Three novel RYR1 variants were found in the exertional heat illness cohort (n = 28) along with two more previously reported in association with MH. Two other variants were reported previously associated with centronuclear myopathy. We found one and three rare variants of unknown significance in CACNA1S in the MH and exertional heat illness cohorts respectively. Conclusion Targeted next generation sequencing proved efficient at identifying diagnostically useful and potentially implicated variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S in MH and exertional heat illness. PMID:25658027

  13. Measuring exertion during caregiving of children and young adults with cerebral palsy who require assistance for mobility and self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Marcella; Bolt, Daniel M; Braun, Michael; Benedict, Ruth E

    2013-08-01

    Our purpose was to compare objective and subjective measures of energy exertion during caregiving tasks. Participants were primary caregivers (N = 19) of children and young adults (aged 3 -22 years) with cerebral palsy (CP) who require assistance for mobility and self-care (67% classified in level V on the Gross Motor Function Classification System). Measures of exertion were collected during two caregiving tasks: (1) transfers and (2) dressing. Objective measures included volume of oxygen (V02), heart rate (HR), and the subjective measure was a rating of perceived exertion (Borg RPE). Controlling for baseline status, perceived exertion correlated with VO2 (0.43, p measures of exertion appear to capture the strain of caregiving. Understanding a caregiver's perception of exertion can guide therapists in assessing the need for equipment, pharmacological, or respite interventions.

  14. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  15. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy....... It assesses current initiatives, policies and arrangements and proposes an overview of stakeholders' positions at EU and national levels in order to feed into the debate on how to improve competitiveness and growth in Europe....

  16. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  17. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  18. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  19. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...

  20. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  1. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  2. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  3. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  4. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  5. Is there a link between exertional heat stroke and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Sagui

    Full Text Available The identification of a predisposition toward malignant hyperthermia (MH as a risk factor for exertional heat stroke (EHS remains a matter of debate. Such a predisposition indicates a causal role for MH susceptibility (MHS after EHS in certain national recommendations and has led to the use of an in vitro contracture test (IVCT to identify the MHS trait in selected or unselected EHS patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether the MHS trait is associated with EHS.EHS subjects in the French Armed Forces were routinely examined for MHS after experiencing an EHS episode. This retrospective study compared the features of IVCT-diagnosed MHS (iMHS EHS subjects with those of MH-normal EHS patients and MH patients during the 2004-2010 period. MHS status was assessed using the European protocol.During the study period, 466 subjects (median age 25 years; 31 women underwent MHS status investigation following an EHS episode. None of the subjects reported previous MH events. An IVCT was performed in 454 cases and was diagnostic of MHS in 45.6% of the study population, of MH susceptibility to halothane in 18.5%, of MH susceptibility to caffeine in 9.9%, and of MH susceptibility to halothane and caffeine in 17.2%. There were no differences in the clinical features, biological features or outcomes of iMHS EHS subjects compared with those of MH-normal or caffeine or halothane MHS subjects without known prior EHS episode. The recurrence rate was 12.7% and was not associated with MH status or any clinical or biological features. iMHS EHS patients exhibited a significantly less informative IVCT response than MH patients.The unexpected high prevalence of the MHS trait after EHS suggested a latent disturbance of calcium homeostasis that accounted for the positive IVCT results. This study did not determine whether EHS patients have an increased risk of MH, and it could not determine whether MH susceptibility is a risk factor for EHS.

  6. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I–III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index. A total of 47 stroke patients (24 males, 23 females, mean age 65.9 ± 11.5 years) were included. The average Brunnstrom stages of affected limbs were 3.6 ± 1.3 over the proximal parts and 3.5 ± 1.4 over the distal parts of upper limbs, and 3.9 ± 0.9 over lower limbs. The average forced vital capacity (FVC) was 2.0 ± 0.8 L, with a predicted FVC% of 67.9 ± 18.8%, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 1.6 ± 0.7 L, predicted FEV1% of 70.6 ± 20.1%, FEV1/FVC of 84.2 ± 10.5%, and maximum mid-expiratory flow of 65.4 ± 29.5%. The average MIP and MEP were −52.9 ± 33.3 cmH2O and 60.8 ± 29.0 cmH2O, respectively. The Borg scale was 1.5 ± 0.8. MIP was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage of the proximal (r = −0.318, P lower extremities (r = −0.288, P lower extremities (r = −0.311, P limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:27749577

  7. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  8. Marked over expression of uncoupling protein-2 in beta cells exerts minor effects on mitochondrial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hals, Ingrid K., E-mail: ingrid.hals@ntnu.no [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Ogata, Hirotaka; Pettersen, Elin [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Ma, Zuheng; Bjoerklund, Anneli [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Skorpen, Frank [Department of Laboratory Medicine, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Egeberg, Kjartan Wollo [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Grill, Valdemar [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-29

    positive findings. A fourfold induction of UCP-2 was required to exert minor metabolic effects. These findings question an impact of moderately elevated UCP-2 levels in beta cells as seen in diabetes.

