This article examines the role and applicability of marketing in a public service organisation. It is argued that the changing external environment now facing many police agencies requires them to develop a marketing orientation if they are to continue to be effective. Obstacles to achieving this as well as the key factors that impinge on the public "image" of the police force are discussed. The authors then focus on a major study of the Dublin population's perception of its police force, t...
Introduction: In the Police Forces Hypertension, Diabetes, Renal Insufficiency and Thyroid Derangement (HyDRIT) pilot study we explored the prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment adequacy and complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non-communicable diseases among adult Police Forces ...
A national survey was carried out in all the 103 public sector and 38 private sector facilities in Malawi providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine uptake of ART and subsequent treatment outcomes in police force personnel. All patients registered for ART and their subsequent treatment outcomes were censored on ...
... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment... Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Operations... approved collection. Abstract: VA personnel complete VA Form 0120 to document pre- employment history and...
... actions to improve preparedness. This paper examines what a minimum basic response capability for all military, police and security forces should be to ensure at least some chance for their own survival and possible early warning...
making discussed in Section E of this literature review. Much like police in the United Kingdom, Australian police share a common background and...main continent of Australia. Tasmanian police experienced an increase in use of force complaints that started in the mid- 1990s and peaked around the...Victoria (Australia) police officers routinely carry firearms.151 Nevertheless, police in the Australian state of Victoria rarely shoot and kill
Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare
The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…
Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Policy, Planning and Preparedness, Department of Veterans Affairs...
Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...
.... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...
This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police an...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...
Judith P. Andersen
Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.
Boschman, J. S.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account.
Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service.
Judge, Christopher D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines the question Can law enforcement officers across multiple jurisdictions benefit from lessons learned in combat environments about medical training It compares the medical training requirements of U.S. military forces with those of various police units. It specifically investigates how military lessons in tactical medicine pertain to the various police departments medical training requirements. The study finds that...
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Recently, the role of leadership has been considered as one of the crucial factors for the success of any organization. However, what constitutes the effective leaders and what is the status of leaderships is still a subject of study. Hence, this research article is carried out with a mixed method. Based on the evaluation of 7 leadership styles, Bass and Avolio (1994's "5Is" behaviors, 49 traits, and 28 affecting elements for the development of police officers in Nepal, this study has used a survey questionnaire from 1111(N and in-depth interview from 21(N respondents from all the districts of Nepal. The findings of the study display that people are expecting a lot from police administration for adaptation of transformational leadership followed by participative/democratic, authentic and strategic models which were rated with highest ratings respectively. The trait status does not seem sound since the negative traits seem dominant with highest rating-' moderately to mostly', whereas the majority of positive traits are rated with 'a little to moderately'. Moreover, the transformational leadership behaviour is dealt with 'a little to moderately', which needs to be improved. Keywords: Leadership Styles, Leadership Traits, Transformational Behavior, Security Concern Functions of the country
Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Bovée, Lian P. M. J.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Baayen, Dorothé; Spaargaren, Joke; van den Hoek, Anneke
Objectives: To assess and evaluate the rate and outcome of occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Amsterdam police force. Methods: Retrospectively, all accidents with risk for viral transmission reported to the
Healey, Emmeline Lucy
The Egyptian military and police are attested as professional armed forces in a range of textual, decorative and material evidence from the Eighteenth Dynasty. Despite past controversy over whether the armed forces were maintained and utilised to the same professional standard during the reign of Akhenaten, many recent studies focusing on the textual evidence in the Amarna Letters have indicated the continuation of a professional military throughout the Amarna Period. Yet, there is a wealth o...
for two weeks at a time, but they made it look easy. I want to thank my kids , Daryle, Hunter, Gabriella, and Adrianna, for making me want to always...police-man-killed-officers-holding-gun- not- book /90774106/. 49 the reports it produced is that it affirmed to the public that police officers were...21/charlotte-police-man- killed-officers-holding-gun-not- book /90774106/. McBride, Bria. “Investigators Scour Gunman’s Social Media as Motive Remains
The National Police Force has a group specialising in nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical incidents, known as TEDAXNRBQ. The Nuclear Safety Council cooperates closely with this group on nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. (Author)
The economic problem of women in China is discussed in terms of the diversification of women's jobs, the growth in women's employment rate, and improvements in women's employment structure. Any change in women's employment status must be compatible with social production forces of labor organization patterns and the demand in professional fields. Fields of employment that are suitable for women need to be expanded. The division of labor is such that men are predominately in heavy industry and women in light industry. The physical makeup of women puts them at a disadvantage, as well as their role in child rearing. The service industry is open to women. The number of new jobs is rapidly increasing in occupations that require more mental work and hence open to women, such as, office maintenance, computer services' technician, computer programmer, and law associates or electrical engineer. The semiconductor industry statistics in southeast Asia reveal that 90% of unmarried women 16-23 years are employed in this industry. Improvement in women's educational levels also provide opportunities. The largest proportion of jobs are still in agriculture, while the country is changing from a natural economy to a market-oriented one. More women are engaged in employment in developed countries, and there is regional variation in female employment patterns. Comparisons are made for countries in southeast Asia in the % of working women. The increase in working women is attributed to increases in very young (16-23 years) and very old (65 years) women. Women's employment has grown on an annual average of 23.7% vs. 15% for the world. During times of economic recession, women's employment grew but in low level jobs. Women in state-owned enterprises rose from 7.5% in 1949 to 32.0% in 1984. Growth for women was fastest in the service industry (4.1%-39.8%), followed closely by scientific research institutions and health services (11.4%-38.2%). Women in agriculture and forestry rose from 2
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Hein, Maria; Chung, Sophia J; Anderson, Amanda A
Emergency telecommunications personnel (ETCP) form the hub of police agencies and persistently deal with distressing situations on a daily basis, making them highly susceptible to psychological and physiological ailments. To date, few studies have examined the necessity or feasibility of implementing a resilience training intervention for ETCP. In this study, the authors assessed baseline psychological data from the ETCP of a large police department to determine the differences in baseline measures for ETCP and police officers. Participants included ETCP ages 29 to 64 years ( n = 19). Results showed that ETCP self-reported greater levels of psychological stress compared with police officers ( p < .05) for the majority of measures; ETCP experience excessive levels of stress and greater prevalence of chronic disease. Consideration should be given to piloting resilience interventions within this group to manage stress; improve health, performance, and decision making; and decrease the prevalence of chronic disease.
Lovric, Z; Mihaljevic, J; Martinac, M
The purpose of this article is to present medical results of mobile surgical teams (MST) supporting units of Croatian Special Police Forces in three attack combat actions. The rate of injury was from 2.0 to 1.3%, Whereas the combat mortality rate was between 0.20 and 0.17%. No postoperative mortality occurred. Heavy injuries were found in 45% of all injured, among them 57% caused by shell fragments. Extremities were involved in 92% of all injuries, whereas 50% were injuries of the calf. All the injured were surgically managed by MST at the site of deployment or in mobile surgical hospitals and evacuated to general hospitals within 12 hours, where 80% of all heavily injured patients underwent additional operations with no postoperative mortality. Eight to 36 months after injury, we found major functional disability in 2% of all injured. NATO schemes served as a basis for the formation of the Croatian war surgical care system with certain modifications dictated by specific situations at the beginning of the aggression against Croatia. MST of Croatian Special Police Force presented second- and third--echelon staged management of the wounded, which was adequate for this type of attack combat situation.
officers are implicated with deliberate extrajudicial killings, are rarely punished in civil cases. In most cases, the suspected officers are...addition, some cases involve convicted offenders being unduly released from prisons back to the community where they continue with their deviant acts. 6...judicial processes, as well as the correctional facilities such as the prisons . The role of the police in the CJS is to investigate crime, arrest
Full Text Available As a part of their professional responsibilities, police officers have authorization, in situation determined by law, to apply physical force or means of force. Due to given professional reasons, selection among the candidates as well as routine physical capability assessments, should have professional-methodological basis and scientific foundation. Muscle groups of particular reference in relationship to estimate general contraction characteristic in regard to force, and at the same time very easy to test are flexor muscles of fingers of the hand (test “hand squeeze”. The aim of this research is to define criterion characteristic for the population to function for selection and estimation of the hand squeeze force among policemen. This research had 723 participants, students of the Police Academy, as representatives of policemen between 19 and 24 years of age. In order to estimate force of hand grip (both right and left hand, we utilized tensiometric method, and standard procedure previously described (1. For the statistical analysis we used basic descriptive analysis, cluster analysis (defining 7 characteristic classes (clusters as a function of population tested –unacceptable, poor, below average, averaged, above average, excellent and superior, and factor analysis (definition of the selection test as a function of selection procedure (10. Our results indicate that averaged hand grip force among the tested population is 61.70±8.97 DaN (Min – Max=43.43-101.41 for left hand, and 65.11±9.34 DaN (Min – Max= 46.54-109.75 for right hand. The values for the force of defined cluster centers of left hand are: Cluster1-7=50.22, 55.76, 61.61, 67.84, 74.71, 84.02 and 97.15 DaN, and right hand are: Cluster1-7=53.40, 60.27, 66.10, 72.20, 79.70, 92.55 and 105.65 DaNFactor analysis results have shown that one factor has been isolated that accounted for 91.10 worthy variance. Regarding the individual variability, for the saturation of the isolated
Introduction: Policing is a public health issue. The police often encounter vulnerable populations. Police officers have wide discretionary powers, which could impact on how they support vulnerable populations. In encountering vulnerable populations the police officers are required to be professional; maintaining mental health in the face of challenges is part of professionalism. Their encounters with vulnerable populations might influence their mental health which in turn might influence the...
Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p benefits.
Genevieve F. Waterhouse
Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.
Mario S. Staller
Full Text Available The development of transferable skills that help officers in preventing and dealing with armed and unarmed confrontations is crucial to police use-of-force (PUOF training. Based on the concept of representative learning designs guided by an ecological dynamics perspective to learning, we argue, that skill acquisition is predicated on continuous information-based interaction between the learner and the performance environment. This nonlinear pedagogical approach to PUOF practice requires PUOF coaches to underpin their operational practice with a clear understanding of the interactional relationship between the informational variables and the goal directed behavior. As such, a sound knowledge of the functional properties of used weapon systems is essential, in order to efficiently locate their use within the context of PUOF learning environments. The paper proposes a categorisation matrix to weapon systems that are used in PUOF training settings according to their functional properties and their opportunities for learning. On a practical level the matrix enables PUOF coaches to make decisions about the use of different training systems based on their functional properties. On an organisational level the matrix helps law enforcement agencies to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio, when investing in new training systems.
Wang, Xin; Wang, Pei-shan; Zhou, Wei
To assess the incidence, types and risk factors of military training-related injuries in recruits of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces (CPAPF). A cohort study was made on the risk factors of injuries in 805 male recruits during the military training from December 25, 1999 to December 25, 2000. A total of 111 recruits (14%) experienced one or more injuries, and the cumulative incidence was 16.1 injuries per 100 soldiers in a year. And 77.7% of the injuries belonged to overuse injuries of the skeletal and muscular systems, the most common type of which was stress fractures. Most injuries occurred in the 3rd month of training. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis of possible risk factors for overuse injuries were carried out, and a number of risk factors were identified: history of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot and less running exercise before entry into the army. But a suitable body mass index (BMI) was a protective factor. Examination of age, body height, smoking, body flexibility and frequency of 2-mile running revealed no significant association with the injuries. History of agricultural labor, history of lower limb injury, flatfoot, less running exercise before entry into the army and lower BMI were risk factors of the overuse injuries. In order to decrease the incidence of overuse injuries, the young people with good physical ability and shapely body type should be selected during conscription. During the training, nutrition should be improved so as to decrease the incidence of injuries.
Detrick, Amanda F.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Certain states with religious systems of governance maintain and deploy morality police forces as a mechanism of social control. What role do morality police play in the social control programs of Islamic states? How are those forces employed, and what are the effects of those forces on society? These issues were explored through a comparative study of morality policing programs under three Islamic regimes: the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,...
International audience; Overview Police as an institution cannot be said to have inspired in-depth conceptualization effortsfrom criminology and criminal justice so far. Scholars in this area show a clear preference for empirically exploring what individual police officers do or think, and the policing concept they most readily converge towards tends to hinge on the use of force, a notion developed by ethnomethodologist, Egon Bittner. This concept holds that what constitutes policing as such ...
Saunders, M; Thornhill, A
Purpose: To explore the implications for all employees’ psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation. Methodology/Approach: A random sample of 30 employees, stratified by employment status was selected. Each employee undertook a structured card sort of possible emotional responses to change followed by an in-depth interview to explore and explain their categorisation of these responses. Findings: Th...
Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz
In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...
ammunition and the proper riot control equipment, mainly a restrictive locking plate that would prevent weapons from firing in full- automatic mode, the...ammunition, and critical civil disturbance equipment to include face shields, riot batons, M-16 lock plates , and communications equipment.65 Third was the...Detention Specialist), and 31K (Military Working Dog Handler), as well as the various additional skill identifiers germane to the Military Police Soldier
... its traditional logic and employment of military forces for international peacekeeping operations, The benefits of global economic investment and individual liberties should be apparent to all as a positive outcome...
Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.
Michigan Governor's Commission on Jobs and Economic Development, Lansing.
To provide a common frame of reference, the Michigan Employability Skills Task Force created a working construct of employability skill categories. The draft framework extended beyond academic competence to include interpersonal, group, and adaptability skills. After task force discussions, the initial five skill categories were compressed into…
Brian R. Basham
Full Text Available The past few decades has seen a high degree of scrutiny on police and police instructional techniques, with various researchers recommending engagement with adult learning principles. However, what is lacking in contemporary research is any discussion about the role of police instructors and whether they are able to engage with adult learning principles. This critical essay commences that discussion and offers suggestions on how to transition the police instructor to become an effective police educator. It is argued that police instructors undertake several informal roles that are in contrast to the role of an educator; and place the police instructor in an abnormal position of power. Further, it is proposed that the current required training qualification for police instructors is an inappropriate and ineffectual qualification for police educators. This critique concludes by offering some suggestions that are likely to overcome potential barriers to increasing the competency of police instructors.
This article reflects specifically on the often-overlooked role, which the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) can play in precipitating and sustaining law enforcement in civil society. It also further reflects on the legislative decisions made in this regard. The article also examines the general overview of shifts in ...
Conrad, E. W.
A kinetic energy absorbing device uses a series of coaxial, mating cylindrical surfaces. These surfaces have high frictional resistance to relative motion when axial impact forces are applied. The device is designed for safe deceleration of vehicles impacting on landing surfaces.
Hall, Christine Alison; Kader, Adam Shereef; Danielle McHale, Anne Marie; Stewart, Lauren; Fick, Gordon Hilton; Vilke, Gary Michael
There has, to date, been no prospective description of the frequency with which police officers encounter individuals who display signs of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS). The ability to document the relationship between signs of excited delirium and subject outcomes and then determine the underlying pathophysiology that results in morbidity and mortality is necessary in order to determine the case definition for ExDS in live individuals. We prospectively evaluated the frequency of signs of ExDS in a cohort of consecutive subjects undergoing use of force by law enforcement officers (LEOs) and determined the frequency with which those features were encountered alone and in combination. Data were collected prospectively for all subjects undergoing use of force (UOF) by LEOs in a single police agency from August 2006 until August 2009. Ten previously published signs of ExDS were prospectively recorded by officers: pain tolerance, constant/near constant physical activity, not responding to police presence, superhuman strength, rapid breathing, not tiring despite heavy physical exertion, naked/inappropriately clothed, sweating profusely, hot to the touch, and attraction to/destruction of glass/reflective surfaces. UOF occurred in 1269 of 1.56 million police-public interactions (0.08%, 95% CI 0.08, 0.086). Of subjects undergoing police use of force, 1101/1269 or 86.8% (95% CI 84.8%, 88.6%) were assessed as having effects of emotional disturbance, drugs, alcohol or a combination of these comorbidities at the scene at the time of the UOF and 837/1269 or 66% (95% CI 63.3, 68.6) were violent at the time of the UOF. Excluding violence, 655/1269 (51.6% 95% CI 48.8, 54.4) had no signs of ExDS at the time of UOF and another 405/1269 (31.9% 95% CI 29.4, 34.6%)) had only one or two signs of ExDS at the time of UOF. The remaining 209/1269 (16.5%, 95% CI 14.5, 18.6) had 3 or more concomitant signs of ExDS at the time of UOF. One person died in our cohort who was experiencing 10
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William
We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of
Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.
A professzionalizálódó Magyar Honvédség hivatásos állománya munkahelyi elégedettségének alakulása 1996-2007 között” [The Changes in Workplace...Hungarian Ministry of Defense Tájékoztató az országgyűlési képviselők részére a honvédelmi politika 2008. évi megvalósításáról, a Magyar Honvédség...battalion, a combat support battalion and the 25/88th LMB. Ministry of Defense, A Magyar Honvédség évkönyve 2009 [Yearbook of the Hungarian Defense Forces
Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option.
Garbarino, S; Chiorri, C; Magnavita, N
The police work is particularly stressful. The aim of this work was to clarify whether the personality factors are associated with perceived stress levels or reactivity to environmental stressors in a special body of police. The police officers in charge of guaranteeing public order at the L'Aquila G8 meeting were subjected to a control of their levels of work-related stress in anticipation of the event. Personality was assessed by the Italian version of the Five-Factor Model questionnaire, while stress was measured three times (during routine work in January 2009, preparation and imminence of the event, in April and July 2009, respectively) with the demand/control/support model of Karasek and the effort/reward imbalance model of Siegrist. A total of 289 of 294 officers took part in the survey. Some personality traits of the Five-Factor Model were associated with stress levels and stress reactivity. Neuroticism (low emotional stability) showed the strongest associations with job strain (demand/control ratio) (β = 0.115, p Personality factors may mitigate or increase the strain induced by environmental stressors.
Allison Louise Skinner
Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
AD-fl46 843 AGE DISCRIMINATION AND OTHER EQUAL EMPLOYMENT i/i OPPORTUNITY ISSUES IN THE FEDERAL WORK FORCE(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC...Representatives LECE. Dear Mr. Chairman: F Subject: Age Discrimination and Other Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in the Federal Work Force (FPCD-82-6) -This...report responds to ,yo-"-Ma eh-17-rt9tl request that we- determine whether Federal employees are being treated in a manner free of age discrimination
Many studies have emphasized the pluralization of policing and the interactions between security providers. However, such studies generally employ a top-down and structural approach, emphasizing the organizational ties between policing bodies. This article employs an ethnographic approach to
35 3 See tables in Annex 4 p. 38 Parallel October 2009 11 Similarly, a level 4 police service consists of the police intervention during...Aviation Administration FLIR Forward Looking Infrared GPS Global Positioning System IA Inspection Authorization IFR /VFR Instrument Flight Rules/Visual...enforcement Aviation (helicopters - patrol & surveillance) ------------------------------------ 9 3 . Law enforcement observation Aircraft (fixed-wing
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the ways the occupation of Rocinha, a slum in Rio de Janeiro, by police forces is reported in texts and images in the online coverage of the newspapers O Globo (Brazil, Clarin (Argentina and Le Monde (France. The research is based on the theoretical framework of French Discourse Analysis, mainly the concepts of discursive formation, discursive memory (cf. Courtine, 1981; opacity (cf. Orlandi, 1999 and event-words (cf. Moirand, 2008, 2012. The meanings of the events that took place in Rio de Janeiro are regulated by possible current narratives related to the memory of the city and to an immediate context related to the fact that the city will be hosting the 1914 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. The comparison of the discursive production in the above mentioned newspapers aims at identifying the processes of meaning production so as to answer the following questions: a in which ways can different conditions of discursive production silence certain meanings and promote others in discourse; b which would be the transparency effects in these newspaper discourses; c how and why are certain meanings naturalized in some texts and questioned in others?
