WorldWideScience

Sample records for policies air quality

  1. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  2. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  3. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  4. Tobacco smoking policy and indoor air quality: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadud, M.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.); Rock, B.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Policy on environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on indoor air quality are discussed in this paper. Passive (secondhand) smoke is examined in aspects ranging from health effects to laws surrounding smoking within public buildings in the United States. Engineering and administrative solutions to these indoor air quality problems are considered. A case study of a smoking area within an institutional building is presented and potential improvements and administrative actions are discussed. The results of this study should be helpful to those faced with or anticipating technical and legal indoor air quality problems and policy decisions. (orig.)

  5. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  6. The case for integrated air quality and climate change policies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available challenges. Based on recent climate negotiations, early policy development and planning for climate change within air quality management (AQM) policies may position cities to capitalise on opportunities to reduce baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... are based on annual average 11 mileages and are used to encourage fewer trips and reduce the amount that motor vehicles are driven (Greene et al., 2007). Disincentives to reduce traffic on congested roads have also been shown to be effective. A good...

  7. Assessing The Policy Relevance of Regional Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    This work presents a framework for discussing the policy relevance of models, and regional air quality models in particular. We define four criteria: 1) The scientific status of the model; 2) Its ability to address primary environmental concerns; 3) The position of modeled environmental issues on the political agenda; and 4) The role of scientific input into the policy process. This framework is applied to current work simulating the transport of nitric acid in Asia with the ATMOS-N model, to past studies on air pollution transport in Europe with the EMEP model, and to future applications of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Models-3. The Lagrangian EMEP model provided critical input to the development of the 1994 Oslo and 1999 Gothenburg Protocols to the Convention on Long-Range Transbound- ary Air Pollution, as well as to the development of EU directives, via its role as a component of the RAINS integrated assessment model. Our work simulating reactive nitrogen in Asia follows the European example in part, with the choice of ATMOS-N, a regional Lagrangian model to calculate source-receptor relationships for the RAINS- Asia integrated assessment model. However, given differences between ATMOS-N and the EMEP model, as well as differences between the scientific and political cli- mates facing Europe ten years ago and Asia today, the role of these two models in the policy process is very different. We characterize the different aspects of policy relevance between these models using our framework, and consider how the current generation US EPA air quality model compares, in light of its Eulerian structure, dif- ferent objectives, and the policy context of the US.

  8. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies (book chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing meteo...

  9. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  10. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  11. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  12. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  13. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  14. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier; Wilson Cabral de Sousa Júnior; Maria Paulete Pereira Martins

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state) public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9...

  15. Air quality: how to assess air quality management policies on a short and on a long term? The integration of the climate factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Aurelie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the activities and works performed by the INERIS Institute in the development of tools for the assessment of air quality management policies including the climate factor. This comprises the development of simulations within the frame of the SALUT'AIR project, and also within the frame of the reviewing of the European policy on air quality (directives 2008/50/CE on ambient air quality and 2001/81/CE on national limits of emissions of some pollutants). The CHIMERE model of chemistry and transport is one of these tools. Simulations are performed to analyse the impact of scenarios of air quality management on a short term, in terms of pollutant emissions, pollutant concentration, and particle concentrations. The integration of a climate factor is justified by the existence of interactions between climate and air quality

  16. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    South Korea's air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts.

  17. Impact of selected policy measures on Europe's air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report was prepared by the European Topic Centre for Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) of the European Environment Agency (EEA). The authors of the report were Jeroen Kuenen, Mtinkheni Gondwe, Tinus Pulles (TNO, the Netherlands), Frank de Leeuw (PBL, the Netherlands) and Justin Goodwin (S-ESC,

  18. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part II: Evaluation of air quality predictions and air quality benefits assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Following the meteorological evaluation in Part I, this Part II paper presents the statistical evaluation of air quality predictions by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) model for the four simulated months in the base year 2005. The surface predictions were evaluated using the Air Pollution Index (API) data published by the China Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) for 31 capital cities and daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5, particles with aerodiameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) observations of an individual site in Tsinghua University (THU). To overcome the shortage in surface observations, satellite data are used to assess the column predictions including tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) column abundance and aerosol optical depth (AOD). The result shows that CMAQ gives reasonably good predictions for the air quality. The air quality improvement that would result from the targeted sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission controls in China were assessed for the objective year 2010. The results show that the emission controls can lead to significant air quality benefits. SO 2 concentrations in highly polluted areas of East China in 2010 are estimated to be decreased by 30-60% compared to the levels in the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) case. The annual PM 2.5 can also decline by 3-15 μg m -3 (4-25%) due to the lower SO 2 and sulfate concentrations. If similar controls are implemented for NO x emissions, NO x concentrations are estimated to decrease by 30-60% as compared with the 2010 BAU scenario. The annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations will also decline by 2-14 μg m -3 (3-12%). In addition, the number of ozone (O 3) non-attainment areas in the northern China is projected to be much lower, with the maximum 1-h average O 3 concentrations in the summer reduced by 8-30 ppb.

  19. Cleaning up the air: effectiveness of air quality policy for SO2 and NOx emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, Ronald J.; Mijling, Bas; Ding, Jieying; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Liu, Fei; Li, Qing; Mao, Huiqin; Theys, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality observations by satellite instruments are global and have a regular temporal resolution, which makes them very useful in studying long-term trends in atmospheric species. To monitor air quality trends in China for the period 2005-2015, we derive SO2 columns and NOx emissions on a provincial level with improved accuracy. To put these trends into perspective they are compared with public data on energy consumption and the environmental policies of China. We distinguish the effect of air quality regulations from economic growth by comparing them relatively to fossil fuel consumption. Pollutant levels, per unit of fossil fuel, are used to assess the effectiveness of air quality regulations. We note that the desulfurization regulations enforced in 2005-2006 only had a significant effect in the years 2008-2009, when a much stricter control of the actual use of the installations began. For national NOx emissions a distinct decreasing trend is only visible from 2012 onwards, but the emission peak year differs from province to province. Unlike SO2, emissions of NOx are highly related to traffic. Furthermore, regulations for NOx emissions are partly decided on a provincial level. The last 3 years show a reduction both in SO2 and NOx emissions per fossil fuel unit, since the authorities have implemented several new environmental regulations. Despite an increasing fossil fuel consumption and a growing transport sector, the effects of air quality policy in China are clearly visible. Without the air quality regulations the concentration of SO2 would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.

  20. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  1. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  2. Policy analysis tools for air quality and health : report from the May 19, 2005 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, S.; Shortreed, J.

    2005-08-01

    The total impact of air pollution on human health is not well understood. This workshop examined key policy issues concerning air quality, and the availability of models and analyses to inform decision-makers. Attendants included stakeholders from health and environment departments of municipal, provincial and federal governments, as well as academics, consulting firms, industry and non-governmental organizations. The complexity of computer-based models was identified as a significant barrier to the development of a better understanding of the impacts of air pollution on human health, and it was noted that most models are not equipped to deal with the various levels of policy and decision-making that occur across many jurisdictions. It was observed that there is also a lack of data. It was suggested that efficient and cost-effective models are needed to identify good policy options, as well as tools that maximize the integration of information in a comprehensive manner. Evaluations of the impacts of air pollution should occur within the broad context of public health and consider both social and interactive needs. Continuing stakeholder dialogue was recommended, as well as a more in-depth exploration of policy analysis tools. A national meeting was planned to build on conclusions from the workshop. A guidance document was proposed to provide best practices to guide non-experts on health impacts, the interpretation of monitoring results, and the selection of models and appropriate analyses. Case studies of issues facing municipalities concerning planning and land use decisions were recommended, as well as various actions to mitigate the effects of poor air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Five presentations were given, followed by breakout sessions and discussions. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Applying air pollution modelling within a multi-criteria decision analysis framework to evaluate UK air quality policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Zaid; Milojevic, Ai; Doherty, Ruth M.; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Milner, James; Vieno, Massimo; Williams, Martin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-01

    A decision support system for evaluating UK air quality policies is presented. It combines the output from a chemistry transport model, a health impact model and other impact models within a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework. As a proof-of-concept, the MCDA framework is used to evaluate and compare idealized emission reduction policies in four sectors (combustion in energy and transformation industries, non-industrial combustion plants, road transport and agriculture) and across six outcomes or criteria (mortality, health inequality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, crop yield and air quality legal compliance). To illustrate a realistic use of the MCDA framework, the relative importance of the criteria were elicited from a number of stakeholders acting as proxy policy makers. In the prototype decision problem, we show that reducing emissions from industrial combustion (followed very closely by road transport and agriculture) is more advantageous than equivalent reductions from the other sectors when all the criteria are taken into account. Extensions of the MCDA framework to support policy makers in practice are discussed.

  4. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  5. Analysing the impacts of air quality policies on ecosystem services; a case study for Telemark, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L; White, L; Miles, A; Roberts, P

    2018-01-15

    There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county. Second, we analyse the subsequent impacts on the supply of three ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, timber production and biodiversity. Changes in the supply of the first two services are analysed in both physical and monetary units, biodiversity effects are only analysed in physical terms. The scenarios derive from work conducted in the context of the European National Emissions Ceilings Directive. In the 2010 base case the benefits of carbon sequestration are estimated at 13 million euro per year and the value of timber harvesting at 2.9 million euro per year. Under the examined policy scenarios aiming to reduce nitrogen emissions the societal benefits resulting from these two ecosystem services in Telemark are found to be reduced; the scenarios have little effect on terrestrial biodiversity. Such results cannot be scaled up, individual ecosystem services respond differently to changes in air pollution depending upon type of pollutant, type of ecosystem, type of service, and the magnitude of change. The paper further presents an analysis of the uncertainties that need to be considered in linking air pollution and ecosystem services including those in deposition rates, ecosystem responses, human responses and in the values of ecosystem services. Our conceptual approach is also useful for larger scale analysis of air pollution effects on ecosystem services, for example at national or potentially European scale

  6. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  7. A study of the influence of regional environmental expenditure on air quality in China: the effectiveness of environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Wu, Meng; Wang, Deqing; Zhong, Zhangqi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the panel data model, data on environmental expenditures, the air quality index, economic aggregates, industrial structures, etc., of seven seriously polluted cities in China, from the period 2007-2015, were collected, and this paper estimates the general relationship between environmental expenditures and the air quality index. Besides, the impact of the fuel tax policy on air quality as well as on the relationship between environmental expenditure and the air quality index is tested using the method of regression discontinuity. We find that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between environmental expenditure and air quality index as well as a 0.0507% positive effect of the former on the latter. Second, for Beijing, Taiyuan, Chongqing, and Lanzhou, a 1% increase in environmental expenditure leads to 0.0773, 0.0125, 0.0965, and 0.0912% decreases in the air quality index, respectively; however, for Shijiazhuang, Ji'nan, and Urumqi, effect of environmental expenditure on air quality is insignificant. Third, both economic growth and optimization of the industrial structure can lead to an improvement of air quality. Fourth, since the implementation of the fuel tax policy in 2009, the air quality of the sample cities has improved, and the pulling effect of environmental expenditure on the air quality index has decreased from 0.0507 to 0.0048%. Our findings cannot only clarify the effect of environmental expenditures on air quality but can also objectively judge the effectiveness of environmental policies of China to a certain extent. It may benefit Chinese government to effectively govern air pollution with fiscal tools in conjunction with economic and environmental characteristics.

  8. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2003-03-01

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  10. Source apportionment analysis of air pollutants using CMAQ/BFM for national air quality management policy over Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, N.; Kim, S.; Seo, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the Korean government is focusing on solving air pollution problem such as fine particulate matter and ozone. Korea has high population density and concentrated industrial complex in its limited land space. For better air quality management, it is important to understand source and contribution relation to target pollutant. The air quality analysis representing the mutual contribution among the local regions enables to understand the substantive state of the air quality of a region in association with neighboring regions. Under this background, the source apportionment of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2 using WRF and CMAQ/BFM was analyzed over Korea and BFM was applied to mobile, area and point sources in each local government. The contribution rate from neighboring region showed different pattern for each pollutant. In case of primary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, local source contribution is dominant, on the other hand secondary pollutants case especially O3, contribution from neighboring region is higher than that from source region itself. Local source contribution to PM10 showed 20-25% and the contribution rate to O3 has big difference with different meteorological condition year after year. From this study, we tried to estimate the conversion rate between source (NOx, VOC, SO2, NH3, PMC, PM2.5, CO) and concentration (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2,) by regional group over Korea. The result can contribute to the decision-making process of important national planning related to large-scale industrial developments and energy supply policies (eg., operations of coal-fired power plants and diesel cars) and emission control plan, where many controversies and concerns are currently concentrated among local governments in Korea. With this kind of approach, various environmental and social problems related to air quality can also be identified early so that a sustainable and environmentally sound plan can be established by providing data infrastructures to be utilized

  11. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  12. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of European air quality policies and measures. Final report on Task 3.3. Survey to access successes and failures of the EU Air Quality Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of Task 3.3 of the title project was to survey the views of European policy makers and other stakeholders directly involved in air quality policy development and implementation on the successes and failures of the present European air quality policies. The survey also included several decisionmakers from the USA, Japan and Switzerland to learn about these countries' experiences with specific air quality policies. A list of approximately 90 people to be surveyed during the project was developed. The list included representatives from the European Commission, the European Parliament, national-level representatives from the Member States, including those designated by the CAFE Steering Group, along with representatives of local authorities, NGOs, industry and academia. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. The questionnaire consists of four major parts. Part 1 includes questions about the impact of EU legislation on air quality. Part 2 is designed to learn about stakeholder opinions on the adequacy of Community-level measures with respect to air quality protection. Part 3 asks for opinions about various measures used in Community-level legislation on air quality as well as ideas for new or modified measures that could be effective in achieving better air quality in the EU. Part 4 includes questions about stakeholder involvement and transparency and was designed to assist with the implementation of Task 3.4 (on public participation and transparency) of the project. The analysis of responses for this part of the questionnaire is presented in the parallel Report for Task 3.4. The final version of the questionnaire used to interview European stakeholders is attached as Appendix II. For the decision-makers from the USA, Switzerland, and Japan a separate questionnaire was developed, and is attached as Appendix III. In all, the team received 49 responses from the 90 enquiries.

  14. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  15. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NO x . Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NO x and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NO x reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NO x and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NO x and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NO x and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their

  16. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  17. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  18. Air Quality Co-benefits of Energy Policy in China: Evidence from Iron & Steel and Cement Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M.; Weng, Y.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has calculated large air quality co-benefits from policies that reduce CO2 emissions and increase energy efficiency. These (often prospective) studies rely on assumptions about how air pollutant emissions respond to energy use changes. Using a unique firm-level data set from China, we examine how a real-world energy efficiency policy affected SO2 emissions, estimate its actual effects on atmospheric PM2.5, and compare to ex ante theoretical estimates. During the 11th Five-year plan (2006-2010), the Chinese government implemented policies directing large energy-consuming firms to reduce their energy consumption per unit of economic output. The Top 1000 Enterprises Program (T1000P) set binding energy intensity targets for China's 1000 highest energy-consuming firms. This program is widely considered a policy success, as 92% of firms met their energy intensity target. Focusing on the cement and iron and steel industry, we examine how T1000P (and related provincial policies) affected firms' SO2 emissions and coal consumption from 2005 to 2008. By comparing T1000P firms with similar firms not subject to the policy, we find that T1000P had a very limited incremental effect on energy use or on air quality co-benefits. Compared to firms not subject to the policy, T1000P firms had 14.7% (cement) and 24.0% (iron & steel) lower reductions in SO2 emission per unit energy use. We also observe large, heterogeneous changes in emission factors (defined as SO2 emissions per unit of coal consumption) among all firms during this period. In comparison to co-benefits estimates that assume constant emission factors, SO2 emissions from T1000P firms in the post-policy period are 23.2% (iron and steel) and 40.2% (cement) lower, but spatially heterogeneous, with some regions experiencing increases. Using the GEOS-Chem model, we estimate the air quality co-benefits of the T1000P policy with realized SO2 emissions changes and compare them with two theoretical estimations

  19. Multiobjective Policy Analysis to Evaluate Air Quality Impacts of Oil and Gas Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Milford, J.; Ryan, J. N.; Estep, M.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect the public health of communities in proximity to UOGD and the environmental quality of these regions, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is the setback distance, which dictates the minimum distance between an oil and gas well and an occupied structure, such as a residential or commercial building, or an area of special concern. This presentation discusses a new policy analysis framework for UOGD regulations, using the Borg multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) coupled with AERMOD, a regulatory air dispersion model. The initial results explore how setback distance and well density regulations could impact the number of wells that can be drilled, based on a set of performance objectives that model potential increases in benzene, a hazardous air pollutant that has been linked to cancer and other detrimental health effects. The simulation calculates daily benzene averages using meteorological data from Greeley, CO. An important aspect of this work is to define representative quantitative objectives that accurately capture salient characteristics of the pollutant time series. For example, our framework will characterize the maximum concentration found over the entire spatial domain and over the duration of the simulation. Frequency-based objectives will also be explored, such as the number of exceedances of the benchmark annual average benzene concentration corresponding to a given level of cancer risk. The multiobjective analysis can also be expanded to integrate other objectives that represent performance-based outcomes on UOGD such as energy development profits, increases in noise pollution and decreases in property value. This research represents one application of how MOEAs can be used to inform policymaking for environmental regulations.