  9. Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min (P = 0.000. Respiratory rates per minute (RR and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L (P < 0.05. Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic

  10. Low Prevalence of Periodontitis in Acromegaly: Growth Hormone May Exert a Protective Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Serinsöz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD measurements and the presence of periodontitis in patients with acromegaly, as well as to inquire the impact of interfering factors. Material and Method: Forty-seven acromegalic patients with any accompanying condition known to affect calcium-bone metabolism and 60 age-matched healthy controls were included. Age, gender, duration and activity of acromegaly, past-present therapy options, pituitary hormone profiles, replacement therapies, and the results of periodontal analysis were recorded. Results: Eighteen patients were male (38.3%, 29 were female (61.7%. The mean age of the patients was 46.6±11.5 years, twenty-five (53.1% had active, 22 (46.8% had inactive acromegaly. The latter were older and had longer disease duration (p=0.04, p=0.003, respectively. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion and BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck insignificantly associated with disease activity (p>0.05. Osteoporosis was detected in 6 patients (12.76%. Periodontitis and advanced periodontitis were more common in control group (66.7% vs. 44.7%, (43.3% vs. 12.8% (p=0.022, p=0.0001, respectively. There was no difference in chronic periodontitis and severity between active and inactive groups (48% vs. 40.9%; p=0.279. No difference was noted in other study parameters, as well. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated statistically insignificant distribution between GH change in time and periodontitis subgroups. Discussion: We demonstrated that acromegaly exerted no clear negative impact on vertebral BMD in the absence of overt hypogonadism. Regardless of disease activity, acromegaly cases exhibited lower rates of periodontitis with less severity which remained unchanged in the presence of accompanying metabolic disorders known to have negative impact on periodontal tissue. Chronic exposure to excess GH may have a protective role against periodontitis. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 42-48

  11. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition exerts beneficial anti-remodeling actions post-myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompa, Andrew R; Wang, Bing H; Xu, Guoying; Zhang, Yuan; Ho, Pei-Yu; Eisennagel, Stephen; Thalji, Reema K; Marino, Joseph P; Kelly, Darren J; Behm, David J; Krum, Henry

    2013-07-15

    A contributory role for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI) has been suggested; however effects of sEH inhibition following MI have not been evaluated. In this study, we examined in vivo post-MI anti-remodeling effects of a novel sEH inhibitor (GSK2188931B) in the rat, and evaluated its direct in vitro effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Post-MI administered GSK2188931B (80 mg/kg/d in chow) for 5 weeks improved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction compared to vehicle-treated (Veh) rats (P<0.01; Sham 65 ± 2%, MI+Veh 30 ± 2%, MI+GSK 43 ± 2%) without affecting systolic blood pressure. Percentage area of LV tissue sections stained positive for picrosirius red (PS) and collagen I (CI) were elevated in LV non-infarct zone (P<0.05; NIZ; PS: Sham 1.46 ± 0.13%, MI+Veh 2.14 ± 0.22%, MI+GSK 1.28 ± 0.14%; CI: Sham 2.57 ± 0.17%, MI+Veh 5.06 ± 0.58%, MI+GSK 2.97 ± 0.34%) and peri-infarct zone (P<0.001; PIZ; PS: Sham 1.46 ± 0.13%, MI+Veh 9.06 ± 0.48%, MI+GSK 6.31 ± 0.63%; CI: Sham 2.57±0.17%, MI+Veh 10.51 ± 0.64%, MI+GSK 7.77 ± 0.57%); GSK2188931B attenuated this increase (P<0.05). GSK2188931B reduced macrophage infiltration into the PIZ (P<0.05). GSK2188931B reduced AngII- and TNFα-stimulated myocyte hypertrophy, AngII- and TGFβ-stimulated cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis, including markers of gene expression ANP, β-MHC, CTGF and CI (P<0.05). GSK2188931B reduced TNFα gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes (P<0.05). sEH inhibition exerts beneficial effects on cardiac function and ventricular remodeling post-MI, and direct effects on fibrosis and hypertrophy in cardiac cells. These findings suggest that sEH is an important contributor to the pathological remodeling following MI, and may be a useful target for therapeutic blockade in this setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetic memory of oxidative stress: does nephrilin exert its protective effects via Rac1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascarenhas DD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmond D Mascarenhas,1,2 David N Herndon,3 Istvan Arany4 1Mayflower Organization for Research & Education, Sunnyvale, CA, 2Transporin, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, 3Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, and Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX, 4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Aim: Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of Rictor complex (mTORC2, exerts pleiotropic protective effects in metabolic, xenobiotic and traumatic stress models. Stress can generate enduring epigenetic changes in gene function. In this work we examine the possibility that nephrilin treatment protects against acute and enduring global changes in oxidative metabolism, with a focus on the Rictor-complex-mediated activation of Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox via PKCs, Prex1 and p66shc. Methods: Given the wide range of animal models in which nephrilin peptide has previously demonstrated effectiveness in vivo, we chose three different experimental systems for this investigation: dermal fibroblasts, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs, and kidney tissue and urine from an animal model of burn trauma in which nephrilin was previously shown to prevent loss of kidney function. Results: (1 Nephrilin protects dermal fibroblasts from loss of viability and collagen synthesis after ultraviolet A (UV-A or H2O2 insult. (2 Nephrilin reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS formation by H2O2–treated (PTECs with or without nicotine pretreatment. Using RNA arrays and pathway analysis we demonstrate that nicotine and H2O2-treated PTECs specifically induced Rac1 gene networks in these cells. (3 Using kidney tissue and urine from the burn trauma model we demonstrate significant elevations of [a] 8-aminoprostane in urine; [b] kidney tissue histone modification and DNA methylation; and [c] post-transcriptional phosphorylation events consistent with Rac1 activation in