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation
Maceachern, Alison D; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Jackson, Sharon
Child protection is an area of police work which has expanded in the last decade, leading to an increase in the number of police officers working in departments which specialise in investigating cases of child abuse. Police officers in this field may be at greater risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress but there remains a paucity of research in this area of policing. Analogies can be drawn to existing research in policing and with social service workers involved in child protection. The paper finishes off with implications for police forces to ensure safe working environments and appropriate counselling for employees.
Pedro Miguel Duarte da Graça
Full Text Available The nature of conflict is changing. The occurrences of formal international intervention, in a complex theater of operations with operational requirements, necessitate the engagement of international forces with military and civilian capabilities, namely a distinctive type of police force. Since the end of the last century, the Portuguese Republican National Guard (GNR has deployed to stabilize various conflicts throughout the world. The GNR contributed when UN resolutions mandated constabulary requirements, but this participation was never framed within a multinational force of NATO. However, the GNR works under the same NATO doctrine for force employment constituted on the basis of military units with police functions, called the Multinational Specialized Units. The Guard is a military organization with the expertise to contribute to peace. This unique competence stems from capabilities over the entire spectrum of police functions within unstable environments, including a unique ability to overcome the Security Gap. Likewise, by concurrently deploying with the military forces, the GNR demonstrates the ability to use force in a legal manner by fostering a comprehensive approach within the security and judiciary system. This holistic capacity goes beyond a purely institutional approach. By executing police functions in unstable environments the GNR contributes to the pursuit of credible Portuguese foreign policy interests in Peace-Enforcement Operations.
Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien
partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... show that the formation of informal police-bouncer networks has significantly increased the degree of police influence in private nightlife environments such as bars and nightclubs. Our findings also indicate that inter-agency trust building is crucial to the collaborative willingness and capability...
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...
Cooper, Hannah L F
War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.
Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.
Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke
determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...
Use of force preferences and perceived effectiveness of actions among Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) police officers and non-CIT officers in an escalating psychiatric crisis involving a subject with schizophrenia.
Compton, Michael T; Demir Neubert, Berivan N; Broussard, Beth; McGriff, Joanne A; Morgan, Rhiannon; Oliva, Janet R
Few studies have examined police officers' use of force toward individuals with schizophrenia, despite the widely disseminated Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of partnership between mental health and law enforcement that seeks to reduce use of force and enhance safety of officers and individuals with mental illnesses. This study tested the hypotheses that CIT-trained officers would select a lower level of force, identify nonphysical actions as more effective, and perceive physical force as less effective in an escalating psychiatric crisis, compared with non-CIT-trained officers. Police officers (n = 135)-48 CIT trained and 87 non-CIT trained-completed a survey containing 3 scenario-based vignettes depicting an escalating situation involving a subject with psychosis. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Officers escalated their preferred actions across the scenarios. A significant scenario by group interaction indicated that CIT-trained officers chose less escalation (ie, opting for less force at the third scenario) than non-CIT-trained officers. Officers reported decreasing perceived effectiveness of nonphysical action across the 3 scenarios. A significant scenario by group interaction indicated that CIT-trained officers reported a lesser decline in perceived effectiveness of nonphysical actions at the third scenario. CIT-trained officers consistently endorsed lower perceived effectiveness of physical force. Efforts are needed to reduce use of force toward individuals with psychotic disorders. These findings suggest that CIT may be an effective approach. In addition to clinical and programmatic implications, such findings demonstrate a role for clinicians, advocates, and schizophrenia researchers in promoting social justice through partnerships with diverse social sectors.
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.
Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.
The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...
the police either go unanswered or when answered, police lack the capacity for rapid response thus arriving .... correction system in so far as society is involved in dealing with those who violate our criminal laws. .... motivated and extra judicial killings by security forces, the use of excessive force including torture by security ...
Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.
Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke
In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.
Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.
In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the
Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.
In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Groningen since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Groningen increased by 36,000 jobs or with one quarter in
This paper investigates the long-term effects of maternal labour force participation on daughters’ later labour force participation and earnings. The majority of the existing work in this area investigates how current maternal labour force participation affects current child outcomes, including scholastic, behavioural and health outcomes. The Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), a 20 percent random sample of Canadian tax filers provides a unique opportunity to link information regardin...
This article examines the development of community-based policing in the United States and the Netherlands. These two countries were selected because the United States has been the forerunner of research into the police and one of the first countries to attempt to introduce on a wide-scale, and
After months of negotiation between the police force and the minister of the interior on the renewal of the collective agreement, the police trade unions began threatening industrial action and strikes in December 2007. The courts were divided on the issue, with some ruling out strikes as a means of
Ömer Gökhan Ulum
Full Text Available With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open ended questions displayed that, (1 speaking and listening are the most important skills, (2 four language skills are moderately difficult, (3 there are motivational factors important to learn English, and (4 the functional use of English is important for the public order police officers. Recommendations and pedagogical implications were suggested.
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....
Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.
Chemical and Engineering News, 1990
The annual census of industrial employment, production workers, women, the workweek, scientists and engineers, chemical employment, wages, and productivity in the chemical industry is presented. Trends in the numbers of workers, productivity, and unit labor costs are illustrated in graphs. (CW)
Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg
studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...
Farzana Afridi; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Soham Sahoo
We study the impact of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) on children's educational outcomes via women's labour force participation. Using data from the Young Lives Study and taking advantage of the spatial and temporal variation in the intensity of implementation of the NREGS, we find that greater participation of mothers in the program is associated with better educational outcomes of their children. Father's participation in the NREGS, on the other hand, has a negat...
Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...
Fiori, Francesca; Rinesi, Francesca; Spizzichino, Daniele; Di Giorgio, Ginevra
A growing body of scientific literature highlights the negative consequences of employment insecurity on several life domains. This study focuses on the young adult labour force in Italy, investigating the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health and whether this has changed after years of economic downturn. It enhances understanding by addressing differences in mental health according to several employment characteristics; and by exploring the role of respondents' economic situation and educational level. Data from a large-scale, nationally representative health survey are used to estimate the relationship between employment insecurity and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI), by means of multiple linear regressions. The study demonstrates that employment insecurity is associated with poorer mental health. Moreover, neither temporary workers nor unemployed individuals are a homogeneous group. Previous job experience is important in differentiating the mental health risks of unemployed individuals; and the effects on mental health vary according to occupational status and to the amount of time spent in a condition of insecurity. Further, the experience of financial difficulties partly explains the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health; and different mental health outcomes depend on respondents' educational level. Lastly, the risks of reporting poorer mental health were higher in 2013 than in 2005. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
by the French. Nyobe then founded an underground party known as the Union des Populations du Cameroun , or the UPC. The UPC drew most of its suport...African states just referred to saw less than 0.10% of their population in the regular armed forces: Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Upper Volta, Cameroun , Ivory...occurred within three years of independence, as in Cameroun , * Congo (L.), Zanzibar, Tanganyika, Kenya, Uganda, Angola, and Mozamibique. But an
Full Text Available The book is divided in two parts: the introduction and conclusion (by Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin and several case studies of individual police organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. In the introduction, Caparini and Marenin emphasise the importance of the police in a democratic society. The main function of the police – the provision of security – is one of the basic demands laid against the state by its society. Democratic policing is described in the first part of the introduc...
Full Text Available This paper draws from critical data studies and related fields to investigate police officer-involved homicide data for Los Angeles County. We frame police officer-involved homicide data as a rhetorical tool that can reify certain assumptions about the world and extend regimes of power. We highlight the possibility that this type of sensitive civic data can be investigated and employed within local communities through creative practice. Community involvement with data can create a countervailing force to powerful dominant narratives and supplement activist projects that hold local officials accountable for their actions. Our analysis examines four Los Angeles County police officer-involved homicide data sets. First, we provide accounts of the semantics, granularity, scale and transparency of this local data. Then, we describe a “counter data action,” an event that invited members of the community to identify the limits and challenges present in police officer-involved homicide data and to propose new methods for deriving meaning from these indicators and statistics.
This book concerns itself with the implementation of human rights strategies within the state police forces of Rio de Janeiro as an attempt to improve policing and enhance police compliance with human rights standards. For the sake of this research, police human rights strategies have been defined
Full Text Available Globalisation has increased the importance of international police cooperation. While cross-border law enforcement can be traced back as far as the Nineteenth Century, police cooperation today—such as Joint Investigation Teams, International Liaison Officers, and Interpol—only came about in the Twentieth Century. It was developed to counter transnational organised crime, such as drug crime and immigration crime, as well as terrorism. But, another aspect of international policing is that of peacekeeping; that is, the deployment of national police to countries during or after conflict to maintain law and order where the local police do not have sufficient capacities. This paper examines how women have been elevated in this police cooperation role, particularly Interpol and international peacekeeping. The discussion focuses on whether there are indications that internationally related tasks and agencies provide a more accepting environment for female police officers as opposed to a national police force setting.
Full Text Available Unlike previous studies on robotization approaching the future based on the cutting-edge technologies and adopting a framework where robotization is considered as an exogenous variable, this study considers that robotization occurs endogenously and uses it as a dependent variable for an objective examination of the effect of robotization on the labor market. To this end, a robotization indicator is created based on the actual number of industrial robots currently deployed in workplaces, and a multiple regression analysis is performed using the robotization indicator and labor variables such as employment, working hours, and wage. The results using the multiple regression considering the triangular relationship of employment–working-hours–wages show that job destruction due to robotization is not too remarkable yet that use. Our results show the complementary relation between employment and robotization, but the substituting relation between working hour and robotization. The results also demonstrate the effects of union, the size of the company and the proportion of production workers and simple labor workers etc. These findings indicate that the degree of robotization may vary with many factors of the labor market. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are also discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an advanced RMS voltage sensor based on rotating parallel-plate capacitors based on the principle of electrostatic force. The actuator is built using a micromechanical thin bulk silicon batch process yielding structures with a high sensitivity mainly due to a low mechanical spring constant, realized with thin and long beams. Metal layers provide separated excitation and sensing electrodes. The actuator is anodically bonded on a matching glass substrate with a shallow rectangular cavity in which the opposite electrodes are located and which defines the working distance to be as low as 2.5 μm. To avoid stiction, bumpers with a small contact area physically prevent short circuiting under pull-in conditions and thus improve the reliability. Finally design choices and the micromechanical fabrication process are explained. Moreover, DC and RF characterization results of the devices are presented showing successful operation from below 10 Hz up to more than 1 MHz.
Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.
Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and internationa...
be seen from a public opinion survey conducted in the early 1980s by a German marketing group seeking to gauge the general desire for a completely...kidnapped by BR. 1982 Dozier freed during operation by Nucleo Operativo Cetrale di Sicurezza (NOCS), police antiterrorism task force. 1982 Law
Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.
The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)
Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977
The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.
Angeles Police Department MFF Mobile Field Force MPD Madison Police Department NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association NFL National...a person’s identity is determined by acceptance to a specific group.28 This relationship gives the person a sense of esteem and belonging, while...individualization is the concept of losing one’s self identify to the dynamic of a crowd. In 1946, Jung argued, “being in a crowd leads to the loss of one’s
Jones, Matthew Leonard; Williams, Matthew Leighton
Twenty years ago Mark Burke's pioneering research into homosexuality and policing evidenced widespread prejudice and hostility toward lesbian, gay and bisexual police officers in nine forces across England and Wales. These serving officers were felt to represent the most serious kind of contamination and threat to the integrity of the British Police Service by their heterosexual colleagues. Twenty years on this research, which represents one of the largest ever surveys of LGB police officers ...
Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.
Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith
Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.
Ann I. Ogbo
Full Text Available The success of a security outfit depends on the strategies and structure of the organisation. The study aims to unravel the possible ways of positioning the Nigerian Police force for effective service delivery through strategic restructuring. Nigerian police was instituted by the colonial authors on the threshold of oppression to achieve subjection and control. Upon this pattern of operation, the Nigerian police force lost the confidence of the public. To position this agency for desired performance, several changes should be made in the strategies and structure of the force, de-emphasizing on the issues that are no longer recent problems and emphasizing on the current bane of the nation, such as corruption and insecurity. This paper adopted the mono-method qualitative approach which made use of secondary sources of data collection. Findings, revealed that the department of the Force that was responsible for information and intelligent gathering, the CID has lied dormant for long a time due to lack of adequate structure as a background that will add value to the department. Furthermore, the force was bedevilled with poor information gathering due to lack of trust and confidence in the police force, the level of motivation was found to be low, as there were no insurance policies for the Force. It is thus obvious to note that the Nigerian police force has suitable strategies that are capable of a sustainable performance, but it is challenged by lack of corresponding structure to work out the strategies. The study proposed that one DIG in addition to the twelve DIGs should be integrated to man a department with the duty of developing and maintaining good relationship with the public, and providing EFCC, ICPC and other crime related agencies with the needed force in discharging their duties. Finally, there is a need for an upward review of the reward and compensation package of the Nigerian Police Force as a way of stepping up on motivation
Full Text Available Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and international migration, and national and international challenges posed by the cross-jurisdictional nature of crime in a global society are key sociological and criminological factors that police education programs must keep pace with. In a time of such global fluidity, it is argued that designers of police curricula must reassess the underlying principles that have historically shaped police education in Australia. This is a critical discussion that examines two key areas associated with globalisation and proposes the adoption of a definition of global literacies as a guiding principle for police education in the twenty-first century. The study concludes by offering three specific recommendations for the redevelopment of future police curricula.
Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.
HyungBin Moon; Hyunhong Choi; Jongsu Lee; Ki Soo Lee
This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward int...
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Constantino, Patrícia
This study was based on a larger survey on the socioeconomic, quality-of-life, occupational, and health characteristics of military and civil police in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study triangulated quantitative methods (an anonymous questionnaire in a random sample of clusters involving 46 police units and 2,678 police force members) and qualitative ones (18 focus groups with 143 police force members, 24 individual semi-structured interviews, and field observations). The article specifically approaches the issues of victimization and perceived risks among on-duty and off-duty police. Data were processed and analyzed according to risk-related variables. We performed a content analysis, comparing strata within and between police forces, according to thematic lines. This empirical approach is supported by secondary data analyses. According to our analysis, the police are the greatest victims in the performance of their duties, especially military police and those from both forces involved in direct law enforcement activities. Different variables are associated with risk in the two forces, with an emphasis on work conditions and especially involvement in other activities during their official off-duty time.
... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...
Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study).
Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary
Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. British police force employees enrolled (2007-2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI30 kg/m 2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
de Graaf, Gjalt; Meijer, Albert
The use of social media produces new value conflicts in public governance. The police force is a public organization directly confronted with these changes. However, there is no systematic understanding of these conflicts in daily police practice or of the coping strategies used. This article
E.H. Korteland (Evelien); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)
textabstractThis article examines the diffusion and adoption process of an electronic service delivery innovation, which can be seen as an example of e-policing – called SMS-alert – among Dutch police forces. Important is not only to pay attention to the question how an innovation has spread - and
Full Text Available There is an appearance that women are uninterested in applying for positions in specialist areas of policing such as tactical operations, traffic and highway patrol, and counterterrorism. It cannot be assumed however that the low numbers of women is indicative of a lack of interest or will to be involved in these areas as there may be unidentified structural impediments preventing them from gaining access to these jobs. This paper critically discusses the issues relevant to women’s involvement in specialist policing roles and what can be done by police leaders to encourage greater employment of women in specialist policing roles.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don
There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a paramilitary occupation force into a professional law enforcement organisation, extra-territorial recruits were phased out in favour of local men fluent in local languages with western-style education. Despite this ...
Vy Han; John R. Marshall
History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...
Full Text Available An e-learning conference was organized on 23 March in Belgrade, Serbia,as an activity of the Organization for Security and Cooperation inEurope mission in Serbia. E-learning experts from Serbia, Slovenia,Sweden and Turkey discussed e-learning, methods for introducing elearning,e-learning technology, and the impact of e-learning. In theafternoon the invited experts presented examples of best practices inthe training of police personnel in Sweden and Turkey.
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The... the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense, an investigation by the military police... exchanged between Department of Defense (DOD) law enforcement agencies, military police, USACIDC, local...
Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.
A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…
Reports a continuing longitudinal study begun in 1967 of attitudinal and behavioral change among recruits in the Philadelphia Police Department. Behavioral components are secrecy and mandatory mutual assistance. Comparisons are made with attitudes of detectives and experienced Patrolmen. (DB)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...
Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the
Van Aerden, K.; Moors, G.B.D.; Levecque, K.; Vanroelen, C.
In this article, data from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey are used to examine the relationship between contemporary employment arrangements and the work-related well-being of European employees. By means of a Latent Class Cluster Analysis, several features of the employment conditions
Shimada, Naoki; Yoshioka, Takashi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa
This paper proposes a new fine-motion-control method for realizing high-accuracy and high-speed contact motion of industrial robots by employing sensorless force control. Today, although industrial robots have become considerably important in the modern industrial society, their functions are limited. A typical limited function is the positioning motion control of robots used in the manufacturing industry. Contact motion is necessary for almost all new applications. In this study, by employing the proposed motion control, smooth and quick contact motion of industrial robots is realized by using a sensorless I-P (Integral-Proportional) force feedback controller. The proposed method is simple and effective, takes into account both the inertia of a robot and the behavior of the I-P force controller. In the experiments, a three-degree-of-freedom robot is brought into contact with an object (a concrete block or a rubber board) by the I-P force control using the proposed method. Further, in the experiment, the motion of the robot's end-effector was considered. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by using a six-axis force sensor and an acceleration sensor in the contact motion experiments.
Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan
Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.
Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug testing by police
Geoffrey M. Steeves
Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.
Full Text Available BackgroundPolice work tends to impose a high degree of stress and amultiplicity of stressful situations which can affect thephysical, mental and interpersonal relationships of policepersonnel. The objective of the present study was to assessthe level of stress among police personnel and to find theassociation of various factors with the level of stress amongpolice personnel.MethodA cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 policepersonnel in Wardha city. A structured questionnaire basedon The Professional Life Stress Test by Fontana was given toall participants. A grading scale was used to linkparticipant’s verbal descriptions of perceived stress to anumerical scoring system being given scores between zeroand five. The total score obtained for each respondent wasconsidered as a measure of stress level.ResultsDifferent stressors that were identified among the policepersonnel included criticism by superiors, excess work, norewards, inadequate value given to abilities andcommitments and no satisfaction from work. Seventyparticipants scored >15 which indicated that stress in theworkplace was a problem, while 32 participants scored ≤15,indicating stress in the workplace was not a problem. Asignificant association was found with between age group,marital status, education and working hours and the level ofstress among police personnel.ConclusionThe majority of police personnel studied were under stressat their workplace due to a variety of stressors. Thisindicates the necessity to modify the organizationalenvironment within the police force.
Nelson, K V; Smith, A P
Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801
Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.
Katya Luciane de Oliveira
Full Text Available A vida laboral do policial militar está permeada por situações que envolvem estresse extremo. Esse fato pode gerar possíveis quadros de desequilíbrio emocional. Assim, explorar a percepção de policiais militares da força tática e de rua acerca dos aspectos que permeiam sua saúde mental foi o objetivo deste estudo. Participaram 24 policiais militares de dois Batalhões da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo. Para aqueles que consentiram na participação, foi aplicado individualmente uma escala com 30 questões, abordando assuntos relativos ao tema. Os resultados evidenciaram que os participantes (91,7%, sempre ou às vezes, percebiam-se estressados; uma parte (41,7% relatou já ter agido impulsivamente em alguma ocorrência; 88,3%, sempre ou às vezes, se sentiam emocionalmente cansados após o dia de trabalho; 62,5% afirmaram que às vezes percebiam-se agressivos no trabalho; 20,8% já pensaram em suicídio e 8,3% nunca se sentiam realizados com a profissão. Sugere-se a necessidade de novos estudos.In his work, the military police officer is constantly exposed to situations involving extreme stress. It can result in a state of emotional imbalance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the perception of the military police officers, both the tactical force and the street officers, regarding the aspects that affect their mental health. The participants were 24 military police officers, from two battalions of the Military Police of the state of São Paulo. Those who consented to participate had to answer, individually, 30 questions addressing issues related to the topic. The results showed that the participants (91.7% sometimes, or always, feel stressed; some of them (41.7% reported that they sometimes act on impulse; 88.3% sometimes, or always, feel emotionally exhausted after a day of work; 62.5% said they had been aggressive at work; 20.8% had already considered suicide; and 8.3% were not satisfied with their jobs. In
The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...