  20. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  1. Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Fires - A Foundation for Public Health Policy in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Luvall, Jeffrey; Sifford, Cody; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor air quality and its associated impacts on respiratory problems in Florida are of public health significance. Air quality in Florida can be poor during the extended wildfire season, threatening persons with compromised respiratory systems each year. Studies have demonstrated that particulate matter, which is generally elevated in the vicinity of wildfires, is associated with increases in hospital admissions and occurrences of acute asthma exacerbations. However, few studies have examined the modifying effect of socio-demographic characteristics of cities or regional areas on the relationship between air quality and health outcomes. In an ongoing university/multi-agency project, asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are being used to create a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Environmental data are derived from satellite measurements, with special attention being given to the effect of wildfires and prescribed burns on air quality. This presentation will focus on the environmental data sets particulate matter, location of fires, smoke plumes that are being collected and processed for linkage with health data. After this linkage has been performed, space-time models of asthma rates as a function of air quality data and socio-demographic variables will be developed and validated. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) will work with county health department staff and representatives from the medical community to establish a protocol with triggers for issuing public health advisories/alerts based on the developed and validated health outcome indicators. From this effort, a science-based policy for issuing public health advisories/alerts for asthma relating to air quality will be developed, giving FDOH the ability to (1) predict, with stated levels of uncertainty, case load of hospital admissions based on air quality, (2) reduce asthma exacerbations by forewarning asthmatics to limit outside activities on poor air

  2. Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, H; Barnes, J; Jones, S J; Longhurst, J W S; Scally, G; Hayes, E

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities. An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK. Air pollution concentrations were highest in 'most' deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions between air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in 'most' deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest. There is a need to reduce air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local air quality management policy and practice is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Incorporating air quality improvement at a local level into climate policy in the transport sector : a case study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, Helmi; Bressers, Hans; Mohlakoana, Nthabiseng; Hoppe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 29 percent by

  4. Incorporating Air Quality Improvement at a Local Level into Climate Policy in the Transport Sector : A Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, Helmi; Bressers, Hans; Mohlakoana, Nthabi; Hoppe, T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 29 percent by

  5. Air quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available edition in several respects and comprises more chapters, which are more detailed and incorporate feedback received from the first edition. The selection of the contributing authors to the second edition atlas was based on the experiences and knowledge... MDG Millennium Development Goal NCCRP National Climate Change Response Policy NFA National Forests Act of 1998 NPC National Planning Commission NRE Natural Resources and Environment (unit) NWA National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998) PCIS Principles...

  6. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    BRASPENNING-RADU Olivia; VAN DEN BERG Maarten; KLIMONT Zbigniew; DEETMAN Sebastiaan; JANSSENS-MAENHOUT Greet; MUNTEAN Marilena; HEYES Chris; DENTENER Franciscus; VAN VUUREN Detlef

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios describe emission developments in 26 world regions for the 21st century, using a matrix of climate and air pollution policies. For climate policy, the study uses a baseline resulting in forcing levels slightl...

  7. Policy Assessment for the Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides, External Review Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfur oxides are one of the six major air pollutants for which EPA has issued air quality criteria and established national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) based on those criteria. The Clear Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, exis...

  8. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  9. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  10. The Impacts of Policies To Meet The UK Climate Change Act Target on Air Quality - An Explicit Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Beevers, S.; Lott, M. C.; Kitwiroon, N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of different pathways to meet the UK Climate Change Act target for 2050, of an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions on a base year of 1990. The pathways can result in low levels of air pollution emissions through the use of renewables and nuclear power. But large increases in biomass burning and the continued use of diesel cars they can result in larger air quality impacts. The work evaluated the air quality impacts in several pathways using an energy system optimisation model (UK TIMES) and a chemical transport model (CMAQ). The work described in this paper goes beyond the `damage cost' approach where only emissions in each are assessed. In this work we used scenarios produced by the UK TIMES model which we converted into air pollution emissions. Emissions of ammonia from agriculture are not attributed to the energy system and are thus not captured by energy system models, yet are crucial in forming PM2.5, acknowledged to be currently the most important pollutant associated with premature deaths. Our model includes these emissions and other non-energy sources of hydrocarbons which lead to the formation of ozone, another significant cause of air pollution health impacts. A key policy issue is how much biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to ozone formation compared with man-made emissions. We modelled pollution concentrations at a resolution of 7 km across the UK and at 2km in urban areas. These results allow us to estimate changes in premature mortality and morbidity associated with the changes in air pollution and subsequently the economic cost of the impacts on public health. The work shows that in the `clean' scenario, urban exposures to particles (PM2.5) and NO2 could decrease by very large amounts, but ozone exposures are likely to increase without further significant reductions world-wide. Large increases in biomass use however could lead to increases in urban levels of carcinogens and primary PM.

  11. Incorporating Air Quality Improvement at a Local Level into Climate Policy in the Transport Sector: A Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Gunawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 29 percent by the year 2030. This calls into question the extent to which cities and local governments can cope with the challenges of climate change mitigation. The purpose of the research is to find out the extent to which local air pollution reduction policies can contribute to the climate change mitigation program. The research design involved an empirical case study on governance and policy relevant to climate change efforts to lower GHG in Bandung City, Indonesia. The study evaluated the air quality improvement and the climate change mitigation programs using the actor-based framework of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT. The governance and stakeholder characteristic of climate change mitigation were also analysed using the structural context part of the CIT framework. The result shows that air quality improvement policy is implemented separately from climate policy; the latter operates at the national level and the former at the local level. By looking at the actor interaction analysis, the study concludes that a more holistic environmental policy approach would be more efficient at reducing local air pollution and contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

  12. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  13. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  14. Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Verónica; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Pizarro, María Elizabeth; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. PM₂.₅ levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smoke free cities the mean PM₂.₅ level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM₂.₅ respectively (p=.012). In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM₂.₅ levels decreased dramatically (pcities with no legislation vs. smoke free cities (pcities with designated smoking areas, PM₂.₅ levels were not statistically different between smoking and non-smoking areas (p=0.272). Non-smoking areas had significantly higher PM₂.₅ levels compared to 100% smoke free venues in the same city (twofold higher) (p=0.017). Most of the participating cities in this study had significantly lower PM₂.₅ levels after the implementation of 100% smoke free legislation. Hence, it represents a useful tool to promote 100% smoke free policies in Argentina.

  15. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  16. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  17. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  18. [Assessing the effectiveness of local transport policies for improvements in urban air quality and public health: a review of scientific literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvolone, Daniela; Barchielli, Alessandro; Forastiere, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    to provide a synthesis of the state of the art on the effectiveness of local transport policies on improvements in air quality and public health. we searched published scientific articles focused on the evaluation of the accountability of local transport policies on emissions levels, on air pollutants concentrations, on air pollution-related health outcomes (respiratory and cardiovascular health). we selected 19 articles and reviews; authors used different methods to define and to monitor environmental and health indicators and data analyses are conducted on different spatio-temporal scales. the evaluation of the effects of transport policies on air quality and public health is a complex research field. Different factors may influence the assessment of impacts and there is an overlap of many intervention strategies that limit the interpretation of the findings. The use of advanced instruments for environmental monitoring could improve data analyses. Transport policies are a key point for air quality improvements and for the reduction of public health risk; this implies that local interventions planning should have a relevant focus on the assessment of direct and indirect effects on air quality and population health.

  19. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  20. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  1. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    Abstract In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios

  2. Air pollution, deprivation and health: Understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, H.; Barnes, J.; Jones, S.; Longhurst, J.; Scally, G.; Hayes, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background \\ud Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities.\\ud \\ud Methods \\ud An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide a...

  3. Effect of European post-Kyoto Climate Policies on Nordic Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Aunan, Kristin; Åström, Stefan; Bak, Jesper L.; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kupiainen, Kaarle

    2007-01-01

    Stricter commitments for GHG emissions in the post-Kyoto period will contribute to reduced emissions of air pollutants in the Nordic countries, avoided costs for end-of-pipe abatement to reach a specific target, and benefits for ecosystems and human health. However, reductions in emissions in the Nordic countries are smaller than in other regions since use of the flexible mechanisms implies a shift in GHG abatement, and co-benefits, to other regions – in particular Russia and Eastern Europe. ...

  4. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  5. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin C Rowe

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel

  6. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Edwin C; Ford, Adriana E S; Smart, Simon M; Henrys, Peter A; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  7. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  8. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change.

  9. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  10. Culture systems: air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  11. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  12. Air quality management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O. Akinola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines air pollution situation and the history of air quality management in Botswana. The current air quality management in Botswana is still largely underpinned by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1971, supplemented by the more recently enacted legislations such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Act of 2010 and the Ambient Air Quality - Limits for Common Pollutants of 2012 published by the Botswana Bureau of Standards. Though commendable efforts have been made toward legislating against air and other forms of pollution, these have not yielded expected results in view of the prevailing levels of air pollutants like sulphur dioxide and fine particulate matters in the country’s atmospheric environment. Legislation as a sole measure may not be effective in tackling this challenge. Rather, government should also address some root-causes of the problem by making policies and programmes that will reduce unemployment and increase the earning capacity of citizenry. This will, among other things, effectively check poverty-induced biomass burning in the country. The paper looks at some other challenges of air pollution management and suggestions are made to tackle the identified problems.

  13. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  14. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  15. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianqiang; Guo Xiurui; Chang Yongguan; Peng Yingdeng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental-economic-technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally

  16. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianqiang Mao; Yingdeng Peng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental - economic - technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally. (author)

  17. Ancillary health effects of climate mitigation scenarios as drivers of policy uptake: a review of air quality, transportation and diet co-benefits modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelly M.; Hess, Jeremy J.; Balbus, John M.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Cleveland, David A.; Grabow, Maggie L.; Neff, Roni; Saari, Rebecca K.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodward, Alistair; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the short term before the beneficial impacts of those policies on the magnitude of climate change are evident. The diversity of approaches to modeling mitigation options and their health effects inhibits meta-analyses and syntheses of results useful in policy-making. Methods/Design: We evaluated the range of methods and choices in modeling health co-benefits of climate mitigation to identify opportunities for increased consistency and collaboration that could better inform policy-making. We reviewed studies quantifying the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation related to air quality, transportation, and diet published since the 2009 Lancet Commission ‘Managing the health effects of climate change’ through January 2017. We documented approaches, methods, scenarios, health-related exposures, and health outcomes. Results/Synthesis: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Air quality, transportation, and diet scenarios ranged from specific policy proposals to hypothetical scenarios, and from global recommendations to stakeholder-informed local guidance. Geographic and temporal scope as well as validity of scenarios determined policy relevance. More recent studies tended to use more sophisticated methods to address complexity in the relevant policy system. Discussion: Most studies indicated significant, nearer term, local ancillary health benefits providing impetus for policy uptake and net cost savings. However, studies were more suited to describing the interaction of climate policy and health and the magnitude of potential outcomes than to providing specific accurate estimates of health co-benefits. Modeling

  18. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  19. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  20. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  1. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  4. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  5. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part I: Background, emission scenarios and evaluation of meteorological predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010) for national environmental protection by the Chinese government, the overarching goal for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) controls is to achieve a total national emissions level of SO 2 in 2010 10% lower than the level in 2005. A similar nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions control plan is currently under development and could be enforced during the 12th FYP (2011-2015). In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) modeling system was applied to assess the air quality improvement that would result from the targeted SO 2 and NO x emission controls in China. Four emission scenarios — the base year 2005, the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the 2010 SO 2 control scenario, and the 2010 NO x control scenario—were constructed and simulated to assess the air quality change from the national control plan. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to generate the meteorological fields for the CMAQ simulations. In this Part I paper, the model performance for the simulated meteorology was evaluated against observations for the base case in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. It is shown that MM5 model gives an overall good performance for these meteorological variables. The generated meteorological fields are acceptable for using in the CMAQ modeling.

  6. Overview of Green Building Material (GBM Policies and Guidelines with Relevance to Indoor Air Quality Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to offer a preliminary overview of Taiwan’s success in green building material (GBM efforts through legal systems and promotion measures, which are relevant to the contribution to indoor air quality (IAQ due to sustainability and health issues. In the first part of the paper, the IAQ regulations are summarized to highlight the second nation (i.e., Taiwan around the world in IAQ management by the law. In addition, the permissible exposure limits (PEL in Taiwan for airborne hazardous substances were first promulgated in 1974 to deal with occupational health issues in the workplace environment. In the second part of the paper, the developing status of the GBM in Taiwan is analyzed to unravel its connection with the Indoor Air Quality Management Act (IAQMA, promulgated on 23 November 2011. By the end of September 2017, a total of 645 GBM labels have been conferred, covering over 5000 green products. Due to the effectiveness of source control, the healthy GBM occupies most of the market, accounting for about 75%. The IAQMA, which took force in November 2012, is expected to significantly increase the use of healthy GBM in new building construction and remodeling, especially in low formaldehyde (HCHO/volatile organic compound (VOC-emitting products.

  7. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  8. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  9. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  10. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  11. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  12. Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Rachel; Alexander, Rob; Bretschneider, Stuart; Popp, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of air quality regulations on the productivity of US power plants based on both economic and environmental outputs. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate an efficiency measure incorporating both economic and environmental outcomes, we look at changes in efficiency in US power plants over an eleven-year time period (1994-2004) during which several different regulations were implemented for the control of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The paper then models how estimated efficiency behaves over time as a function of regulatory changes. Findings suggest mixed effects of regulations on power plant efficiency when pollution abatement and electricity generation are both included as outputs.

  13. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  14. Hold Your Breath: A New Index of Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühn, A.; Farzanega, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The

  15. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnley, E.

    2009-01-01

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  16. Collaborative Health Impact Assessment and Policy Development to Improve Air Quality in West Yorkshire—A Case Study and Critical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannish Naik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasingly recognised as a significant problem for cities, with wide ranging impacts on health and quality of life. Combined knowledge of the legal context and health impacts led to air pollution becoming a priority in West Yorkshire. A health impact assessment methodology was used to explore the impacts of low emissions zones, demonstrating significant gains from the implementation of such a measure. This fed in to the collaborative development of the West Yorkshire Low Emissions Strategy (WYLES, resulting in policy changes and an incorporation of health and wellbeing concerns into transport and infrastructure planning, amongst other successes. This case study describes the collaborative approach taken to tackle air pollution locally and summarises key outputs and outcomes of work to date, before providing a critical reflection on what can be learnt from the West Yorkshire experience. This paper will thus interest advocates and stakeholders who are facing similar challenges. Key lessons revolve around broad stakeholder engagement and developing shared ambition. We finally discuss air pollution as a wicked problem, applying the lens of transitions management, a multidisciplinary systems change theory and discuss the local experience in relation to the literature on collaborative public management.