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph B J; Lajczak, Natalia K; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Giddam, Ashwini K; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Franco, Placido; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Jefferies, Caroline A; Keely, Simon; Roda, Aldo; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Ward JB, Lajczak NK, Kelly OB, O'Dwyer AM, Giddam AK, Ní Gabhann J, Franco P, Tambuwala MM, Jefferies CA, Keely S, Roda A, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 312: G550-G558, 2017. First published March 30, 2017; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016.-Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a group of common and debilitating chronic intestinal disorders for which currently available therapies are often unsatisfactory. The naturally occurring secondary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has well-established anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions and may therefore be effective in treating IBD. We aimed to investigate regulation of colonic inflammatory responses by UDCA and to determine the potential impact of bacterial metabolism on its therapeutic actions. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of UDCA, a nonmetabolizable analog, 6α-methyl-UDCA (6-MUDCA), and its primary colonic metabolite lithocholic acid (LCA) was assessed in the murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mucosal injury. The effects of bile acids on cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-1β, and IFN-γ) release from cultured colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue in vivo were investigated. Luminal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. UDCA attenuated release of proinflammatory cytokines from colonic epithelial cells in vitro and was protective against the development of colonic inflammation in vivo. In contrast, although 6-MUDCA mimicked the effects of UDCA on epithelial cytokine release in vitro, it was ineffective in preventing inflammation in the DSS model. In UDCA-treated mice, LCA became the most common colonic bile acid. Finally, LCA treatment more potently inhibited epithelial cytokine release and protected against DSS-induced mucosal inflammation than did UDCA. These studies identify a new role for the primary metabolite of UDCA, LCA, in preventing colonic

  14. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert anti-schistosome activity and inhibit parasite acetylcholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K Sundaraneedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people and there are concerns whether the current chemotherapeutic control strategy (periodic mass drug administration with praziquantel (PZQ-the only licenced anti-schistosome compound is sustainable, necessitating the development of new drugs.We investigated the anti-schistosome efficacy of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against all intra-mammalian stages of S. mansoni. Two compounds, Rubb12-tri and Rubb7-tnl, which were among the most potent in their ability to kill schistosomula and adult worms and inhibit egg hatching in vitro, were assessed for their efficacy in a mouse model of schistosomiasis using 5 consecutive daily i.v. doses of 2 mg/kg (Rubb12-tri and 10 mg/kg (Rubb7-tnl. Mice treated with Rubb12-tri showed an average 42% reduction (P = 0.009, over two independent trials, in adult worm burden. Liver egg burdens were not significantly decreased in either drug-treated group but ova from both of these groups showed significant decreases in hatching ability (Rubb12-tri-68%, Rubb7-tnl-56% and were significantly morphologically altered (Rubb12-tri-62% abnormal, Rubb7-tnl-35% abnormal. We hypothesize that the drugs exerted their activity, at least partially, through inhibition of both neuronal and tegumental acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, as worms treated in vitro showed significant decreases in activity of these enzymes. Further, treated parasites exhibited a significantly decreased ability to uptake glucose, significantly depleted glycogen stores and withered tubercules (a site of glycogen storage, implying drug-mediated interference in this nutrient acquisition pathway.Our data provide compelling evidence that ruthenium complexes are effective against all intra-mammalian stages of schistosomes, including schistosomula (refractory to PZQ and eggs (agents of disease transmissibility. Further, the results of this study suggest that schistosome AChE is a target of

  15. Exertional Heat Illnesses and Environmental Conditions During High School Football Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Eberman, Lindsey E; Smith, Michael Seth