B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)
textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I
Full Text Available 46 sampling research taking care of people who are driving license (SIM in the police force aims to examine the relationship between service quality and satisfaction with the public image of the police institution. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using the Likert model of multiple regression techniques. Results of hypothesis testing showed R = 0.619; F = 44.422; and p = 0.000 (p <0.05 showed that the quality of services and satisfaction of the people together influenced the image of the police. The coefficient of determination explains that the simultaneous quality of services and satisfaction of the people were able to contribute effectively to the image of the police amounted to 38.3%. The results of partial analysis shows that the relationship between service quality and image of the police has a value of p = 0.000 (p <5%, and r = 0.361, which means the quality of service to the image of the police institution is low. Partial assay analysis results between people's satisfaction with the image of the police obtained value of p = 0.000 (p <0.05; r = 0.322, which means people's satisfaction with the image of the police institutions have a significant positive correlation with the level of relationships is low
Full Text Available The increasingly complex police - citizen situations in which the novice police officer may be placed demand that police training environments continually assess their education programs to ensure that such programs are contemporary and meet the expectations of stakeholders. One challenge facing recruit raining is the need to prepare the novice police officer to communicate effectively in often stressful and complicated situations. Police educators must develop learning strategies which provide opportunity for students to build their capacity to be effective communicators through autonomous, student - centered learning experiences. The communications teaching and learning opportunities within the Associate Degree in Policing Practice for New South Wales Police Force (NSWPF recruits is no exception. This paper discusses the changes that have occurred to the delivery of communication training to NSWPF recruits over the past 15 years. It considers the merits of incorporating authentic teaching strategies and learner assessment processes into the delivery of communication education and of creating experiential learning experiences that support autonomous, self-regulated learners. In particular, it discusses the use of role plays (verbal communication trials to provide a unique and authentic learning experience for students and to assess their verbal and non-verbal communication skills in a simulated policing environment.
Full Text Available The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number, delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; García López, Diana; Brown, Sam P; Goldstein, Richard A
The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC) among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number), delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.
Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.
Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...
Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in
.... (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing off...) Military and/or DAFC police assigned to off-installation operations have the sole purpose of enforcing parts, and orders pertaining to persons subject to their jurisdiction. (c) Military and/or DAFC police...
Department), Jing Zhiyuan (commander of the Second Artillery), Wu Shengli (commander of the PLAN), and Xu Qiliang (commander of the PLAAF). See Cheng Li...these 9 “TKP: Ma Xiaotian to Become President of PLA National Defense University—Report by Wu Yue: ‘Ma Xiaotian Promoted to Office of President of...concepts that were advanced by Mao Zedong in the 1930s are still found in PLA and PLAAF employment concepts today. “Active defense,” which is regarded as
Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.
Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)
This duty is distilled into standard policing to enforce law and order in the wake of a secured/safe environment. The standard of ... The paper recommended some important strategies for effective policing which includes re-orientation of the police, proper training, provision of firearms, motivation and public responsibility.
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55... Transgovernmentalism , Intergovernmentalism, Regionalism, Effectiveness, International Police Cooperation Organizations 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Although speed plays a large part in the occurrence of crashes, drivers often exceed the speed limit. The police use various methods when carrying out their speed surveillance. In the Netherlands positive effects have been found of speed surveillance with radar cars (without stopping). It is to be
Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.
One of the aspects of the military defense system is the need for protection, security and retrieval of property and persons belonging to the armed forces and resources, their capabilities and defense in general. This process is accomplished through taking a complex set of measures and activities by the authorities and units of the military police. The specificity of the research service of the military police is the focus of activities to find, capture and arrest the perpetrators...
existing insurgent networks. Intelligence collection is critical to the extraction of insurgent political agents and “does not end when the political...occupation. Furthermore, there were no approved travel zones between the US and Soviet sectors.81 To counter this friction, the US Constabulary would...foreign police and to restore state legitimacy. This expeditionary police force has intervened in many struggling states, including Cambodia , Somalia
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work....
Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura
Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
Chan, J B
The advent of public-sector managerialism has brought with it a new principle of police accountability in Western democracies such as Australia and Britain. The new accountability gives emphasis to managerial rather than legal or public-interest standards, favours external oversight combined with self-regulation rather than centralized control, and promotes risk management rather than rule enforcement. This article makes use of the experience of an Australian police force to show that the new accountability has not been successful in holding police accountable, while elements of the old accountability have re-emerged to dominate public debates. It is argued that in the area of police governance, the neo-liberal state does not necessarily pursue a coherent strategy of 'acting at a distance' (cf. Miller and Rose 1990), partly because of the inability of accountability technologies to deliver substantially the promised policy outcomes and partly because of the sensitivity of its political arm to the public's moral outrage against corruption (cf. Garland 1996).
... has taken an integrated approach to Force Protection. There is a recognition that Force Protection is not a Security Police operation; but is a Security Force oDeration. This exemplifies a mindset change and a movement away from pure.
Background: Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease. Among members of the Uganda Police Force, alcohol dependence has been a major contributor of poor mental health, poor work output and forced retirement. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ...
Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.
Full Text Available Individual citizens and social movement organizations document police with video, both serendipitously and deliberately. This documentation is characterized as an intervention, one that not only promises to alter events, but to fulfill civic responsibilities. Simply, video recording police makes one an active citizen, rather than a passive bystander. For instance, at Occupy Wall Street, video recording was a primary and normalized response by protesters when police used coercive force against other protesters. Their use of video streaming apps to live-broadcast such events—while chanting “The whole world is watching!”—shows how protesters framed watching as an intercession. The National Police Monitoring and Reporting Project frames citizen documentation of police as a duty, one that produces protective power against police violence. Copwatch “know your rights” training similarly portrays spontaneous filming as an intervention in violent policing. In other cases, however, video documentation is cast as a shame-worthy denial of a citizen’s responsibility to intervene to stop the perpetration of violence. In light of its equivocal standing, the treatment of documenting violence as an intervention is in doubt.
Heraldo Lorena Guida
Full Text Available Police officers are exposed to impact noise coming from firearms, which may cause irreversible injuries to the hearing system. AIM: To evaluate the noise exposure in shooting stands during gunfire exercises, to analyze the acoustic impact of the noise produced by the firearms and to associate it with tonal audiometry results. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To measure noise intensity we used a digital sound level meter, and the acoustic analysis was carried out by means of the oscillations and cochlear response curves provided by the praat software. 30 police officers were selected (27 males and 3 females. RESULTS: The peak level measured was 113.1 dB(C from a .40 pistol and 116.8 dB(C for a .38 revolver. The values obtained for oscillation and praat was 17.9±0.3 Barks, corresponding to the rate of 4,120 and 4,580 Hz. Audiometry indicated greater hearing loss at 4,000Hz in 86.7% of the cases. CONCLUSION: With the acoustic analysis it was possible to show cause and effect between the main areas of energy excitation of the cochlea (praat cochlear response curve and the frequencies of low hearing acuity.Os policiais militares estão expostos a ruídos de impacto provenientes de armas de fogo, os quais são capazes de causar lesões irreversíveis ao sistema auditivo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exposição ao ruído no estande de tiros durante os exercícios de tiro, analisar acusticamente o ruído de impacto e relacioná-lo com os resultados de audiometria tonal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A medição do ruído foi feita por meio de decibelímetro digital e a análise acústica foi feita no software Praat, levantando as curvas de oscilograma e cocleograma. Foi selecionada uma amostra de 30 policiais militares (27 masculinos e 3 femininos. RESULTADOS: Os picos máximos medidos no estante de tiros foram de 113,1 dB(C para pistola .40 e 116,8 dB(C para revólver .38. Os valores obtidos por meio da relação entre
Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H
The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand
Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan D; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Agampodi, Suneth B
Policing is regarded as a high-risk profession for the development of mental health disturbances owing to various critical incidents and potential traumatic events they encounter. Exploration of mental health problems in policing in Sri Lanka, which recently concluded a civil war expanded over three decades, is a timely, yet, a neglected issue. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and associated factors of depression among police officers in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted using a simple random sample of 750 police officers employed in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A self administered questionnaire, including "Peradeniya Depression Scale" to assess depression, was used to collect data. The prevalence of depression was calculated as point prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between depression and selected predictors identified at bivariate analysis at p Sri Lanka. Given the modifiable nature of the significant predictors, it is recommended to design a package of interventions and implement adaptive measures to rectify the problems related to depression among police officers.
analysis, the establishment of criminal databases , and the use of polygraph tests. He believed in training all police officers in criminal...level of mutual confidence. There was a lack of formal crime prevention studies in the country. There was a lack of a criminal database arranging...Iraq, 1953, 23. 56 John F. Devlin. "Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis." JSTOR . December 1991. http://www.jstor.org/stabel/2165277 (accessed January
Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael
to facilitate peaceful protest through dialogue and communication. This paper reports upon a critical ‘test case’ for this ‘new approach’ by analysing the policing of a series of protests against Government policy across 3 days that surrounded a Government party conference in Sheffield, a large city...... in the north of England. This paper draws out lessons to be learned from what proved to be a highly successful dialogue-based approach to policing protests. We contend that dialogue and liaison were effective because they allowed for an ongoing dynamic risk assessment that improved command-level decision...... making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...
Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz
The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.
Abstract This article provides the background to an international project on use of force by the police that was carried out in seven countries. Force is often considered to be the defining characteristic of policing and much research has been conducted on the determinants, prevalence and control of the use of force, particularly in the United States. However, little work has looked at police officers? own views on the use of force, in particular the way in which they justify it. U...
McGeechan, Grant James; Richardson, Catherine; Weir, Kevin; Wilson, Lynn; O'Neill, Gillian; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
Those bereaved by suicide are at increased risk of psychological harm, which can be reduced with the provision of timely support. This paper outlines an evaluation of a pilot police-led suicide strategy, in comparison to a coroner-led suicide strategy looking at the number, and length of time it takes for deaths to be recorded for each strategy. Additionally, the police-led strategy offers timely contact from support services for bereaved individuals. We examined what impact this offer of support had on the capacity of support services. A mixed methods evaluation compared how long it took for suspected suicides to be recorded using both strategies. The number of referrals received by support services during the pilot strategy were compared with those from previous years. A feedback focus group, and interviews, were held with key stakeholders. The coroner strategy was more consistent at identifying suspected suicides; however, reports were filed quicker by the police. Bereaved individuals were willing to share contact details with police officers and consent for referral to support services which lead to increased referrals. The focus group and interviews revealed that the pilot police strategy needs better integration into routine police practice. This strategy has the potential to deliver a real benefit to those bereaved by suicide; however, there are still aspects which could be improved. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
and notes: The lack of embeddedness of prodemocracy elites is reflected in the idealized view of democracy they embrace. They portray democracy as...Additionally, for individual police officers, policing is their livelihood in a competitive job market with extremely high unemployment. Thus, the police
Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C
This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode
personal experiences as a Security Forces commander executing the Police Transition Team mission in Iraq. Ultimately this analysis revolves around... eyes of the indigenous culture, it wasn’t a war for communism, it was a civil war for unification. “Former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara...in a color coded method for each of the police stations and police chiefs and then report that information up the chain of command in what was called
.... Local police agencies have previously not had a formal role in radiological security. This thesis explores policy initiatives, based on community policing principles conducted at the local police level, which will enhance security at locations where radiological materials are kept.
Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.
Tyler, Tom R; Goff, Phillip Atiba; MacCoun, Robert J
The May 2015 release of the report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing highlighted a fundamental change in the issues dominating discussions about policing in America. That change has moved discussions away from a focus on what is legal or effective in crime control and toward a concern for how the actions of the police influence public trust and confidence in the police. This shift in discourse has been motivated by two factors-first, the recognition by public officials that increases in the professionalism of the police and dramatic declines in the rate of crime have not led to increases in police legitimacy, and second, greater awareness of the limits of the dominant coercive model of policing and of the benefits of an alternative and more consensual model based on public trust and confidence in the police and legal system. Psychological research has played an important role in legitimating this change in the way policymakers think about policing by demonstrating that perceived legitimacy shapes a set of law-related behaviors as well as or better than concerns about the risk of punishment. Those behaviors include compliance with the law and cooperation with legal authorities. These findings demonstrate that legal authorities gain by a focus on legitimacy. Psychological research has further contributed by articulating and demonstrating empirical support for a central role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy, providing legal authorities with a clear road map of strategies for creating and maintaining public trust. Given evidence of the benefits of legitimacy and a set of guidelines concerning its antecedents, policymakers have increasingly focused on the question of public trust when considering issues in policing. The acceptance of a legitimacy-based consensual model of police authority building on theories and research studies originating within psychology illustrates how psychology can contribute to the development of evidence
Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn
The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following
Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.
The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…
Over the past two decades the theories and strategies associated with institutional reform of the police as public agency have been a source of invigoration for ... Criminology, Faculty of Law at the University of Cape. Town. Elrena van der Spuy*. Elrena.email@example.com. Title: Police reform from the bottom up: officers ...
Lee, Daniel E.
Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…
Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)
Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...
The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping ... Police officers who experienced stress took to alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and religiousity to cope with ..... It does appear that the habit of drinking alcohol to overcome stress is a global phenomenon that ...
This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities, interaction and differential treatment are substandard in Dutch police stations, but dependent of the organisational size, degree of
According to Arase and Iwuofor (2007) training is an invaluable tool for the effective policing of any society. An untrained or ill-trained police officer lacks the requisite knowledge, skill and attitude for effective crime control and is also a threat to the society. Regular training programmes should be organized to enhance ...
Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective
Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping with stress and the outcomes. A total number of 300 police officers randomly selected participated in the survey. The participants responded to. Work Stress Inventory (WSI). They also responded to self- ...
Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.
This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...... as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food...
Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul
The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.
Police brutality, a longstanding civil rights issue, has returned to the forefront of American public debate. A growing body of public health research shows that excessive use of force by police and racial profiling have adverse effects on health for African Americans and other marginalized groups. Yet, interventions to monitor unlawful policing have been met with fierce opposition at the federal, state, and local levels. On April 30, 2015, the mayor of Newark, New Jersey signed an executive order establishing a Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) to monitor the Newark Police Department (NPD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examined how advocates and government actors accomplished this recent policy change in the face of police opposition and after a 50-year history of unsuccessful attempts in Newark. Drawing on official public documents, news media, and interviews conducted in April and May 2015, I propose that: (1) a Department of Justice investigation of the NPD, (2) the activist background of the Mayor and his relationships with community organizations, and (3) the momentum provided by the national Black Lives Matter movement were pivotal in overcoming political obstacles to reform. Examining the history of CCRB adoption in Newark suggests when and where advocates may intervene to promote policing reforms in other US cities.
Alina Lis Rios
Full Text Available This study analyzes the emergence and operation of the Urban Guard (in portugueses, GU of Buenos Aires, (2004 and 2007, as a police communitary resulting of the reorganization of local government autonomy. This process resulted in a dual model of policing in the city, represented by GU in contraposition to the national security forces, more centralist and verticalized. This paper investigates the implications of GU in the dispute for police authority in the city and a particular historical way of security building: citizen safety. This duality represents a possible compromise between national interests and those of the city. The paper concludes with reflections on the crisis of this dual model, the redefinition of the security problem and the demands of a local "own police". It indicates that it is in the duality of security that an Urban Guard is understood, as a proximity policing that complements but does not replace the old police.
Huberts, L.W.J.C.; Kaptein, M.; Lasthuizen, K.M.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between three aspects of leadership - role modeling, strictness, and openness - and nine types of integrity violations within the Dutch police force. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper data were collected by means of a
Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van
lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...
Jaime Mauricio Achury Sabogal
Full Text Available The investigation is based on the construction of a new health model under the strategies of the Primary Health Care (APS, which was applied in the year 2004 to a 199 population of chronic patients users of the Colombia`s National Police health system to which a survey and a clinical review before and after the intervention. Very interesting results were obtained contributes with new knowledge for the country and especially for the health system of the Military Forces and the National Police.
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes
In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.
Graça, Pedro Miguel Duarte da
The nature of conflict is changing. The occurrences of formal international intervention, in a complex theater of operations with operational requirements, necessitate the engagement of international forces with military and civilian capabilities, namely a distinctive type of police force. Since the end of the last century, the Portuguese Republican National Guard (GNR) has deployed to stabilize various conflicts throughout the world. The GNR contributed when UN resolutions man...
A random sample of 28 out of 86 brothels along the G. B. Road in India revealed that almost 60% of the prostitutes were children. The law does not punish prostitutes who are older than 18 and do not solicit business publicly, but it does punish running a brothel, living on the earnings of prostitutes, procuring or inducing people to become prostitutes, and soliciting in public places. The law, which is mostly used to harass prostitutes, invokes penalties of imprisonment for procuring or trafficking and for forcible detention for the purpose of prostitution while creating a special police force to stop trafficking, special courts to deal with cases, and protective homes for "rescued" girls. The law fails to punish clients or make provisions for the rehabilitation of rescued women. Offenses rarely end in convictions. In fact, police officers extort money from traffickers, prostitutes, and madams and abet the system of prostitution through a scheme of false registration of the girls that creates the fiction that they are not minors and creates a debt paid by the madams that places the girls in virtual bondage. There is a set rate for police bribes, depending upon the size of the brothel. Police also are clients themselves and/or extort money from clients. When arrests are made (to make police records look good), police deliberately target adult prostitutes instead of the minors because it is harder to get the minors released back into prostitution. The police are reluctant to release records about prostitution and are complicit when madams present false affirmations that they are relatives of minor girls to get them released from juvenile remand homes. The girls are recruited from impoverished families in the countryside who are paid for giving their daughters in false marriages.
There has been a growing interest among academicians, researchers and policy-makers in promoting community policing as a modern way to deal with crimes and community problems. Community policing is a philosophy of policing based on the concept that police officers and citizens working together in creative ways to control crimes. The purpose of this research is to get the perspectives of kids/teens regarding crime and police since this segment of society is most vulnerable to crimes. This will...
fired under bad circumstances either having stolen some item of value from his employer or offended, harassed, accosted, or raped a co-worker, classmate...for special access programs. , 3.10. Employs specialized investigative techniques to include forensic and t:>ehavioral sciencell and hypnosis . 3.11
Full Text Available Present paper aims at considering the professional reintegration of a police officer discharged from the law enforcement forces due to a conviction with conditional suspension of the custodial punishment. The debated issues follow the criminal and criminal procedure law reform in Romania, during 2013-2016, reform which resulted in a legislative void and a non-unitary and uncorrelated interpretation of the old legislation. The academic and practical significance of this endeavor consists in analyzing a transitional situation due to the failure of the legislator that remained unregulated and is likely to lead to a non-unitary interpretation and consequently to the flagrant damaging of the fundamental rights of police officers. Without wishing to be an exhaustive initiative, the present paper represents a review that highlights the doctrinal and jurisprudential implications of a conviction with conditional suspension of the custodial sentence, upon labor relations of the police officers.
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Agans, Robert; Malebranche, David J
Objectives Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men’s perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) scale. Methods In Study 1, we employed thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n=10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n=15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n=13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Results Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents’ experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men’s experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. PMID:28080104
Aymaliev Ivan, М.