  17. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  18. Evaluating commercial marine emissions and their role in air quality policy using observations and the CMAQ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Allison M.; Canty, Timothy P.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Vinciguerra, Timothy P.; He, Hao; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the representation of emissions from the largest (Class 3) commercial marine vessels (c3 Marine) within the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. In present emissions inventories developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), c3 Marine emissions are divided into off-shore and near-shore files. Off-shore c3 Marine emissions are vertically distributed within the atmospheric column, reflecting stack-height and plume rise. Near-shore c3 Marine emissions, located close to the US shoreline, are erroneously assumed to occur only at the surface. We adjust the near-shore c3 Marine emissions inventory by vertically distributing these emissions to be consistent with the off-shore c3 Marine inventory. Additionally, we remove near-shore c3 Marine emissions that overlap with off-shore c3 Marine emissions within the EPA files. The CMAQ model generally overestimates surface ozone (O3) compared to Air Quality System (AQS) site observations, with the largest discrepancies occurring near coastal waterways. We compare modeled O3 from two CMAQ simulations for June, July, and August (JJA) 2011 to surface O3 observations from AQS sites to examine the efficacy of the c3 Marine emissions improvements. Model results at AQS sites show average maximum 8-hr surface O3 decreases up to ∼6.5 ppb along the Chesapeake Bay, and increases ∼3-4 ppb around Long Island Sound, when the adjusted c3 Marine emissions are used. Along with the c3 Marine emissions adjustments, we reduce on-road mobile NOX emissions by 50%, motivated by work from Anderson et al. 2014, and reduce the lifetime of the alkyl nitrate species group from ∼10 days to ∼1 day based on work by Canty et al. 2015, to develop the ;c3 Science; model scenario. Simulations with these adjustments further improve model representation of the atmosphere. We calculate the ratio of column formaldehyde (HCHO) and tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using observations from the Ozone

  19. Air quality status and trends over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil as a result of emission control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Mazzoli, Caroline Rosario; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollutants concentrations shows benefits of Brazil's emission control policies. • Reduction in concentrations were due to vehicular emission control program. • SO 2 concentration reduction was due to a decrease in sulphur content used in fuels. • Monthly, weekly and diurnal cycle averages indicate the effects of vehicle emissions. - Abstract: Fourteen years of regulated air pollutants concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the benefits of Brazil's emission control policies on air quality conditions and to evaluate the temporal patterns between 1996 and 2009 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP includes one of the largest cities in the world (São Paulo) and its light-duty vehicular fleet has a very important characteristic in that it uses, on a large scale, fuels such as ethanol derived from sugar cane and compressed natural gas. Nowadays, ethanol makes up more than 50% of the fuel used in Brazil. The frequent episodes with high ozone and PM 10 concentration values in the MASP are mostly associated with vehicular emissions – primary emission of particles and gases enrolled in ozone photochemical production and formation of secondary fine particles. Although the fleet has increased at a substantial rate, annual mean values show a diminishing tendency for all pollutants except for ozone, which presents no significant tendency. This diminishing tendency in the analyzed period is due to the vehicular emission control program established by the Brazilian Government in 1986, called PROCONVE (Program for the Control of Vehicular Emission). Monthly mean values, as expected, show higher concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone during wintertime. The diurnal cycle of the pollutants in most of the stations shows two peaks, associated with rush hours, except for ozone, whose peak follows the maximum radiation incidence. Secondary (nocturnal) ozone concentration maxima were sometimes verified around

  20. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    NO2 / (OC + EC) ratios as these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC + EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health-related issues.

  1. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Querol

    2013-07-01

    cases in an increasing trend for NO2 / (OC + EC ratios as these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC + EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health-related issues.

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  3. Air quality and climate change co-benefits in Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and greenhouse gas emissions. The potential to include climate change considerations in air quality policy in South Africa includes the use of local air quality management plans (AQMPs). A case study investigating the opportunities for air pollution and climate...

  4. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...

  5. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    energy system planning. Some example applications of this work are: (1) to discover conflicts and synergies between air quality regulations and future developments in the energy system and land use change; (2) to show the drivers of air quality in a given spatial context; (3) to explore effective ways to visualize impacts of different energy, land use and emissions control policies on air quality. An initial test case for the Bay Area in California will be presented, extending the scope of the existing California ForeseerTM tool to identify impacts of different policies within the water-energy-land nexus on local air quality.

  6. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  7. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  8. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Qiang; Gouldson, Andy; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO 2 , 28% of NO x , 26% of PM 2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM 2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM 2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m −3 , the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  9. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. Regulatory Quality and Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory reform and competition policy are two important and inter-related areas of regulatory policy and public administration. Both can play a key role in improving the quality of regulation, and creating healthy and competitive markets and an attractive investment climate. This in turn leads to greater economic growth, employment and incomes. Part one of this paper discusses definitio...

  11. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM 2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  12. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  13. Air quality monitoring in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Clean air is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic development and is a basic requirement for human health and welfare. The baseline information helps the policy maker in decision making and future planning such as industrial and economic development, establishment and implementation of environmental guidelines etc. Pakistan is a developing country and is confronted with a number of severe environmental problems, such as degradation of natural resources, industrial and vehicle related pollution, degradation of human health etc. SUPARCO has conducted a year long (2003-2004) baseline air quality study in the major urban areas of the country including Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Peshawar in collaboration with ENERCON/ UNDP. The objectives of this study were to establish baseline levels and behavior of ambient airborne pollutants in urban centers with temporal and spatial parameters. Our study reveals that the maximum concentrations of CO were observed at Quetta (38 ppm) while other pollutants like SO/sub 2/, (52.5 ppb), NO/sub x/ (60.75 ppb), and 03 (44.8) were higher at Lahore compared to other urban areas of the country like Karachi, Peshawar etc. Maximum levels of all these pollutants were found in summer months. Comparatively lower concentrations of these pollutants were observed in Islamabad/Rawalpindi including CO (13.6 ppm), NO/sub x/ (41 ppb), SO/sub 2/ (32 ppb) and 03 (24.7 ppb). The maximum Particulate (TSP) and PM 10 levels were observed at Lahore (990,372 micro g/m3), Karachi (410, 306 micro g/m3), and in Quetta (778, 290 micro g/m3) etc. Airborne trace/ toxic metals including Pb, along with noise level were also determined. The existing levels of these pollutants were correlated with meteorological data (temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction) to assess the pollutant dispersion, as well as source apportionment. A data bank of the study will be prepared for air pollution impact studies. (author)

  14. MANAGING MANURE TO IMPROVE AIR AND WATER QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel R.; Johansson, Robert C.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Key, Nigel D.; Ribaudo, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste from confined animal feeding operations is a potential source of air and water quality degradation from evaporation of gases, runoff to surface water, and leaching to ground water. This report assesses the potential economic and environmental tradeoffs between water quality policies and air quality policies that require the animal agriculture sector to take potentially costly measures to abate pollution. A farm-level analysis of hog farms estimates the economic and environmental ...

  15. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewings, J.

    2001-10-01

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  16. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  17. Evaluation of Policy Influence on Long-Term Indoor Air Quality in Emperor Qin’s Terra-Cotta Museum, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurement results of indoor air quality (IAQ from 1989 to 2013 inside Pit No. 1, the largest display hall in Emperor Qin’s Terra-cotta Museum (QTM, were used to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for conservation environment improvement of antiques. By comparing the results of sampling campaigns in 2013 with databases in 1989, 2004–2005, 2006–2007 and 2011, seasonal and inter-annual variation in microclimate, aerosol chemical compositions and gaseous pollutant concentrations were incorporated in estimating the probable influences of the management of the surroundings, tourist flow, excavation and restoration tasks and renovation and/or new construction work on IAQ in the QTM. After the implementation of the environmental policies in 1990s, a significant decrease of indoor particulate matter mass for the QTM was quantified. The mass concentrations of summer TSP decreased from 540.0 μg∙m−3 in 1994 to 172.4 μg∙m−3 in 2004, as well as the winter TSP decreased from 380.0 μg∙m−3 in 1994 to 312.5 μg∙m−3 in 2005. The mass concentrations of summer PM2.5 decreased from 108.4 μg∙m−3 in 2004 to 65.7 μg∙m−3 in 2013, as well as the winter PM2.5 decreased from 242.3 μg∙m−3 in 2005 to 98.6 μg∙m−3 in 2013. However, it is noted that potential hazards due to the fluctuant microclimate conditions, gaseous and secondary particulate acidic species in indoor air should still be considered to ensure the long-term preservation and conservation of the museum’s artifact collection.

  18. Report by the Commission of environment accounting and economy - Health and outdoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Stephanie; Niklaus, Doris; Rafenberg, Christophe; Dron, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    After an overview of the issue of air pollution (definition, pollutant emission, population exposure, main air pollutants and emission sources, assessment of air quality in France), this report discusses the various impacts of air pollution on health and their related costs: pathologies associated with a bad air quality, categories which are more exposed than others, assessment of health impacts of air pollution, health costs. The next part describes the current policies aimed at improving air quality: European and international commitments, national policy, public policy tools, impacts of policies of struggle against air pollution by some pollutants, current researches and knowledge to be improved

  19. Indoor Air Quality and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania

    2017-01-01

    In the last few decades, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has received increasing attention from the international scientific community, political institutions, and environmental governances for improving the comfort, health, and wellbeing of building occupants.[...

  20. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  2. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  3. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis and premature mortality. Changing concentrations of; particulate matter is known to; increase morbidity and mortality. Air pollutants due to forest; fires , dust storms.

  4. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  5. Air quality conformity appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), because of the 8-hour ozone standard, Franklin, Delaware, Licking, Madison, Fairfield and Knox counties were designated as a basic nonattainment area for ozone in 2004. As a result of the PM 2.5 standar...

  6. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  7. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  8. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  9. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  10. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  11. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  12. Parents' Guide to School Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This parents' guide presents articles on school indoor air pollution, children's health and the symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how schools can improve their air quality. Also included are tips on what to do if the school ignores air quality problems, and some examples of what school districts should be doing to improve their air quality.…

  13. Air quality progress in North American megacities: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, David D.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Molina, Luisa; Madronich, Sasha

    2011-12-01

    Air quality progress in the North American megacities of Los Angeles, New York, and Mexico City is reviewed, compared, and contrasted. Enormous progress made in North America over the last 5 decades provides a template for other megacities of the world, especially in developing countries, attempting to achieve rapid economic growth without compromising air quality. While the progress to date has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. The impact of pollutant emissions from megacities is felt long distances away from the local sources but no policy mechanisms currently exist to mitigate air quality impacts resulting from such pollution transport.

  14. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  15. Wildland fire management and air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada: using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM(2.5) impacts and fire policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Management of fire is an important and controversial policy issue. Active fire suppression has led to a backlog of fuels, limited the ecological benefits of fire, and reduced short-term smoke impacts likely delaying these emissions to future generations over a larger spatial extent. Smoke impacts can be expected to increase as fire size and intensity increase and the fuel backlog is consumed; whether through reintroduction of fire under desirable conditions or through stand replacing fire. Land Management Agencies would like to increase the use of naturally ignited fires to burn during favorable conditions as a way to reduce catastrophic fires. This study provides information about the levels of air quality impacts expected from these types of fires and discusses some of the policy controversies of managed fire that propagate inconsistencies between agencies and enter the public discourse. The Lion Fire, a primarily low intensity 8,370 ha fire that was extensively monitored for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), is used to quantify impacts to air quality. PM2.5 monitoring sites are used to assess exposure, public health impacts, and subsequently quantify annual air quality during a year with a fire that is within the historic normal fire size and intensity for this area. Ground level PM2.5 impacts were found to be localized with 99% of the hourly Air Quality Index readings in the moderate or good category for the sites impacted by the fire. PM2.5 concentrations at sites nearest the fire were below annual federal air quality standards for PM2.5 with annual 98th percentile at the most impacted sites (Johnsondale, Kernville, and Camp Nelson) of 35.0, 34.0, and 28.0 μg m(-3) respectively. Smoke impacts to PM2.5 concentrations were not found to reach the populated Central Valley. The findings suggest that this type of fire can be implemented with minimal public health impacts thus allowing an opportunity for air and fire managers to alter policy to

  16. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  17. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  18. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500) Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected. Action Day Maps by Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air ...

  19. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1. ...

  20. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  1. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  2. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Cohen, David D.; Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Ni Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Thu Bac Vuong

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  3. Slow with air quality plans. Paper tigers and ostrich policy in Dutch municipalities; Laks met luchtplannen. Veel papieren tijgers en struisvogels zoner plan bij de gemeenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    From a quick scan of a Dutch environmental organization (SNM) it appears that many municipalities in the Netherlands are slow in setting up or implementing air quality plans. Results of the scan are presented and recommendations to improve the situation are given. [Dutch] Uit een 'quick scan' van de Stichting Natuur en Milieu (SNM) blijkt dat gemeenten nog onvoldoende maatregelen nemen om de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren. In dit artikel worden de resultaten van het onderzoek gepresenteerd en aanbevelingen gedaan.

  4. Hold Your Breath. A New Index of Air Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehn, A.; Reza Farzanega, M.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental quality and climate change have long attracted attention in policy debates. Recently, air quality has emerged on the policy agenda. We calculate a new index of air quality using CO2 and SO2 emissions per capita as indicators and provide a ranking for 122 countries from 1985 to 2005.The empirical analysis supports the EKC hypothesis (Environmental Kuznets Curve) and shows a significant influence of determinants such as energy efficiency, industrial production, electricity produced from coal sources, and urbanization on air quality. According to our index, Luxemburg, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Japan are among the top 5 countries in terms of air quality performance. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Nepal performed worst in 2005.

  5. 78 FR 63934 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; El Dorado County Air Quality Management District... California for the El Dorado County Air Quality Management District (EDAQMD) portion of the California SIP... 24, 1987 Federal Register, May 25, 1988, U.S. EPA, Air Quality Management Division, Office of Air...

  6. The Clean Air Act Amendments and California Air Quality Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, Z.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Clean Air Act Ammendments (CAAA) which were enacted in 1990 and represents the most significant federal effort in over a decade to improve air quality. The CAAA thoroughly overhauled the previous Clean Air Act of 1977 and focused on several issues of growing concern, including: ozone, air toxics, and acid rain. Provisions for attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are described in Title I of the CAAA

  7. AIR QUALITY MONITORING, FUSHUN-KOKKOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This research was motivated by the current problems that are faced due to air pollution. Despite urbanization and industrialization, air quality has improved in both cities of Fushun and Kokkola, but there are still some problems regarding air pollution. The object of the thesis was to compare and access the air quality conditions in the two cities. This work was based on information collected from Fushun and Kokkola cities over the last few years of the air quality monitoring. The overa...

  8. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING AIR QUALITY IN DEVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN DRAGOTA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects regarding air quality in Deva area. The attenuation of air quality in the urban environment is determined by artificial warming, a result of the radiation emitted by constructions, economic activities, as well as the climatic elements characteristics. In the survey regarding air quality in Deva we will analyse the concentrations of NO2, O3, SO2 and their implications on air quality.

  10. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  11. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  12. Forest ecosystem services: Carbon and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Neelam C. Poudyal; Steve G. McNulty

    2017-01-01

    Forests provide various ecosystem services related to air quality that can provide substantial value to society. Through tree growth and alteration of their local environment, trees and forests both directly and indirectly affect air quality. Though forests affect air quality in numerous ways, this chapter will focus on five main ecosystem services or disservices...

  13. Effects of Climate Policies on Emissions of Air Pollutants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammingh, P.; Koelemeijer, R.; Smekens, K.; Daniels, B.; Kroon, P.

    2008-10-01

    Overall, for air quality, the Dutch climate policy plan 'Clean and Efficient' (Schoon en Zuinig) appears to work out well. However, its effect on air quality also remains largely uncertain, partly due to uncertainties around the effectiveness of individual climate measures. For instance, implementing the use of biofuels and the large-scale capture and storage of carbon dioxide could both turn out to have an unfavourable effect on air quality

  14. Measurement of black carbon concentration as an indicator of air quality benefits of traffic restriction policies within the ecopass zone in Milan, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Močnik, Griša; Sioutas, Costantinos; Westerdahl, Dane

    2011-07-01

    Traffic restrictions are an unpopular tool to mitigate urban air pollution, and a measurable improvement in air quality is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this measure. Previous attempts failed to detect measurable reductions of PM mass pollution within the areas subject to traffic restriction. However black carbon, which is emitted primarily by traffic sources, could be a PM metric more suitable than PM mass to demonstrate pollutant reductions. In this study we report the results of a black carbon monitoring campaign carried out in Milan, Italy, with the aim to detect - and demonstrate more suitably than PM mass - differences in local urban air quality among three zones located very closely with different traffic intensity. The study was carried out in three different days by measuring simultaneously black carbon and PM mass concentrations with fixed monitoring stations located in three main radial roads connecting the outskirts to the city center, each with three segments: 1) an outer one, with no traffic restrictions 2) an intermediate one, subject to the congestion traffic charge called "Ecopass", where a ticket is required to enter for cars equipped with engines prior to Euro 4 standard; 3) the pedestrian zone (no cars admitted) of Duomo Square in the city center, where each of the three main roads ends. The results demonstrated a sharply declining gradient in black carbon levels from the outer zone, without traffic restrictions, to the more central areas, for all of the three radial main roads. The differences in mean black carbon levels in the same day in the different traffic scheme locations were highly significant for each comparison. In contrast to the Black carbon results, mean PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 concentrations did not show significant differences among the different traffic zones on the different campaign days. The ratio of black carbon to PM 10 decreased by 47% and 62% in the Ecopass zone and in the pedestrian zone, respectively, as

  15. Reducing air pollution in Europe : a study of boundaries between science and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the communication process between science and policy actors in assessment processes in the field of air quality policy inEurope. It focuses on the boundaries between science and policy and on the processes that shape assessments. It uses a

  16. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  17. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) relating to the consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards... apply to Ohio's SIP. Incorporating the air quality standards into Ohio's SIP helps assure that...