    2015-10-01

    Guidelines for preventing exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) during extreme heat stress should be specific to regional environments, age, and sport and should be based on evidence of reducing the risk. Each year in the United States, over 1 million high school football players practice in the August heat; however, no published data describe the incidence of EHIs in these athletes. To describe the environmental conditions and incidence of EHIs during high school football practices over a 3-month period. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 3-month period (August-October), athletic trainers at 12 high schools in North Central Florida recorded the practice time and length, environmental conditions (wet-bulb globe temperature), and incidences of EHIs in varsity football athletes. Athletes suffered 57 total EHIs during 29,759 athlete-exposures (AEs) for the 3-month data collection period (rate = 1.92/1000 AEs). August accounted for the majority of all EHIs, with 82.5% (47/57) and the highest rate (4.35/1000 AEs). Of total heat illnesses, heat cramps accounted for 70.2% (40/57), heat exhaustion 22.8% (13/57), and heat syncope 7.0% (4/57). The odds ratio indicated that athletes in August practices that lasted longer than the recommended 3 hours were 9.84 times more likely to suffer a heat illness than those in practices lasting ≤3 hours. The highest rate of EHIs was during August. Practices in August that exceeded the recommended 3 hours were associated with a greater risk of heat illnesses. The overall rate of EHIs was lower for the high school football athletes observed in the study compared with that reported for collegiate football athletes in the region. The low rates of EHIs recorded suggest that the prevention guidelines employed by sports medicine teams are appropriate for the region and population. Team physicians and athletic trainers should employ evidence-based, region- and population-specific EHI prevention guidelines. Sports medicine teams, coaches, and

  16. Scientists as lobbyists? How science can make its voice heard in the South African policy-making arena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...

  17. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  18. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  19. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms...

  20. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  1. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  2. Locomotor activity, enjoyment and perceived exertion from 7v7 football for patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Trine Kjeldgaard Tang; Madsen, Mads; Frederiksen, Jakob

    Background: The level of daily physical activity decrease with disease severity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, inactivity is associated with greater disabilities in daily life and secondary complications. Participation in recreational football, organized as small-sided games......, on a regularly basis show benefits in the health profile and physical capacity in untrained adult men, and improves both cardiovascular and metabolic fitness. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe locomotor activities, enjoyment and perceived exertion during football training for men with Parkinson...... on a 40x40 m artificial turf football pitch with 1.5x3 m goals. After each activity perceived exertion for lower limbs and total body individually was rated on a visual analogue scale (0-10). After the whole session the participants filled out a PACES questionnaire to rate enjoyment of the session. Height...

  3. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-reported data on outcomes and sociodemographic information were collected at baseline, and at 4 and 12 month follow-up. All outcomes were analysed in a linear repeated-measures 2 × 2 mixed-model by an intention-to-treat analysis approach. RESULTS: Drop-out was 26 and 33% at 4 and 12 months, respectively...

  4. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  5. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  6. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  7. [A rare cause of exertional dry cough: agenesis of the left pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary hypoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaraje, Azzeddine; El Hafidi, Naima; Mahraoui, Chafik

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of the left pulmonary artery associated with hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung is a rare congenital malformation in children; it can be discovered fortuitously or because of the presence of recurrent respiratory infections. Diagnosis is based on thoracic angioscanner. Treatment is essentially conservative. We report the case of a 6-year old child with agenesis of the left pulmonary artery associated with hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung detected because of exertional dry cough.

  8. Coulombian Model for 3D Analytical Calculation of the Torque Exerted on Cuboidal Permanent Magnets with Arbitrarly Oriented Polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Latreche , Mohamed E. H.; Bouchekara , Houssem

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The paper proposes improved analytical expressions of the torque on cuboidal permanent magnets. Expressions are valid for any relative magnet position and for any polarization direction. The analytical calculation is made by replacing polarizations by distributions of magnetic charges on the magnet poles (Coulombian approach). The torque exerted on the second magnet is calculated by Lorentz force formulas for any arbitrary position. The three components of the torque a...

  9. Improved arterial flow-mediated dilation after exertion involves hydrogen peroxide in overweight and obese adults following aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Franklin, Nina C; Norkeviciute, Edita; Bian, Jing Tan; Babana, James C; Szczurek, Mary R; Phillips, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Acute strenuous physical exertion impairs arterial function in sedentary adults. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular aerobic exercise training on acute physical exertion-induced arterial dysfunction in sedentary, overweight, and obese adults. Twenty-five overweight and obese adults (BMI 30.5 ± 7.2 years) were assigned to 8 weeks of aerobic training or to a control group. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed before and after acute leg press exercise at weeks 0 and 8. Gluteal adipose biopsies were performed at rest and post acute leg press to measure microvessel FMD with and without nitric oxide synthase inhibition via L-nitroarginine methyl ester or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging with Catalase. Microvessel nitric oxide and H2O2 production were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Brachial artery dilation was reduced post acute leg press at week 0 in the aerobic exercise and control groups, but was preserved in the aerobic-exercise group post acute leg press at week 8 (P aerobic exercise group but impaired in the control group at week 8 (P aerobic exercise group was more sensitive to H2O2 scavenging than inhibition of nitric oxide, and post acute leg press microvessel H2O2 production was increased compared with at rest (P Aerobic exercise prevents acute exertion-induced arterial dysfunction in overweight and obese adults via a phenotypic switch from nitric oxide-mediated dilation at rest to a predominately H2O2-mediated dilation after acute physical exertion.