Full Text Available Despite institutional change, corrupt networks have been tremendously successful enterprises at the expense of the public good; returning and evolving with new elements. For public sector corruption to prosper, bureaucracies must possess certain structural characteristics which facilitate criminal behavior. Although public organizations have been largely studied, it is less clear how their structure creates opportunities for deviance. Given the understudied field of paramilitary bureaucracies and the deleterious consequences of corruption for socioeconomic development and (international security, we seek to understand: “How and why does the structure of police organizations facilitate corruption?” To address this question, we draw upon organizational, covert networks, and organized crime theories, and test them using a conditional uniform graph test on a dataset that includes the formal hierarchical structures of the modern police forces in Russia and the United States. We show that despite operating in largely different institutional regimes, the Moscow and the Los Angeles police department exhibit similar structural characteristics. Police bureaucracies’ structures are efficient in performing complex tasks, but are highly conducive to concealment, creating numerous temptations and opportunities for corruption. Lastly, we show that police organizations are scale-free networks which makes them extremely vulnerable to corruptive pressures.
Rhodes, Tim; Simic, Milena; Baros, Sladjana; Platt, Lucy; Zikic, Bojan
To explore female and transvestite sex workers' perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Qualitative interview study. Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work.
Full Text Available Despite the fact that Australia and the European Union (EU have different structures of governance, histories, and cultures, both entities face remarkably similar problems in relation to police cooperation across borders. Australia is divided in nine different criminal jurisdictions, each of them policed by its own police force. Problems of border crossing, information exchange and joint investigations therefore arise similar to those in the EU. These problems have intensified in the 20th century with globalisation and the increased mobility of offenders. Several strategies, both legal and administrative, have necessarily developed to secure inter-state borders. Many of these strategies, like joint investigation teams, common databases and mutual recognition can be compared to solutions developed in the EU. This article will analyse some of the strategies that have been developed in Australia and in the EU to out-balance the lack of borders within them. It will be discussed what the major common impediments to police cooperation are in both entities. As many problems of cross-border policing result from the fact that law enforcement strategies are purely regional, it will be explored how more advanced cooperation strategies could be harmonised at the EU and Australian Federal levels. The major inhibiting factor in relation to harmonisation of legal frameworks in both entities will be defined as ‘the fear of insignificance’ or the fear of state actors to lose their individual identities in the process of harmonisation.
A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…
Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.
A. Ogorodova (Anna); T. Spronken (Taru)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is
Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible "value-shift" for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking.
Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.
Erez, Edna; Ibarra, Peter R; Gur, Oren M
This article addresses the challenges posed by state intervention in a multicultural society characterized by intense political conflict, juxtaposing the voices of batterers, victims, community members, and the officials who are involved in policing domestic violence (DV) in the Arab community in Israel. A meta-analysis of interview-based data excerpts appearing in published studies shows how the response to DV in the Arab community, though consistent with Israeli law and policy, creates a sense of paralysis for the police and frustration for the parties to the violence as well as the affected communities. The cultural, social, and political forces that underlie the dynamics, tensions, and pressures experienced by the various parties are analyzed in the context of everyday life amid concerns about the Israeli-Arab conflict. The implications for policing DV in minority communities, and for police-community relations in political conflict zones, are highlighted. © The Author(s) 2014.
Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; DeMarco, David; Hassel, Robert; Silverstone, Peter H.
Police and law enforcement providers frequently come into contact with individuals who have psychiatric disorders, sometimes with tragic results. Repeated studies suggest that greater understanding of psychiatric conditions by police officers would be beneficial. Here we present a novel approach to training police officers to improve their interactions with those who might have a mental illness. This approach involved developing a carefully scripted role-play training, which involved police officers (n = 663) interacting with highly trained actors during six realistic scenarios. The primary goal of the training was to improve empathy, communication skills, and the ability of officers to de-escalate potentially difficult situations. Uniquely, feedback was given to officers after each scenario by several individuals including experienced police officers, a mental health professional, and by the actors involved (with insights such as “this is how you made me feel”). Results showed that there were no changes in attitudes of the police toward the mentally ill comparing data at baseline and at 6 months after the training in those who completed both ratings (n = 170). In contrast, there were significant improvements in directly measured behaviors (n = 142) as well as in indirect measurements of behavior throughout the police force. Thus, compared to previous years, there was a significant increase in the recognition of mental health issues as a reason for a call (40%), improved efficiency in dealing with mental health issues, and a decrease in weapon or physical interactions with mentally ill individuals. The training cost was $120 per officer but led to significant cost savings (more than $80,000) in the following 6 months. In conclusion, this novel 1-day training course significantly changed behavior of police officers in meaningful ways and also led to cost savings. We propose that this training model could be adopted by other police agencies. PMID
Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.
This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with
2006.1 These figures combine two counts: one from the Iraq Ministry of Health, which records deaths reported by hospitals; and one from the Medico ...casualties as well using an IBC-like method of posting media reports of deaths. ICCC, like IBC, is prone to the kind of errors likely when using media
Full Text Available This paper considers the position of women in the police profession in terms of domination of masculinity and the effects of the “glass ceiling”. Generally, these mechanisms create unequal opportunities and unequal treatment of women in the police and other predominantly male professions, and overall create adverse conditions for their integration and slower career advancement. The aim of this paper is to show that women who are employed in the police, who have an affinity for the profession and wish to advance professionally are socially conditioned in a predominantly male environment, particularly in professions that have a historically bounded rule of masculinity, and that, as such, the mechanisms of the “glass ceiling” prevent them to reach the highest step in their career. Women in the police profession still are still a minority and have to deal with well integrated social and professional structural barriers as well as cultural barriers.
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence
Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.
Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482
Volpe, Michael J
.... This provisional armored group (Task Force (TF) Butler) experienced remarkable success despite a dearth of planning, no rehearsals, and no history of working together in either training or combat...
Full Text Available Élaborée au lendemain de la guerre russo-turque de 1877-1878, la convention anglo-ottomane du 4 juin 1878 cède au Royaume-Uni l’administration de Chypre. Pour disposer d’un outil de maintien de l’ordre polyvalent, les autorités constituent ad hoc une force semi-militaire (Cyprus Police, dont l’histoire s’inscrit dans la genèse des gendarmeries qui se développent alors dans les empires britannique et ottoman. Initialement recrutée au sein des forces indigènes ottomanes, la police insulaire demeure, jusqu’en 1914, majoritairement musulmane pour des raisons pragmatiques mais de plus en plus nettement idéologiques. Si la réputation d’efficacité de la Cyprus Police s’impose vite, son impartialité souffre, après 1890, de la montée de l’énosisme. La communautarisation des débats entourant son encadrement comme la peur de débordements entretiennent, avant 1914, la surreprésentation musulmane de la Cyprus Police dont la retenue, lors des affrontements qui accompagnent la guerre turco-italienne (1911-1912, confirme l’efficacité d’un encadrement compétent, très au fait des réalités chypriotes.
da Silva Ferreira, Daniela Karina; Bonfim, Cristine; Augusto, Lia Giraldo
The scope of this investigation was to analyze the association between lifestyle and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics among military police officers (MPs). This involved a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 288 MPs within the Police Force of Recife, Pernambuco. The data were collected by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, IT tools were used (STATA-10.0 and SPSS- 15.0 for Windows) and descriptive statistics procedures, chi-square analysis and regression associations (p < 0.05). Among the lifestyle results, 12% said that they smoked, 10% were classified as cases of suspected excess consumption of alcoholic beverages, 73% were considered to be insufficiently active and 40% admitted they were involved in frequent or occasional conflicts. Age of 39 years or over (RP = 1.39), lower education level (RP = 1.68), the lowest economic level (RP = 1.49) and being in the profession for 18 years or more (RP = 1.49) were associated with lifestyles with greater risk to health (with two or more unhealthy factors). Therefore, promotion and prevention measures should be adopted in order to attempt to reduce the health vulnerabilities of these workers.
The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 firstname.lastname@example.org www.cern.ch/relations
Work under this grant was carried out by the author and by a graduate research assistant. An instrumented bicycle ergometer was implemented focusing on the stated objective: to estimate the forces exerted by each muscle of the feet, calf, and thigh of an individual while bicycling. The sensors used were light and compact. These were probes to measure muscle EMG activity, miniature accelerometers, miniature load sensors, and small encoders to measure angular positions of the pedal. A methodology was developed and implemented to completely describe the kinematics of the limbs using data from the sensors. This work has been published as a Master's Thesis by the Graduate student supported by the grant. The instrumented ergometer along with the sensors and instrumentation were tested during a KC-135 Zero-Gravity flight in July, 1994. A complete description of the system and the tests performed have been published as a report submitted to NASA Johnson Space Center. The data collected during the KC-135 flight is currently being processed so that a kinematic description of the bicycling experiment will be soon determined. A methodology to estimate the muscle forces has been formulated based on previous work. The methodology involves the use of optimization concepts so that the individual muscle forces that represent variables in dynamic equations of motion may be estimated. Optimization of a criteria (goal) function such as minimization of energy will be used along with constraint equations defined by rigid body equations of motion. Use of optimization principles is necessary, because the equations of motion alone constitute an indeterminate system of equations with respect to the large amount of muscle forces which constitute the variables in these equations. The number of variables is reduced somewhat by using forces measured by the load cells installed on the pedal. These load cells measure pressure and shear forces on the foot. The author and his collaborators at NASA
W6 9RS ENGLAND Proteccion Civil c/Evaristo 5 Miguel 8 28008 Madrid, SPAIN Hubert Williams Police Foundation 1001 22nd Street NW Suite 200 Washington...operations during natural and technological disasters; the remaining 24 studies examined police or fire response to riots or civil disturbances. Of the 26...but instead focus upon either general police activity (Wilson, 1968) or police operations during civil disturbances (Westley, 1957; Masotti and Bowen
Frazier, Joseph B
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...
Bhatia, Kishankumar Maheshkumar; Pandit, Niraj
The police personnel are special group of population that work for minimum 12 hours a day. They are at risk of various types of chronic morbidities. To determine the sociodemographic, chronic morbidity and health profile of police personnel of Vadodara district. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on the police force of Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. The present study was the outcome of health checkup camp for police personnel. Total 982 police personnel participated in the aforementioned study. Information regarding the sociodemographic profile, addiction to alcohol drinking, tobacco chewing or smoking, diagnosed chronic morbidities, BMI, blood sugar and history of exercise and yoga was collected. Data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed by using Epi-Info 7. Statistical methods used included frequencies and proportions for categorical data while range, mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. For bivariate analysis, Chi-square test was used. In the study population, 95.10% were males. The prevalence of chronic morbidity, hypertension and diabetes were 9.5%, 5% and 2.6% respectively. About 47.05% had normal BMI and mean BMI was 24. The study revealed that 7.64% police personnel had the habit of smoking, 3.16% consumed alcohol whereas 24.03% consumed tobacco products. It was found that 138 (14.05%) were active in sports and 304 (30.95%) were actively involved in exercise while 44 (4.48%) were involved in yoga. The prevalence of hypertension (5%) and diabetes (2.6%) were low as compared to the general population (NFHS-4). This can be attributed to health consciousness prevalent among the population. A substantial number of study population were involved in sports, exercise and yoga.
Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)
The Community Policing Resource Centres (CPRCs), as they are called, have a support base that draws upon five departments - Health, Women and Child, Education, Scheduled Castes and Other Back Classes, and Land Rural Development. The Punjab Police have a small budget for training in community policing, but no ...
Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari
The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…
Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.
The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation. (c...
..., an investigation by the military police, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) or other... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police...
This article presents 20 reasons why it is usually easy for police to get confessions from individuals with mental retardation. It urges that police training be seen as everyone's responsibility and that individuals with mental retardation be prepared for possible police interrogation. (DB)
Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen
This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how
José Garriga Zucal
Full Text Available Este artigo reflete sobre o conjunto de práticas policiais comumente referido como “faro policial.” Esse sistema, que distingue os cidadãos de criminosos por seus gestos, tons de voz, formas do corpo, roupas, etc, é generalizado entre os membros da polícia e interpretados por eles como muito eficaz no reconhecimento e captura de criminosos. Propomo-nos a revelar a formação desses valores e práticas do ponto de vista da polícia. Do seu ponto de vista, o “faro” é um atributo positivo adquirido por meio da experiência de trabalho. Propomos a estudar a ligação entre o “faro” com certos sujeitos sociais estigmatizados e a relação com as formas de discriminação que se interpenetram em todo o tecido da sociedade. The article Uses and Representation of the ‘Police Nose’ among Officers of The Buenos Aires Police Force reflects on the set of police practices commonly referred to as “police sense of smell”. This system, which distinguishes citizens from criminals by their gestures, tones of voice, body language, clothes, etc. is widespread among police officers and seen by them as highly effective in the recognition and arrest of criminals. We propose to reveal the formation of these values and practices from the police’s point of view. In their eyes, the “police nose” is a positive skill acquired through work experience. We propose to study the connection between the “nose” and certain stigmatized social subjects and relations with forms of discrimination that penetrate the whole make-up of society. Key words: police, violence, stigma, police nose, agency
Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Hayashi, Kanna; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2%) were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4%) participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11), recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66), syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66), and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36). Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3%) paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. Results 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4% participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11, recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66, syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66, and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36. Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3% paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. Conclusion A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.
Devroe, E.; Petrov, M.
In this article, which is embedded in the special issue of the Journal which focuses on the comparative research project ‘Policing European Metropolises’, the general aim is to provide an answer to the research question: ‘Are underlying Anglo-American assumptions regarding trends towards plural
Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee
Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)
Hochstedler, Ellen; Dunning, Christine M.
Studied the effect of satisfaction with transmittal of information on general job satisfaction in a survey of 822 police officers. Results indicated the association between job satisfaction and communication satisfaction was not as strong as hypothesized. Communication with immediate supervisor was rated as most important. (Author/JAC)
This article sketches the views and experiences of police officials responsible for enforcing liquor legislation in the Nyanga precinct of Cape Town. It is intended as a complementary response to Herrick & Charman's article, Shebeens and crime: The multiple criminalities of South African liquor and its regulation (SACQ 45) ...
Vollaard, B.; Koning, P.
In this paper, we present evidence on the effect of greater numbers of police personnel on victimisation of crime and experience of nuisance. We make use of individual data from a Dutch victimisation survey unique in its size, duration and scope. By using individual victimisation data we provide
The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of the thoughts on university students' depression and hopelessness levels about whether to become employed or unemployed after graduation. The study sampling consists of 980 students from the departments of Selcuk University, such as the Faculties of Health Sciences, Law, Veterinary, Science,…
Seyed Ali Ziaee Azimi
Full Text Available The present research is classified as an applied one employing a descriptive survey design to describe the status quo of the factors affecting customers’ satisfaction with the E-service centers of Iran’s police, known as 10 + police centers. The research population involves all the costumers of the 10+ police centers, among which 420 individuals were chosen through simple random sampling technique. Furthermore, 45 10 + police service centers were selected with probability proportional to size. After Determining the validity and reliability of the researcher-made questionnaire, it has been used to collect the required data. Then, a conceptual model was developed using the theoretical framework and background literature. After that, SPSS software was used to examine and make an analysis of the research hypothesises. The findings indicate that all the identified indices to the customers’ satisfaction with the 10 + police e- service centers (including trust and confidence, staff performance, system facility, environmental facility, basic amenity, providing sufficient notification, time and cost, easy access to the office have an effect on the customers’ satisfaction. In the end, some practical suggestions were made for an improvement in the satisfaction level of the customers to the 10 + police e- service centers.
Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina
Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...
López Alvarado, Mauricio
Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Population-centric operations force modern western democratic states to deploy both police and military capacities. Globalization and under-governed states have transformed traditional security threats; now external security threats are generated by internal factors, and internal security threats are generated by external factors. Military organizations designed to address external security threats are ill suited to deal with internal...
Schot, Suzanne; Bruijn, Larissa Michelle
During the 2015 refugee crisis border police officers engaged in violent behavior against asylum-seekers travelling through transit countries to reach the European Union. In Macedonia and Serbia, the violence included beatings, violent assaults, and the use of excessive force in form of stun
Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Wesemann, P.
In the early 1970s, The Netherlands did not limit the alcohol consumption of road users. In late 1974, a legal limit of 0.5pm came into force, the police were given breathalyser equipment to test suspected drivers, and the blood alcohol content (BAC) test was admitted as legal. Some national
Full Text Available This paper explores police stop and search practices in Toronto using the 2003-2012 data from Toronto Police Service. The findings demonstrate that for black youth, the number of stops and the stops/arrests ratios increased significantly by 42.7% and 44.9% respectively between 2003 and 2012, while for white youth, both indices decreased steadily during the same period. Moreover, they show that police stops of black youth occur most excessively in neighbourhoods where more white people reside and/or have higher crime rates. This article argues for the importance of a contextualized examination of police stops within the spatial context of neighbourhoods and calls for open and free access to police stop data, regular internal review by police, and community policing in Toronto.
Full Text Available The review of theories on police legitimacy aims at introducing the subject with a multidisciplinary approach. It quotes criminological, sociological as well as psychological and institutional theories of legitimacy, in order to provide the reader a rich framework, in which the findings of the presented current empirical studies can be evaluated. Police legitimacy is conceived as a social phenomenon, closely related to social norms such as socially constructed police roles and models of policing. The prevailing normative model of police legitimacy in criminology is discussed in greater detail, including critical outlook on procedural fairness as the assumed main source of police empirical legitimacy. Recent findings concerning legal socialization and theories of legitimization myths are high- lighted in order to supplement the micro-level oriented criminological literature on police legitimacy. Possible future pathways of legitimacy research in criminology are discussed.
Kilgore, R. A.; Davenport, E. E.
A sharp leading edge delta-wing model was tested through an angle-of-attack range at Mach numbers of 0.75, 0.80, and 0.85 at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures in the Langley 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. Total pressure was varied with total temperature in order to hold test Reynolds number constant at a given Mach number. Agreement between the aerodynamic data obtained at ambient and cryogenic temperatures indicates that flows with leading-edge vortex effects are duplicated properly at cryogenic temperatures. The test results demonstrate that accurate aerodynamic data can be obtained by using conventional force-testing techniques if suitable measures are taken to minimize temperature gradients across the balance and to keep the balance at ambient (warm) temperatures during cryogenic operation of the tunnel.
Full Text Available Administrative police, fundamental form of public administration, which aims to ensure public order and the protection of human rights, through prevention, knows no uniform conceptualization in the European states. However, it appears in various forms in national systems and is sustained and strengthened by EU policies whose objectives aim at the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice with respect for fundamental rights and the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States and to ensure a high level of security through measures of preventing crime, racism and xenophobia. This article aims to show how the concept of administrative police is reflected in the European Union, the complementary and coordinating role of the latter, and the need for a uniform legal framework in European national systems which can allow the shaping of a European model.
Daisy Sofía Rodríguez-Ugueto
Full Text Available The need to improve professional practices in the Venezuelan police is essential at the present time. The present work is inserted in this problematic from the formative perspective. It analyzes the main theoretical references regarding the training process of the police officer, their historical tendencies, as well as the essential limitations revealed in the educational context of the National Experimental University of Security in Caracas. All this epistemological and praxiological approach made it possible to propose the integrative logic of the contextualized intervention practice of this professional, through a new system of theoretical relations. For this, we used scientific research methods, such as: analysis-synthesis, empirical methods and techniques, historical-logical and holistic-dialectic for the theoretical elaboration of the proposed model.