  18. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards; Correction AGENCY... approved revisions to Ohio regulations that consolidated air quality standards in a new chapter of rules... State's air quality standards into Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) 3745-25 and modifying an assortment of...

  19. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  20. Quality assurance management policies and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to: set forth overall, integrated quality assurance management policies and requirements for the entire Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program; define management responsibilities for assuring quality; and provide a general framework for the development of more detailed quality assurance management policies and requirements by program, project, and contractor organizations

  1. QUALITY POLICY IN THE INTELLIGENT QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MOLENDA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of one of the key elements of a quality management system which is the quality policy (QP. The quality policy is an element that determines how the quality management is managed in the organization. The phrase, present documents and the implementation of quality policy is the responsibility of top-level managers, resulting directly from the ISO 9000 standards. In the first part of the article the essence and the importance of quality policy for effective quality management is described. In the second part of the article there is a thorough description of a specially developed procedure for the establishment, implementation and monitoring of quality policy. The following procedure is based on years of experience of the author supported by the results of research, which aim was to create practices in the implementation and monitoring of quality policy in several business organizations. The approach presented in this article procedure is designed to assist managers in the development, implementation and monitoring of policy quality. The approach described as proper to the issue of the quality policy management staff will help in creating intelligent quality management system (IQMS. System, which will focus on permanent improvement based on the knowledge generated in the process of monitoring the implementation of quality policy.

  2. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  3. Wartime Distribution Operations: Roles of Focused Logistics, Velocity Management, Strategic Distribution Policy and Air Clearance Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ...) and service policies on materiel consolidation and air clearance authority. The paper argues that developing common DoD and services policies for materiel consolidation and air clearance will result in a more effective joint distribution system...

  4. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  6. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed in this paper: (C) 2000 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved....

  7. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  8. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  9. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where...

  10. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  11. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... the Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) relating to the consolidation of Ohio's Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS) into Ohio's State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act. On April 8, 2009, and...

  12. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  13. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  14. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sofen

    2015-12-01

    et al. (2015 as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961 used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  15. Quality of air in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The quality of the air in the city of Asuncion was evaluated, studying the distribution of the main chemical elements that are present in the sampling sites, using Bio monitors Tillandsia Meridionalis Baker and Tillandsia Recurvata L. and analyzed by of the ray-x florescence, technique the data were analyzed by means of the AXIL software and the results were a statistically analyzed by the SPSS Software for the creation of the maps of concentration distribution of the different elements from interest. The project was carried out multidisciplinary group integrated by the CNEA as Coordinator and executor; the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias; the Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales of the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, as well as the Municipalidad de Asuncion.The material was done by specialists in the field and with the financial support of the IAEA [es

  16. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  17. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District... in a August 15, 2012 letter from the South Coast Air Quality Management District regarding specific...

  18. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  19. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  20. Managing Air Quality - Ongoing Evaluation of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.

  1. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...... and emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  2. Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines...

  3. Wildland fire decision support system air quality tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim Larkin; Tim Brown; Pete Lahm; Tom Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    Smoke and air quality information have an important role in wildland fire decisionmaking that is reinforced in the 2009 "Guidance for Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." A key intent of the guidance is to allow consideration and use of the full range of strategic and tactical options that are available in the response to every wildland...

  4. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  5. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  6. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  7. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  8. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0064; FRL-9777-7] Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State...

  9. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ..., Kansas 66101- 2907, (913) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning...'s ``design value,'' which represents air quality in the area for the most recent 3 years).\\4\\ The... tables at the end of this designations rule. \\4\\ The air quality design value for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS...

  10. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot ProjectEPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with sensors

  11. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality. ...

  12. Data Assimilation and Air Quality Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, H.; Timmermans, R.; Curier, L.; Ruyter de Wildt, M. de; Segers, A.; Sauter, F.; Schaap, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lotos-Euros is a chemistry transportmodel developed in the Netherlands, and is used for air quality assessments and forecasts. Operational air quality forecasts for the Netherlands concerning ozone and PM10 are made available on the RIVM webpage (http://www.lml.rivm.nl/verw.html) and are used to

  13. Air Quality Monitoring System and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2017-01-01

    Air quality monitoring has become an integral part of smart city solutions. This paper presents an air quality monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, and establishes a cloud-based platform to address the challenges related to IoT data management and processing...

  14. FORECASTING AIR QUALITY OVER THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased awareness of national air quality issues on the part of the media and the general public have recently led to more demand for short-term (1-2 day) air quality forecasts for use in assessing potential health impacts (e.g., on children, the elderly, and asthmatics) and po...

  15. The air quality perspective in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    An overview is given of the improvements that can be expected in the quality of the air, taking into account the efforts of the Dutch government in the last few years. The aim of this report is to inform the European Commission about the progress in the implementation of the Dutch air quality plan [nl

  16. Technical challenges of multipollutant air quality management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidy, George M

    2011-01-01

    ... in implementing riskand results-based, multipollutant air quality management in North America. The intended audience for the assessment is air quality management decision-makers in Canada, the United States, and Mexico (and especially their technical staffs). However, the assessment also gives an in-depth summary of the technical issues facing cont...

  17. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  20. Pilot study on indoor air quality: Managing indoor air-quality risks. Report on a meeting held in St. Michaels, Maryland on October 25-27, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Included in this study are the following: quantifying future trends of indoor air quality as a basis for government policy plans; assessing indoor air quality risks of pesticides; formaldehyde emission standards in the Federal Republic of Germany; orientations and actions of the European Community in the assessment and prevention of indoor air pollution; EPA and indoor air quality; the non-regulatory approach to reducing risks from radon exposure; U.S. consumer product safety commission; a builders guide to healthy homes; WHO air quality guidelines for Europe; the approach to control indoor air quality in Italy; guidelines - ventilation classes; energy consequences of upgrading indoor air quality; Canada's guidelines for residential indoor air quality: rationale and scope; Canadian ventilation and venting standards; indoor air quality building surveys case studies; design of indoor air quality studies; summary findings of inter-ministerial committee on indoor air quality (Ontario); the Quebec approach; employee survey EPA headquarters; pollution in closed spaces and its consequences in conservation of works of art; and how Norwegian health authorities will handle indoor air quality problems

  1. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  2. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  3. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Quality Time: Temporal Constraints to Continual Process Development in the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    QUALITY TIME: TEMPORAL CONSTRAINTS TO CONTINUAL PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE AIR FORCE BY MAJOR PAUL A. La TOUR A THESIS PRESENTED TO...a deductive system-dynamics methodology to analyze the application of quality management policies to an Air Force system. The work provides an...alternate explanation to the existing body of literature on the failure of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Air Force (QAF) programs. The

  5. The Impact of Future Carbon Mitigation Policies and Climate on Regional Air Qaulity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, Steven; O'Connor, Fiona; Smith, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Air pollutants (ozone and particulate matter) can affect both climate and air quality. Future reductions in the anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and their precursors will improve air quality. However, it is uncertain the extent to which the choice of carbon mitigation policies could influence future regional air quality via changes to the co-emission of air pollutants from carbon sources. In addition, it is still uncertain how future changes in climate could influence air pollutants and future air quality may change through climate mitigation itself. Two consistent future scenarios, developed by the same integrated assessment model, are used within this study: one is a reference scenario of future economic development and population growth, whilst the other (RCP4.5) assumes the same development but applies mitigation measures to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations and stabilise anthropogenic radiative forcing at 4.5 W m-2. Here we have applied these two emission scenarios to a coupled composition-climate model (HadGEM3-UKCA) to ascertain the impact of such carbon mitigation measures on future air quality, both globally and over specific regions, such as Europe and Asia. A comparison of the emission scenarios shows that the implementation of carbon mitigation measures reduces global air pollutant emissions by between 15-30% and by larger amounts over other regions. Additional simulations have also been undertaken to attribute the future air quality changes to either reductions in emissions or changes in climate. An evaluation of the model using air quality observations has also been undertaken for the year 2000. This study demonstrates that carbon mitigation policies to mitigate climate change have added co-benefits for global and regional air quality.

  6. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  7. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health | Health Providers | Smoke from Fires Learning Center Kids | Students | Teachers | Older Adults | Weathercasters | Flag Program | Picture Book Apps Facebook Webcams Videos AirNow on Google Earth ...

  8. Air quality assessment in Salim Slam Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Hashisho, Z.; Saikaly, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Vehicle emissions constitute a serious occupational environmental hazard particularly in confined spaces such as tunnels and underground parking garages. these emissions at elevated concentrations, can cause adverse health effects, which range from nausea and eye irritation to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and even death. This paper presents an environmental air quality assessment in a tunnel located in a highly congested urban area. For this purpose, air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of primary air pollutants, priority metals, and volatile organic carbons. Air quality modeling was conducted to simulate variations of pollutant concentrations in the tunnel under worst case scenarios including traffic congestion and no air ventilation. Field measurements and mathematical simulation results were used to develop a strategy for proper air quality management in tunnels

  9. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  10. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    the political context in which environmental decisions are considered. It is proposed that many of the goals of China, Japan and South Korea could be met through the establishment of a regional institute to address air quality risks to Asia. Through this institute, it is proposed that science can operate as a means of policy. An appropriately structured institute might be expected to fulfill many roles parallel to the LRTAP process without a treaty structure.

  11. Metro Vancouver air quality management plan : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) developed an air quality management plan (AQMP) in 2005 as a means of addressing air quality issues in the region. The plan required progress reports every 2 years as well as a comprehensive review every 5 years. The AQMP established goals to minimize risk to public health from air pollution, improve visibility, and minimize the region's contributions to global climatic change by reducing emissions; implementing local air quality management programs; and enhancing air quality information and public awareness. The AQMP also included a sustainability framework for GVRD's policies and regulations related to regional growth, service delivery and political leadership. Regional strategies for solid waste and liquid waste management were developed in 2008. The sustainability framework has developed 3 priority goals: (1) to reduce diesel particulates by 75 per cent from Metro Vancouver corporate sources by 2012, (2) to be carbon neutral by 2012 excluding solid waste operations, and (3) to reduce regional GHGs by 15 per cent by 2015, and 33 per cent by 2020. Progress updates on regional planning efforts for the AQMP were presented. The report also outlined trends and performance measures used by the GVRD, and discussed changes in air quality issues and priorities that have occurred since the AQMP was adopted in 2005. 1 tab., 8 figs

  12. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed and mobile sources in Calarasi town in recent years using the program Corinvent and Corinair emission factors, and imissions data were used to monitor the air quality monitoring network air quality. The index of the quality of the air showed the highest values in winter.There have been occasional instances of the limit provided by law for particulate matter PM10, Calarasi, or being the intense traffic, the topoclimate in summer periods with high temperatures and deficient pluviometric regime, but also because housing fuel winter warming solid. There major problems of environmental pollution of air quality in Calarasi town that falls within the limits imposed by the legislation in force. This is due especially to the fact that many industrial centres have been closed.

  13. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  14. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about indoor air pollutants and sources of: Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products Lead (Pb) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Pesticides Radon (Rn) Indoor Particulate Matter Secondhand Smoke/ Environmental ...

  17. Air Quality Case Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), particu...

  18. Specific approach for continuous air quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industry development as well as increase of traffic volume across the world resulted in air quality becoming one of the most important factors of everyday life. Air quality monitoring is the necessary factor for proper decision making regarding air pollution. An integral part of such investigations is the measurement of wind characteristics, as the wind is the most influential factor in turbulent pollution diffusion into the atmosphere. The most of the air pollution originates from combustion processes, so it is important to make quantitative, as well as qualitative analysis, as the sources of pollution can be very distant. In this paper, specific methodology for continuous wind, temperature and air quality data acquisition is presented. Comparison of the measured results is given, as well as the detailed presentation of the characteristics of the acquisition software used.

  19. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  20. Air quality information system (AQIS) for Gauteng: defining best practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, 2004 (Act No 39 of 2004), need for national framework. The national framework will include the norms and standards for air quality information management. NAQIS (National Air Quality...

  1. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  2. Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools Mold and Moisture in Schools Webinar Mold and Moisture: Double Trouble for Schools ... An excerpt follows: Common Moisture Sources Found in Schools Moisture problems in school buildings can be caused ...

  3. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    outdoor air instead for at least a week. Smoking There have been many cases recently involving secondhand smoke and the effects it has on building occupants...for the military. Tobacco smoke has been associated with a number of acute responses. Effects include eye irritation, mucous membrane irritation...building manager to achieve the maximum positive results. 5. Ensure the Air Force smoking policy is in effect and smoking areas are away from the building

  4. Air quality information system for Gauteng

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the challenges for sustainable development (Johannesburg being rated fifth worst in the world) One of nine agreed strategies: “Improvement of Air Quality (reduce emissions from vehicles, industry, mines/tailing dams...

  5. Assessing air quality impacts of managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Impacts on transit bus performance and air quality were investigated for a case study high-occupancy / toll (HOT) lane project on a corridor of I-95 near Miami. Trends in air pollutant concentration monitoring data in the study area first were analyz...

  6. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  7. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  8. Indoor air quality in French dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Séverine; Derbez, Mickael; Duboudin, Cedric; Elias, Patrick; Gregoire, Anthony; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Pasquier, Nathalie; Ramalho, Olivier; Weiss, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Set up by the French authorities, the Observatory on Indoor Air Quality (OQAI) aims at collecting data on population exposure to indoor pollutants in various indoor environments. Accordingly, OQAI undertook a national survey in order to assess the air quality inside the French dwellings. A large amount of information has been collected from 567 dwellings (1,612 individuals questioned), representative of dwellings in France. This snapshot of indoor pollution focuses on ...

  9. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  10. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  11. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  12. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  11. Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool for meteorological and air quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool compares model predictions to observed data from various meteorological and air quality observation networks to help evaluate meteorological and air quality simulations.

  12. Air quality improvements and health benefits from China’s clean air action since 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yixuan; Xue, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Geng, Guannan; Tong, Dan; Li, Xin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by the Chinese government after the promulgation of the ‘Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan’ in 2013. Here we evaluated the air quality and health benefits associated with this stringent policy during 2013-2015 by using surface PM2.5 concentrations estimated from a three-stage data fusion model and cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions. The population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 21.5% over China during 2013-2015, reducing from 60.5 in 2013 to 47.5 μg m-3 in 2015. Subsequently, the national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased from 1.22 million (95% CI: 1.05, 1.37) in 2013 to 1.10 million (95% CI: 0.95, 1.25) in 2015, which is a 9.1% reduction. The limited health benefits compared to air quality improvements are mainly due to the supralinear responses of mortality to PM2.5 over the high concentration end of the concentration-response functions. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China’s recent air quality policy; however, due to the nonlinear responses of mortality to PM2.5 variations, current policies should remain in place and more stringent measures should be implemented to protect public health.

  13. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  14. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.; Manscher, O. H.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. This report presents...... Copenhagen the same program is con-ducted as at the street stations with the inclusion of O3. Only NO, NO2 and O3 are reported from the other rural site. Air quality limit values have been implemented in Den-mark for NO2, SO2, TSP in order to protect human health. All limit values are based on EU limit...

  15. 78 FR 27071 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Mendenhall Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... with its determination that, based on air quality monitoring data collected at two sites (Floyd Dryden... Dryden monitoring site from January 1996 through December 2009 (the Trio Street site ceased operation in... are further clarified in a policy and guidance memorandum from John Calcagni, Director, Air Quality...