  10. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  11. The relationship between biomechanical-anthropometrical parameters and the force exerted on the head when heading free kicks in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Meghdad; Sadeghi, Heydar; Nabaei, Amir; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Soccer is a contact sport in which the players are frequently faced with the risk of injury. It has been shown that the force exerted on the head during heading can be as much as 500-1200 Newton (N). The main objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the force exerted on the head and several biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters related to heading free kicks. A total of 16 semi-professional soccer players with at least 5 years experience participated in this study. The mean age, height, and weight of the study participants were 21.36 ± 5.67, 178 ± 5.99 cm, and 70.55 ± 8.55 kg, respectively. To measure the force exerted on the heads of the players, a pressure gauge was installed on their foreheads. Each participant was asked to defend the ball using the heading technique three times. A camera with a sampling frequency of 150 frames per second was used to record the moment of impact between the ball and head during each heading event. For each participant and replicate, the ball and head velocity (m/s) as well as the angular body changes (degrees) were calculated using MATLAB and AutoCAD softwares, respectively. Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations were used to describe the data. Pearson correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine potential relationships between the variables of interest. Significant correlations existed between the force exerted on the head during heading, participant age, body mass, body fat percentage, and head perimeter (P < 0.05). The study revealed the significance of anthropometric variables related to heading, such as age and head perimeter. Therefore, it was concluded that these variables should be considered when teaching and practicing the heading technique with players of different ages and anthropometric sizes.

  12. Arginine, N-carbamylglutamate, and glutamine exert protective effects against oxidative stress in rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-09-01

    .05. Collectively, this study suggested that dietary supplementation with 1% GLN, 0.1% NCG, and 1% ARG was effective in enhancing the antioxidant status and maintaining the morphological structure of rat jejunum under oxidative stress; of these supplements, 1% GLN exerted the greatest effects on mitigating oxidative stress.

  13. Tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kaufman, Nancy; Sarna, Linda

    2003-11-01

    To review and summarize tobacco control policies, their impact in curbing the tobacco epidemic, and to describe a role for nursing advocacy. Published articles and research studies. Comprehensive tobacco control policy is one of the most effective mechanisms to prevent tobacco-related cancers and other illnesses. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Master Settlement Agreement in the United States have provided new opportunities for tobacco control. Nursing participation in the policy process can expand and strengthen these policies' activities. Involvement in tobacco control should be integral to oncology nursing efforts to prevent cancer, promote health, and quality of life.

  14. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  15. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings...

  16. [The case for a new French public health law at the service of a fairer and more effective national health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Linda; Alla, François; Lombrail, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The next public health law in France will need to address a number of issues. A?series of recent reports have highlighted both sharp disparities in health status ? with high rates of premature death and increasing social inequalities in health ? and the need to organize public health. The incoherence of public health policies, the lack of inter-ministerial coordination (a prerequisite for the reduction of health inequalities) and the lack of structure and evaluation in the area of prevention are major weaknesses that the new public health law will need to address. Beyond the inevitable core measures, the new law will also need to promote deep structural reforms, including a unified national policy refocused on key priorities and incorporating non-health sectors, the development of a more effective and coherent prevention policy and, finally, a focus on the issue of inequalities requiring clearly defined integrated measures, not only as a stated principle but as an outcome to be achieved by all health policies. The next public health law will need to be a vehicle for an inevitable and long overdue structuring of public health policy.

  17. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Equity and the Global Policy on Climate Change: A Law and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Gunawan Wibisana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The opponents of the global commitment to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions seem to have shifted their arguments from the one emphasising on the issue of uncertainty to the one focusing on the economic burdens disproportionately placed on the current generation in general, and some developed countries in particular. Inevitably, the issue of equity becomes of highly importance in the recent climate policy debates. This paper attempts to analyze the implementation of equity principles, i.e. intergenerational and intragenerational equity, in the global climate policy. In doing so, it will first briefly outline some prominent economic appraisals on the impacts of climate change. Afterwards, some proposals to incorporate equity into the economic appraisals will be analyzed. Emphasizing on the concepts of equity, this paper will finally offer some recommendations for post-Kyoto negotiations.

  19. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  20. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  1. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  2. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  3. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  4. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  5. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  6. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  7. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  8. Policy Research and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  9. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  10. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    , the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...

  11. Policy as Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…

  12. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  13. Intercultural Policies and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  14. Good Tourism Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...

  15. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  16. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2014-01-01

    and policy ideas produced in collaborative governance arenas are not diffused to the formal political institutions of representative democracy because the participating politicians only to a limited extent function as boundary spanners between the collaborative governance arena and the decision making arenas......Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings...

  17. Good Tourism Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...... and authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....

  18. American energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmuntz, L.

    1982-02-22

    US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

  19. Dividend Policy Controverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Vidučić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend theory shares with capital structure theories the attribute of area of high controversy. Financial literature discusses whether there is an interdependency of dividends and share price, i.e. value of the firm. The main views may be defined with three theories of dividend policy. However, unambiguous solutions are still lacking. Literature on dividends highlights several concepts that may be important in defining the dividend policy. Dividend policy aims to define payout ratio, sort of dividend and way of maintaining dividend stability, since stability of dividend is found to be of interest in practice. Managers, namely, prefer stability of dividend policy and the amount of dividends taking in account the signalling effect. If stability of dividends is preferred by investors it follows that stable dividend policy will lead to minimization of cost of capital and maximization of share price.