This article outlines the role of the custody nurse in assessing an individual's fitness to be detained. It addresses all aspects of the assessment, including consent, responsibilities and the structure of the clinical examination. It explores ways to ensure that the detainee's rights and welfare are maintained and their healthcare needs are met. It offers guidance on preparing a care plan for detained individuals that the police can implement.
and accusations of eavesdropping by the NSA revealed just how politi- cally and legally sensitive the issue was ( Whistleblower Says NSA May Have...Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1977, pp. 33–40. Schumacher, Gord, “Extra-Jurisdictional Policing: A National Dilemma ...Tabatha, “Decades of Duty After Dark,” Information Week, October 2009. “ Whistleblower Says NSA May Have Listened to Millions of Americans’ Calls
This paper aims to explore the materiality of algorithmic governance by looking at the political, social and bureaucratic negotiations that building an information system entails. Through a study of the Crime and Criminal Tracking System in India (CCTNS), it will look at the failure of smart policing in India as a complex mix of politics, bureaucratic inefficiency and social norms. The paper is based on Bowker and Star’s (1999) study of infrastructures where they have argued that physical, ...
Sigurdsson, J F; Gudjonsson, G H
This study investigates the effects of alcohol, drug intoxication and withdrawal symptoms on the mental state of criminal suspects and the nature of their confession. A total of 359 sentenced prisoners were approached on admission and 96% agreed to participate in the study. They completed a specially designed Confession Questionnaire, which asked them questions about their reasons for confessing to the police, their attitude towards their confession, their mental state at the time of the confession and the extent to which they had been under the influence of alcohol and drug intoxication at the time of crime and police interview. The confession rate for the sample was very high (92%), with serious traffic violators having the highest confession rate (95%) and sex offenders the lowest (83%). The findings illustrate that the "perception of proof", "internal need to confess" and "external pressure" are the main reasons why suspects confess. However, subjects were identified who had experienced a typical "prisoner's dilemma" phenomenon during the police interview because of a co-defendant. Alcohol and drug intoxication was very commonly reported both at the time of the offence and the police interview, but these were related to the nature of their offence. Although intoxication and withdrawal symptoms did not appear to seriously impair their coping during the police interview it was consistently reported as having made them confused.
Full Text Available In Austin & Others v the United Kingdom The European Court of Human Rights came to the conclusion that the use of a police cordon, also known as “kettling”, where approximately 2000 people were forced to remain inside the cordon for up to eight hours, did not amount to deprivation of liberty under Article 5 (1 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This conclusion was reached by way of restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. Previous case law establishes a set of criteria to be used when deciding if an infringement on the physical liberty to move from place to place constitutes a deprivation of this liberty, or merely a restriction upon it. These criteria were upheld in Austin, but were found to give room for taking into account the context and circumstances in which the police cordon was used. The previous view of the Court that the grounds justifying deprivations of liberty listed in Article 5 (1 (a-f are exhaustive, was also upheld. In this article the starting point is the close relationship between national police law regarding the maintenance of security and public order on one hand, and the principle of necessity on the other. It is emphasised that “necessity”-based norms in national police law can make police measures directed against innocent third parties legal, deprivations of liberty included, but that this possibility would have been absent in Article 5 (1 of the Convention without the aforementioned restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. An attempt is made to show that this interpretation is in fact based on central elements of the principle of necessity. Furthermore, it is attempted to show that the restrictive interpretation can be seen as a reflection of the need acknowledged in national police law, as well as in other articles of the Convention, to direct police measures against innocent third parties.
Waldir Miguel dos Santos Júnior
Full Text Available This work aims to identify the importance of police investigation to the democratic rule of law, from revisiting the origins of the police investigation work will seek to demonstrate that research can and should extricate the inquisitorial logic enshrined in the Brazilian criminal proceedings under the influence of European law. From there, the work tries to demonstrate the requirements of democratic rule of law research. Therefore, the adversarial system will be analyzed, to comply with the democratic demands. Is emphasizing as fundamental rights guarantee the work will seek to demonstrate the incompatibility of research based exclusively on the inquisitorial tradition and the building of a democratic criminal proceedings, since such a perspective was the result of a whole inquisitive heritage and Brazil is marked by characteristic of paradigm of the welfare state and / or Police therefore contrary to the tenets of democratic rule of law.
Liu, Siyu; Liu, Jianhong
The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample ( N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe's operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.
Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul
characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys......This paper contributes to the debates of continuity and change of gender segregation in the labour market by analyzing perceptions of gender and competences in relation to different police tasks among police students in six European countries. The police is a male-dominated occupation associated...... : at the beginning and end of their police education, and three and six years into their professional life. This paper analyses data from phase one in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Scotland, Spain (Catalonia) and Iceland....
Full Text Available This article analyzes the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs which, beginning in 2008, took over control of some of the favelas in Rio de Janeiro that were previously ruled by armed drugs gangs. Local authorities have implemented a “community and proximity police” program, in order to attain pacification and put an end to a violent and militarized approach to policing in marginalized urban areas. However, contrary to the institutional rhetoric, the pacification of the favelas has manifested itself as a militarized occupation with clear limits on its territorial reach and effectiveness. An analysis of police strategies and practices shows that the UPPs have not sought to convince the residents of the favelas to regard them as a legitimate force, a fact which in turn has been responsible for the major failure of the project: it has failed to put an end to the power of the gangs in these pacified territories. Therefore, this article contributes to the debate on the legitimacy of the police, one of the key subjects of the “policing studies” undertaken in the field of social sciences. Our observations are the result of a an ethnographic study of five months, during which the author observed the daily work of the policemen of three UPPs and conducted 93 indepth interviews with them and 25 with residents of the pacified favelas.
Rubén Hernández-Murillo; John Knowles
State-wide reports on police traffic stops and searches summarize very large populations, making them potentially powerful tools for identifying racial bias, particularly when statistics on search outcomes are included. But when the reported statistics conflate searches involving different levels of police discretion, standard tests for racial bias are not applicable. This paper develops a model of police search decisions that allows for non-discretionary searches and derives tests for racial...
The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...
Amit H Makwana
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.
Carter, David L.
Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…
changing order in Africa, despite the acknowledgement that 'law and ... subcultural features such as machismo, conservatism, cynicism, and ... organisation). Before conducting any interviews with the police themselves, it was important to spend time in the unit understanding. What the current activities of the unit were, what ...
The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Hein, Maria; Chung, Sophia; Franke, Warren D; Anderson, Amanda A
The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. Officers [(n = 38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals. Age was significantly (P resilience intervention improves certain responses to job stress with greater benefits for younger participants.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…
Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.
Andersen, Henrik Mariendal
The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it......’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased...... personal approach is proposed in the agenda of employability. And ensure a wide range of offers, that appeal to multiple and differentiated personal and professional approaches to employability....
Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)
Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.
It argues that they should be applauded for doing so, but draws attention to how difficult it can be to persuade governments to address the deep-rooted social and economic problems associated with crises in policing rather than focus on reforming the police institution, its policies, procedures and practices.
Sliedrecht, K.Y.; van der Houwen, F.; Schasfoort, M.
In this article we compare the role of formulations in the construction of narratives in two institutional settings: police interrogations and job interviews. The data, 20 police interrogations (22. h) and 20 job interviews (14. h), are analyzed from a conversation analytic perspective (e.g.
Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor
Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…
The words 'corruption' and 'Nigerian factor' are used interchangeably to mean the same thing in this paper. There is no gainsaying that corruption in the police system leaves much to be worried. The position which the Nigeria Police occupied is beyond mere protection of lives and property of the citizens. They are indeed ...
A declaration by the Mental Health Care Act (Act 17 of 2002) authorised police officers to assist mental health care users (MHCUs) they come across and needed help. As such, the purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge and skills of police officers regarding mental illness and the handling of MHCUs.
Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila
Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…
Institute IACP International Association of Chiefs of Police IED improvised explosive device ILP intelligence led policing IQ intelligence quotient ...Education & Training (E): This topic starts with a holistic approach of raising the terrorism intelligence quotient (IQ) within each individual...actively gather intelligence and detect terrorists. L.E.A.D asserts that HS starts with hometown security, which begins by individual local LE
Reynolds, Joshua J; Estrada-Reynolds, Victoria; Nunez, Narina
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d). Results provided evidence for a reliable and valid 34-item scale with a single-factor solution that predicted multiple outcomes, including justification of a police shooting (Study 3b) and resource allocation to a police charity (Study 3c), as well as correlations with self-reported criminal activity, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation (Study 3d). We hope this scale will be useful in the study of police legitimacy, expanding the current literature, and improving police-community relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The paper further identifies some challenges that plague the police as an institution in the present democratic era. In spite of pervading problems and consequent challenges, the paper identities prospects in the sustenance of policing in the present democratic dispensation. To achieve this, the paper concludes with good ...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8118] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including that set forth in the ``International... for assistance for Bolivian military and police are in the national security interest of the United...
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public
Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America. Latin America is experiencing alarming trends in kidnapping, narcotics trafficking, gang violence, homicide, police brutality and gender-based violence. Many of these crimes involve young people, either as perpetrators or victims of violence. Through ...
South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their
This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...
Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura
We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories
Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.
Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police
... results provide further evidence of the presence of the code of silence covering various forms of police misconduct. At least one quarter of the respondents would protect a fellow officer who verbally abused citizens, covered up police driving under the influence (DUI) accident, accepted gratuities, or failed to react to graffiti.
Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.
We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail
Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick
Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.
Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian
Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....
Full Text Available It is a widely accepted notion that the major change brought by the 2003 November revolution in Georgia was the reform of the public services. Two major tasks were to be achieved for the state institutions: to monopolize the use of legitimate power on the state territory and to start providing services to the citizens. Police reform was at the heart of both these objectives. The major obstacle identified on the way of this reform was corruption. Indeed it was widely known that posts in police forces were to be purchased; policemen were involved in organized crime, extortion, and other illegal pursuits. But the corruption itself was the effect of the broader system in which patrimonial system of not distinguishing between the public office and private sphere was hybridized with the legal-rational rule, having its origin in the Soviet Union. The main subject of our research is to analyze the model of informal power network in Georgian police, to describe its configurations and identify its social actors.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
Police officers' job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September-October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.
Full Text Available Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. PMID:26633436
McDonald, James Russell
This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…
Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin
Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…
risk mitigation measure in crisis response scenarios, correlates to successful operations . In fact, operations undertaken without 100 or more days...22 4 Planning Time Allotted for Airborne Selected Airborne Operation ............................. 29 5 Summary Risk ...considerations. The doctrinal and service requirements provide a planner with a toolkit for mitigating risk prior to execution of an operation . First, a
de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye
Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....
Udosen, A M; Etiuma, A U; Ugare, G A; Bassey, O O
Gunshot injuries were rare in Calabar before the Nigerian civil war. This has changed in subsequent years and has reached a near epidemic proportion in the last three years. These are caused by civil violence, police brutality and armed robberies. To evaluate the incidence, pattern and causes of gunshot injuries in this region and draw the attention of Nigerians and the Government to the above problems for a possible solution. Records of patients admitted into the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) with gunshot wounds between April 2002 and May 2004 were extracted. Parameters analyzed included patients' biodata, sources of injury, anatomical site (s) of injury, modalities of treatment and the outcome There were 51 injuries in 49 patients as follows: The lower limbs 25 (51'), upper limbs 6 (12.4'), upper limbs/ chest 2 (4.1'), chest 4 (8.2'), abdomen 7(14.1') and head/neck 5(10.2'). Male/female ratio was 48:1. Twenty-four (49') sustained their injuries from either accidental discharge or deliberate shooting by the police while armed robbers wounded 10 (20.4') and cultists, 2 (4.1'). Two patients had amputations and mortality was 8.2'. The police should be cautious with guns;they and the Government should be alert to the menace of robbery, political violence, cultism and communal clashes. Good Governance, creation of employment, eradication of corruption and political violence may help.
de Viggiani, Nick
Police custody healthcare services for detainees in the UK are most commonly outsourced to independent healthcare providers who employ custody nurses and forensic physicians to deliver forensic healthcare services. A pilot was introduced in 2008 by the Department of Health to explore the efficacy of commissioning custody healthcare via the NHS, in the wake of the 2005-2006 shift of prison healthcare to the NHS. The objective was to improve quality and accountability through NHS commissioning and the introduction of NHS governance to the management and delivery of custody healthcare. This article discusses key themes that arose from the project evaluation, which focused on the commissioning relationship between the police, the NHS commissioner and the private healthcare provider. The evaluation observed an evolving relationship between the police, the local NHS and the front-line nurses, which was complicated by the quite distinctive professional values and ideologies operating, with their contrasting organisational imperatives and discordant values and principles. A key challenge for commissioners is to develop synergy between operational and strategically located stakeholders so that they can work effectively towards common goals. Government policy appears to remain focused on creating safe, supportive and humane custody environments that balance criminal justice and health imperatives and support the rights and needs of detainees, victims, professionals and the public. This remains an ambitious agenda and presents a major challenge for new criminal justice health partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro
The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.
to police misconduct towards ethnic minorities. Criminology professors Brad Smith and Malcolm Holmes discuss concerns about misconduct and...Brutality: An Examination of Civil Rights Criminal Complaints,” Criminology 41, no. 4 (2003): 1037– 1038. 13 Hryniewicz, “Civilian Oversight as a Public...minorities into the complaint process. As mentioned in the literature review, criminology professors Brad Smith and Malcolm Holmes voice concern that a
Sun, Lei; Lin, Renhao; Zhu, Xianwei
Virtualization Technology has attracted more and more attention. As a popular open-source virtualization tools, XEN is used more and more frequently. Xsm, XEN security model, has also been widespread concern. The safety status classification has not been established in the XSM, and it uses the virtual machine as a managed object to make Dom0 a unique administrative domain that does not meet the minimum privilege. According to these questions, we design a Hybrid multiple police model named SV_HMPMD that organically integrates multiple single security policy models include DTE,RBAC,BLP. It can fullfill the requirement of confidentiality and integrity for security model and use different particle size to different domain. In order to improve BLP’s practicability, the model introduce multi-level security labels. In order to divide the privilege in detail, we combine DTE with RBAC. In order to oversize privilege, we limit the privilege of domain0.
As Max Weber and many others in his tradition have argued, the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force is the core of the modern state. What counts here is not the frequency of the actual use of force but the fact that only the state has the legitimate right to use such force. The military and the police are the most concrete expressions of this monopoly. In recent decades, the use of the military and the police has been subject to external challenges – ‘globalization’ – and new idea...
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.
1. REPORT DATE FEB 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N /A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biulding the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs...military poses a far greater problem for democratically-elected civilian governments, as Bolivian President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozado once put it...Defense Minister Luis Fernando Ramirez Acuna, the army was key”.8 Latin American military and police forces are increasingly dependent upon foreign
Arias, Jose D
... in the 2005 National Security Plan. The resulting analysis provides a basis for determining what the new roles of the Dominican Armed Forces and the National Police should be for the 21st century...
Armitage, Jr., David T; Moisan, Anne M
There is a growing need for an international paramilitary police force that can fill the security gap between the end of military combat, peace support, relief operations, and the start of restoration of civil authority...
St. Laurent, Janet A
... than an operational force designed for continued overseas deployments. Moreover, units with certain specialties military police, transportation, and combat arms have been in high demand, resulting in lengthy and repeated deployments...
Atha, Roberto J
.... It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today...
Scantlebury, Arabella; Fairhurst, Caroline; Booth, Alison; McDaid, Catriona; Moran, Nicola; Parker, Adwoa; Payne, Rebecca; Scott, William J; Torgerson, David; Webber, Martin; Hewitt, Catherine
Police officers frequently come into contact with individuals with mental health problems. Specialist training in this area for police officers may improve how they respond to individuals with mental health problems; however, evidence to support this is sparse. This study evaluated the effectiveness of one bespoke mental health training package for frontline police officers relative to routine training. Pragmatic, two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial in one police force in England. Police stations in North Yorkshire were randomised with frontline police officers receiving either a bespoke mental health training package or routine training. The primary outcome was the number of incidents which resulted in a police response reported to the North Yorkshire Police control room up to six months after delivery of training. Secondary outcomes included: likelihood of incidents using Section 136 of the Mental Health Act; likelihood of incidents having a mental health tag applied; and number of individuals with a mental health warning marker involved in incidents. The appropriateness of mental health tags applied to a random sample of incidents was checked by an independent mental health professional. Routinely collected data were used. Twelve police stations were recruited and randomised (Intervention group n = 6; Control group n = 6), and 249 officers received the bespoke mental health training intervention. At follow-up, a median of 397 incidents were assigned to trial stations in the intervention group, and 498 in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of incidents with a police response (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.38, p = 0.69), or in the number of people with mental health warning markers involved in incidents (adjusted IRR 1.39, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.10, p = 0.13) between the intervention and control groups up to six months following the intervention; however, incidents assigned to stations in the
This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...
Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.
Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix
In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality, acco...... decrease as students progress through higher education. While we find evidence for this hypothesis, we also show in multivariate models that the reduction of inequality in the student labour market is explained by prior differences between social origin groups.......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...
Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.
The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…
In order to enhance the quality of work life of female police personnel, it is recommended that the Ministry of Police Affairs in Nigeria should provide some form of training for female police personnel that would help improve their quality of work life. Keywords: Gender, job demands, quality of work life, police personnel, ...
district and Veracruz . In June 2010, Mexico’s National Public Security Council approved the creation of 32 state police forces that would unify the...in piloting uni- fied police forces, including Baja California, Durango, Chihuahua, and Veracruz (see “Mapa interactivo,” 2010). In addition to these...find evidence of bribery in Iraqi oil sales using price variations; and McMillan and Zoido (2004) document high-level corruption in Peru using record of
Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan
A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem.
his drive to educate his officers. Berkley was one of the first departments to use bicycles in 1910 to improve response time, the first to utilize...military-supplies_n_5832484.html. 27 ( tracked armored vehicles, bayonets, armed aircraft, etc.) and increased accountability for others (armored...later to become the FBI) was tasked with identifying and tracking spies and enemy sympathizers during World War One. Federal law enforcement expanded
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Have you interacted with the Town’s Police Department in any of the following ways within the past 2...
Gomez, Marisela B
Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.
The custody nurse role was introduced in 2003 following changes to legislation, which allowed nurses and paramedics to care for people in police custody. Before this, the work was done solely by doctors.
Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis
In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.
O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet
Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.
Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R
In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.
Huddleston, Louis D
...: Can America continue to serve as the world's policeman? America's challenge for the 1990s is to avoid the trappings of world policing that past superpowers have experienced throughout history "a la Pax Britannica...
Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Silvester, S.
Operational police work can be characterized by the continuous switching between surveillance, responding to incidents, and office activities. Transitions between these activities are initiated by radio contact, messages on a mobile data terminal, or personal observations. The “information
Full Text Available Policing has been described as a stressful occupation. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a measure that could be used by the South African Police Service (SAPS to identify the frequency and intensity of occupational stressors and to assess the differences between the stressors for race, rank and gender groups. A cross sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 2145 were taken of police members of nine provinces in South Africa. The Police Stress Inventory was developed as a measuring instrument. Three internally consistent factors were extracted through principal component analysis with a direct oblimin rotation. These factors were labelled Job Demands, Lack of Support and Crime-related Stressors. The most important stressors identified were other officers not doing their job, inadequate or poor quality equipment, inadequate salaries, and seeing criminals go free. Analysis of variance showed differences in stressors for rank, race and gender groups.
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de
Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.