  16. Indoor air quality: radon and formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has taken a leading role at the international level in reviewing and stimulating research and action on the potential health hazards of indoor air pollutants. A subject is given on page vi. It is now much more generally recognized than even five years ago that the use of particular materials for construction of buildings or for furniture and fittings is accompanied by certain risks, especially in view of the ''tightening'' of buildings to reduce energy costs, and increased reliance on central heating and air conditioning. For the last three years, the Regional Office, with the support of the Government of the Netherlands, has been developing a set of air quality guidelines for Europe. In addition to major air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulates, these guidelines cover some 25 other inorganic and organic substances, including radon and formaldehyde. In 1985, a working group reviewed the latter two substances in relation to the ongoing indoor air quality programme of the Regional Office and also as part of the air quality guidelines. In view of the importance of these substances, it was decided to issue a separate report in the Environmental Health Series. The complete air quality guidelines will be published in mid-1987. (author)

  17. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  18. Characterizing the "Time of Emergence" of Air Quality Climate Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, D. A.; Garcia-Menendez, F.; Monier, E.; Solomon, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    By driving not only local changes in temperature, but also precipitation and regional-scale changes in seasonal circulation patterns, climate change can directly and indirectly influence changes in air quality and its extremes. These changes - often referred to as "climate penalties" - can have important implications for human health, which is often targeted when assessing the potential co-benefits of climate policy. But because climate penalties are driven by slow, spatially-varying, temporal changes in the climate system, their emergence in the real world should also have a spatio-temporal component following regional variability in background air quality. In this work, we attempt to estimate the spatially-varying "time of emergence" of climate penalty signals by using an ensemble modeling framework based on the MIT Integrated Global System Model (MIT IGSM). With this framework we assess three climate policy scenarios assuming three different underlying climate sensitivities, and conduct a 5-member ensemble for each case to capture internal variability within the model. These simulations are used to drive offline chemical transport modeling (using CAM-Chem and GEOS-Chem). In these simulations, we find that the air quality response to climate change can vary dramatically across different regions of the globe. To analyze these regionally-varying climate signals, we employ a hierarchical clustering technique to identify regions with similar seasonal patterns of air quality change. Our simulations suggest that the earliest emergence of ozone climate penalties would occur in Southern Europe (by 2035), should the world neglect climate change and rely on a "business-as-usual" emissions policy. However, even modest climate policy dramatically pushes back the time of emergence of these penalties - to beyond 2100 - across most of the globe. The emergence of climate-forced changes in PM2.5 are much more difficult to detect, partially owing to the large role that changes in

  19. Integrating a new traffic emissions model with an urban dispersion model: an innovative approach for urban transport policies assessment and air quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrenti, E.; Zanini, G.; Kolarova, M.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the ESTEEM Project co-financed by the European Commission, an urban dispersion model (ADMS) has been applied for two sites in Rome with high topographic and traffic regimes complexity, where two air pollution monitoring stations are located. The traffic emissions values have been provided by TEE (Traffic Emissions and Energy) model developed at ENEA and based on a 'correction' of emissions calculated from average speed with a 'Kinematics Correction Factor' (KCF) which represents the speed variability along the link. This factor is derived as a function of link length, traffic density, link average speed and green time percentage at the traffic light. Hourly averaged CO concentrations have been calculated applying the ADMS model for the selected sites. The simulations were done using the meteorological conditions of 'real' days representative of the standard level of pollution in the season at the two sites, and compared with the measured pollution data. (Author)

  20. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-01-31

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  2. Analysis of hospital interior air quality audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lee-Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, people spent more than 80∼90% of living time in the indoor every day, human health and indoor environmental quality are closely related. The hospital has a complex and unique environmental characteristics, medical personnel and patients are prolonged exposed to risk factors in a variety of environments. Therefore, the merits of indoor air quality in the hospital, not only has a threat to the health of medical personnel and patients, but also will directly affect the quality and efficiency of health care work. A regular monitoring can, improve and maintain a well of indoor air quality, thus ensuring the safety maintenance of medical personnel and patients in hospital, it has become an important issue for hospital. This study has literatures review to collate and analyse that are related issues with indoor air quality. Then measures the indoor air quality test with direct-reading instruments. In selected hospital of this study were field-tested, then use the measured data in the field, discussion and analysis of the causes of air pollutants and the establishment of the sensing area of pollutants Concentration empirical mode.

  3. CO2-capture and air quality. Synergy or conflict? A study of possible impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Ramirez Ramirez, C.A.; Van Harmelen, A.K.; Van Horssen, A.; Van Gijlswijk, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Does CO2 capture and storage conflict with the objectives for air quality in the Netherlands? Or are win-win situations conceivable? These are important questions for policy makers today. It is expected that both conflicts and synergies will occur in the large scale implementation of CO2 capture in the Dutch electricity sector. This article provides a brief summary of part of the research program that was set up to unravel synergies and conflicts in policy for climate and air quality: the Dutch Policy Research Program on Air and Climate (BOLK) of the ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. [mk] [nl

  4. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  6. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  7. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  8. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning Unit, EPA Region 8... requirements of 40 CFR part 58, including Appendices A, C, and E, are used in design value calculations.\\8\\ \\8\\ A design value is the air quality value that is compared to the NAAQS to determine compliance. For...

  9. Air quality evaluation of Rhode Island's incident management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary air quality analysis was to assess the potential air quality benefits associated with the implementation of Providence's Metropolitan portion of Rhode Island's Incident Management Program. Specifically, the air quali...

  10. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  11. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 51.320 - Annual air quality data report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air quality data report. 51.320... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Reports Air Quality Data Reporting § 51.320 Annual air quality data report. The requirements for reporting air quality data collected...

  15. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...

  16. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  17. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  18. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  19. Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia; Anselmo, David

    2016-01-01

    Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs). Moreover, based on MPSOA, a geographical mapping of the Canadian Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is also presented which provides users (policy makers, public, air quality forecasters, and epidemiologists) with a more accurate picture of the health risk anytime and anywhere in Canada and the USA. Since pollutants can also behave as passive atmospheric tracers, they provide information about transport and dispersion and, hence, reveal synoptic and regional meteorological phenomena. MPSOA could also be used to build air pollution climatology, compute local and national trends in air quality, and detect systematic biases in numerical air quality (AQ) models. Finally, initializing AQ models at regular time intervals with MPSOA can produce more accurate air quality forecasts. It is for these reasons that the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in collaboration with the Air Quality Research Division (AQRD) of Environment Canada has recently implemented MPSOA in their daily operations.

  20. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  1. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  2. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles.

  3. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  4. Merging Air Quality and Public Health Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Bales, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    The New Mexico Air Quality Mapper (NMAQM) is a Web-based, open source GIS prototype application that Earth Data Analysis Center is developing under a NASA Cooperative Agreement. NMAQM enhances and extends existing data and imagery delivery systems with an existing Public Health system called the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project (RSVP). RSVP is a decision support system operating in several medical and public health arenas. It is evolving to ingest remote sensing data as input to provide early warning of human health threats, especially those related to anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and airborne pathogens. The NMAQM project applies measurements of these atmospheric pollutants, derived from both remotely sensed data as well as from in-situ air quality networks, to both forecasting and retrospective analyses that influence human respiratory health. NMAQM provides a user-friendly interface for visualizing and interpreting environmentally-linked epidemiological phenomena. The results, and the systems made to provide the information, will be applicable not only to decision-makers in the public health realm, but also to air quality organizations, demographers, community planners, and other professionals in information technology, and social and engineering sciences. As an accessible and interactive mapping and analysis application, it allows environment and health personnel to study historic data for hypothesis generation and trend analysis, and then, potentially, to predict air quality conditions from daily data acquisitions. Additional spin off benefits to such users include the identification of gaps in the distribution of in-situ monitoring stations, the dissemination of air quality data to the public, and the discrimination of local vs. more regional sources of air pollutants that may bear on decisions relating to public health and public policy.

  5. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  6. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  7. Integrating air-related health surveillance into air quality management: perceptions and practicalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance is presently not an integral part of air quality management in South Africa, although ambient air pollution standards are derived from health effects of personal exposure. In a survey to air quality officials and environmental...

  8. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    institution or organization - such as the government or industry groups - as the primary responsible stakeholder, thus leaving ambiguous the organizations whose leadership was necessary to mitigate air pollution. Conclusion Gaps exist in the current media discourse on air pollution, suggesting the need for strengthening engagement with the media as a means of creating citizen engagement and enabling policy action. Through greater elaboration of the health burdens and evidence-based policy actions, the media can play a critical role in galvanizing India's action on air quality. These data may suggest opportunities for media advocacy and greater public and policy engagement to address issues around air quality in India.

  9. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  10. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  11. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  12. Impact of power generation on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the impact of the electric power industry on air quality. Much of the data are presented in chronological order starting with the London smogs in the late nineteenth century and the Clean Air Act of 1956. With the building of bigger and bigger coal-fired power stations, apparatus to restrict emissions of dust became common and a Royal Commission reported on the progress of smoke control in 1974 and 1976. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) role of Local Authorities; (ii) weather and smog; (iii) trends in emissions; (iv) dispersal and dilution; (v) smoke and sulfur dioxide exported; (vi) atmospheric lifetime of sulfur dioxide; (vii) proportionality between emissions and deposition; (viii) critical loads; (ix) international agreements on transboundary pollution; (x) road transport pollution; (xi) local air quality management and (xii) climate change

  13. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  14. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Stolte; D. Mangis; R. Doty; K. Tonnessen; Laurie S.  Huckaby

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species...

  15. Impact of intersection design on air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the period 2000-2009, the city of Groningen has been restructuring the beltway. The redesigning of the intersections and the impact on urban air quality was the motive for the research conducted. This thesis describes the effects of intersection design on the basis of the emissions of two

  16. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  17. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  18. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  19. Data assimilation for air quality models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    -dimensional optimal interpolation procedure (OI), an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), and a three-dimensional variational scheme (3D-var). The three assimilation procedures are described and tested. A multi-faceted approach is taken for the verification, using independent measurements from surface air-quality...

  20. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement current efforts on air pollution control through technology and fuel transformations in the energy system. A combination of stringent policies on air pollution control and climate change mitigation results in 40% of the global population exposed to PM levels below the WHO air quality guideline; with the largest improvements estimated for India, China, and Middle East. Our results stress the importance of integrated multisector policy approaches to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

  1. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  5. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  8. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  10. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, 2000) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, and it communicates critical science judgments relevant to the NAAQS review. The most recent ISA for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed in 2010, and is available under related links (below). In 2000, EPA released a revised criteria document for CO which reviewed the latest evidence available at the time regarding sources, atmospheric chemistry, population exposure, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and health effects of CO, including effects in susceptible populations.

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, 1991) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, and it communicates critical science judgments relevant to the NAAQS review. A more recent ISA for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed in 2010, and is available under downloads. In 1991, EPA released a revised criteria document for CO which reviewed the latest evidence available at the time regarding sources, atmospheric chemistry, population exposure, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and health effects of CO, including effects in susceptible populations. This document was revised and updated in 2000. The 2000 CO AQCD is available under downloads.

  12. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  13. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  14. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP) was started in 1982 as the first nation-wide urban air pollution monitoring programme in Denmark. The programme has been adjusted to the pollution pattern by two revisions. The present phase (LMP III) was started in 1992. From 2000 a new phase...... continuously in order to improve the knowledge about the NO, NO2 and O3 problem complex. At the rural site outside Copenhagen the same program is conducted as at the street stations with the inclusion of O3. Only NO, NO2 and O3 are reported from the other rural site. Air quality limit values have been...... and plants. The new EU Directives introduce revised standards for NO2, SO2, particles (PM10) and Pb. They are implemented through the first "daughter" Directive to the Air Quality Framework Directive. It was adopted by the EU council in April 1999. The new limit values shall be in force from January 2001 (18...

  15. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Indoor air quality and health in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria da Conceição Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002. There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations.

  17. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective respons...

  18. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  19. Indoor air quality: potential audit strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.

    1981-03-01

    Techniques for measuring CO, NO/sub 2/, formaldehyde, radon, and particulates in residential indoor air space are described. A basic indoor air quality audit is proposed comprising two steps: compiling an inventory of indoor pollutant sources (through an owner questionnaire or visual audit) and assessing the amount of pollutants injected into the home from known sources - sources with a narrow range of emission rates (e.g., gas stoves) and secondly, measuring the pollutant source strengths of unknown sources - sources with emission rates that vary widely (e.g., radon). (MCW)

  20. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  1. Ecoflex: Improving air quality with green dynamic traffic management based on real time air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baalen, J. van; Koning, A. de; Voogt, M.; Stelwagen, U.; Turksma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the world, air quality regulations are breached due to localized high pollution episodes in specific locations, or "hotspots". Advances in air pollution monitoring techniques enable hotspots to be identified more effectively; however challenges remain as to how best to reduce the incidence

  2. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  3. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU...... initiatives regarding the quality systems of the Member States and the quality of services, this paper shows how the depth of EU interference has increased from sharing information to standardization and even to the first signs of enforcement. We argue that at this stage, reflection on the feasibility...

  4. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  5. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  6. Energy impact of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Air-conditioned office buildings are one of the biggest energy consumers of electricity in developed cities in the subtropical climate regions. A good energy policy for the indoor environment should respond to both the needs of energy conservation and the needs for a desirable indoor healthy environment with a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation. This study evaluates energy implications and the corresponding CO 2 generation of some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned office buildings in the subtropical climate. In particular, the thermal energy consumption in an air-conditioned office building was evaluated by the heat gains through the building fabric, the transport of outdoor fresh air for ventilation, and the heat generated by the occupant and equipment in the space. With the Monte-Carlo sampling technique and the parameters from the existing office building stocks of Hong Kong, the energy consumption profiles of air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong were evaluated. Energy consumption profiles were simulated for certain indoor environmental quality (IEQ) policies on indoor air temperature and CO 2 concentration settings in the offices, with other building parameters remaining unchanged. The impact assessment and the regression models described in this study may be useful for evaluation of energy performances of IEQ policies. They will also be useful for the promotion of energy-saving measures in air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong. This study presented a useful source of references for policymakers, building professionals and end users to quantify the energy and environmental impacts due to an IEQ policy for air-conditioned office buildings

  7. Healthcare quality improvement -- policy implications and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Ann Elizabeth; Williams, Sharon J; Gakhal, Sandeep; Caley, Lynne; Cooke, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explore quality improvement (QI) at individual, group and organisational level. It also aims to identify restraining forces using formative evaluation and discuss implications for current UK policy, particularly quality, innovation, productivity and prevention. Learning events combined with work-based projects, focusing on individual and group responses are evaluated. A total of 11 multi-disciplinary groups drawn from NHS England healthcare Trusts (self-governing operational groups) were sampled. These Trusts have different geographic locations and participants were drawn from primary, secondary and commissioning arms. Mixed methods: questionnaires, observations and reflective accounts were used. The paper finds that solution versus problem identification causes confusion and influences success. Time for problem solving to achieve QI was absent. Feedback and learning structures are often not in place or inflexible. Limited focus on patient-centred services may be related to past assumptions regarding organisational design, hence assumptions and models need to be understood and challenged. The authors revise the Plan, Do, Study; Act (PDSA) model by adding an explicit problem identification step and hence avoiding solution-focused habits; demonstrating the need for more formative evaluations to inform managers and policy makers about healthcare QI processes. - Although UK-centric, the quality agenda is a USA and European theme, findings may help those embarking on this journey or those struggling with QI.

  8. Investigation of air quality on mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, L.

    2017-12-01

    My project evaluated the effect of air quality on mood. We quantified people's mood using an online survey and then looked at the relationship between mood and pm 2.5 and ozone concentrations. Mood was quantified using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). I found that with increasing ozone AQI the positive score for mood decreased and the negative score for mood increased. The trend was not significant (p=0.414 for positive and p=0.158 for negative). I also found that the positive score decreased with increasing PM2.5 AQI (p=0.19); however there was no pattern between the negative scores and PM 2.5 AQI. In summary, air quality does look to have a negative effect on mood; however more data is needed to confirm this relationship.

  9. Alberta ambient air quality objectives : sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a colourless, non-flammable gas with a pungent odour. Exposure to SO 2 can result in numerous effects to the pulmonary system. This paper outlined current Alberta ambient air quality objectives in relation to SO 2 . The 1-hour average Alberta ambient air quality objective for SO 2 is currently 450 μg per m 3 . Studies conducted with healthy humans showed increased airway resistance and bronchoconstriction, as well as decreased maximum expiratory flow. Exercise can increase the severity of response to SO 2 in healthy and asthmatic individuals. Long-term exposure to SO 2 levels can also impact the metabolic activity of vegetation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced their intention to reduce the 1-hour SO 2 standard to between 131 to 262 μg per m 3 . 7 refs.