  20. The influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of procurement best practices in South African universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Dlamini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between public procurement policies and procurement best practices (PBPs in higher education institutions is inevitable. Higher education institutions (HEIs in South Africa play a crucial role in contributing to the economic, social and environmental development of the country. Hence the implementation of PBPs has a key role in creating a competitive advantage for higher education. The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of PBPs in the public HEIs in South Africa. The article employs a theoretical review of related literature on public procurement and PBPs. The article articulates that public procurement policies influence the implementation of PBPs in public HEIs in South Africa.

  1. Attacking or Defending? Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The Union’s external competence is fragmented, as are the powers of the institutional bodies involved in external relations. Despite the Union being depillarised after the Treaty of Lisbon coming into force, the ‘specific rules and procedures’ of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP......’s jurisdiction, it is inevitable that the Court would be placed in a position where it is to rule on its limited remit, and the extent of this perceived boundary within the current Treaties. External relations are an important part of the Court’s work, and cases arise from both preliminary references and direct...

  2. Reference-dependent Preferences and the Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffeo, Edoardo; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan

    This paper proposes a novel explanation of the vast empirical evidence showing that output and prices react asymmetrically to monetary policy innovations over contractions and expansions in the business cycle. We use VAR techniques to show that monetary policy exerts stronger effects on the U.......S. GDP during contractionary phases, as compared to expansionary ones. As to prices, their response is not statistically different across different cyclical stages. We show that these facts are consistent with a New Neoclassical Synthesis model based on the assumption that households' utility partly...... depends on deviations of their consumption from a reference level below which aversion to loss is displayed. In line with the theory developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), losses in consumption utility loom larger than gains. This implies state-dependent degrees of real rigidity and elasticity...

  3. Las "clases peligrosas": el fracaso de un discurso policial prepositista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Raúl Zaffaroni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a obra “Des classesdangereuses de la population dans lesgrandes villes et des moyens de lês rendremeilleures” (1840, de H.A. Frégier, chefe depolícia francês que pela primeira vez utilizoua expressão “classes perigosas” para definirsetores sociais propensos à criminalidade.Com isso objetiva-se verificar e ratificar quea corporação policial necessitou se apropriardo discurso médico, visto que não havialogrado elaborar um próprio. A tentativa deelaboração de um discurso próprio, anteriorao positivismo, pela corporação policial nãoteve êxito porque se mostrou disfuncionalpara legitimar a repressão policial ilimitada.Se os médicos tinham elaborado um discursomas lhes faltava poder para lograr hegemonia,a corporação policial tinha poder,mas lhe faltava discurso de legitimação. Asimbiose foi inevitável.This paper studied the book “Desclasses dangereuses de la population dans lesgrandes villes et des moyens de lês rendre meilleures”(1840, written by H.A. Frégier, aFrench police officer that for first time appliedthe expression “dangerous groups” todescribe precisely social sectors, which areinclined to crime. Thus, this paper aimed atchecking and ratifying that the police corporationneeded to use the medical speech,since they did not develop their own. Theattempt of preparing a specific speech, priorto positivism and by police corporation, didnot success, since it was useless to legalize thelimitless police’s repression. As doctors haddeveloped a speech, but did not have powerto get hegemony, the police corporation waspowerful concerning this, but they did nothave a speech of legitimacy. Hence, the symbiosiswas unavoidable.

  4. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  5. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence , the Presidential Administration can encourage large state-owned companies and Russian oligarchs to direct advertising toward or away from...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  6. Post-TMI developments in U.S. nuclear power siting and licensing policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The regulatory consequences of the Three Mile Island accident continue to exert a dominating influence on the American nuclear power programme, in particular on siting and licensing policies. The major regulatory and legislative measures are discussed and also listed in chronological order and summarized in the Appendices to the paper. These summaries illustrate the shift in focus of the regulatory measures from an initial emphasis on licensing constraints to a change so as to expedite the licensing procedure. (NEA) [fr

  7. Egyptian FGM policy fails to prevent girl's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-06

    The form of female genital mutilation (FGM) predominantly practiced throughout Egypt consists of the surgical removal of the clitoris and often the inner labia. The practice reduces the level of a woman's sexual sensation and causes pain, psychological trauma, and the risk of infection and hemorrhage. An estimated 80% of Egyptian girls undergo the procedure. Egypt's Ministry of Health in 1994 decided to permit only doctors in government hospitals to perform FGM. This policy was adopted in an effort to make safer what was considered to be an inevitable practice. However, the policy was revoked in October 1995 after women's rights and health advocates criticized it as a government endorsement of FGM. An 11-year-old Nile Delta girl died July 12, 1996, as a result of FGM. The Health Ministry subsequently banned all registered health professionals from performing FGM. Two months later, on August 24, a 14-year-old girl died from hemorrhaging shortly after undergoing FGM. These recent deaths challenge the effectiveness of Egypt's new attempts to prevent FGM. Barbers and midwives in Egypt perform thousands of mutilations annually. While they are theoretically subject to criminal penalties for performing surgery without a license, the laws are rarely enforced. Furthermore, despite existing regulations, no provision in the Egyptian penal code criminalizes FGM.