Full Text Available Major events ranging from sporting events to major international conferences too often result in disorder, deployment of riot squads, and mass arrests. Events surrounding a meeting of the G20 in Toronto and those at Vancouver’s Winter Olympics provide insight into the ways in which things can go wrong and the ways in which they can go well at major events. This article employs a “thick history” of events in order to explore gaps in Canadian law, including gaps between “law in the books” and “law in action.” The legal frameworks governing large-scale events affect the likelihood of success measured in public safety, minimization of disorder, and protection of basic liberties. Surprisingly, large events often proceed without the benefit of a developed legal framework, leading to confusion among federal police, local police, and civil authority. We assess past reliance on the common law, a Vancouver City bylaw, Ontario’s Public Works Protection Act [PWPA], and the policing and security provisions of the federal Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Foreign Missions Act in order to determine which sorts of legal arrangements are most conducive to successful event management. Since major events in Canada are most often developed in law’s penumbra, without the benefit of clear legal authority or statutory direction governing the measures that are required, both effective management and ordinary liberties are compromised. A “worst of both worlds” outcome destabilizes police–citizen relationships and leaves individuals uncertain as to the durability of their rights of property, speech, assembly, movement, and personal integrity. Equally, police forces are left insecure as to the lawful means by which they should perform their duties. A comparison of the two events provides the pathology and a prescription, illustrating the need for legislation to govern the management of major events. Trop souvent, la
Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the int...
Gary L. Jones
When the threat level of foreign stability operations increases, military police units can make an effective contribution, especially when conducted with the Australian Federal Police. It is argued that, if Australian military police can apply police harmonisation techniques and improve their ability to conduct civilian-like policing duties, then their role in future rule-of-law operations are likely to be more effective.
discretion in their duty of maintaining law and order to be specific, in their investigation of crime even if it were to be an obvious wide-goose chase.' As to whether police duty is executive or administrative, it has been held that police performs both duties as was held in UTB v Ukabia39. In this case, it was held that whenever ...
expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government...still evolving. Referenced materials are drawn from online sources to include newspaper articles, editorials, magazine articles, and blog ...The White House Blog , accessed October 11, 2016, https://www.whitehouse.gov/ blog /2015/ 05/18/launching-police-data-initiative. 60 “The Police
Jens Chr. Andvig; Odd-Helge Fjeldstad
Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development – including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...
Wijckmans, Belinda; Klima, Noel; Vanhauwaert, Rosita
This second toolbox in the series published by the EUCPN Secretariat focuses on the main theme of the Cyprus Presidency, which is community policing. The theme is explored and elaborated in four different ways, through: a theoretical paper; a survey among the European Member States on the organisation of community policing in their country, followed by an in-depth discussion during two round table sessions; a workshop/ seminar with various experts and a particular focus on radicalisation, or ...
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
I. A. Zikratov
Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.
V. M. Kiikov
Full Text Available In the article analysis of general theoretic approaches towards competent and motivated behavior definitions, the model of police officer social competence was proposed along with the ways of its study. Based on development theory conception the initial validation of social competence logical system as a mean of cadets’ social competence evaluation was considered in the article. Additionally, the determination of personality development level as possibility for definition and evaluation of cadets’ social competence based on social behavior theory perspectives was considered. As well the social features of social competence of lawenforcement officers were discussed and the theoretical construction for schematized representation of police cadets’ social competence structure is presented. The model includes: social norms related to police activity; motivation to sociallyoriented activity; social intelligence, as integrative characteristic of cognitive and operational processes; emotional steadiness and communication skills. It was stated that the main characteristic of police cadets’ social competence is efficiency of interaction between police and community. The other important factor influencing social competence is professional activity and in our case it is lawenforcement. The social environment of departmental educational institution was explored as a main factor contributing to development of police cadets’ social competence components.
Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R
Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.
Full Text Available The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (incompatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.
Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen
The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097
Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen
The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.
Kitson, Anthony J.
The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.
Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A
In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinedo, Miguel; Beletsky, Leo; Alamillo, Nathan; Ojeda, Victoria D
Evidence-based public health and criminal justice policies aimed at addressing the structurally vulnerable population of persons who inject drugs (PWID) and who are involved in the immigrant enforcement and deportation system are lacking. Policing practices are critical structural determinants of HIV among PWID. PWID in Mexico who have been deported from the US are at elevated risk of HIV. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID were recruited to complete structured questionnaires, including past 6-month experiences with police. Eligible PWID were 18 years or older, had injected in the past month, and resided in Tijuana, Mexico with no intentions of moving. To determine if deportation status was associated with experiences of arrests and problematic policing practices, we conducted separate multivariate logistic regression models for independent policing variables. In multivariate analyses, deportation status was independently associated with higher odds of being arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-2.05), being asked for a bribe (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-2.04), and being forced to leave a place of residence (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.70) in the past 6 months. Results highlight a previously poorly understood elements of the US-deportation experience: migrants' experiences with law enforcement post-deportation and the role of deportation policies and practices as structural drivers of public health risk in destination countries. We provide policy recommendations for Mexico and the US based on our findings, which have potential application in other countries seeking to improve enforcement and related policing practices from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context. Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.
Christensen, Thomas Budde
, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...
Jacob J. Bustad
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.
Aardoom, H A; Huisman-Wolfs, M M; Nijs, H G T
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of ambulant psychiatric patients who were either brought to the police station or who came by themselves, but who were not kept in a cell, as a basis for the development of a reception protocol. Descriptive. The data from the medical records from 2000 kept by the forensic doctors employed by the district health services for the Southern South Holland region were inventoried. On request by the police, the forensic doctors examined 203 clients. The majority of these were middle-aged men who did have a place of residence. The reason for police involvement was bizarre or confused behaviour in public. Half of the patients had received or were receiving some form of psychiatric treatment from the mental health service. In approximately half of the cases the forensic doctor found a solution together with the police. In the other half of the cases the forensic doctor asked the crisis intervention team at the mental health service for an evaluation. Two thirds of these patients were hospitalised and one third was sent away. Because examination by both the forensic doctor and the mental health service psychiatrist and other procedures were lengthy (up to 6 hours), patients had to spend a long time in a holding cell at the police station that was not designed for stays of this length of time, and often lacked toilet facilities. The forensic doctor treated about half the clients without the need of assistance from the crisis intervention psychiatrist. The temporary accommodation for these confused clients was inadequate.
Tesfaye, Tariku; Shikur, Bilal; Shimels, Tariku; Firdu, Naod
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and factors associated with it, nowadays, are increasing in alarming rates among different occupational groups. Of these occupational groups are Police officers that, often, are exposed to unique life styles and stressful situations which may lead to diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular diseases. Due to this reason, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May 2015. Multistage and systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select the study participants. The study population was federal police commission members living in Addis Ababa and served for at least a year. The data were collected using structured questionnaire, physical examinations and blood samples, based on the WHO stepwise approach. Data were entered in to SPSS version 20.0 and descriptive statistics and logistics regression were used for analysis. Out of the 1003 eligible subjects, 936 (93.3%) police officers have participated in this study. The prevalence of overall impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH) was 120 (13%) of which 47 (5%) were diabetes and 73 (8%) were impaired fasting glucose. Whereas police rank, history of first degree relative who suffered from diabetes, hypertension and waist hip ratio showed a statistical significance with prevalence of diabetes mellitus, age, family history, hypertension, BMI and waist hip ratio were found to be associated with impaired fasting glucose. The study identified a high prevalence of IGH among the police officers. A priority should be given on preventive strategies of diabetes mellitus, as that of communicable diseases, by Federal Police Commission Health Service Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health and other concerned partners.
Full Text Available Pensar los modos de ejercicio de la autoridad por parte de las mujeres en la policía bonaerense lleva a reflexionar sobre la asociación entre las cualidades y relaciones personales y el poder formalizado puesto en escena en los espacios laborales. Los vínculos, sentimientos y experiencias afectivas introducen orientaciones particulares al devenir de la profesión policial de las personas, especialmente para las mujeres. Ese plus amoroso es vivido, algunas veces, como una obligación personal y, otras, como una estrategia que permite capitalizar las habilidades laborales. El análisis de esta asociación particular es un aporte al estudio de las significaciones y experiencias alrededor de los complejos procesos de ingreso y jerarquización de mujeres en las policías. Porque además de exigir enérgicas adaptaciones a las policías mujeres, provocó modificaciones en la forma de ejercer la profesión más allá del género. Este artículo no pierde de vista cómo se conjugan clivajes sociales diferentes en la dinámica de las relaciones de poder. Los datos analizados han sido construidos con trabajo de campo etnográfico en comisarías de la Policía de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Abstract To think about the ways that women police officers from the Buenos Aires police force exercise authority leads to a reflection of the association between personal qualities and the relationships and institutionalized power taking place in workplaces. Ties, feelings and affective experiences introduce specific guidelines to the future of the police profession, especially for women. This extra love is experienced sometimes as a duty and others as a strategy to capitalize job skills. The analysis of this particular association contributes to the study of meanings and experiences around the complex process of entry of women into the police force; a process that, in addition to demanding energetic adaptations from women police officers, it also brought
Full Text Available Media and police professionals are bound together in interdependent, and often tense, working relationships. For different purposes both professions need to work effectively together while simultaneously retaining independence from each other. These complex inter-reliant relationships create unique challenges that often call for improvement. This essay examines whether relationships between interdependent professional organizations can be improved through a collaborative problem-solving intervention, based on the interactive methods of facilitated dialogue and appreciative inquiry. The article describes a case study of a large Canadian police agency working with local media outlets to improve their working relationship. It highlights the importance of conflict analysis followed by effective change management strategies in implementation of collaborative solutions that meet everyone’s needs. This case study illustrates dynamics that generalize to organizations that have strong organizational cultures and are highly independent and simultaneously required to work together. Some examples of such organizations are military, prison guards, scholars, medical professionals, social workers, teachers, lawyers and most government agenciesLes médias et les corps policiers sont à la fois interreliés et interdépendants, et leur collaboration est souvent tendue. Dans divers objectifs, ils doivent travailler efficacement ensemble tout en maintenant leur propre autonomie. Ces relations complexes donnent lieu à des difficultés auxquelles il faut remédier. Cet essai porte sur les améliorations pouvant être apportées dans les relations entre deux organisations professionnelles interdépendants par l’entremise d’une intervention visant à résoudre les problèmes fondée sur des méthodes interactives de facilitation du dialogue et d’interrogation appréciative. Cet article décrit un cas où une grande agence policière canadienne a collabor
American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly.
The purposes of the project that developed this education package for business were as follows: (1) enhance employer knowledge and understanding of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), especially in its application to corporate downsizing and the use of early retirement incentives; (2) discourage employer practices that violate the act…
Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom
Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...... preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...... for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We identify the higher likelihood that a suspect will be named by a victim or witness as an important mechanism though which response time makes a difference....
Ervyn Norza Céspedes
Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D
Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.
Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia
Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.
Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies. This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.
Full Text Available When protests break out in downtown Kampala they tend to transform a fluid urban environment into bounded political camps, and myriad ambiguous concerns into comparatively clear-cut political issues. This article traces this process and conceptualises Kampala’s urban politics as a politics of crystallisation: as attempts to structure highly fluid dynamics into something concrete. The article is based on ethnographic research amongst opposition activists and the police forces. Both seek to activate political boundaries and make people gravitate towards their respective side. But in line with the fluidity of urban everyday life, they also work and collaborate across these boundaries. The national regime and the opposition thus function not as permanent, stable structures, but as processes, as fields of gravity whose emergence is incited and inhibited, financed, and policed. Drawing on Gilbert Simondon’s theory of individuation and AbdouMaliq Simone’s work on urbanity, this analytical framework offers a dynamic reading of urban contentious politics in general, and a reinterpretation of the paradoxes of power in African politics in particular.
Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers
In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...
Juliana Buck Gianini
Full Text Available Faced by a growing debate on the needed reestablishment of ethics in our criminal justice system, we discuss the importance of ethics in the Judiciary Police affairs. The paper is divided into three sections. Firstly, we introduce the concepts of ethics, as well as the moral principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Secondly, we discuss the Civil Police work by describing the whole procedure chain, i.e., from the crime time up to the court trial. At last, we present a few proposals already in development regarding ethics, such as those promoted by the "Brazilian-European Conference for Corruption Prevention".
Gomes, A. Rui; Afonso, Jorge M. P.
This study describes the professional experience of military police officers from the Portuguese Republican National Guard (N = 95). We focused on the mainEste estudio analiza la experiencia profesional de agentes de la policía militar de la Guarda Nacional Republicana portuguesa (N = 95). Se centró en las principales fuentes y consecuencias del estrés, así como en las estrategias de afrontamiento. El protocolo de evaluación incluyó una pregunta cerrada y cuatro abiertas. Se realizó una categ...
Full Text Available The social construction of frontline employees’ client service plays a major role in organisational success. This study illuminated why frontline personnel are reluctant to accept organisational change which is in line with new policing philosophies. Applying modernist qualitative methodology, and particularly grounded theory within a case study design a ‘process satisfaction model’ was developed with the aim to improve employee satisfaction with internal processes and ultimately service delivery. This model may be used for change in the South African Police Service SAPS and other government departments.
John M. Violanti
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were inversely associated with BAR among police officers who were current smokers and together may be considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among police officers. Further prospective research is warranted.
This article reflects on the personal, epistemological and methodological dilemmas of conducting (auto)ethnographic fieldwork within the police organisation. The argument is that positionality and ascribed identities complicate existing dilemmas of using participant observation within the police
being of police employees. The study adopted the descriptive survey, using 250 police employees from five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The three instruments used were authored-constructed questionnaires by adapting ...
, computerised database maintained by the South African Police Service. In principle, it records all public order policing activity, including all crowd incidents. While IRIS data is, potentially, a unique source for protest event analysis, it should be ...
Maia, Deborah B; Nóbrega, Augusta; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Volchan, Eliane; Coutinho, Evandro S; Figueira, Ivan
Peritraumatic reactions feature prominently among the main predictors for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI), a less investigated but equally important type of peritraumatic response, has been recently attracting the attention of researchers and clinicians for its close association with traumatic reactions and PTSD. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTI, peritraumatic panic, and dissociation as predictors of PTSD symptoms in a cohort of police recruits (n=132). Participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires during academy training and after the first year of work: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C), Physical Reactions Subscale (PRS), Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS), and Critical Incident History Questionnaire. Employing a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, we found that each additional point in the TIS was associated with a 9% increment in PCL-C mean scores (RM = 1.09), whereas for PRS, the increment was 7% (RM = 1.07). As the severity of peritraumatic dissociation increased one point in the PDEQ, the chance of having at least one symptom in the PCL-C increased 22% (OR = 1.22). Our findings highlight the need to expand investigation on the incidence and impact of PTI on the mental health of police officers.
Deborah B. Maia
Full Text Available Objective: Peritraumatic reactions feature prominently among the main predictors for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI, a less investigated but equally important type of peritraumatic response, has been recently attracting the attention of researchers and clinicians for its close association with traumatic reactions and PTSD. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTI, peritraumatic panic, and dissociation as predictors of PTSD symptoms in a cohort of police recruits (n=132. Methods: Participants were asked to complete the following questionnaires during academy training and after the first year of work: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C, Physical Reactions Subscale (PRS, Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ, Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS, and Critical Incident History Questionnaire. Results: Employing a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model, we found that each additional point in the TIS was associated with a 9% increment in PCL-C mean scores (RM = 1.09, whereas for PRS, the increment was 7% (RM = 1.07. As the severity of peritraumatic dissociation increased one point in the PDEQ, the chance of having at least one symptom in the PCL-C increased 22% (OR = 1.22. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need to expand investigation on the incidence and impact of PTI on the mental health of police officers.
Koper, Christopher S; Lum, Cynthia; Hibdon, Julie
Recent technological advances have much potential for improving police performance, but there has been little research testing whether they have made police more effective in reducing crime. To study the uses and crime control impacts of mobile computing technology in the context of geographically focused "hot spots" patrols. An experiment was conducted using 18 crime hot spots in a suburban jurisdiction. Nine of these locations were randomly selected to receive additional patrols over 11 weeks. Researchers studied officers' use of mobile information technology (IT) during the patrols using activity logs and interviews. Nonrandomized subgroup and multivariate analyses were employed to determine if and how the effects of the patrols varied based on these patterns. Officers used mobile computing technology primarily for surveillance and enforcement (e.g., checking automobile license plates and running checks on people during traffic stops and field interviews), and they noted both advantages and disadvantages to its use. Officers did not often use technology for strategic problem-solving and crime prevention. Given sufficient (but modest) dosages, the extra patrols reduced crime at the hot spots, but this effect was smaller in places where officers made greater use of technology. Basic applications of mobile computing may have little if any direct, measurable impact on officers' ability to reduce crime in the field. Greater training and emphasis on strategic uses of IT for problem-solving and crime prevention, and greater attention to its behavioral effects on officers, might enhance its application for crime reduction. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address. The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J
Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...
Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...
The unique position in society and the specific functions make the police one of the key holders of protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens. At the same time, their position and function provide police officers significant opportunities to violate the same freedoms and rights, by resorting to various forms of violation and abuse of power. This dual nature of the police authority gives us reason to question the police from a completely different angle - as a source ...
Indonesia Republic State Police is a tool that plays a role in maintaining state security and public order, enforce the law and provide protection, guidance, and service to the community within the framework of maintaining internal security “. According to Police Act Number 2 of Year 2002 in Article 18 explained that the police were given the authority under certain circumstances to do according to his own judgment or be known as a functional discretionary powers which puts persons of police ...
Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from
... provide security for public housing residents. 960.505 Section 960.505 Housing and Urban Development... provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police... security for residents of a public housing development, the PHA may allow police officers who would not...
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2016), s. 171-187 ISSN 0928-1371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : willingness to cooperate with the police * police legitimacy * trust in the police Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016
Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart
Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…
Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford
In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors of...
... Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs... Collection: Proposed new collection; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led... information to determine the national prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait of...
Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.
Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…
Havelund, Jonas; Lauritzen, Mikkel; Joern, Lise
The Danish police have changed their tactics in relation to their policing of football supporters. The changes have involved the development of a dialogue-based approach to the policing of football supporters. The changes seem to have contributed to a reduction in the number of arrests and footba...... strategic goals like conflict reduction and creating a more peaceful atmosphere at football matches....
Abstract. Social values such as safety and security needs of members of society are necessary to ensure a sustainable quality of life for all; guaranteed and protected by the ... Improved police-public relations and dedicated police service delivery will become more and more inevitable. Keywords: Crime, Police, South Africa ...
Santos, Roberto G; Santos, Rachel Boba
Police agencies around the country are implementing various strategies to reduce crime in their communities that need to be evaluated. These strategies are often based on systematic crime analysis and are focused on crime occurring in hot spots, which are areas of disproportionate amounts of crime. This article takes a practice-based research approach to evaluate whether evidence-based police strategies implemented by one police agency as its normal everyday crime reduction practice are effective in reducing residential burglary incidents in micro-time hot spots. A quasi-experimental ex post facto design is employed using 5 years of data from one police agency that has institutionalized the identification and response to micro-time hot spots into its day-to-day practices. Propensity score matching is used to match 54 pairs of micro-time hot spots using logistic regression to compute the propensity scores and greedy 1 to 1 matching with a caliper width of 0.5 of the standard deviation of the logit to match the cases. Independent t-tests show that tactical police response to micro-time hot spots can lead to significant reductions in residential burglary incidents without the spatial displacement of crime. Tactical police responses that seek to achieve short-term reductions in crime appear to be well suited for micro-time hot spots since they are, by nature, short term. Importantly, the conclusions are based on the evaluation of an agency's systematic implementation of the evidence-based practices as its normal practices and not for the sake of research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M
Police officers may be injury prone due to fatigue, erratic work hours, and insufficient sleep. This study explored injury incidence among police officers across shifts. Day-to-day shift data from computerized payroll records (1994-2010) were available from a mid-sized urban police department (n = 430). Sleep duration, shift activity level, returning to work after days off, and injury incidence over time were also examined. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for injury on the midnight shift was 72% larger than the day shift (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.26-2.36) and 66% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.23-2.25). Injury incidence for the first day back on the midnight shift was 69% larger than day shift (IRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23-2.32) and 54% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36-1.76). High activity level combined with midnight shift work put officers at increased injury risk (IRR = 2.31; P = 0.0003). Probability of remaining free of injury was significantly higher for day shift than midnight shift (P < 0.0001). Higher injury risk was associated with night shift work in police officers. Night shift combined with high work activity was strongly associated with injury risk. There was a significantly higher probability of not being injured on day compared to midnight or afternoon shifts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This article argues that a necessary condition for improvements to take place in the SAPS relates to improving the top leadership of the organisation. Fortunately, the National Development Plan provides a starting point as to how this can be achieved.'Police supervisors at any level need to be aware that their behaviour has ...