  10. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  12. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  13. Development of risk-based air quality management strategies under impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Amar, Praveen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is forecast to adversely affect air quality through perturbations in meteorological conditions, photochemical reactions, and precursor emissions. To protect the environment and human health from air pollution, there is an increasing recognition of the necessity of developing effective air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change. This paper presents a framework for developing risk-based air quality management strategies that can help policy makers improve their decision-making processes in response to current and future climate change about 30-50 years from now. Development of air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process involving four steps: (1) assessment of the impacts of climate change and associated uncertainties; (2) determination of air quality targets; (3) selections of potential air quality management options; and (4) identification of preferred air quality management strategies that minimize control costs, maximize benefits, or limit the adverse effects of climate change on air quality when considering the scarcity of resources. The main challenge relates to the level of uncertainties associated with climate change forecasts and advancements in future control measures, since they will significantly affect the risk assessment results and development of effective air quality management plans. The concept presented in this paper can help decision makers make appropriate responses to climate change, since it provides an integrated approach for climate risk assessment and management when developing air quality management strategies. Development of climate-responsive air quality management strategies is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process. The risk assessment process includes quantification of climate change impacts on air quality and associated uncertainties. Risk management for air quality under the impacts of

  14. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Jung, Minna; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Using a quality improvement framework to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care highlights multiple opportunities for federal and state governments to exert policy leverage, particularly through their roles as purchasers and regulators. Under such a framework, federal and state governments can expand their roles in collecting race/ethnicity data; define universal and meaningful race/ethnicity categories; more broadly disseminate standards for cultural competence; and demand the reduction of disparities through leveraging their status as collectively the largest U.S. health care payer.

  15. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  16. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  17. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  18. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  19. Overview of ambient air quality monitoring in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data is currently collected, processed and archived by a number of independent institutes. No collaboration exists between these organisations and there is no provincial or national air quality data information system or archive...

  20. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    from BAS tests by optical particle counter (OPC) revealed lognormal distributions with the mean (range) of geometric mass mean diameter (GMMD) = 0.41 (0.39, 0.45) microm and geometric standard deviation (GSD), sigma g = 1.92 (1.87, 1.98). FESEM/EDS and NAA techniques found a wide range of elements on filters, and further investigations of used filters are recommended using these techniques. The protocols for air and filter sampling and GC/MS analysis used in this study will increase the options available for detecting jet engine oil on cabin air filters. Such criteria could support policy development for compliance with cabin air quality standards during incidents.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  2. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  3. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  4. Air Quality Modelling and the National Emission Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    The project focuses on development of institutional strengthening to be able to carry out national air emission inventories based on the CORINAIR methodology. The present report describes the link between emission inventories and air quality modelling to ensure that the new national air emission...... inventory is able to take into account the data requirements of air quality models...

  5. Administrative law judge as a watchdog for air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte-Postma, L.; Van Wee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Insight is given on the correctness of judgements of the judge for the administrative law in the Netherlands with regard to air quality and the discontinuation of related spatial planning and building and construction projects. Also attention is paid to the new Decree on Air Quality, including the regulation on balancing. This regulation implies that deteriorated air quality in one place must be compensated by improved air quality somewhere else [nl

  6. Analysis of air quality at Osoyoos, British Columbia border air quality station (Nov 2004 - Sep 2006) : an analysis of trans-boundary air pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, S.; Hay, J.; Vingarzan, R.; Farris, S.

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the border air quality study, under the Canada-United States (US) international airshed strategy, was to assess the transboundary transport of air pollutants between the US and Canada. This report presented an analysis of pollutants in ambient air and assessed their most likely source location and transport direction. The pollutants of most interest were fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone (O 3 ) due to their association with human health effects. The data analyzed in this report represent just under two years of meteorological, air quality, and traffic volume data. Data was collected at the Osoyoos Canada customs site from November 2004 to September 2006. Osoyoos is located at the southern Canadian extreme of the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. The report provided data summaries and discussed meteorology and elevated concentration conditions of PM 2.5 ; O 3 ; nitric oxide (NO); nitrogen; and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Next, the report provided a multi-pollutant analysis as well as an episode analysis consisting of 4 case studies. The report also included an analysis of transboundary pollutant transport such as a wind sector analysis of pollutant concentration and comparison with modeled transport. Last, the report provided a summary and a discussion of policy implications. It was concluded that US-Canada transboundary transport of pollutants occurs through the Okanagan Valley in which the Osoyoos Canada Customs border air quality station is located. The study recommended further investigation of air parcel trajectories and synoptic-scale conditions leading to elevated O 3 concentrations, as well as the collection of at least 3 full years worth of PM 2.5 and O 3 data to calculate and measure against Canada-wide standards/US national ambient air quality objectives. refs., tabs., figs

  7. A black carbon air quality network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Caubel, J.; Cados, T.; Preble, C.; Rosen, A.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a portable, power efficient black carbon sensor for deployment in an air quality network in West Oakland, California. West Oakland is a San Francisco Bay Area residential/industrial community adjacent to regional port and rail yard facilities, and is surrounded by major freeways. As such, the community is affected by diesel particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, locomotives, and ships associated with freight movement. In partnership with Environmental Defense Fund, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, and the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project, we are collaborating with community members to build and operate a 100-sensor black carbon measurement network for a period of several months. The sensor employs the filter-based light transmission method to measure black carbon. Each sensor node in the network transmits data hourly via SMS text messages. Cost, power consumption, and performance are considered in choosing components (e.g., pump) and operating conditions (e.g., sample flow rate). In field evaluation trials over several weeks at three monitoring locations, the sensor nodes provided black carbon concentrations comparable to commercial instruments and ran autonomously for a week before sample filters and rechargeable batteries needed to be replaced. Buildup to the 100-sensor network is taking place during Fall 2016 and will overlap with other ongoing air monitoring projects and monitoring platforms in West Oakland. Sensors will be placed along commercial corridors, adjacent to freeways, upwind of and within the Port, and throughout the residential community. Spatial and temporal black carbon concentration patterns will help characterize pollution sources and demonstrate the value of sensing networks for characterizing intra-urban air pollution concentrations and exposure to air pollution.

  8. Sensitivity of air quality simulation to smoke plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Gary Achtemeier; Scott Goodrick

    2008-01-01

    Plume rise is the height smoke plumes can reach. This information is needed by air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate physical and chemical processes of point-source fire emissions. This study seeks to understand the importance of plume rise to CMAQ air quality simulation of prescribed burning to plume rise. CMAQ...

  9. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information... Resources, Division of Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA. [42 FR 22869, May 5, 1977, as...

  16. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  18. 77 FR 4808 - Conference on Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... preferred air quality models and to provide a forum for public review and comment on how the agency determines and applies air quality models in the future. DATES: Comments: Comments on how the agency determines and applies air quality models must be received on or before April 16, 2012. Conference: The...

  19. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  20. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-01-01

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: → Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. → Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. → Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. → Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  1. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thambiran, Tirusha, E-mail: tthambiran@csir.co.za [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 17001, Congella 4013 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Diab, Roseanne D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: > Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. > Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. > Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. > Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  2. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Hensen, Arjan; Vermeulen, Alex

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM.

  3. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.

    2008-08-01

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM

  4. Sources of Virginia meteorological and air quality data for use in highway air quality analysis with comments on their usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of accurate air quality analysis portions of highway environmental impact statements requires valid meteorological and air quality data. These data are needed, in part, to determine the regional and local wind patterns on which pollut...

  5. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  6. Investigating air quality and air-related complaints in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of implemented air quality interventions beyond ambient air pollution reductions, indicators need to be identified and appropriate health data need to be routinely collected to track air-related health. Presently, the only...

  7. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-07

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses.

  8. servicom policy intervention: improving service quality in nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    SERVICOM policy, in which we examine descriptively the nature and implementation process of the policy, against a theoretical background depicting the nature of public services, quality and quality improvement, problems in the. Nigerian public sector, earlier policy prescriptions for an efficiently functioning service, and an.

  9. Policy of Quality Assurance in Hong Kong Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Ho Choi-wa

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the sources, processes and impact of the quality assurance policy implemented in Hong Kong preschools. Regarded as a sort of policy alignment between the subsystems of pre-primary, primary and secondary education, the introduction of a quality assurance policy has been directly and indirectly transforming the settlements in…

  10. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State... primary deficiencies for Rule 502 pertain to an inadequate definition of the term ``Regulated NSR...

  11. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  12. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  13. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  14. a Web Api and Web Application Development for Dissemination of Air Quality Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, K.; Işıkdağ, U.

    2017-11-01

    Various studies have been carried out since 2005 under the leadership of Ministry of Environment and Urbanism of Turkey, in order to observe the quality of air in Turkey, to develop new policies and to develop a sustainable air quality management strategy. For this reason, a national air quality monitoring network has been developed providing air quality indices. By this network, the quality of the air has been continuously monitored and an important information system has been constructed in order to take precautions for preventing a dangerous situation. The biggest handicap in the network is the data access problem for instant and time series data acquisition and processing because of its proprietary structure. Currently, there is no service offered by the current air quality monitoring system for exchanging information with third party applications. Within the context of this work, a web service has been developed to enable location based querying of the current/past air quality data in Turkey. This web service is equipped with up-todate and widely preferred technologies. In other words, an architecture is chosen in which applications can easily integrate. In the second phase of the study, a web-based application was developed to test the developed web service and this testing application can perform location based acquisition of air-quality data. This makes it possible to easily carry out operations such as screening and examination of the area in the given time-frame which cannot be done with the national monitoring network.

  15. A WEB API AND WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR DISSEMINATION OF AIR QUALITY INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Şahin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have been carried out since 2005 under the leadership of Ministry of Environment and Urbanism of Turkey, in order to observe the quality of air in Turkey, to develop new policies and to develop a sustainable air quality management strategy. For this reason, a national air quality monitoring network has been developed providing air quality indices. By this network, the quality of the air has been continuously monitored and an important information system has been constructed in order to take precautions for preventing a dangerous situation. The biggest handicap in the network is the data access problem for instant and time series data acquisition and processing because of its proprietary structure. Currently, there is no service offered by the current air quality monitoring system for exchanging information with third party applications. Within the context of this work, a web service has been developed to enable location based querying of the current/past air quality data in Turkey. This web service is equipped with up-todate and widely preferred technologies. In other words, an architecture is chosen in which applications can easily integrate. In the second phase of the study, a web-based application was developed to test the developed web service and this testing application can perform location based acquisition of air-quality data. This makes it possible to easily carry out operations such as screening and examination of the area in the given time-frame which cannot be done with the national monitoring network.

  16. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Aiswarya Ragothaman; William A. Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resultin...

  17. Regional air quality in the four corners studys region: modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochumson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian air pollutant transport model was used in an air quality study of the Four Corners region conducted for the National Commission on Air Quality. The regional modeling methodology and some sample results from the regional air quality analysis are presented. One major advantage of the regional transport model that was employed is that its solution involves the calculation of transfer coefficients that relate emissions to ambient concentrations and deposition and which can be used repeatedly to evaluate alternative scenarios and regulatory policies which represent different emission source configurations. The regional transport model was used in the calculation of the concentration and deposition of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and primary fine particulates; and these estimates were used as inputs to regional atmospheric visibility and mass budget calculations. Previous studies have shown that the methods used in the regional air quality analysis give good agreement when comparing observed and estimated values.

  18. Ambient Air Quality and Human Health: Current Concepts—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee L Guidotti

    1995-01-01

    the control of which invites interest in second-order determinants of health. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding air quality issues that pertain to human health. The objective is to provide the specialist in respiratory medicine with an overview that will assist in educating patients and in responding to their inquiries, and to equip the physician to respond to requests for assistance or interpretation when called upon to comment on public policy issues involving air pollution. The implications of setting air quality standards or objectives to meet arbitrary levels of risk of health effects are examined. The current state of the art does not support risk-based air quality standards. A policy of continuous improvement is most protective of both human health and the environment.

  19. The effects of climatic change and wildland fires on air quality in national parks and wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don McKenzie

    2010-01-01

    How will climatic change and wildfire management policies affect public land management decisions concerning air quality through the 21st century? As global temperatures and populations increase and demands on natural resources intensify, managers must evaluate the trade-offs between air quality and ongoing ecosystem restoration. In protected areas, where wilderness...

  20. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental... Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of... policy assessment by two weeks, EPA is committed to issuing a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO...

  1. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental..., Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft. The EPA is releasing this preliminary draft...

  2. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We

  3. The Social Construction of the Dutch Air Quality Clash : How Road Expansions Bit the Dust Against Particulate Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Arnoldussen (Tobias)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractFrom a small policy issue in the 1990s, air quality became a hotly debated public problem in Dutch law and politics in 2004. During the political and legal clash over air quality in the years 2004 - 2010, Dutch infrastructure development and road expansion grinded to all but a halt

  4. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  5. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  6. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  7. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...... that regardless of the temperature combinations, personalized ventilation may decrease significantly the number of occupants dissatisfied with the air quality. Under non-isothermal conditions the percentage of dissatisfied may decrease up to 4 times....

  8. Fire in the forest: The air quality dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fire has long been an important tool of forest land managers. Air regulators responsible for assuring that the provisions of the Clean Air Act are met, see smoke from forest land burning as just another source of air pollution. From an air quality standpoint, pollutants released by forestry burning practices are no different than those emitted from other sources since smoke is smoke, regardless of whether it comes from a woodstove, a wood products industry stack, agricultural burning, or forestry land management. This paper discusses the dilemma that air quality and forest land managers face when balancing air quality protection with the role of fire in the forest

  9. Air quality in the Netherlands in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijk, R.; Mooibroek, D.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2009-01-01

    Results from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML) show that in 2008 some exceedances of a few European air quality limit values were measured in the Netherlands. However,similar to 2007, the exceedances were less high and frequent than some years before due to more favorable weather conditions. incidently, high concentrations did occur this year. Especially during both the 2007th and 2008th New Year's Eve, when a very high level of PM10 occurred inside, and even outside, many urban areas due to a combination of fireworks, mist and low windspeeds. Ozone concentrations above the alert threshold (smog alert) were not observed in 2008. Exceedance of limit values for nitrogen dioxide occurred especially at traffic dominated monitoring sites. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations at rural background locations remained fairly stable during the last few years and are lower than the limit value. The maximum number of days with PM10-concentrations above the limit value is not exceeded at any of the monitoring sites in 2008. On average, the 2008 year average concentrations PM10 declined with approximately 2 μg/m 3 compared to 2007. [nl

  10. Clearing the air : Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Netherlands is established using the LOTOS-EUROS model with a source attribution module. Emissions from the ten main economic sectors (SNAP1) were tracked, separating Dutch and foreign sources. Of the modelled PM10 in the Netherlands, about

  11. Provide good air quality for people and improve their productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  12. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information...

  17. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23, 1981...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52.346 Section 52.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring requirements. In a letter and submittal...

  3. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51.115 Section 51.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.115 Air quality data and projections. (a) Each...

  4. 30 CFR 250.302 - Definitions concerning air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions concerning air quality. 250.302 Section 250.302 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Definitions concerning air quality. For purposes of §§ 250.303 and 250.304 of this part: Air pollutant means...

  5. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  6. The Value of Clean Air: Comparing Discounting of Delayed Air Quality and Money Across Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S; Friedel, Jonathan E; DeHart, William B; Mahamane, Salif; Jordan, Kerry E; Odum, Amy L

    2017-06-01

    The detrimental health effects of exposure to air pollution are well established. Fostering behavioral change concerning air quality may be challenging because the detrimental health effects of exposure to air pollution are delayed. Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, encapsulates this process of choosing between the immediate conveniences of behaviors that increase pollution and the delayed consequences of prolonged exposure to poor air quality. In Experiment 1, participants completed a series of delay-discounting tasks for air quality and money. We found that participants discounted delayed air quality more than money. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether the common finding that large amounts of money are discounted less steeply than small amounts of money generalized to larger and smaller improvements in air quality. Participants discounted larger improvements in air quality less steeply than smaller improvements, indicating that the discounting of air quality shares a similar process as the discounting of money. Our results indicate that the discounting of delayed money is strongly related to the discounting of delayed air quality and that similar mechanisms may be involved in the discounting of these qualitatively different outcomes. These data are also the first to demonstrate the malleability of delay discounting of air quality, and provide important public health implications for decreasing delay discounting of air quality.