  8. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  9. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  10. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.

  11. HER Specific TKIs Exert Their Antineoplastic Effects on Breast Cancer Cell Lines through the Involvement of STAT5 and JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Gschwantler-Kaulich

    Full Text Available HER-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects in vitro and in vivo. The exact pathways through which TKIs exert their antineoplastic effects are, however, still not completely understood.Using Milliplex assays, we have investigated the effects of the three panHER-TKIs lapatinib, canertinib and afatinib on signal transduction cascade activation in SKBR3, T47D and Jurkat neoplastic cell lines. The growth-inhibitory effect of blockade of HER and of JNK and STAT5 signaling was measured by proliferation- and apoptosis-assays using formazan dye labeling of viable cells, Western blotting for cleaved PARP-1 and immunolabeling for active caspase 3, respectively.All three HER-TKIs clearly inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in HER2 overexpressing SKBR3 cells, while their effect was less pronounced on HER2 moderately expressing T47D cells where they exerted only a weak antiproliferative and essentially no pro-apoptotic effect. Remarkably, phosphorylation/activation of JNK and STAT5A/B were inhibited by HER-TKIs only in the sensitive, but not in the resistant cells. In contrast, phosphorylation/activation of ERK/MAPK, STAT3, CREB, p70 S6 kinase, IkBa, and p38 were equally affected by HER-TKIs in both cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that direct pharmacological blockade of JNK and STAT5 abrogates cell growth in both HER-TKI-sensitive as well as -resistant breast cancer cells, respectively.We have shown that HER-TKIs exert a HER2 expression-dependent anti-cancer effect in breast cancer cell lines. This involves blockade of JNK and STAT5A/B signaling, which have been found to be required for in vitro growth of these cell lines.

  12. Ratings of perceived thigh and back exertion in forest workers during repetitive lifting using squat and stoop techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Harms-Ringdahl, K

    1994-11-15

    Local thigh and low back perceived exertion (RPE), sagittal peak load moments, and leg and trunk muscular activity during repetitive submaximal lifting, with squat and stoop technique, were investigated. This study analyzed changes in kinetic variables caused by changes in body movements during the lifting bouts, and the contribution of the biomechanical and physiologic variables to the variability in the local RPE responses. Despite instructions that emphasize the "correct" lifting technique as the squat technique, the stoop technique is reported as more commonly used in practice. Few studies have investigated the effect of lifting technique on differentiated perceptual responses in repetitive lifting. Ten experienced forest workers performed submaximal repetitive lifting bouts until steady-state VO2 was reached, using five different weight and frequency combinations with both squat and stoop techniques. Borg's scale was used for RPE measurements. Muscular activity in lumbar, hip, knee extensors, and knee flexors was recorded with surface electrodes. Kinematic data was obtained from electronic liquid-level sensors, and vertical ground reaction forces from a two-dimensional force plate. Low back RPE was higher for stoop than for squat, whereas the opposite was true for thigh RPE. The total accountable variance (R2) for the biomechanical and physiologic variables to the RPE responses ranged from 0.25 (low back RPE in squat lifting) to 0.61-0.76 for the other assessments. During the time course in squat lifting at the highest frequency, the knee load moment decreased and the vertical ground reaction forces increased. The study indicates that "movement strategies" to reduce the demand on the knee-extensor muscles were used during the squat lifting bouts at the highest frequencies, which combined with the relatively high assessed thigh exertions, leads to the hypothesis that quadriceps muscle exertion is the "weak link" for the squat technique. The study also indicates

  13. Evaluation of Interhandle Distance During Pushing and Pulling of a Four-Caster Cart for Upper Limb Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Takanokura, Masato; Sugama, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between interhandle distances and upper limb exertion during simply pushing and pulling of a cart with four swivel wheels, defined by a roll box pallet (RBP) in a Japanese industrial standard. Six healthy young male participants were asked to push and pull an RBP at a distance of 5.2 m under six conditions corresponding to different interhandle distances (40 cm, 60 cm, and 80 cm) and weights (130 kg and 250 kg). The upper limb exertion was studied by shoulder abduction and flexion, and elbow flexion, as well as surface electromyogram (EMG) in shoulder extensor, and elbow flexor and extensor. Participants were required to provide subjective evaluations on operability after each trial. Subjective operability indicated that a narrower interhandle distance had a better operability for pushing. Interhandle distance was also related to upper limb exertion especially for pushing. A narrow interhandle distance caused smaller shoulder adduction but larger elbow flexion. The normalized EMG data revealed that muscular activity became smaller with a narrow interhandle distance in shoulder extensor. During the pulling task, elbow flexion was smaller at a narrow interhandle distance, although subjective operability and normalized EMG were not significantly varied. A wider interhandle distance, such as 80 cm, was not suitable in the forwardbackward movement of the RBP. Therefore, this study concluded that an interhandle distance of 40 cm would be suitable for pushing and pulling an RBP to protect the workers' hands against the risk of injury by installing inner handles.