The Community Policing Resource Centres (CPRCs), as they are called, have a support base that draws upon five departments - Health, Women and Child, ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.
in the 1950s and early 1960s as military conditions of service in their respective homes improved, the Masvingo-Gutu ... always clear in the various histories of these formations, both police and military, that they were composed of many ..... where water is usually scarce and never navigable. At such times the Northern native ...
Up till today, it is somehow very disturbing that despite the constitutional power granted to the police to maintain public peace, safety and general security in Nigeria the quality of security has nothing to be proud of and it has no doubt generated a great deal of controversies. In the past two decades events confirm a total ...
Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.
Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…
Full Text Available Restorative justice is a new, different response to crime, response that offers and tries to establish justice again. Not going into aims, impact and basic principles of restorative justice, as well as into substance of different restorative practices, in this article we will concentrate on restorative interventions that lead to avoidance of the formal justice system. Concretely, we will analyze the role of the police in applying restorative interventions in the juvenile justice system. Particular emphasis will be put on the meaning and the aim of diversion procedures towards juvenile offenders that have committed minor offences and more serious ones for which they come in conflict with the law. In the foreign expert literature the concept of restorative policing is recognized (restorative approach in police conduct, as an attempt to introduce a new reform in performing police affairs. This subject should be approached very carefully and fundamentally, if we want consistent implementation of the new tendency and practices in the juvenile justice systems in accordance with the international standards.
With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…
Hawley, Karri S.; Garrity, April W.; Cherry, Katie E.
The authors examined police officers' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood utilizing the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ). The KMAQ is a 28-item true/false questionnaire that covers a broad range of topics related to normal memory aging due to maturational processes and pathological memory aging, such as adult dementia. Results…
Lavigne, Sam; Clifton, Brian; Tseng, Francis
Financial crime is a rampant but hidden threat. In spite of this, predictive policing systems disproportionately target "street crime" rather than white collar crime. This paper presents the White Collar Crime Early Warning System (WCCEWS), a white collar crime predictive model that uses random forest classifiers to identify high risk zones for incidents of financial crime.
Rorschach and a Free Drawing and a brief psychijatrc inserview.S Thi information is then asse-_bled and a decision is =nde whether or not to disqualify...Additionally, source trait profiles have been developed by Cattell for various occupations to include policement, musicians , medical personnel, teachers
van Steden, R.; Miltenburg, E; Boutellier, J.C.J.
There is a lively and long-running debate in the literature about what community policing is and how it works in everyday practice. We contribute to this expanding body of knowledge by minutely sifting and classifying the things neighbourhood coordinators (a kind of community officers) do in
In 1998, in an attempt to undo the long-standing neglect of domestic violence, legislators placed a set of duties on the police in relation to domestic violence, and coupled these with a unique system of accountability relations and practices. This article examines the effect of these in three ways: a review, both of complaints of ...
. L Freeman, C McDonald. Abstract. In order for a single South African police station to operate optimally, or indeed at any level of functionality at all, it is required to form cooperative relations with a host of external institutions. This is in addition ...
Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.
Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six
Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...
Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de; Kleij, R. van der; Vliet, P.J. van
Predictive Policing is niets anders dan politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen over criminaliteit. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen en dáár aanwezig zijn waar de kans op een volgend incident het grootst is. Deze publicatie gaat in op
Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...
often seeking a terrorist, insurgent, and criminal nexus for synergy (called Grey Stew herein to describe the phenomenon). This newer form of...situation in the country. Pakistan was chosen to be the recipient of a comprehensive law enforcement and policing assistance package based on two
Mar 21, 2013 ... This article is concerned with the process of en masse recruitment implemented within the South African ... It also has not necessarily contributed to 'better policing' in South Africa. While it may have increased the potential that the SAPS will enjoy legitimacy, ... overview of data that show the impact of this.
Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Palatsidi, Vassiliki; Tigani, Xanthi; Darviri, Christina
The ongoing economic crisis in Greece has affected both stress and quality of life (QoL) at all socioeconomic levels, including professionals in the police force. The aim of this study was to examine perceived stress, job satisfaction, QoL, and their relationships in a sample of police officers in Greece. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the first trimester of 2011 in 23 police stations in the greater Athens area. A total of 201 police officers agreed to participate (response rate 44.6%). The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used to assess general health, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14) questionnaires were used to assess QoL and perceived stress, respectively. The PSS and GHQ subscales and total scores exhibited strong, positive, and significant correlations coefficients (r): 0.52 for somatic disturbances, 0.56 for stress and insomnia, 0.40 for social dysfunction, and 0.37 for depression, yielding an r equal to 0.57 for the total GHQ score. A higher level of perceived stress was related to a lower likelihood of being satisfied with their job; in this regard, male participants and higher ranked officers reported lower job satisfaction. The PSS and GHQ scores were inversely, consistently, and significantly related to almost all of the QoL aspects, explaining up to 34% of their variability. Parenthood had a positive effect on QoL related to physical health, and women reported lower QoL related to psychological health. Higher levels of stress are related to an increased risk of reporting suboptimal job satisfaction and QoL. The magnitude of these associations varied depending on age, gender, and rank, highlighting the need for stress-management training.
Lambert, Eric G; Qureshi, Hanif; Klahm, Charles; Smith, Brad; Frank, James
Successful police organizations rely on involved, satisfied, and committed workers. The concepts of job involvement (i.e., connection with the job), job satisfaction (i.e., affective feeling toward the job), and organizational commitment (i.e., bond with the employing organization) have been shown to significantly affect intentions and behaviors of employees. The current study used multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis on survey results from a sample of 827 Indian police officers to explore how perceptions of work environment factors affect officers' job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Organizational support, formalization (i.e., level of codified written rules and guidelines), promotional opportunities, institutional communication (i.e., salient work information is transmitted), and input into decision-making (i.e., having a voice in the process) significantly influenced the job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of Indian police officers. Specifically, in the multivariate analysis, perceptions of formalization and instrumental communication had a positive relationship with job involvement; perceptions of organizational support, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive associations with job satisfaction; and perceptions of organizational support, formalization, promotional opportunities, instrumental communication, and input into decision-making had positive relationships with organizational commitment.
Full Text Available Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act is aimed, according to the author, at assisting those in the labour arena (employers, managers, labour relations practitioners, union officials, and students to develop a practical understanding of the Employment Equity Act (hereafter, the Act.
Mengo, Cecilia; Small, Eusebius; Black, Beverly
Many variables explain the link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and its impact on women's mental health. This proposition is mostly from samples drawn from battered women's shelters, batterer intervention programs (BIPs), emergency rooms, and medical clinics. We know little about the psychological well-being of women who report abuse to police departments. This study used data from case records of women who experience IPV and sought help from a city police station located in the southwest United States. These case records were examined to identify how sociodemographic characteristics of age, ethnicity, marital status, financial dependence, resources of social support, and coping strategies related with type and number of IPV incidents as well as mental health symptoms. The sample consisted of 154 women, majority of whom experienced physical violence (70.1%), sexual violence (9.1%), emotional violence/stalking (14.9%), and combined, that is, reporting more than one (5.8%). Approximately 67.5% of the women reported some mental health symptoms. Social support and coping strategies significantly distinguished women's experience of mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, the current data indicate that women who scored higher in perceived social support significantly reported more mental health symptoms. Coping strategies mediated the relationship between IPV and mental health symptoms. The findings suggest that availability of coping resources may mitigate repeated IPV and modify the impact of mental health. In discussing prevention and intervention efforts with women who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing IPV, practitioners can help women employ empowering coping strategies that are built on their resilience. In addition, mental health professionals working with the police, especially in community policing setting, can achieve promising outcomes for women experiencing violence.
Robert W. Balch, “The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction?,” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology , and Police Science 63, no. 1 (March 1972): 109...Trust,” Theoretical Criminology 9, no. 4 (November 1, 2005): 464–465, doi:10.1177/1362480605057727. 92 police officers, even those in areas with...ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf. Balch, Robert W. “The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction?” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology , and Police Science 63, no. 1 (March
de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat
Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both
Full Text Available « Il faut que ce que l’on appelle la police soit une chose bien terrible disait plaisamment Madame de... puisque les Anglais aiment mieux les voleurs et que les Turcs aiment mieux la peste ».(S.-R-.N. Chamfort, Maximes, pensées, caractères et anecdotes, 1796.Si le fonctionnaire, le « bureaucrate », le « rond de cuir » et tous les employés de l’administration – « fainéants, payés à ne rien faire, budgétivores », n’ont jamais joui en France -pas plus au XIXe siècle qu’au XXe- d’une image posit...
Greenberg, Martin S; Beach, Scott R
Previous research suggests that 3 general processes underlie the decision of property crime victims to notify the police: One that is cognitively driven by reward/cost considerations, one that is affectively driven, and another that is socially driven. This study is the first to employ a community sample of crime victims to compare the 3 processes within a single study. Computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 422 property crime victims (n = 129 burglary, n = 293 theft) located via a random digit dialing procedure. Logistic regression analyses showed that each process independently accounted for a significant amount of the variance in victim reporting, and that there were no interactions among the three processes in predicting reporting. Of the 3 processes, social influence was the best predictor of reporting. Analysis of the affect-driven process showed that reporting was primarily a function of the level of fear rather than anger or the level of generalized arousal upon discovering the crime.
Pavel A. Sungurov
Full Text Available Process of organizational and regular changes in police authority in the territory of Western Siberia in the conditions of social cataclysm, growth of criminalization, revolutionary promotion and strengthening influence of crime on all aspects of life of society in 1905–1917 is researched. Since 1908 in the provincial centers the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces the detective police is founded, and also additional (supernumerary police positions at the expense of public institutions, private firms and persons were everywhere entered. The nedoukoplektovannost of staff of police officers was observed. Actually the problem of professional training of police personnel was not solved. Especially difficult situation was observed in the small cities and villages where absence or an insignificant staff of police caused alarm in inhabitants for their safety. Despite reforms, police authority in the region neither quantitatively, nor qualitatively did not correspond to realities of local life.
Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G
In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.
Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Fürst, Matthias Alois; Heinze, Jürgen
being expressed, but there can be asymmetries among workers in performing the actual behaviour. Here, we show that workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa specialize in policing behaviour. In two types of behavioural assays, workers developed their ovaries and laid eggs. In the first experiment......Most animal societies are non-clonal and thus subject to conflicts. In social insects, conflict over male production can be resolved by worker policing, i.e. eating of worker-laid eggs (WLE) or aggression towards reproductive workers. All workers in a colony have an interest in policing behaviour......, reproductive workers were introduced into queenright colonies. In the second experiment, WLE were introduced. By observing which individuals policed, we found that aggressive policing was highly skewed among workers that had opportunity to police, and that a similar tendency occurred in egg policing. None...
Full Text Available In the traditional traffic police scheduling and dispatching, the applications of the position information are restricted. This paper presented a model of the traffic police on-duty behavior analysis based on time series, in order to improve the efficiency of traffic police scheduling and dispatching system. Firstly, it proposes the steps for the behavior analysis of individual traffic police on-duty. Secondly, it elaborates division method of individual traffic police on-duty behavior from background element definition and semantic concept description. Thirdly the paper builds a model concerning individual traffic police on duty behavior by applying state automaton. Finally it describes the implementation methods of key technologies on individual traffic police on duty behavior.
refuge on the base. U.S. Marines and Cuban militiamen then began patrolling opposite sides of the base’s 17.4 mile fence line. Today, U.S. Marines ...of the Army, Air Force, Marines , Navy, and Coast Guard. Reserve component personnel were also deployed on the mission. Military police personnel...combination cells for legal visits (not to house detainees). Camp Echo requires a guard force of approximately 40 personnel.24 Camp Iguana Camp new mission
A Strategic Analysis of the Quality in Police Investigation : Comparing Police Investigators’ to Investigation Trainers’ Responses in Qualitative Interviews, With a Brief Discussion of Educational Consequences after July 22
The purpose of this study was to statistically investigate whether there were any differences between police investigators and investigation trainers with regard to how they reflect upon quality in police investigation. The samples consisted of 27 investigation trainers from the Norwegian Police University College and 90 police investigators from all of the 27 police districts in Norway. Data were collected through open-ended interviews based on the SWOT paradigm, and coded on SWOT and IGLO. ...
Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.
Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment
Julio César González Sandoval
Full Text Available Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional. Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, sin que las instituciones que han acumulado experiencia en el campo de la investigación criminal pierdan identidad y capacidad de desarrollo.
Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni
The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.
Full Text Available Le 30 juin 1880, alors que la République semble encore fragile et mal assurée, le directeur de la Sûreté générale adresse au ministre de l’Intérieur un rapport qui tire les enseignements des actions récemment menées par ses services et expose ce que devraient être les missions, les pratiques et l’organisation d’une police politique républicaine qui reste encore à inventer. Ce texte, d’un grand intérêt pour qui veut connaître les méthodes, l’organisation d’une police à l’état embryonnaire, s’...
Full Text Available Sum up accident sacrifice at January period of up to August 2007 progressively mount and primary factor of cause the happening of accident is human being factor, one of them is missing driver of awareness. To lessen this accident number, one of them is earn conducted by killing car machine in order to the missing driver of awareness cannot animate its car machine as well as communications with party police. The making of information system via SMS Gateway of between party police with driver, expected to by earn to overcome the problem. In this system, there are two sides that is side of driver and side police. Data of co-ordinate of position vehicle taken by GPS then is delivered through SMS of through server/police. That Data co-ordinate then is presented at digital map. Data of number Vehicle delivered through SMS to server and kept in database. With exploiting technology GPS (Global Positioning System, Microcontroller, GSM Modem, MapInfo, and Microsoft Office Access for the data intake, conducted a examination several times in place which equal to time difference about minute half, so that be got by a difference apart between position result of examination with data of reference of Google Earth of equal to more or less one meter. Others also be happened by the data deviation between position got from intake of data GPS with position vehicle which in fact (reference data from Google Earth. The based on result of examination which have been conducted in place location park D3 PENS ITS differ from position vehicle which in fact and happened by the position deviation more or less four transversal meter on course south (- 7,165614° and the east longitude (112,476011°.
Forensic investigators have statutory powers to take DNA samples directly from suspects' bodies in certain circumstances but sometimes the powers fall short, legally or practically Police may then look for samples that have become separated from their suspects for one reason or another. No jurisdiction currently bars or even regulates this practice, which is instead loosely governed by laws on property, consent and evidence. This article argues that this lack of regulation undermines the entire system of forensic procedure laws.
Scott , Kenneth B.
Abstract The creation of a Scottish Parliament and Scottish government in 1999, under the process of devolution within the UK, created a significantly different constitutional and political landscape from that which preceded it. The impact on domestic issues in Scotland, such as policing, has been considerable. This is partly because of new structural arrangements, including the creation of a Justice Minister and a Justice Committee of the Parliament, and partly because of the sign...
sound leadership development training. Without greater understanding of pertinent police leadership techniques and theory , first line supervisor3 are...of leadership continues to be among the most studied and least understood of human behaviors, this study will consider only those leadership theories ...properly applied, contribute to stress reduction in their subordinates. Fielder cites a number of leadership theories which hold that "individuals with a
Jorge Nilson Harvey Barco Pérez
Full Text Available Se realiza una breve reseña introductoria a las tablas estadísticas que presentan los resultados operativos alcanzados por la Policía Nacional para el 2013, en el desarrollo de estrategias ajustadas a políticas gubernamentales e institucionales, que permitan un despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia de todos los colombianos.
In late August 2012 the Government Forum of Incident Response and Cyber security Teams (GFIRST) gathered in Atlanta to discuss cyber threats and how new realities are emerging and how new forms of regulation are needed. At the same time Policing cyber hate, cyber threat and cyber terrorism was published. This comprehensive book brings together a divergent problem and tackles each with a candid exploration. The book has ten chapters and covers aspects such as extortion via the internet, the ps...
Shusko, M; Benedetti, L; Korre, M; Eshleman, E J; Farioli, A; Christophi, C A; Kales, S N
Suboptimal recruit fitness may be a risk factor for poor performance, injury, illness, and lost time during police academy training. To assess the probability of successful completion and graduation from a police academy as a function of recruits' baseline fitness levels at the time of academy entry. Retrospective study where all available records from recruit training courses held (2006-2012) at all Massachusetts municipal police academies were reviewed and analysed. Entry fitness levels were quantified from the following measures, as recorded at the start of each training class: body composition, push-ups, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and 1.5-mile run-time. The primary outcome of interest was the odds of not successfully graduating from an academy. We used generalized linear mixed models in order to fit logistic regression models with random intercepts for assessing the probability of not graduating, based on entry-level fitness. The primary analyses were restricted to recruits with complete entry-level fitness data. The fitness measures most strongly associated with academy failure were lesser number of push-ups completed (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-11.7, for 20 versus 41-60 push-ups) and slower run times (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-7.8, [1.5 mile run time of ≥15'20″] versus [12'33″ to 10'37″]). Baseline pushups and 1.5-mile run-time showed the best ability to predict successful academy graduation, especially when considered together. Future research should include prospective validation of entry-level fitness as a predictor of subsequent police academy success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Yeizon Andrés Duarte Velásquez
Full Text Available El artículo contiene los resultados estadísticos de los logros operativos y de los servicios de la Policía Nacional en el año 2012, que sin dudas han posibilitado prevenir, disuadir, controlar e investigar conductas desviadas, como hechos delictivos y contravenciones, que han permitido lograr el mantenimiento de la convivencia y seguridad ciudadana a través de procedimientos y operaciones policiales en Colombia.
Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.
Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police...Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis to measure the efficacy of the BCT’s organic structure in conducting foreign police development, potential...57 Brigade Combat Team SWOT Analysis ....................................................................... 60 DOTMLPF Analysis
Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S
Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391
Faragó, I; Nagy, G; Márton, S; Túry, F; Szabó, E; Hopcraft, M; Madléna, M
The aim of this study was to assess the caries experience of Hungarian police students and to evaluate its relationship with nutrition, oral hygiene habits, behavioural and social factors. This representative cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in a dental office of the Miskolc Law Enforcement Secondary School in Hungary in 2008. Altogether 792 Hungarian police student volunteers (male/female ratio was 90.3/9.7%, age: 20.4 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SD) participated in the study. Caries experience was measured using World Health Organization criteria and a validated questionnaire was used to collect social and oral health behaviour data. The DMFT number was 10.3 ± 5.7 (mean ± SD). Significant relationships were found between the DMFT value and the education of fathers, frequency of dental attendance, and use of dental floss (p dental attendance, while from the components the FT value showed statistically significant relationships with the education of fathers and the MT component with the use of dental floss (p < 0.05). Based on the results of this survey, strategies aiming at effective caries-preventive programmes should be established in police student populations ensuring the official basic requirements on their health condition and suitability for subsequent service. The published information can be used as a base for new strategies, and allows the evaluation of the effects of a carefully planned and implemented health care system. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The abolition of the European borders has benefited a large number of people, allowing ordinary European citizens to move freely around and within the European Union. This, however, means that criminal organizations and terrorist groups have also gained their 'paradise'. Consequently, European attempts to combat crime had to overcome individual national actions by developing co-operation between the Member States. Police cooperation, as its integral part, was established on the bilateral and multilateral level. Nevertheless, the balance between strengthening of the police powers, on the one hand, and rights of individuals, on the other, has been disturbed. Has the EU overstepped the line and infringed basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular considering right to privacy and defense of suspects? In order to find the answer the authors focused on the development of the police powers alongside the protection of the defendants' rights concerning three levels, i.e. national level of Member States, bilateral co-operation and multilateral co-operation in EU.
de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves
The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.
Qian, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Li; Li, Cheng-Chao; Huang, Dong
95 hair samples from traffic polices and 110 hair samples from ordinary people were collected from 6 areas of Guilin, China, and Hg, Pb contents in hairs were determined. The result shows that the heavier the traffic was, the higher hair Hg, Pb contents of traffic polices are. Hair Hg, Pb contents of traffic polices also increase with their working time. Average hair Hg, Pb contents of outdoor polices are higher than those of indoor polices. The average hair Hg content (1.340 microg x g(-1)) of traffic polices is 1.74 times as high as the Chinese average value (0.77 microg x g(-1)), while the average hair Pb content (2.877 microg x g(-1)) is below the Chinese average value (6.60 microg x g(-1)). The use of unleaded petrol reduced the air Pb pollution, but Hg pollution still exists. The average hair Hg content (1.504 microg x g(-1)) in male traffic polices is higher than that (1.176 microg x g(-1)) of female traffic polices,while the average hair Pb content (2.852 microg x g(-1) in male traffic polices lower than that (2. 902 microg x g(-1)) of female traffic polices.
Kleinman, Eli J; Cucco, Robert A; Martinez, Charles; Romanelli, John; Berkowitz, Israel; Lanes, Norman; Lichtenstein, David; Frazer, Somjen; Lit, M; Moran, William
Comparing pulmonary function since the 2001 World Trade Center disaster, with preexposure data, in a New York City Police Department Emergency Responder cohort, without history of repetitive respiratory exposures. A total of 206 New York City Police Department Emergency Services Unit members reported Arrival Time, Exposure Location, Duration, Smoking History, Respirator Mask Usage, and Respiratory Symptoms, and underwent clinical evaluation and follow-up spirometry, in 2002 and 2007. A mean decline in forced vital capacity of 190 mL (3.7%) was observed 1-year postexposure in 2002, and 330 mL (6.4%) in 2007, compared with baseline data. Forced expiratory volume in the first second was not significantly changed in 2002 but declined 160 mL (3.9%) after 5 further years of follow-up. Abnormal spirometry was observed in (5.3%) of subjects, particularly individuals experiencing higher Exposure Intensity, Duration, or Respiratory Symptoms. The small number of smokers and subjects failing to wear protective respiratory masks showed greater declines.
Sandra Patricia Rodríguez Ávila
This article analyzes the general rulings group contained in police court orders and edicts to show the configuration of two educational strategies into Santa Fe city by the end of the 18th century: the appropriation of urban ruling practices, and the collection of homeless, idle and vague people as producers of public disorders. On these people the Royal Hospice of Santa Fe tried to force a new moral modeling by means of their reclusion and forcing to work.//Este artículo analiza algunas reg...
Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.
Xie, Jia-Ling; Pan, Kui-Qiong; Liu, Shi-Hua
To investigate the work related fatigue among prison police and mental medical staffs; to compare the social support between two groups; to develop specific intervention strategies in the future. The Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were applied to 100 prison police and 100 mental medical staffs respectively. Their status of work related fatigue and relevant social support were analyzed accordingly. 1) The level of fatigue among prison police was higher than mental medical staffs (P prison police were higher than that among mental medical staffs (P 0.05); 3) The level of social support in the prison police was higher than that in the mental medical staffs (P prison police and mental medical staffs were vulnerable to suffering from fatigue. However, the details and relevant social support between these two groups were different. Active intervention should be taken for different occupation.
Adam J McKee
Full Text Available This paper presents a Partnership Model of Community Policing based on Partnership concepts developed by Riane Eisler and undergirded by Cultural Transformation Theory as a guiding principle (1987, 2010, 2013. This model is more reflective of the daily lived experiences of community police officers. It is culturally relevant and based on the whole of the police officer’s relationship with the community within the context in which the interactions occur. This "New Community Policing" is an extension of Riane Eisler’s Cultural Transformation Theory and is an attempt to answer her call for a movement towards a partnership model of social organization. Ultimately, "8 Pillars of the New Community Policing" are developed to aid in defining and implementing community policing.
Full Text Available Using interview data on LGBT young people’s policing experiences, I argue policing and security works as a program of government (Dean 1999; Foucault 1991; Rose 1999 that constrains the visibilities of diverse sexuality and gender in public spaces. While young people narrated police actions as discriminatory, the interactions were complex and multi-faceted with police and security working to subtly constrain the public visibilities of ‘queerness’. Same sex affection, for instance, was visibly yet unverifiably (Mason 2002 regulated by police as a method of governing the boundaries of proper gender and sexuality in public. The paper concludes by noting how the visibility of police interactions with LGBT young people demonstrates to the public that public spaces are, and should remain, heterosexual spaces.
Force GSTF Global Strike Task Force HLSTF Homeland Response Task Force HUMRO Humanitarian Relief Operation ISR Intelligence...Task Force (S&C4ISRTF) 3. Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ) 4. Global Response Task Force (GRTF) 5. Homeland Security Task Force (HLSTF) 6. Global...enable the “ GSTF and GRTF to deploy and employ rapidly anywhere in the world at any time” (DAF, 2002:16). Therefore, the GMTF has three key
Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.
In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...
Lone, Jon Anders; Garnås, Alexander; Myklebust, Trond; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato
This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher’s pdf version. The present study aimed to identify organizational climate dimensions that are salient for police investigation performance and to explicate the mechanisms of the relationship between organizational climate and investigation performance. We conducted 38 semistructured interviews with participants at three job levels of police investigative work (chiefs of police, n = 11, senior...
Abrahamsen, Solveig; Strype, Jon
This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. The issue of whether police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a 'police personality', while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Making the picture even more complex, some researc...
Vredeveldt, A.; van Koppen, P.J.
Police officers are often believed to provide more reliable testimony than civilian eyewitnesses. We reviewed the available empirical evidence for this belief. There is some evidence to suggest that police officers do indeed report more accurate details about witnessed events than civilians do, particularly concerning crime-relevant details. That research finding does not translate directly to practice, however, since an average difference between police and civilian witnesses does not mean t...
competencies and code of ethics, make police officers` work specific and demanding, and very often related to possible risks for physical and mental health of police officers. Police work is perceived as a highly stressful occupation; therefore, a strong need is imposed for identifying reliable and valid instruments by means of which it is possible to identify characteristic and profession-related specific sources of stress at work. In this respect, the first objective of this paper was to ex...
Full Text Available This article addresses the connection between information and communications technology (ICT and police-community engagement in environments characterised by high access to mobile telephones but minimal police response rates. It examines public responses to a text alert project in Somaliland’s capital Hargeisa in order to explore the everyday choices shaping low-level police-community engagement. Although the project failed (local people did not use mobiles to alert the police to security issues requiring attention, it offers contextualised insights into both the specifics of daily police-community relations and the use of mobiles as a two-way technology capable of reaching low-income or marginalised populations in relatively safe urban environments. In focusing on how local expectations are, rather than should be, fulfilled, it finds little evidence to suggest that access to ICT leads to more responsive or accountable policing. For police, activities are shaped as much by community expectations as by the technologies available, and local preferences can offset the availability of globalised ICT. From this perspective, the key to understanding police-community engagement is found in the knowledge, skills and resources police need to fulfil local expectations, rather than the expectations of international donors.
Goodman-Delahunty, Jane; Crehan, Anna Corbo
In an online survey about experiences with the police complaint system, 239 client advocates described a recent incident in which a client with grounds to lodge a complaint declined to do so. Almost one third of those incidents involved domestic violence. Thematic analysis of case descriptions revealed that many police did not take domestic violence reports seriously. A typology of problematic police conduct was developed. Many officers failed to observe current procedures and appeared to lack knowledge of relevant laws. Citizens feared retaliatory victimization by police and/or perceived that complaining was futile. Implications of these findings are reviewed in light of procedural justice theory. © The Author(s) 2015.
Coleman, Terry; Cotton, Dorothy
Given the increasing number of interactions between police and people with mental illnesses (PMI), there has been widespread interest in the development of education for police about how best to interact with PMI. This paper reflects the review of current practice in a variety of jurisdictions across Canada as well as in the United States (U.S.), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia; it proposes a comprehensive model of learning based on the literature that addresses not only the content in the narrow sense but also the importance of broader contextual knowledge and understanding in developing effective education and training. Embedded in the principles articulated in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada, the TEMPO (Training and Education about Mental illness for Police Organizations) model is a multilevel learning strategy for Canadian police personnel. Learning objectives and key principles are articulated in order to ensure the model is applicable to a wide range of police agencies and individual jurisdictional needs. In addition to providing a firm basis of factual knowledge for police personnel, the resultant model embraces a human rights/anti-stigma philosophy, provides for a range of education appropriate to diverse police audiences, emphasizes a systems approach to police/mental health liaison activities and addresses issues related to the delivery and implementation of police education and training. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adebayo, D O; Sunmola, A M; Udegbe, I B
This study examined the moderating role of gender in the relationship between perceived workplace fairness and reported level of emotional exhaustion among a sample of Nigeria police. A total of 214 participants took part in the cross-sectional survey. Results of the moderated hierarchical regression analysis provided support for gender as a moderating variable in the relationship between perceived workplace fairness and emotional exhaustion, such that perceived workplace fairness was a stronger predictor of emotional exhaustion among male police than for female police. The practical implications for the management of emotional exhaustion in general, and for the Nigeria police in particular, were emphasized.
Tankebe, Justice; Reisig, Michael D; Wang, Xia
This study used survey data from cross-sectional, university-based samples of young adults in different cultural settings (i.e., the United States and Ghana) to accomplish 2 main objectives: (1) to construct a 4-dimensional police legitimacy scale, and (2) to assess the relationship that police legitimacy and feelings of obligation to obey the police have with 2 outcome measures. The fit statistics for the second-order confirmatory factor models indicated that the 4-dimensional police legitimacy model is reasonably consistent with the data in both samples. Results from the linear regression analyses showed that the police legitimacy scale is related to cooperation with the police, and that the observed association is attenuated when the obligation to obey scale is included in the model specification in both the United States and Ghana data. A similar pattern emerged in the U.S. sample when estimating compliance with the law models. However, although police legitimacy was associated with compliance in the Ghana sample, this relationship along with the test statistic for the sense of obligation to obey estimate were both null in the fully saturated equation. The findings provide support for the Bottoms and Tankebe's (2012) argument that legitimacy is multidimensional, comprising police lawfulness, distributive fairness, procedural fairness, and effectiveness. However, the link between police legitimacy and social order appears to be culturally variable. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Jermier, John M.; Berkes, Leslie J.
Relationships among instrumental, supportive, and participative leader behaviors, task variability and task interdependence, and job satisfaction and organizational commitment were examined in a police command bureaucracy. (Author)
Wade Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although selection favors exploitative competition within groups, a group of hypercompetitive individuals may be less productive than a cooperative group. When competition is costly for group fitness, among-group selection can favor groups with 'policing' individuals who reduce within-group competition at a cost to their own fitness, or groups of individuals who restrain their competitive intensity ('self policing'. We examine these possibilities in a series of explicit population-genetic models. Results By comparing results from models of half and full sib structured populations, we find that increased relatedness increases the strength of among-group selection against competition genotypes, and increases the strength of among group selection favoring policing genotypes. However, the strength of selection favoring costly policing behavior also increases with increased levels of competition. When levels of competition and policing feedback on one another, groups with lower levels of relatedness can favor higher levels of costly policing. Conclusion The result of the joint selection on policing and competition leads to results different from those based on the evolution of policing alone. Our model makes 'long term' predictions equivalent to those of optimization models, but we also show the existence of protected polymorphisms of police and civilians, as well as competitors and non-competitors.
Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba
We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McKinnon, Iain G; Thomas, Stuart Dm; Noga, Heather L; Senior, Jane
This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia. There are significant health concerns among police detainees including acute injury, chronic physical health problems, mental and cognitive disorders, and the risks associated with drug and alcohol intoxication or withdrawal. There is some evidence that deaths in police custody have reduced where attention has been paid to the latter issue. Police personnel continue to experience difficulties identifying detainees with health issues relevant to their safe detention, but research shows that the use of evidence-based screening tools improves detection of such morbidities. Innovations in police custody health care mainly relate to detainees with mental disorders, including improved identification of illness, timely access to mental health services, the protection of the rights of mentally disordered detainees, and the diversion of mentally disordered persons from the criminal justice system into appropriate health and social care interventions. There is a lack of rigorous research relating to interventions for physical health problems, protecting those at risk of substance withdrawal, and detainees with preexisting or peri-arrest injures. Research to improve the health of police custody detainees requires greater priority, focusing on case identification and service redesign to address high levels of morbidity and to facilitate health promotion and prevention
Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Barger, Laura K; Lockley, Steven W; Shea, Steven A; Wang, Wei; Landrigan, Christopher P; O'Brien, Conor S; Qadri, Salim; Sullivan, Jason P; Cade, Brian E; Epstein, Lawrence J; White, David P; Czeisler, Charles A
Sleep disorders often remain undiagnosed. Untreated sleep disorders among police officers may adversely affect their health and safety and pose a risk to the public. To quantify associations between sleep disorder risk and self-reported health, safety, and performance outcomes in police officers. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of North American police officers participating in either an online or an on-site screening (n=4957) and monthly follow-up surveys (n=3545 officers representing 15,735 person-months) between July 2005 and December 2007. A total of 3693 officers in the United States and Canada participated in the online screening survey, and 1264 officers from a municipal police department and a state police department participated in the on-site survey. Comorbid health conditions (cross-sectional); performance and safety outcomes (prospective). Of the 4957 participants, 40.4% screened positive for at least 1 sleep disorder, most of whom had not been diagnosed previously. Of the total cohort, 1666 (33.6%) screened positive for obstructive sleep apnea, 281 (6.5%) for moderate to severe insomnia, 269 (5.4%) for shift work disorder (14.5% of those who worked the night shift). Of the 4608 participants who completed the sleepiness scale, 1312 (28.5%) reported excessive sleepiness. Of the total cohort, 1294 (26.1%) reported falling asleep while driving at least 1 time a month. Respondents who screened positive for obstructive sleep apnea or any sleep disorder had an increased prevalence of reported physical and mental health conditions, including diabetes, depression, and cardiovascular disease. An analysis of up to 2 years of monthly follow-up surveys showed that those respondents who screened positive for a sleep disorder vs those who did not had a higher rate of reporting that they had made a serious administrative error (17.9% vs 12.7%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.43 [95% CI, 1.23-1.67]); of falling asleep while driving (14.4% vs 9.2%; adjusted OR
associations of individuals who operate transnationally for the purpose of obtaining power, influence, monetary and/or commercial gains, wholly or...degree of risk. Also called SO.26 Transnational Organized Crime: Those self-perpetuating associations of individuals who operate transnationally
Olson, Dustin; Gabriel-Olson, Kirsten
With the troop levels in Iraq decreasing and more service members being discharged, the number of veterans on campuses is steadily increasing. On average, these warriors-turning-college-students will be 24 or older, ethnic minorities, and first-generation college students. It is important to make sure that departments, campuses and communities are…
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to examine the use that critical philosophical concepts can have within management studies. Design/methodology/approach - The paper introduces the notion "performativity" from the American philosopher Judith Butler and shows its fertility for organisation
legal spheres. Over the past decade, human right scholars/activists as well as civil society organisations in South Africa have advocated for the creation of new laws, ... resolution of differences and rightful participation of all in the democratic process. .... integration of South Africa into the international community, we have.
a complex modern office building with ancient measuring rods instead of computerized lasers that accurately measure distance, height and azimuth...bystanders under direct threat at the scene. 2 3 18 …the presence of dazzling lights that interfere with the officer’s vision. 2 3 19 …the officer...multiple officers at the scene. 4 …the presence of dazzling lights that interfere with the officer’s vision. 5 …the presence of distracting lights
Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben
In many western countries the organization of policing is undergoing significant changes. Among the most important are the promotion of intelligence-led policing as a principal model of public policing, and the increased pluralization of policing. In recent years the former process has spurred...... collaboration and exchange of low-level intelligence between police and bouncers is instrumental in the enforcement of a police-promoted gang suppression strategy, aimed at transforming Danish nightlife into a no-go zone for gang-related individuals....
Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry
Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…
La policía se refuerza en México como una profesión masculina y, sin duda, las mujeres han tenido que enfrentar una serie de obstáculos desde los exámenes de admisión, que poseen un referente; centrado en destacar la fuerza más que otras aptitudes, hasta la propia permanencia en la academia y la vida profesional en la calle. En cada uno de estos espacios la mujer es relegada: durante la academia, la mujer es sometida a todo tipo de presiones -de resistencia física y acoso sexual- y en la call...
This article examines the use of the phrase ‘balancing the interests’ in political debate relating to copyright law. I argue that this phrase no longer leads to broad debate on the proper balance to be struck between private, public and social interests in copyright law. Rather, today the phrase has come to represent a type of police logic which reflects the private interests of copyright owners and users as they already exist. Drawing on the work of Jacques Rancière I suggest that this...
Hales, Gavin; May, Tiggey; Belur, J.; Hough, Mike
Key findings\\ud This study has examined cases of alleged misconduct involving chief police officers and staff.\\ud The aim was to describe the nature of cases that have come to light, examine the perceived\\ud pathways that led to misconduct, and suggest ways of mitigating the risks of misconduct. The\\ud study is based on interviews with key stakeholders and with investigating officers in chief\\ud officer misconduct cases since April 2008. These cases involved only a small minority of chief\\ud ...
Steele, Basil J.
There are many emerging technologies that can be used to help the law enforcement community protect the public as well as public and private facilities against ever increasing threats to this country and its resources. These technologies include sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV), access control, contraband detection, communications, control and display, barriers, and various component and system modeling techniques. This paper will introduce some of the various technologies that have been examined for the Department of Energy that could be applied to various law enforcement applications. They include: scannerless laser radar; next generation security systems; response force video information helmet system; access delay technologies; rapidly deployable intrusion detection systems; cost risk benefit analysis.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore how far employment insecurity is gendered in the UK, focusing on recent trends in temporary employment, covering fixed term, seasonal, agency, casual and other temporary work. The first section of this paper considers the pressures and resistances that have cumulatively led to women’s current participation in paid work. This is followed by an examination of recent trends in UK employment patterns, with particular reference to differences within the female population of working age and the incidence and distribution of part-time employment. Recent trends and gender differences in temporary employment are then considered against this broader background. Finally, this evidence is considered in relation to arguments that atypical employment provides opportunities for women’s increased labour force participation and the practical reconciliation of employment and family roles and relationships.
Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C
Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The factors influencing the population attitude to police work in different cities and areas of Perm region are analyzed. The material is based on the data of the public opinion polls conducted by experts of General Department of the MIA of Russia for the Perm region together with members of the Public council under the General Department and sociologists of Sociological Monitoring Department of home policy of the Perm region Governor’s Administration. The public opinion poll was conducted in October, 2012 on the territory of twenty municipal areas of the region including the city of Perm. 1,200 people were interviewed, maximum error is ± 2.9 %. The main study’s objectives were the following: 1 to determine the degree of region’s population satisfaction with police activity; 2 to assess the role of factors influencing the degree of satisfaction with police work; 3 to determine the degree of influence of respondents’ experience of direct contacts with police officers on their attitude to law enforcement agencies; 4 to establish the dependence of police work assessment on the respondents’ residence. The basic indicators to characterize the attitude of Perm region population to police work are the following: the degree of population satisfaction with law enforcement agencies’ activity; dynamics of police work assessment compared with the period prior to adopting the Federal law оn police; police authority over population; the degree of population confidence to the police; assessment of police activity on maintaining public order. The conclusions are based on the results of sociological researches.
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi
In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...