  7. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Nebraska. Street, Kansas City, KS 66101-2907, (913) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado..., C, and E are used in design value calculations.\\5\\ In some cases, states requested unclassifiable designations for areas around monitors with a design value exceeding the standard. EPA does not believe such a...

  8. Alberta's air quality index : facts at your fingertip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Alberta Environment measures the airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide, fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on a continuous basis at air quality monitoring stations in Edmonton, Calgary, Red Deer and Beaverlodge. Every hour, the readings are converted to an Air Quality Index (AQI) number to report on Alberta's outdoor air quality as either good, fair, poor or very poor. The categories relate to guidelines under Alberta's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act and reflect the maximum acceptable levels specified by the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Current air quality conditions are available to the public through Alberta Environment's web site or by phoning a toll free number. Both Edmonton and Calgary report good air quality at least 90 per cent of the time. Occasionally, air quality in the two cities may reach the fair category, but it is seldom poor. Fair, poor or very poor air quality occurs with strong temperature inversion and light winds. Under these conditions, air pollutants, usually from automobiles, are trapped in a layer of stagnant air. Fair and poor air quality can also be caused by summer heat when photochemical smog forms by chemical reactions with oxides of nitrogen and volatile hydrocarbons. 1 ref., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  10. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  11. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Hou; Shiliang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the ...

  13. Indoor Air Quality Analysis Using Deep Learning with Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaehyun; Shin, Dongil; Kim, Kyuho; Yang, Jihoon

    2017-10-28

    Indoor air quality analysis is of interest to understand the abnormal atmospheric phenomena and external factors that affect air quality. By recording and analyzing quality measurements, we are able to observe patterns in the measurements and predict the air quality of near future. We designed a microchip made out of sensors that is capable of periodically recording measurements, and proposed a model that estimates atmospheric changes using deep learning. In addition, we developed an efficient algorithm to determine the optimal observation period for accurate air quality prediction. Experimental results with real-world data demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  14. Indoor Air Quality Analysis Using Deep Learning with Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyun Ahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality analysis is of interest to understand the abnormal atmospheric phenomena and external factors that affect air quality. By recording and analyzing quality measurements, we are able to observe patterns in the measurements and predict the air quality of near future. We designed a microchip made out of sensors that is capable of periodically recording measurements, and proposed a model that estimates atmospheric changes using deep learning. In addition, we developed an efficient algorithm to determine the optimal observation period for accurate air quality prediction. Experimental results with real-world data demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  15. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  16. Evaluation of the meteorological forcing used for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) air quality simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautard, R.; Moran, M.D.; Solazzo, E.; Gilliam, R.C.; Matthias, V.; Bianconi, R.; Chemel, C.; Ferreira, J.; Geyer, B.; Hansen, A.B.; Jericevic, A.; Prank, M.; Segers, A.; Silver, J.D.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Rao, S.T.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate regional air pollution simulation relies strongly on the accuracy of the mesoscale meteorological simulation used to drive the air quality model. The framework of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), which involved a large international community of modeling

  17. Evaluation of the meteorological forcing used the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) air quality simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, A.J.; Vautard, R.; Moran, M.D.; Solazzo, E.; Gilliam, R.C.; Matthias, V.; Bianconi, R.; Chemel, C.; Ferreira, J.; Geyer, B.; Hansen, A.B.; Jericevic, A.; Prank, M.; Silver, J.D.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Rao, S.T.; Galmarini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate regional air pollution simulation relies strongly on the accuracy of the mesoscale meteorological simulation used to drive the air quality model. The framework of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), which involved a large international community of modeling

  18. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  19. Impact of policy decisions on the future environmental quality of Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Steertegem, M.; De Geest, C.; Vancraeynest, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Outlook 2030 of the Flemish Environment Agency examines to what extent (alternative) policy strategies allow for realizing the European and Flemish targets. This article illustrates two subjects from the scenario report: the future emissions of greenhouse gases and the particulate matter from transport and the future air quality based on the concentrations of fine particles and ozone. [nl

  20. Analysis of air quality and nighttime light for Indian urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Prakhar; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Indian urban regions suffer severe air pollution issues. A 2014 study by WHO highlighted that out of 20 cities globally with worst air quality, 13 lie in India. Although insufficient ground monitoring data and incomplete air pollution source characterization impedes putting policy measures to tackle this issue, remote sensing and GIS can overcome this hurdle to some extent. To find out how much of this hazard is due to economic growth, past researches have tried to make use of socio-economic growth indicators like GDP, population or urban area to establish its correlation with air quality in urban centres. Since nightlight has been found to correlate well with economic conditions at national and city level, an attempt has been made to analyse it with air quality levels to find regions with high contribution of anthropogenic emissions. Nighttime light activity was observed through DayNight Band (DNB) of VIIRS sensor while the air quality levels were obtained for ANG and AOD (using MODIS sensor) and SO2 and NO2 (using OMI sensor). We have classified Indian landmass into 4 air-quality and DNB classes: LowLight- HighPollution, HighLight-HighPollution, LowLight-LowPollution and HighLight- LowPollution for each air quality species using June 2014 data. It was found that around half of urban regions show high AOD and ANG values. On the other hand almost all urban regions exhibit high SO2 and NO2 values.

  1. Air quality in Skopje regarding sulphur dioxide and smoke (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Davkova, Katica; Todorova-Talevska, Liljana

    1994-01-01

    The results from the everyday continuous measurements of the sulphur dioxide and smoke concentrations in ambient air, at four localities in Skopje, at two of them for twenty years ago, are presented and analyzed. These results are base for estimation the trends of air pollution, regarding sulphur dioxide and smoke, as well as the air quality by comparison with the World Health Organization's air quality criteria. (author)

  2. Analysis of the indoor air quality in Greek primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Dorizas, P. V.; Assimakopoulos, M. N.; Helmis, C.; Santamouris, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of children to indoor air pollutants in school classrooms might cause them adverse health effects. In order to confront this issue, the in-depth study and evaluation of the indoor air quality in classrooms is necessary. The aims of this study are to characterize the environmental factors that affect indoor air quality. Several indoor air pollutants such as the concentrations of the particulate matter (PM) of several different size ranges, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO...

  3. Impacts of alternative fuels on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Research Inst.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. During the first year of study, researchers obtained qualitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol and ethanol. The thermal degradation of ethanol produced a substantially larger number of intermediate organic by-products than the similar thermal degradation of methanol, and the organic intermediate by-products lacked stability. Also, a qualitative comparison of the UDRI flow reactor data with previous engine test showed that, for methanol, formaldehyde and acetone were the organic by-products observed in both types of tests; for ethanol, only very limited data were located.

  4. The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). It contains a synopsis of the three phases of AQMEII, including objectives, logistics, and timelines. It also provides a number of examples of analyses conducted through AQMEII with a particular focus on past and future analyses of deposition. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  5. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  6. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilati...... of a strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings.......Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilation...... rate in real rooms. Relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality were established for differently polluting materials in real rooms. The results showed that the use of low-polluting materials reduced the ventilation rate required to achieve an acceptable level of perceived...

  7. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  8. Annual survey air quality 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijk, R.; Mooibroek, D.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML) show that several European air quality limit values were exceeded in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2006. This applied mainly to nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and ozone. The number of exceedances was especially high in 2003, partly due to weather conditions such as enduring dry episodes. Ozone concentration levels above the alert threshold (smog alert) were measured in 2003 and 2006, with concentration levels above the alert threshold occurring mostly during heat episodes. Measurements for nitrogen dioxide showed a yearly average concentration at city street locations above the European limit value at approximately half the measuring sites between 2003 and 2006. Yearly average concentrations measured at regional locations have changed relatively little in the past four years, remaining below the limit value for this entire period. Particulate matter concentrations have been relatively constant in the past few three years, after peaking in 2003. There is an EU standard for particulate matter for short- and long-term exposure of the population, which is represented by year and day average concentrations, with a maximum number of exceedances per year allowed. The year averages for the 2003 to 2006 period are less than the standard for long-term exposure. The maximum number of days showing average concentrations above the limit value was violated at several locations in 2006. Both nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter are characterized by a clear downward trend when measured over a long period of time (15 and 14 years, respectively). However, it is not possible to determine from the past seven years whether this trend is still valid [nl

  9. Visual Analytics for Spatial Clusters of Air-Quality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ye, Zhifei; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Fang; Tao, Yubo; Su, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of industrial society, air pollution has become a major issue in the modern world. The development and widespread deployment of sensors has enabled the collection of air-quality datasets with detailed spatial and temporal scales. Analyses of these spatiotemporal air-quality datasets can help decision makers explore the major causes of air pollution and find efficient solutions. The authors designed a visual analytics system that uses multidimensional scaling (MDS) to transform the air-quality data from monitor stations into 2D plots and uses hierarchical clustering, Voronoi diagrams, and storyline visualizations to help experts explore various attributes and time scales in the data.

  10. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  11. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  12. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  13. Time to harmonize national ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Eeftens, Marloes; Gintowt, Emily; Kappeler, Ron; Künzli, Nino

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air pollutants: PM 2.5 , PM 10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. We conducted literature and internet searches and asked country representatives about national ambient air quality standards. We found information on 170 countries including 57 countries that did not set any air quality standards. Levels varied greatly by country and by pollutant. Ambient air quality standards for PM 2.5 , PM 10 and SO 2 poorly complied with WHO guideline values. The agreement was higher for CO, SO 2 (10-min averaging time) and NO 2 . Regulatory differences mirror the differences in air quality and the related burden of disease around the globe. Governments worldwide should adopt science based air quality standards and clean air management plans to continuously improve air quality locally, nationally, and globally.

  14. Review of National Education Policies: Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how teacher quality and learning outcomes are included in national education policies. It responds to a set of specific questions focused on strategies to improve learning, links between teacher quality and learning outcomes, and how policy seeks to overcome learning obstacles for the most disadvantaged. The…

  15. Air quality management and planning system for Guangzhou. Report from workshop 1, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar

    1999-02-01

    The report is proceedings from Workshop no. 1, 1998 of the Sino-Norwegian co-operation project ''Guangzhou Air Quality Management and Planning System''. The project studies pollution emissions generally and from coal, vehicle and energy activities, dispersion modelling, monitoring, exposure, health damage assessment, material damage assessment, vegetation, control options, baseline scenario development, cost benefit analysis, pollution control management and policy instruments and air pollution forecasting. A forth workshop is planned. There are several reports from the various project activities

  16. CMAQ Involvement in Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Different chemical transport models are applied by different groups over North America and Europe and evaluated against observations.

  17. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  18. Approved Air Quality Implementation Plans in Region 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing page for information about EPA-approved air quality State Implementation Plans (SIPs), Tribal Implementation Plans (TIPs), and Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington.

  19. Air quality estimation by computational intelligence methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to compare different computational intelligence methodologies based on artificial neural networks used for forecasting an air quality parameter - the emission of CO2, in the city of Niš. Firstly, inputs of the CO2 emission estimator are analyzed and their measurement is explained. It is known that the traffic is the single largest emitter of CO2 in Europe. Therefore, a proper treatment of this component of pollution is very important for precise estimation of emission levels. With this in mind, measurements of traffic frequency and CO2 concentration were carried out at critical intersections in the city, as well as the monitoring of a vehicle direction at the crossroad. Finally, based on experimental data, different soft computing estimators were developed, such as feed forward neural network, recurrent neural network, and hybrid neuro-fuzzy estimator of CO2 emission levels. Test data for some characteristic cases presented at the end of the paper shows good agreement of developed estimator outputs with experimental data. Presented results are a true indicator of the implemented method usability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008-2/2011: Evaluation of Energy Performances and br. TR35016/2011: Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health and Research of MHD Flows around the Bodies, in the Tip Clearances and Channels and Application in the MHD Pumps Development

  20. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  1. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  2. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  3. Adaptive Sampling for Urban Air Quality through Participatory Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the major problems of the modern world. The popularization and powerful functions of smartphone applications enable people to participate in urban sensing to better know about the air problems surrounding them. Data sampling is one of the most important problems that affect the sensing performance. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Sampling Scheme for Urban Air Quality (AS-air through participatory sensing. Firstly, we propose to find the pattern rules of air quality according to the historical data contributed by participants based on Apriori algorithm. Based on it, we predict the on-line air quality and use it to accelerate the learning process to choose and adapt the sampling parameter based on Q-learning. The evaluation results show that AS-air provides an energy-efficient sampling strategy, which is adaptive toward the varied outside air environment with good sampling efficiency.

  4. Adaptive Sampling for Urban Air Quality through Participatory Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Kai

    2017-11-03

    Air pollution is one of the major problems of the modern world. The popularization and powerful functions of smartphone applications enable people to participate in urban sensing to better know about the air problems surrounding them. Data sampling is one of the most important problems that affect the sensing performance. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Sampling Scheme for Urban Air Quality (AS-air) through participatory sensing. Firstly, we propose to find the pattern rules of air quality according to the historical data contributed by participants based on Apriori algorithm. Based on it, we predict the on-line air quality and use it to accelerate the learning process to choose and adapt the sampling parameter based on Q -learning. The evaluation results show that AS-air provides an energy-efficient sampling strategy, which is adaptive toward the varied outside air environment with good sampling efficiency.

  5. Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando-King, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Lando, Harry A; Jahnke, Sara A; Hawk, Nita; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas. They also perceived mixed messages coming from the USAF, including simultaneous discouragement of and accommodations for tobacco use, and variability in policies and enforcement. Many respondents indicated that allowing tobacco use creates conflict and undermines military discipline and suggested that a tobacco-free policy would be the best way to eliminate these contradictions. Although there has been substantial movement away from a culture of tobacco in the USAF, current policies and variable enforcement of these policies create unnecessary contradictions. Establishing a tobacco-free service would resolve these issues in addition to improving the health of service members and veterans.

  6. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  7. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  8. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  9. Application of Kolomogorov-Zurbenko Filter and the decoupled direct 3D method for the dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional air quality models are being used in a policy-setting to estimate the response of air pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions and meteorology. Dynamic evaluation entails examination of a retrospective case(s) to assess whether an air quality model has properly p...

  10. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  11. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  12. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  13. Improving local air quality in cities: To tree or not to tree?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Peter E.J.; Maiheu, Bino; Vankerkom, Jean; Janssen, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation is often quoted as an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. In this work we demonstrate by the use of computer models that the air quality effect of urban vegetation is more complex than implied by such general assumptions. By modelling a variety of real-life examples we show that roadside urban vegetation rather leads to increased pollutant concentrations than it improves the air quality, at least locally. This can be explained by the fact that trees and other types of vegetation reduce the ventilation that is responsible for diluting the traffic emitted pollutants. This aerodynamic effect is shown to be much stronger than the pollutant removal capacity of vegetation. Although the modelling results may be subject to a certain level of uncertainty, our results strongly indicate that the use of urban vegetation for alleviating a local air pollution hotspot is not expected to be a viable solution. Highlights: ► We model the impact of roadside urban vegetation on the local air quality. ► Vegetation in general lowers the wind speed thereby reducing the ventilation. ► In general roadside urban vegetation does not appear to decrease concentrations. ► Roadside urban trees have a pronounced detrimental effect on the local air quality. ► City planners and policy makers need to be better informed about this topic. -- Rather than improving the local air quality, our results suggest that roadside urban vegetation increases the pollutant concentrations at the footpath

  14. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  15. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  16. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  17. Innovations in governance: balancing air quality and road development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, T.; Tillema, T.; Arts, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that air pollution poses a considerable threat to human health. In addition to this, in the Netherlands, air quality issues were especially a hot topic because they held back spatial and infrastructure projects. Many stand-alone infrastructure projects could not comply with air

  18. Assessment of Air Quality and Noise around Okrika Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of air and noise levels around Okirika communities in River State were determined using portable hand held air monitors for air pollutants and anemometer for meteorological parameters. The parameters measured were suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ...

  19. Human aspects of air quality in the San Bernardino Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Winter

    1999-01-01

    The preceding chapters of this book have provided infomation on the ecological characteristics of the San Bernardino Mountains, as well as the effects of ozone and other air pollutants on vegetation and soil in the San Bernardinos, and additional interactions with air pollution and forest health. This chapter focuses on the human aspects of air quality in the San...

  20. Assessment of Air Quality and Noise around Okrika Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    the air from the exhaust of internal combustion engines and boilers and furnaces of industries, plants and homes. (Park, 2005). Okrika Kingdom in Rivers State is a typical example of a place that is seriously affected as a result of air pollution from mobile, stationary and indoor sources. Both outdoor and indoor air quality data ...