  14. High-dose Humanin analogue applied during ischemia exerts cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummasorn, Savitree; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-10-01

    Although the gold standard treatment for acute myocardial infarction is reperfusion therapy, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage via induction of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. This can lead to increased myocardial infarct size, arrhythmias, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recently, a newly discovered peptide, Humanin, has been shown to exert several beneficial effects including antioxidative and antiapoptosis effects. We recently reported that a Humanin analogue (HNG, 84 μg/kg) given prior to cardiac ischemia exerted cardioprotection against I/R injury, but failed to do so when it was given after ischemia was induced. However, in a clinical setting, patients can only be treated after the onset of ischemia. In this study, we investigated the potential benefit of various doses of HNG therapy (84, 168, 252 μg/kg) against myocardial I/R injury when applied during ischemia on cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarct size, cardiac mitochondrial function, and LV function. Myocardial I/R injury was induced in rats by 30-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120-minute of reperfusion. HNG at the different doses were given intravenously at 15 minutes after ischemic onset and also at the onset of reperfusion. HNG (252 μg/kg) applied during the ischemic period not only increased HN levels in the damaged myocardium, but also significantly decreased cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarct size, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, and left ventricular dysfunction. These benefits were mediated through the attenuation of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. High-dose HN applied during ischemia in rats could exert cardioprotection against I/R injury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tungsten carbide cobalt nanoparticles exert hypoxia-like effects on the gene expression level in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Wibke; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan

    2010-01-27

    Tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles are of occupational health relevance because of the increasing usage in hard metal industries. Earlier studies showed an enhanced toxic potential for WC-Co compared to WC or cobalt ions alone. Therefore, we investigated the impact of these particles, compared to cobalt ions applied as CoCl(2), on the global gene expression level in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in vitro. WC nanoparticles exerted very little effects on the transcriptomic level after 3 hours and 3 days of exposure. In contrast, WC-Co nanoparticles caused significant transcriptional changes that were similar to those provoked by CoCl(2). However, CoCl(2) exerted even more pronounced changes in the transcription patterns. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to hypoxia response, carbohydrate metabolism, endocrine pathways, and targets of several transcription factors. The role of the transcription factor HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor 1) is particularly highlighted and aspects of downstream events as well as the role of other transcription factors related to cobalt toxicity are considered. This study provides extensive data useful for the understanding of nanoparticle and cobalt toxicity. It shows that WC nanoparticles caused low transcriptional responses while WC-Co nanoparticles are able to exert responses similar to that of free cobalt ions, particularly the induction of hypoxia-like effects via interactions with HIF1alpha in human keratinocytes. However, the enhanced toxicity of WC-Co particles compared to CoCl(2) could not be explained by differences in gene transcription.

  16. Tungsten carbide cobalt nanoparticles exert hypoxia-like effects on the gene expression level in human keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles are of occupational health relevance because of the increasing usage in hard metal industries. Earlier studies showed an enhanced toxic potential for WC-Co compared to WC or cobalt ions alone. Therefore, we investigated the impact of these particles, compared to cobalt ions applied as CoCl2, on the global gene expression level in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in vitro. Results WC nanoparticles exerted very little effects on the transcriptomic level after 3 hours and 3 days of exposure. In contrast, WC-Co nanoparticles caused significant transcriptional changes that were similar to those provoked by CoCl2. However, CoCl2 exerted even more pronounced changes in the transcription patterns. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to hypoxia response, carbohydrate metabolism, endocrine pathways, and targets of several transcription factors. The role of the transcription factor HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor 1) is particularly highlighted and aspects of downstream events as well as the role of other transcription factors related to cobalt toxicity are considered. Conclusions This study provides extensive data useful for the understanding of nanoparticle and cobalt toxicity. It shows that WC nanoparticles caused low transcriptional responses while WC-Co nanoparticles are able to exert responses similar to that of free cobalt ions, particularly the induction of hypoxia-like effects via interactions with HIF1α in human keratinocytes. However, the enhanced toxicity of WC-Co particles compared to CoCl2 could not be explained by differences in gene transcription. PMID:20105288

  17. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crutcher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign...

  18. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available instance is the accumulated discounted reward, Upi = ∑k i=0 γ iri, with k being the length of the episode and ri being the reward received at step i. We refer to U pi generated from a policy pi in a task instance simply as the policy’s performance. Solving... an MDP µ is to acquire an optimal policy pi∗ = arg maxpi Upi which maximises the total expected return of µ. For a reinforcement learning agent, T and R are typically unknown. We denote a collection of policies possessed by the agent by Π, and refer...

  19. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  20. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)