  1. Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement: 2002 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    This annual report on air quality is organized in six sections. Section One provides an introduction; Section Two describes progress and commitments in the various areas as defined in the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. These areas include acid rain, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide reductions, monitoring of emissions, prevention of air quality deterioration and visibility protection, and notification, assessment and mitigation of significant transboundary air pollution. Section Three is devoted to additional air quality programs such as cooperation on particulate matter, while Section Four deals with scientific cooperation which includes data measurement and analysis, emission inventories, monitoring of acid deposition, as well as that of ground-level ozone, and particulate matter, air pollution and effects on human health, forests, aquatic environments and materials. Section Five provides a general conclusion to the report. Section Six presents the results of the Second Five-year Review and Assessment of the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, outlining progress made and indicating areas where challenges continue to exist. Appendices lists the current membership of the Canada-United States Air Quality Committee, the trend site monitoring locations, and provides the text of the ozone annex, a recent amendment to the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. tabs., figs., 3 appendices

  2. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution so.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature.......This study investigated if low air temperature, which is known to improve the perception of air quality, also can reduce the intensity of some SBS symptoms. In a low-polluting office, human subjects were exposed to air at two temperatures 23 deg.C and 18 deg.C both with and without a pollution...

  3. Strategy for good perceived air quality in sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik N; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Source control has been shown to be an effective strategy for improving air quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the potential for achieving an improved perceived indoor air quality by selecting less-polluting building materials or by increasing the ventilati...

  4. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Impacts of wildfire smoke plumes on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent trends in increased frequency and severity of large fires necessitate an improved understanding of smoke plume impacts on regional-scale air quality and public health. Objective: We examine the impact of fire smoke on regional air quality between 2006 and 2013 ...

  6. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  7. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  8. Environmental equity in air quality management: local and international implications for human health and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Marie S; Kinney, Patrick L; Cohen, Aaron J

    2008-01-01

    The health burden of environmental exposures, including ambient air pollution and climate-change-related health impacts, is not equally distributed between or within regions and countries. These inequalities are currently receiving increased attention in environmental research as well as enhanced appreciation in environmental policy, where calls for environmental equity are more frequently heard. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 Global Update of the Air Quality Guidelines attempted to address the global-scale inequalities in exposures to air pollution and the burden of diseases due to air pollution. The guidelines stop short, however, of addressing explicitly the inequalities in exposure and adverse health effects within countries and urban areas due to differential distribution of sources of air pollution such as motor vehicles and local industry, and differences in susceptibility to the adverse health effects attributed to air pollution. These inequalities, may, however, be addressed in local air quality and land use management decisions. Locally, community-based participatory research can play an important role in documenting potential inequities and fostering corrective action. Research on environmental inequities will also benefit from current efforts to (1) better understand social determinants of health and (2) apply research evidence to reduce health disparities. Similarly, future research and policy action will benefit from stronger linkages between equity concerns related to health consequences of both air pollution exposure and climate change, since combustion products are important contributors to both of these environmental problems.

  9. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  10. Human-model hybrid Korean air quality forecasting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lim-Seok; Cho, Ara; Park, Hyunju; Nam, Kipyo; Kim, Deokrae; Hong, Ji-Hyoung; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-09-01

    The Korean national air quality forecasting system, consisting of the Weather Research and Forecasting, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions, and the Community Modeling and Analysis (CMAQ), commenced from August 31, 2013 with target pollutants of particulate matters (PM) and ozone. Factors contributing to PM forecasting accuracy include CMAQ inputs of meteorological field and emissions, forecasters' capacity, and inherent CMAQ limit. Four numerical experiments were conducted including two global meteorological inputs from the Global Forecast System (GFS) and the Unified Model (UM), two emissions from the Model Intercomparison Study Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) for the Northeast Asia with Clear Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) for South Korea, and data assimilation of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC). Significant PM underpredictions by using both emissions were found for PM mass and major components (sulfate and organic carbon). CMAQ predicts PM2.5 much better than PM10 (NMB of PM2.5: -20~-25%, PM10: -43~-47%). Forecasters' error usually occurred at the next day of high PM event. Once CMAQ fails to predict high PM event the day before, forecasters are likely to dismiss the model predictions on the next day which turns out to be true. The best combination of CMAQ inputs is the set of UM global meteorological field, MICS-Asia and CAPSS 2010 emissions with the NMB of -12.3%, the RMSE of 16.6μ/m(3) and the R(2) of 0.68. By using MACC data as an initial and boundary condition, the performance skill of CMAQ would be improved, especially in the case of undefined coarse emission. A variety of methods such as ensemble and data assimilation are considered to improve further the accuracy of air quality forecasting, especially for high PM events to be comparable to for all cases. The growing utilization of the air quality forecast induced the public strongly to demand that the accuracy of the

  11. Quality Improvement Policies in a Supply Chain with Stackelberg Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first analyze quality and price decisions in a supply chain with two Stackelberg games: Manufacturer’s Stackelberg (MS and Supplier’s Stackelberg (SS. Then, we investigate how equilibrium solutions are influenced by proposed quality improvement policies: coordination and manufacturer’s involvement. Also, we derive the conditions under which the policies can be implemented in both MS and SS strategies. Numerical experiments illustrate the problems and several related issues are discussed. The results suggest that proposed quality improvement policies can realize Pareto improvement for the supply chain performance.

  12. A Study of Air Quality and its Effect on Health: A Geographical Perspective of Lucknow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erudite groups of people, scientists, planners, and policy-makers of different countries have come to realise that quality of environment is not necessarily a simple function of nature as in primitive earth. Today nature’s self-regulatory functions are inoperative. All the developed and developing countries are deeply concerned to make balance between their environmental anxiety and their economic development. Dreadful environmental conditions are affecting the biological segment of the ecosystem of these areas. Human being, ‘one of the most precious component in biosphere’, have regular predicament situation with accretion of sullied air, water, and soil degradation. Though water and land pollution is extremely dangerous, air pollution has its own peculiarities, due to its trans-boundary dispersion of pollutants over the entire world. The effect of air pollution on health is very complex as there are many different sources and their individual effect varying from one to other. It is not only the ambient air quality in the cities but also the indoor air quality in the rural and urban areas that are causing concern. The study is confined with the health impact of deteriorating air quality in Lucknow city. The aim of the present study is also to determine the consequences of ambient air quality on health of the people in the study area.

  13. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  14. Clearing the air: improving smoke-free policy compliance at the national oncology hospital in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Petrosyan, Diana; Stillman, Frances

    2014-12-13

    Smoke-free policies shown to reduce population exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are the norm in hospitals in many countries around the world. Armenia, a transition economy in the South Caucasus, has one of the highest male smoking rates in the European region. Although smoking in healthcare facilities has been banned since 2005, compliance with this ban has been poor due to lack of implementation and enforcement mechanisms and social acceptability of smoking. The study aimed to develop and test a model intervention to address the lack of compliance with the de jure smoking ban. The national oncology hospital was chosen as the intervention site. This study used employee surveys and objective measurements of respirable particles (PM2.5) and air nicotine as markers of indoor air pollution before and after the intervention. The intervention developed in partnership with the hospital staff included an awareness campaign on SHS hazards, creation of no-smoking environment and building institutional capacity through training of nursing personnel on basics of tobacco control. The survey analysis included paired t-test and McNemar's test. The log-transformed air nicotine and PM2.5 data were analyzed using paired t-test. The survey showed significant improvement in the perceived quality of indoor air, reduced worksite exposure to SHS and increased employees' awareness of the smoke-free policy. The number of employees reporting compliance with the hospital smoke-free policy increased from 36.0% to 71.9% (p Armenia that have failed to implement the adopted smoke-free policies.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  16. Whose Quality? The (Mis)Uses of Quality Reform in Early Childhood and Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Elise

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an in-depth genealogical study of the discourse of quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policy. Quality reform has become the foremost global policy agenda for ECEC due to assumptions about the economic potentials of quality services. In Australia, the recent National Quality…

  17. A theoretical framework for the episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    The present research proposes the local urban air quality management plan which combines two different modelling approaches (hybrid model) and possesses an improved predictive ability including the 'probabilistic exceedances over norms' and their 'frequency of occurrences' and so termed, herein, as episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP). The e-UAQMP deals with the consequences of 'extreme' concentrations of pollutant, mainly occurring at urban 'hotspots' e.g. traffic junctions, intersections and signalized roadways and are also influenced by complexities of traffic generated 'wake' effects. The e-UAQMP (based on probabilistic approach), also acts as an efficient preventive measure to predict the 'probability of exceedances' so as to prepare a successful policy responses in relation to the protection of urban environment as well as disseminating information to its sensitive 'receptors'. The e-UAQMP may be tailored to the requirements of the local area for the policy implementation programmes. The importance of such policy-making framework in the context of current air pollution 'episodes' in urban environments is discussed. The hybrid model that is based on both deterministic and stochastic based approaches predicting the 'average' as well as 'extreme' concentration distribution of air pollutants together in form of probability has been used at two air quality control regions (AQCRs) in the Delhi city, India, in formulating and executing the e-UAQMP— first, the income tax office (ITO), one of the busiest signalized traffic intersection and second, the Sirifort, one of the busiest signalized roadways.

  18. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.

  19. [The ATMO index: an air quality indicator for developed areas in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The LAURE (5) of 30 december, 1996, sets the preventive, monitoring, reduction or suppression of atmospheric pollution objectives and the goals for preserving air quality. Heading 1--Article 4 of the law states in particular that the right to information on air quality and its impact on the environment is recognised as the right of every person on French territory. The decree of 10 january, 2000, about the air-quality index is derived from this determination to information for all, stated as an important element in the policy for air-quality management. This decree provides definitions of the ATMO index with "standards 2000" and the recommendations required for its calculation. Previously (1992 and before), certain local agencies had developed their own index. Naturally these indices showed sizeable differences. The effort provided by the Ministry of the Environment, ADEME and the monitoring agencies, enabled the definition of a single index for the whole of the large urban areas (> 100,000 inhabitants). The index gives a common language to the non-specialist public, which can now understand the overall air quality in different urban areas. As all aggregate indicators of the same kind, the ATMO index is designed as a tool that makes it possible to translate in a quantitative and simple way the synthesis of numerous measurement data recorded daily by official air-quality monitoring agencies (AASQA).

  20. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY... (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. The State submitted these revisions... the Rebate Grant Process and the Texas Clean School Bus Program under the Texas Emissions Reduction...

  1. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital: Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Wel, L. van; Beckmann, G.; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two

  2. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital : Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; Van Wel, Luuk; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M

    2017-01-01

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two

  3. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Engineer, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR- 18J), Environmental... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2009-0515; FRL-9232-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule AGENCY: Environmental...

  4. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  5. Improving the indoor air quality using water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Randi

    2002-01-01

    The article briefly describes the principle of a Danish air cleaning device called the Aqua-Wall. This is a clear acrylic wall with filters and pump and liquid that ripples down the vertical wall. The liquid is cleaned water to which is added harmless chemicals that prevent bacteria and algal growth. By means of this falling water and a patent that makes the water bind microorganisms and dust particles the system cleans the air and creates a natural air humidity

  6. CIRCO Y POLÍTICA CULTURAL EN BUENOS AIRES / Circus and cultural policies in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Infantino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo propongo analizar el lanzamiento de una política cultural de fomento  para las artes del circo en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, iniciada en 2009 a través del I Festival Internacional de Circo de Buenos Aires. A partir del estudio de la formulación e implementación de la política pública, presentaré algunas de las controversias que se desataron ante la intervención estatal en el campo artístico circense local en relación a ciertos conceptos clave: qué se entiende por políticas culturales, por democratización/popularización de la cultura y acerca del rol atribuido al Estado en dicha área. A través del análisis propuesto pretendo problematizar el entramado de diversos y desiguales agentes involucrados en el campo de las políticas (culturales.   Así, propongo analizar los discursos oficiales que inspiraron la creación de la política en estudio y los rechazos y negociaciones que generó la implementación de esta nueva modalidad de intervención pública en el ámbito cultural circense.  Abstract  In this paper I propose to analyze the release of a cultural policy to promote circus arts in the city of Buenos Aires, started in 2009 through the First Buenos Aires International Circus Festival. Through the analysis of the formulation and implementation of the public policy, I will present some of the controversies that emerged from state intervention in the local circus art field in relation to certain key concepts: what is meant by cultural policies, by democratization / popularization of culture and about the role attributed to the State in this area. Through the analysis proposed I intend to problematize the diverse and unequal actors involved in the field of (cultural policies. Thus, I intend to analyze the official speeches that inspired the creation of the policy under study and the rejections and negotiation generated by the implementation of this new way of public intervention in the circus cultural field. 

  7. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  8. Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Drivers and Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Constantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air analysis inside vehicles is a problem that can be interpreted from several perspectives. This research is oriented towards the perception of air quality within a car, regarding a situation of cars in stationary traffic. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using a Trotec Data Logger Air Quality CO2 BZ30 machine inside different standing vehicles with up to five occupants, with and without circulating air. The perception of the air quality was measured on a Likert-type scale with seven levels on a sample group of 60 students. The results highlight, on the one hand, the conditions under which the CO2 in the cabin air can reach concentrations which are, according to new data, considered to influence the cognitive capacity of occupants in the car, and on the other hand, they present a global assessment of the air quality in the vehicle when critical values of CO2 have been reached. If the air exchange rates inside a car are low, this degrades the air quality in such a way that it affects the concentration and reactions necessary for safe driving without perceiving any discomfort that would put the drivers or the passengers on alert.

  9. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) on January 30, 2013, to revise the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0083; FRL-9804-6] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards AGENCY...

  10. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  11. Autonomy vs. control: Quality assurance and governmental policy in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt De Wit; Jef C. Verhoeven

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in Flanders has seen some major changes in the 1990s. One of the key elements of the new higher education regulations was the quality assessment system. This exemplified best the government's policy of granting all institutions of higher education autonomy, making them responsible for their policies, while still keeping the quality of higher education somewhat under governmental control. In this article, we focus on the tension between the government's aim of improving and co...

  12. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  13. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  14. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  15. The Assessment of Air Pollutant Concentrations and Air Quality Index in Shiraz during 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Majlesi Nasr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to air pollutants can cause many problems, including the health effects in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to assay the air quality in the Shiraz city during 2011-2013. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the air pollutant data during the study period were taken from Air Quality Co. for two main stations i.e. Darvazeh Kazeroun and Imam Hossein and then were analysed to determine air quality index. Results: The maximum (0.018 ppm and minimum (0.015 ppm annual concentration of SO2 were determined in 2011 and 2013, respectively. The maximum NO2 concentration was measured in summer 2011 with a value of 0.025 ppm. Regarding ozone, the highest average concentration was measured in the summer season of 2013 with the concentration of 0.068 ppm. In terms of air quality, the worst situation was experienced in 2011, which about 31 percent of the days have been marked as unhealthy, but during the last years of the study, the air quality get better. Conclusion: In general, the results of the study showed that SO2 concentration has been decreased during recent years due to strengthen of air pollution regulation but NO2 concentration was increased because the number of gas fuel automobile was also increased. With regard to air quality, it has an improving trend during the study period.

  16. Assessment of the emissions and air quality impacts of biomass and biogas use in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Williams, Robert; Dabdub, Donald

    2016-02-01

    increased biomass use. Further work involving economic assessment, seasonal or annual emissions and air quality modeling, and potential exposure analysis would help inform policy makers and industry with respect to further development and direction of biomass policy and bioenergy technology alternatives needed to meet energy and environmental goals in California.

  17. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  18. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  19. Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements of Urban Air Quality in Relation with Children's Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Dida, Mariana Rodica

    2016-08-01

    The adverse health effects from aerosol particulate matter PM pollution, especially with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm PM2.5 must be considered in developing policies to improve air quality. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient particulate matter PM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly associated with cardiopulmonary disease and asthma of which children are most exposed for the rapid increase of asthma disease. Very early exposure to certain components of air pollution can increase the risk of developing of different allergies by age 7. The present study attempts to retrieve the aerosol load in terms of aerosol optical depth (AOD) related to air quality in the Bucharest metropolitan area. In this study is presented a spatio-temporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with meteorological parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) and Air Qualiy Index and possible health effects on children's asthma.

  20. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitkolov, N.; Musijchuk, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs